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Street children in Cebu, Philippines

Women and children find themselves impacted by poverty more often when a part of single mother families.[59] This is due to the feminization of poverty[further explanation needed], how the poverty rate of women has increasingly exceeded that of men’s.[60] While the overall poverty rate is 12.3%, women poverty rate is 13.8% which is above the average and men are below the overall rate at 11.1%.[61][59] Women and children (as single mother families) find themselves as a part of low class communities because they are 21.6% more likely to fall into poverty.[62] However, extreme poverty, such as homelessness, disproportionately affects males to a high degree.Women and children find themselves impacted by poverty more often when a part of single mother families.[59] This is due to the feminization of poverty[further explanation needed], how the poverty rate of women has increasingly exceeded that of men’s.[60] While the overall poverty rate is 12.3%, women poverty rate is 13.8% which is above the average and men are below the overall rate at 11.1%.[61][59] Women and children (as single mother families) find themselves as a part of low class communities because they are 21.6% more likely to fall into poverty.[62] However, extreme poverty, such as homelessness, disproportionately affects males to a high degree.[63]

Racial minorities

A minority group is defined as “a category of people who experience relative disadvantage as compared to members of a dominant social group.”[64] Minorities are traditionally separated into the following groups: African Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics.[65] According to the current U.S. Poverty statistics, Black Americans - 21%, Foreign born non-citizens - 19%, Hispanic Americans - 18%, and  Adults with a disability - 25%.[66] This does not include all minority groups, but these groups alone account for 85% of people under the poverty line

A minority group is defined as “a category of people who experience relative disadvantage as compared to members of a dominant social group.”[64] Minorities are traditionally separated into the following groups: African Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics.[65] According to the current U.S. Poverty statistics, Black Americans - 21%, Foreign born non-citizens - 19%, Hispanic Americans - 18%, and  Adults with a disability - 25%.[66] This does not include all minority groups, but these groups alone account for 85% of people under the poverty line in the United States.[67] Whites have a poverty rate of 8.7%; the poverty rate is more than double for Black and Hispanic Americans.[68]

Impacts on educationLiving below the poverty threshold can have a major impact on a child’s education.[69] The psychological stresses induced by poverty may affect a student’s ability to perform well academically.[69] In addition, the risk of poor health is more prevalent for those living in poverty.[69] Health issues commonly affect the extent to which one can continue and fully take advantage of his or her education.[69] Poor students in the United States are more likely to dropout of school at some point in their education.[69] Research has also found that children living in poverty perform poorly academically and have lower graduation rates.[69] Impoverished children also experience more disciplinary issues in school than others.[69] Schools in impoverished communities usually do not receive much funding, which can also set their students apart from those living in more affluent neighborhoods.[69] There is much dispute over whether upward mobility that brings a child out of poverty may or may not have a significant positive impact on his or her education; inadequate academic habits that form as early as preschool typically are unknown to improve despite changes in socioeconomic status.[69]

Impacts on healthcareThe nation’s poverty threshold is issued by the Census Bureau.[70] According to the Office of Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation the threshold is statistically relevant and can be a solid predictor of people in poverty.[70] The reasoning for using Federal Poverty Level, FPL, is due to its action for distributive purposes under the direction of Health and Human Services. So FPL is a tool derived from the threshold but can be used to show eligibility for certain federal programs.[70] Federal poverty levels have direct effects on individual’s healthcare. In the past years and into the present government, the use of the poverty threshold has consequences for such programs like Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program.[71]  The benefits which different families are eligible for are contingent on FPL. The FPL, in turn, is calculated based on federal numbers from the previous year.[71] The benefits and qualifications for federal programs are dependent on number of people on a plan and the income of the total group.[71] For 2019, the U.S Department of health & Human Services enumerate what the line is for different families. For a single person, the line is $12,490 and up to $43,430 for a family of 8, in the lower 48 states.[70] Another issue is reduced-cost coverage. These reductions are based on income relative to FPL, and work in connection with public health services such as Medicaid.[72] The divisions of FPL percentages are nominally, above 400%, below 138% and below 100% of the FPL.[72] After the advent of the American Care Act, Medicaid was expanded on states bases.[72] For example, enrolling in the ACA kept the benefits of Medicaid when the  income was up to 138% of the FPL.[72]

Poverty mobility and healthcare

Living above or below the poverty threshol

Living above or below the poverty threshold is not necessarily a position in which an individual remains static.[75] As many as one in three impoverished people were not poor at birth; rather, they descended into poverty over the course of their life.[69] Additionally, a study which analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) found that nearly 40% of 20-year-olds received food stamps at some point before they turned 65.[76] This indicates that many Americans will dip below the poverty line sometime during adulthood, but will not necessarily remain there for the rest of their life.[76] Furthermore, 44% of individuals who are given transfer benefits (other than Social Security) in one year do not receive them the next.[75] Over 90% of Americans who receive transfers from the government stop receiving them within 10 years, indicating that the population living below the poverty threshold is in flux and does not remain constant.[75]

Cutoff issues

Most e

Most experts and the public agree that the official poverty line in the United States is substantially lower than the actual cost of basic needs. In particular, a 2017 Urban Institute study found that 61% of non-elderly adults earning between 100-200% of the poverty line reported at least one material hardship, not significantly different from those below the poverty line. The cause of the discrepancy is believed to be an outdated model of spending patterns based on actual spending in the year 1955; the number and proportion of material needs has risen substantially since then.

Variability

The

The U.S. Census Bureau calculates the poverty line the same throughout the U.S. regardless of the cost-of-living in a state or urban area. For instance, the cost-of-living in California, the most populous state, was 42% greater than the U.S. average in 2010, while the cost-of-living in Texas, the second-most populous state, was 10% less than the U.S. average.[citation needed] In 2017, California had the highest poverty rate in the country when housing costs are factored in, a measure calculated by the Census Bureau known as "the supplemental poverty measure".[77]

Government transfers to alleviate poverty

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