Portuguese people are a ethnic group indigenous to
Portugal that share
a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese as a primary
language. Their predominant religion is Christianity, mainly Roman
Historically the Portuguese people's heritage includes the pre-Celts,
Celts (Celtiberians, Lusitanians,
Gallaecians and Celtici) the Romans,
Greeks, Scandinavians, and migratory Germanic tribes like the Vandals,
Visigoths (Western Goths) and Suebi.
Roman Republic conquered the
Iberian Peninsula during the 2nd and
1st centuries B.C. from the extensive maritime empire of Carthage
during the series of Punic Wars. As a result of Roman colonization,
the majority of local languages stem from the Vulgar Latin. Due to the
large historical extent from the 16th century of the Portuguese Empire
and the subsequent colonization of territories in Asia,
Africa and the
Americas, as well as historical and recent emigration, Portuguese
communities can be found in many diverse regions around the globe, and
Portuguese diaspora exists.
Portuguese people were a key factor to the Age of Exploration
beginning at the end of the 15th century and extending into the 16th,
17th, 18th centuries and consolidated during the 19th century.
Discovering during these times, several lands unknown to the Europeans
in the Americas, Africa,
Oceania (southwest Pacific Ocean),
helping to pave the way for the globalization and dominazation of
Portugal also exhibits a multicultural society from around the
world, but in particular from its former most recent colonies of the
Lusosphere, such as Brazilians, Cape Verdeans, Angolans, Mozambicans,
Goans, Macanese and Timorese people.
1.1 Historical origins
1.3 Pre-Roman groups
3 General traits
4.1 Demographics of Portugal
4.2 Native minority languages in Portugal
4.3 Ethnic minorities in Portugal
4.4 Portuguese diaspora
5 List of countries by population of Portuguese heritage
5.1 Portuguese ancestry in the Brazilian population
7 See also
9 External links
Further information: Genetic history of Europe
The Portuguese are a Southwestern European population, with origins
predominantly from Southern and Western Europe.
The earliest modern humans inhabiting
Portugal are believed to have
Paleolithic peoples that may have arrived in the Iberian
Peninsula as early as 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. Current
Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that modern-day
Portuguese trace a significant amount of these lineages to the
paleolithic peoples who began settling the European continent between
the end of the last glaciation around 45,000 years ago.
R1a (purple) and
R1b (red). See also this map for
distribution in Europe.
Northern Iberia is believed to have been a major Ice-age refuge from
Paleolithic humans later colonized Europe. Migrations from what
is now Northern Iberia during the
Paleolithic and Mesolithic, links
Iberians to the populations of much of Western
British Isles and Atlantic Europe. Recent books
published by geneticists Bryan Sykes,
Stephen Oppenheimer and Spencer
Wells have emphasized the large
influence in the modern day Irish, Welsh and Scottish gene-pool as
well as parts of the English. Indeed,
Paleolithic origin) is the most common haplogroup in practically all
of the Iberian peninsula and western Europe. Within the R1b
haplogroup there are modal haplotypes. One of the best-characterized
of these haplotypes is the
Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH). This
haplotype reaches the highest frequencies in the
Iberian Peninsula and
in the British Isles. In
Portugal it reckons generally 65% in the
South summing 87% northwards, and in some regions 96%.
Neolithic colonization of
Europe from Western
Asia and the Middle
East beginning around 10,000 years ago reached Iberia, as most of the
rest of the continent although, according to the demic diffusion
model, its impact was most in the southern and eastern regions of the
Starting in the 3rd millennium BC as well as in the Bronze Age, the
first wave of migrations into Iberia of speakers of Indo-European
languages occurred. These were later (7th and 5th Centuries BC)
followed by others that can be identified as Celts.
Urban cultures eventually developed in southeastern Iberia, such as
Tartessos, influenced by the Phoenician colonization of coastal
Mediterranean Iberia, which later shifted to Greek colonization. There
is very little or no evidence of settlements in
Portugal by either
Phoenicians despite some statements to the contrary.
