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Portuguese people
Portuguese people
are a ethnic group indigenous to Portugal
Portugal
that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese as a primary language. Their predominant religion is Christianity, mainly Roman Catholicism. Historically the Portuguese people's heritage includes the pre-Celts, Celts
Celts
(Celtiberians, Lusitanians, Gallaecians
Gallaecians
and Celtici) the Romans, Greeks, Scandinavians, and migratory Germanic tribes like the Vandals, Visigoths
Visigoths
(Western Goths) and Suebi. The Roman Republic
Roman Republic
conquered the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
during the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. from the extensive maritime empire of Carthage during the series of Punic Wars. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages stem from the Vulgar Latin. Due to the large historical extent from the 16th century of the Portuguese Empire and the subsequent colonization of territories in Asia, Africa
Africa
and the Americas, as well as historical and recent emigration, Portuguese communities can be found in many diverse regions around the globe, and a large Portuguese diaspora
Portuguese diaspora
exists. Portuguese people
Portuguese people
were a key factor to the Age of Exploration beginning at the end of the 15th century and extending into the 16th, 17th, 18th centuries and consolidated during the 19th century. Discovering during these times, several lands unknown to the Europeans in the Americas, Africa, Asia
Asia
and Oceania
Oceania
(southwest Pacific Ocean), helping to pave the way for the globalization and dominazation of Western civilization. Today, Portugal
Portugal
also exhibits a multicultural society from around the world, but in particular from its former most recent colonies of the Lusosphere, such as Brazilians, Cape Verdeans, Angolans, Mozambicans, Goans, Macanese and Timorese people.

Contents

1 Ancestry

1.1 Historical origins 1.2 Lusitanians 1.3 Pre-Roman groups

2 Romanization 3 General traits 4 Demography

4.1 Demographics of Portugal 4.2 Native minority languages in Portugal 4.3 Ethnic minorities in Portugal 4.4 Portuguese diaspora

5 List of countries by population of Portuguese heritage

5.1 Portuguese ancestry in the Brazilian population

6 Genetics 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Ancestry[edit] Historical origins[edit] Further information: Genetic history of Europe The Portuguese are a Southwestern European population, with origins predominantly from Southern and Western Europe. The earliest modern humans inhabiting Portugal
Portugal
are believed to have been Paleolithic
Paleolithic
peoples that may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. Current interpretation of Y-chromosome
Y-chromosome
and mtDNA data suggests that modern-day Portuguese trace a significant amount of these lineages to the paleolithic peoples who began settling the European continent between the end of the last glaciation around 45,000 years ago.

Distribution of R1a
R1a
(purple) and R1b
R1b
(red). See also this map for distribution in Europe.

Northern Iberia is believed to have been a major Ice-age refuge from which Paleolithic
Paleolithic
humans later colonized Europe. Migrations from what is now Northern Iberia during the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Mesolithic, links modern Iberians
Iberians
to the populations of much of Western Europe
Europe
and particularly the British Isles
British Isles
and Atlantic Europe. Recent books published by geneticists Bryan Sykes, Stephen Oppenheimer and Spencer Wells have emphasized the large Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Mesolithic
Mesolithic
Iberian influence in the modern day Irish, Welsh and Scottish gene-pool as well as parts of the English. Indeed, Y-chromosome
Y-chromosome
haplogroup R1b
R1b
(of Paleolithic
Paleolithic
origin) is the most common haplogroup in practically all of the Iberian peninsula and western Europe.[20] Within the R1b haplogroup there are modal haplotypes. One of the best-characterized of these haplotypes is the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH). This haplotype reaches the highest frequencies in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
and in the British Isles. In Portugal
Portugal
it reckons generally 65% in the South summing 87% northwards, and in some regions 96%.[21] The Neolithic
Neolithic
colonization of Europe
Europe
from Western Asia
Asia
and the Middle East beginning around 10,000 years ago reached Iberia, as most of the rest of the continent although, according to the demic diffusion model, its impact was most in the southern and eastern regions of the European continent.[22] Starting in the 3rd millennium BC as well as in the Bronze Age, the first wave of migrations into Iberia of speakers of Indo-European languages occurred. These were later (7th and 5th Centuries BC) followed by others that can be identified as Celts. Urban cultures eventually developed in southeastern Iberia, such as Tartessos, influenced by the Phoenician colonization of coastal Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Iberia, which later shifted to Greek colonization. There is very little or no evidence of settlements in Portugal
Portugal
by either Greeks
Greeks
or Phoenicians
Phoenicians
despite some statements to the contrary.