Ethnographic and Linguistic Map of the
Iberian Peninsula at about 200
These two processes defined Iberia's, and Portugal's, cultural
landscape—Continental in the northwest and
Mediterranean towards the
southeast, as historian José Mattoso describes it. Given the
Neolithic settlers as well as
Indo-European migrations, one can say that the Portuguese ethnic
origin is mainly a mixture of pre-Roman, pre-Indo-Europeans (such as,
in other parts of Iberia, the Iberians, Aquitanians), and pre-Celtics
Celts such as the
Lusitanians of Lusitania, and Celtic peoples
such as Calaicians or
Gallaeci of Gallaecia, the
Celtici and the
Cynetes of the
Alentejo and the Algarve.
Romans were also an important influence on Portuguese culture; the
Portuguese language derives from Latin.
Other minor influences included the Phoenicians/
semi-permanent commercial coastal establishments in the south before
200 BC), the
Silingi and Hasdingi) and the Sarmatian Alans
(both migrated to North Africa, while some were partially integrated
Visigoths and Suebi), and the
the Buri, permanently established in the early 5th century), Saqaliba
(people of Slavic origin), who also settled in what is today
Portuguese territory. In the 9th and 10th centuries small Viking
settlements were also established in the North coastal regions of
Douro and Minho.
Main article: Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula
MtDNA lineages of the Portuguese and other
peoples see this map and this one.
Portuguese have also maintained a certain degree of ethnic and
cultural specific characteristics-ratio with the Basques, since
ancient times. The results of the present HLA study in Portuguese
populations show that they have features in common with
Spaniards from Madrid: a high frequency of the HLA-haplotypes
A29-B44-DR7 (ancient western Europeans) and A1-B8-DR3 are found as
common characteristics. Many Portuguese, and
Basques do not show the
Mediterranean A33-B14-DR1 haplotype, confirming a lower admixture with
Mediterraneans. The Portuguese have a characteristic unique among
world populations: a high frequency of HLA-A25-B18-DR15 and
A26-B38-DR13, which may reflect a still detectable founder effect
coming from ancient Portuguese, i.e.,
Oestriminis and Cynetes.
Not to be confused with Lusatia.
Lusitanians (or Lusitānus/
Lusitani in Latin) were an
Indo-European speaking people (likely Celtic) living in the Western
Iberian Peninsula long before it became the Roman province of
Lusitania (modern Portugal,
Extremadura and a small part of
Salamanca). They spoke the Lusitanian language, of which only a few
short written fragments survive. Most Portuguese consider the
Lusitanians as their ancestors. Although the northern regions (Minho,
Douro, Tras-os-Montes) identify more with the Gallaecians.
It has been hypothesized that the
Lusitanians may have originated in
Alps and settled in the region in the 6th century BC. Some modern
scholars consider them to be indigenous and initially dominated by the
Celts, before gaining full independence from them. The archaeologist
Scarlat Lambrino proposed that they were originally a tribal Celtic
group, related to the Lusones.
The first area settled by the
Lusitanians was probably the Douro
valley and the region of Beira Alta; then they moved south, and
expanded on both sides of the
Tagus river, before being conquered by
The original Roman province of
Lusitania was extended north of the
areas occupied by the
Lusitanians to include the territories of
Gallaecia but these were soon ceded to the jurisdiction
of the Provincia Tarraconensis in the north, while the south remained
Lusitania et Vettones. After this, Lusitania's northern
border was along the
Douro river, while its eastern border passed
through Salmantica and Caesarobriga to the Anas (Guadiana) river.
Map showing the main pre-Roman tribes in
Portugal and their main
Turduli movement in red,
Celtici in brown and Lusitanian
in a blue colour. Most tribes neighbouring the
dependent on them. Names are in Latin.
Lusitanians were a single large tribe that lived between the
Douro and Tagus. As the
Lusitanians fought fiercely against the
Romans for independence, the name
Lusitania was adopted by the
Gallaeci, tribes living north of the Douro, and other closely
surrounding tribes, eventually spreading as a label to all the nearby
peoples fighting Roman rule in the west of Iberia. It was for this
reason that the
Romans came to name their original province in the
area, that initially covered the entire western side of the Iberian
Tribes, often known by their
Latin names, living in the area of modern
Portugal, prior to Roman rule:
Bardili (Turduli) – living in the Setúbal peninsula;
Bracari – living between the rivers Tâmega and Cávado, in the area
of the modern city of Braga;
Callaici – living along and north of the Douro;
Celts living in Alentejo;
Coelerni – living in the mountains between the rivers Tua and Sabor;
Cynetes or Conii – living in the
Algarve and the south of Alentejo;
Equaesi – living in the most mountainous region of modern Portugal;
Grovii – a mysterious tribe living in the Minho valley;
Interamici – living in Trás-os-Montes and in the border areas with
Galicia and León (in modern Spain);
Leuni – living between the rivers Lima and Minho;
Luanqui – living between the rivers Tâmega and Tua;
Lusitani – being the most numerous and dominant of the whole region
comprising most of Portugal;
Limici – living in the swamps of the river Lima, on the border
Portugal and Galicia);
Narbasi – living in the north of modern
Portugal (interior) and
nearby area of southern Galicia;
Nemetati – living north of the
Douro Valley in the area of Mondim;
Paesuri – a dependent tribe of the Lusitanians, living between the
Douro and Vouga;
Quaquerni – living in the mountains at the mouths of rivers Cávado
Suebi – living between the rivers Cávado and Lima (or even reaching
the river Minho);
Tamagani – from the area of Chaves, near the river Tâmega;
Tapoli – another dependent tribe of the Lusitanians, living north of
the river Tagus, on the border between modern
Portugal and Spain;
Turduli – in the east of
Turduli Veteres – the "ancient Turduli" living south of the estuary
of the river Douro;
Turdulorum Oppida –
Turduli living in the Portuguese region of
Turodi – living in Trás-os-Montes and bordering areas of Galicia;
Vettones – living in the eastern border areas of Portugal, and in
Spanish provinces of Ávila and Salamanca, as well as parts of Zamora,
Toledo and Cáceres;
Zoelae – living in the mountains of Serra da Nogueira, Sanabria and
Culebra, up to the mountains of
Mogadouro in northern
adjacent areas of Galicia.
Roman conquest of Hispania
Second Punic War
Celtiberian Wars (First,Second)
Main article: Lusitanian War
Since 193 B.C., the
Lusitanians had been fighting
Rome and its
expansion into the peninsula following the defeat and occupation of
Carthage in North Africa. They defended themselves bravely for years,
causing the Roman invaders serious defeats. In 150 B.C., they were
defeated by Praetor Servius Galba: springing a clever trap, he killed
Lusitanians and later sold 20,000 more as slaves further
northeast in the newly conquered
Roman provinces in
France) by Julius Caesar. Three years later (147 B.C.), Viriathus
became the leader of the
Lusitanians and severely damaged the Roman
Lusitania and beyond. In 139 B.C.
Viriathus was betrayed and
killed in his sleep by his companions (who had been sent as emissaries
to the Romans), Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus, bribed by Marcus
Popillius Laenas. However, when
Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus returned
to receive their reward by the Romans, the Consul Servilius Caepio
ordered their execution, declaring, "
Rome does not pay traitors".
After Viriathus' rule, the
Lusitanians became largely romanized,
adopting Roman culture and the language of Latin. The Lusitanian
cities, in a manner similar to those of the rest of the Roman-Iberian
peninsula, eventually gained the status of "Citizens of Rome". The
Portuguese language itself is a local later evolution of the Roman
Latin after the fall of the
Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire in the 5th
and 6th centuries.