Ethnographic and Linguistic Map of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
at about 200 BC.[23]

These two processes defined Iberia's, and Portugal's, cultural landscape—Continental in the northwest and Mediterranean
Mediterranean
towards the southeast, as historian José Mattoso describes it.[24] Given the origins from Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Neolithic
Neolithic
settlers as well as Indo-European migrations, one can say that the Portuguese ethnic origin is mainly a mixture of pre-Roman, pre-Indo-Europeans (such as, in other parts of Iberia, the Iberians, Aquitanians), and pre-Celtics or para- Celts
Celts
such as the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
of Lusitania, and Celtic peoples such as Calaicians or Gallaeci
Gallaeci
of Gallaecia, the Celtici
Celtici
and the Cynetes
Cynetes
of the Alentejo
Alentejo
and the Algarve. The Romans
Romans
were also an important influence on Portuguese culture; the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
derives from Latin. Other minor influences included the Phoenicians/ Carthaginians
Carthaginians
(small semi-permanent commercial coastal establishments in the south before 200 BC), the Vandals
Vandals
( Silingi
Silingi
and Hasdingi) and the Sarmatian Alans (both migrated to North Africa, while some were partially integrated by the Visigoths
Visigoths
and Suebi), and the Visigoths
Visigoths
and Suebi
Suebi
(including the Buri, permanently established in the early 5th century), Saqaliba (people of Slavic origin), who also settled in what is today Portuguese territory. In the 9th and 10th centuries small Viking[25] settlements were also established in the North coastal regions of Douro
Douro
and Minho.[26][27] Main article: Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula For the Y-chromosome
Y-chromosome
and MtDNA
MtDNA
lineages of the Portuguese and other peoples see this map and this one. Portuguese have also maintained a certain degree of ethnic and cultural specific characteristics-ratio with the Basques, since ancient times. The results of the present HLA study in Portuguese populations show that they have features in common with Basques
Basques
and some Spaniards
Spaniards
from Madrid: a high frequency of the HLA-haplotypes A29-B44-DR7 (ancient western Europeans) and A1-B8-DR3 are found as common characteristics. Many Portuguese, and Basques
Basques
do not show the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
A33-B14-DR1 haplotype, confirming a lower admixture with Mediterraneans. The Portuguese have a characteristic unique among world populations: a high frequency of HLA-A25-B18-DR15 and A26-B38-DR13, which may reflect a still detectable founder effect coming from ancient Portuguese, i.e., Oestriminis
Oestriminis
and Cynetes.[28] Lusitanians[edit] Not to be confused with Lusatia. The Lusitanians
Lusitanians
(or Lusitānus/ Lusitani
Lusitani
in Latin) were an Indo-European speaking people (likely Celtic) living in the Western Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
long before it became the Roman province of Lusitania
Lusitania
(modern Portugal, Extremadura
Extremadura
and a small part of Salamanca). They spoke the Lusitanian language, of which only a few short written fragments survive. Most Portuguese consider the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
as their ancestors. Although the northern regions (Minho, Douro, Tras-os-Montes) identify more with the Gallaecians. It has been hypothesized that the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
may have originated in the Alps
Alps
and settled in the region in the 6th century BC. Some modern scholars consider them to be indigenous and initially dominated by the Celts, before gaining full independence from them. The archaeologist Scarlat Lambrino proposed that they were originally a tribal Celtic group, related to the Lusones. The first area settled by the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
was probably the Douro valley and the region of Beira Alta; then they moved south, and expanded on both sides of the Tagus
Tagus
river, before being conquered by the Romans. The original Roman province of Lusitania
Lusitania
was extended north of the areas occupied by the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
to include the territories of Asturias
Asturias
and Gallaecia
Gallaecia
but these were soon ceded to the jurisdiction of the Provincia Tarraconensis in the north, while the south remained the Provincia Lusitania
Lusitania
et Vettones. After this, Lusitania's northern border was along the Douro
Douro
river, while its eastern border passed through Salmantica and Caesarobriga to the Anas (Guadiana) river. Pre-Roman groups[edit]

Map showing the main pre-Roman tribes in Portugal
Portugal
and their main migrations. Turduli
Turduli
movement in red, Celtici
Celtici
in brown and Lusitanian in a blue colour. Most tribes neighbouring the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
were dependent on them. Names are in Latin.