Portuguese lady from
Modern Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group and share the same
makeup of the fellow Western Europeans. Western Coast of Iberia
which compose the land of Galicia and
Portugal was a converging point
of migratory movements in the past and during the Portuguese
Discoveries, the Portuguese were introduced to new cultures and
ethnicities. With the end of the Indigenous Statute in the early
1960's, indigenous people of Portuguese colonies were granted
Portuguese citizenship until the end of Portuguese colonialism marked
with the hand over of
Macau after five hundred years to the Peoples
China in 1999. Regarding this it is comprehensible that
any relationship between citizenship and anthropometrical features can
be questioned, nevertheless, it is possible to draw the
anthropometrical features of the generality of the Portuguese. Dark to
medium brown hair and brown and hazel eyes predominate in a majority
of Portuguese people. However, light brown and blond hair and blue and
green eyes are also found frequently. Chestnut and auburn-colored hair
types occur generally. Legitimate black hair—not espresso
brown—can be found, but it is not very common. Light, true red hair
(meaning red shades that are non-auburn) is seen on occasion.
Pigmentation field studies by Tamagnini (1916, 1936), Correa (1919)
and others recorded national average fair hair ("blondism")
frequencies of between 15 and 21%. True red hair (ginger) amounts
to approximately 3%. However, there are higher percentages of
individuals with auburn and dark red-brown shades. Dark and light
sandy hair is common. Light eyes run between 19% and 30% 
according to recently published pigmentation maps of
Europe (see P.
Frost, 2006). A recent study by Candille et al. (2012) comparing
pigmentation levels between the Portuguese and three other ethnically
indigenous European national groups—the Irish, the Polish and the
Italians—concluded that, in parts of the body not exposed to the
sun, the Irish were in the lightest end of the spectrum, followed by
the Portuguese, Poles and Italians, with the latter being darkest. In
terms of hair color, the Portuguese averaged lighter hair than
Italians and darker than Irish and Poles. The Portuguese exhibited
significantly lower frequencies in lighter eye shades in comparison to
the Irish and Polish, and marginally less, compared to Italians.
Demographics of Portugal
Main article: Demographics of Portugal
Portuguese men playing Fado
Portuguese women in traditional costumes, from Viana do Castelo
There are around 10 million native Portuguese in Portugal, out of a
total population of 10.34 million (estimate).
Native minority languages in Portugal
A small minority of about 15,000 speak the Mirandese language, (part
of the Asturian-Leonese linguistic group which includes the Asturian
and Leonese minority languages of Northwestern
in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro,
Vimioso and Mogadouro. All
of the speakers are bilingual with Portuguese.
An even smaller minority of no more than 2,000 people speak
Barranquenho, a dialect of Portuguese heavily influenced by
Extremaduran, spoken in the Portuguese town of
Barrancos (in the
Extremadura and Andalusia, in Spain, and Portugal).
Ethnic minorities in Portugal
Some people from the former colonies, namely Brazil, Portuguese
Portuguese India and East Timor, have been
Portugal since the 1900s.
More recently, a great number of Slavs, especially
Ukrainians (now the
third biggest ethnic minority) and Russians, as well as Moldovans
and Romanians, keep migrating to Portugal. There is also a Chinese
minority, which are mainly of
Macau Cantonese origin.
In addition, there is a small minority of Gypsies (Ciganos) about
40,000 in number,
Muslims about 34,000 in number and an even
smaller minority of Jews of about 5,000 people (the majority are
Sephardi such as the Belmonte Jews, while some are Ashkenazi).
In the whole world there are easily more than one hundred million
people with recognizable Portuguese ancestors, due to the colonial
expansion and worldwide immigration of Portuguese from the 16th
century onwards to India, the Americas,
Macau (see Macanese people),
Indonesia and Africa. Between 1886 and 1966,
Portugal lost to emigration more than any West European country except
Ireland. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s,
nearly two million Portuguese left
Europe to live mainly in
with significant numbers to the United States. About 40 million
Brazilians have relatively recent Portuguese background, due to
massive immigration in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries. About 1.2 million Brazilian citizens are
native Portuguese. Significant verified Portuguese minorities
exist in several countries (see table).
Sephardi Jews (mostly descendants) are also in Israel, the
Netherlands, the United States, France, Venezuela, Brazil and
Brazil many of the colonists were also originally Sephardi
Jews, who, converted, were known as New Christians.
Sign and frame about Portuguese immigration inside one subway station
in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
In the United States, there are Portuguese communities in New Jersey,
New England states, and California. In the Pacific,
Hawaii has a
sizable Portuguese element that goes back 150 years (see Portuguese
New Zealand also have Portuguese communities
(see Portuguese Australians, Portuguese New Zealanders). Canada,
Quebec and British Columbia, has developed a
significant Portuguese community since 1940 (see Portuguese
Portuguese Argentine and Cape Verdean
Uruguay (see Portuguese Uruguayan) had Portuguese
immigration in the early 20th century. So has
Chile where an estimated
50,000 descendants live, as the country's maritime industries
attracted a small number of Portuguese as well.
Portuguese fishermen, farmers and laborers dispersed across the
Bermuda (3.75% to 10% of the
Guyana (4.3% of the population in 1891),
Trinidad, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and the island of
Barbados where there is high influence from the Portuguese
In the early twentieth century the Portuguese government encouraged
white emigration to
Angola and Mozambique, and by the 1970s, there
were up to 1 million Portuguese settlers living in their overseas
African provinces. An estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to
Portugal as the country's African possessions gained independence in
1975, after the Carnation Revolution, while others moved to
As a result, there are Portuguese influenced people with their own
culture and Portuguese based dialects in parts of the world other than
former Portuguese colonies, most notably in Malaysia,
Indonesia (see Kristang people), Barbados, Jamaica, Aruba, Curaçao,
St. Vincent and the Grenadines,
Trinidad and Tobago,
Portuguese immigrants in Guyana),
Equatorial Guinea and
Sri Lanka (see
Burgher people and Portuguese Burghers). In 1989 some 4,000,000
Portuguese were living abroad, mainly in France, Germany, Brazil, the
United Kingdom, South Africa, Canada, Venezuela, and the United
States. Portuguese constitute 13% of the population of Luxembourg.
In 2006 there were estimates to be over half a million people of
Portuguese origin in the
United Kingdom (see Portuguese in the United
Kingdom)—this is considerably larger than the around 88,000
Portuguese-born people alone residing in the country in 2009
(estimation; however this figure does not include British-born people
of Portuguese descent). In areas such as
Thetford and the crown
Jersey and Guernsey, the Portuguese form the largest
ethnic minority groups at 30% of the population, 7% and 3%
respectively. The British capital
London is home to the largest number
Portuguese people in the UK, with the majority being found in the
boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea,
Lambeth and Westminster. The
Portuguese diaspora communities still are very attached to their
language, their culture and their national dishes and particularly the
List of countries by population of Portuguese heritage
% of country
Portuguese in North America
Canada 2011 Census
Portuguese in South America
5 million (eligible for Portuguese citizenship)
Portuguese in Europe
Portuguese in the Netherlands
They constitute 16.1% of the population of Luxembourg, which makes
one of the largest ethnic groups as a proportion of the total national
Portuguese in Asia
25,000 - 46,000
Portuguese in Thailand
1,400 - 2,000
Portuguese in Oceania
Portuguese New Zealander
Portuguese in Africa
Portuguese South African
Total in Diaspora
Portuguese people in Portugal
 Figure is only a population estimate of all residents of Portugal,
and includes people of non-Portuguese ethnic origin
Portuguese ancestry in the Brazilian population
This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date
information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or
newly available information. (January 2013)
Portuguese emigration to
Brazil from the beginning of colonization, in
1500 to Present
Source: Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE)
Passport of an immigrant from the
Braga District to Brazil
In colonial times, over 700,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, and most
of them went there during the gold rush of the 18th century.
Brazil received more European settlers during its colonial era than
any other country in the Americas. Between 1500 and 1760, about
700,000 Europeans immigrated to Brazil, compared to 530,000 European
immigrants in the United States. They managed to be the only
significant European population to populate the country during
colonization, even though there were French and Dutch invasions. The
Portuguese migration was strongly marked by the predominance of men
(colonial reports from the 16th and 17th centuries almost always
report the absence or rarity of Portuguese women). This lack of women
worried the Jesuits, who asked the Portuguese King to send any kind of
Portuguese women to Brazil, even the socially undesirable (e.g.
prostitutes or women with mental maladies such as Down Syndrome) if
necessary. The Crown responded by sending groups of Iberian
orphan maidens to marry both cohorts of marriageable men, the nobles
and the peasants. Some of which were even primarily studying to be
nuns. The Crown also shipped over many
Órfãs d'El-Rei of
what was considered "good birth" to colonial
Brazil to marry
Portuguese settlers of high rank.
Órfãs d'El-Rei (modern Portuguese
órfãs do rei) literally translates to "Orphans of the King", and
they were Portuguese female orphans in nubile age. There were
noble and non-noble maidens and they were daughters of military
compatriots who died in battle for the king or noblemen who died
overseas and whose upbringing was paid by the Crown. Bahia's port
in the East received one of the first groups of orphans in 1551.
The multiplication of descendants of Portuguese settlers also happened
to a large degree through miscegenation with black and amerindian
women. In fact, in colonial
Brazil the Portuguese men competed for the
women, because among the African slaves the female component was also
a small minority. This explains why the Portuguese men left more
Brazil than the
Amerindian or African men did. The
Indian and African women were "dominated" by the Portuguese men,
preventing men of color to find partners with whom they could have
children. Added to this, White people had a much better quality of
life and therefore a lower mortality rate than the black and
indigenous population. Then, even though the Portuguese migration
Brazil was smaller (3.2 million Indians estimated at
the beginning of colonization and 3.6 million Africans brought since
then, compared to the descendants of the over 700,000 Portuguese
immigrants) the "white" population (whose ancestry was predominantly
Portuguese) was as large as the "non white" population in the early
19th century, just before independence from Portugal. After
Portugal in 1822, around 1.7 million Portuguese
immigrants settled in Brazil. Portuguese immigration into Brazil
in the 19th and 20th centuries was marked by its concentration in the
states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The immigrants opted mostly
for urban centers. Portuguese women appeared with some regularity
among immigrants, with percentage variation in different decades and
regions of the country. However, even among the more recent influx of
Portuguese immigrants at the turn of the 20th century, there were 319
men to each 100 women among them. The Portuguese were different
from other immigrants in Brazil, like the Germans, or Italians
who brought many women along with them (even though the proportion of
men was higher in any immigrant community). Despite the small female
proportion, Portuguese men married mainly Portuguese women. Female
immigrants rarely married Brazilian men. In this context, the
Portuguese had a rate of endogamy which was higher than any other
European immigrant community, and behind only the Japanese among all
Even with Portuguese heritage, many Portuguese-Brazilians identify
themselves as being simply Brazilians, since Portuguese culture was a
dominant cultural influence in the formation of
Brazil (like many
British Americans in the United States, who will never describe
themselves as of British extraction, but only as "Americans").
In 1872, there were 3.7 million
Brazil (the vast majority of
them of Portuguese ancestry), 4.1 million mixed-race people (mostly of
Portuguese-African-Native American ancestry) and 1.9 million Blacks.
These numbers give the percentage of 80% of people with total or
partial Portuguese ancestry in
Brazil in the 1870s.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a new large wave of
Portugal arrived. From 1881 to 1991, over 1.5 million
Portuguese immigrated to Brazil. In 1906, for example, there were
133,393 Portuguese-born people living in Rio de Janeiro, comprising
16% of the city's population. Rio is, still today, considered the
largest "Portuguese city" outside of
Portugal itself, with 1%
Genetic studies also confirm the strong Portuguese genetic influence
in Brazilians. According to a study, at least half of the Brazilian
Y Chromosome (male inheritance) comes from Portugal.
Black Brazilians have an average of 48% non-African genes, most of
them may come from Portuguese ancestors. On the other hand, 33%
Amerindian and 28% African contribution to the total mtDNA (female
inheritance) of white Brazilians was found
An autosomal study from 2013, with nearly 1300 samples from all of the
Brazilian regions, found a predominant degree of European ancestry
(mostly Portuguese, due to the dominant Portuguese influx among
European colonization and immigration to Brazil) combined with African
and Native American contributions, in varying degrees. 'Following an
increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most
prevalent in all urban populations (with values from 51% to 74%). The
populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of
Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the
African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and
Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an
intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and
most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between
individuals within each population rather than among population'.
A large community-based multicenter autosomal study from 2015,
considering representative samples from three different urban
communities located in the Northeast (Salvador, capital of Bahia),
Southeast (Bambuí, interior of Minas Gerais) and South Brazilian
(Pelotas, interior of Rio Grande do Sul) regions, estimated European
ancestry to be 42.4%, 83.8% and 85.3%, respectively. In all three
cities, European ancestors were mainly Iberian.
It was estimated that around 25 million or more Brazilians can acquire
Portuguese citizenship, due to the last Portuguese nationality law
that grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals.
According to an early genetic study, the Portuguese are a relatively
distinct population according to HLA data, as they have a high
frequency of the HLA-A25-B18-DR15 and A26-B38-DR13 genes. The later is
a unique Portuguese marker- the Portuguese have neither a significant
contribution to their genetic pool from paleo-North Africans (A30-B18)
nor Mediterraneans (A33-B14). As such may have remained in relative
genetic isolation compared to the rest of the Iberian populations. The
A25-B18-DR15 gene is only found in
Portugal among Europeans; and is
also observed in white North Americans and in Brazilians.
The pan-European (most probably Celtic) haplotype A1-B8-DR3 and the
western-European haplotype A29-B44-DR7 are shared by Portuguese,
Basques and Spaniards. The later is also common in Irish, southern
English, and western French populations.
The Portuguese cluster with the Basques, and these with the Spaniards
and the Algerians, as data suggest that there is a common Iberian and
paleo-North African origin according to some studies, showing a
pre-neolithic Saharan northwards migration and admixture with ancient
Iberians. The A2-B7-DR15 gene is common to those, the Cornish,
Austrians and Germans, showing a much more ancient link between North
Africans and western and central Europeans.
R1b-5 gene cluster is a male re-expansion 15,000-13,000 years ago from
Northwestern Iberia heading towards Ireland, Wales and Northern
Scotland. The Rory gene cluster (R1b-14) is one of the largest
re-expansions also head towards
Ireland and Scotland, however
featuring particularly in Irish men with Gaelic names.
European ethnic groups
List of Portuguese people
^ "Estudo descobre 31,19 milhões de portugueses pelo mundo". Dn.pt.
Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 24 August
^ Portuguese ethnicity is more clear-cut than Spanish ethnicity, but
here also, the case is complicated by the Portuguese ancestry of
populations in the former colonial empire.
Portugal has 11 million
nationals. The 40 million figure is due to a study estimating a total
of an additional 31 million descendants from Portuguese grandparents;
these people would be eligible for Portuguese citizenship under
Portuguese nationality law
Portuguese nationality law (which grants citizenship to grandchildren
of Portuguese nationals). Emigração: A diáspora dos portugueses
Archived 28 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (2009)
^ a b Parra FC, Amado RC, Lambertucci JR, Rocha J, Antunes CM, Pena SD
(January 2003). "Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
of America. 100 (1): 177–82. Bibcode:2002PNAS..100..177P.
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