The Lusitanians
Lusitanians
were a single large tribe that lived between the rivers Douro
Douro
and Tagus. As the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
fought fiercely against the Romans
Romans
for independence, the name Lusitania
Lusitania
was adopted by the Gallaeci, tribes living north of the Douro, and other closely surrounding tribes, eventually spreading as a label to all the nearby peoples fighting Roman rule in the west of Iberia. It was for this reason that the Romans
Romans
came to name their original province in the area, that initially covered the entire western side of the Iberian peninsula, Lusitania. Tribes, often known by their Latin
Latin
names, living in the area of modern Portugal, prior to Roman rule:

Bardili (Turduli)
Bardili (Turduli)
– living in the Setúbal peninsula; Bracari
Bracari
– living between the rivers Tâmega and Cávado, in the area of the modern city of Braga; Callaici
Callaici
– living along and north of the Douro; Celtici
Celtici
Celts
Celts
living in Alentejo; Coelerni – living in the mountains between the rivers Tua and Sabor; Cynetes
Cynetes
or Conii – living in the Algarve
Algarve
and the south of Alentejo; Equaesi – living in the most mountainous region of modern Portugal; Grovii – a mysterious tribe living in the Minho valley; Interamici – living in Trás-os-Montes and in the border areas with Galicia and León (in modern Spain); Leuni – living between the rivers Lima and Minho; Luanqui – living between the rivers Tâmega and Tua; Lusitani
Lusitani
– being the most numerous and dominant of the whole region comprising most of Portugal; Limici – living in the swamps of the river Lima, on the border between Portugal
Portugal
and Galicia); Narbasi – living in the north of modern Portugal
Portugal
(interior) and nearby area of southern Galicia; Nemetati – living north of the Douro
Douro
Valley in the area of Mondim; Paesuri
Paesuri
– a dependent tribe of the Lusitanians, living between the rivers Douro
Douro
and Vouga; Quaquerni – living in the mountains at the mouths of rivers Cávado and Tâmega; Suebi
Suebi
– living between the rivers Cávado and Lima (or even reaching the river Minho); Tamagani – from the area of Chaves, near the river Tâmega; Tapoli – another dependent tribe of the Lusitanians, living north of the river Tagus, on the border between modern Portugal
Portugal
and Spain; Turduli
Turduli
– in the east of Alentejo
Alentejo
( Guadiana
Guadiana
Valley); Turduli
Turduli
Veteres – the "ancient Turduli" living south of the estuary of the river Douro; Turdulorum Oppida
Turdulorum Oppida
Turduli
Turduli
living in the Portuguese region of Estremadura; Turodi – living in Trás-os-Montes and bordering areas of Galicia; Vettones
Vettones
– living in the eastern border areas of Portugal, and in Spanish provinces of Ávila and Salamanca, as well as parts of Zamora, Toledo and Cáceres; Zoelae – living in the mountains of Serra da Nogueira, Sanabria and Culebra, up to the mountains of Mogadouro
Mogadouro
in northern Portugal
Portugal
and adjacent areas of Galicia.

Romanization[edit]

v t e

Roman conquest of Hispania

Second Punic War Celtiberian Wars (First,Second) Lusitanian War Numantine War Cantabrian Wars

Main article: Lusitanian War Since 193 B.C., the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
had been fighting Rome
Rome
and its expansion into the peninsula following the defeat and occupation of Carthage
Carthage
in North Africa. They defended themselves bravely for years, causing the Roman invaders serious defeats. In 150 B.C., they were defeated by Praetor Servius Galba: springing a clever trap, he killed 9,000 Lusitanians
Lusitanians
and later sold 20,000 more as slaves further northeast in the newly conquered Roman provinces
Roman provinces
in Gaul
Gaul
(modern France) by Julius Caesar. Three years later (147 B.C.), Viriathus became the leader of the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
and severely damaged the Roman rule in Lusitania
Lusitania
and beyond. In 139 B.C. Viriathus
Viriathus
was betrayed and killed in his sleep by his companions (who had been sent as emissaries to the Romans), Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus, bribed by Marcus Popillius Laenas. However, when Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus returned to receive their reward by the Romans, the Consul Servilius Caepio ordered their execution, declaring, " Rome
Rome
does not pay traitors". After Viriathus' rule, the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
became largely romanized, adopting Roman culture and the language of Latin. The Lusitanian cities, in a manner similar to those of the rest of the Roman-Iberian peninsula, eventually gained the status of "Citizens of Rome". The Portuguese language
Portuguese language
itself is a local later evolution of the Roman language, Latin
Latin
after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th and 6th centuries. General traits[edit]

Portuguese lady from Madeira
Madeira
island

Modern Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group and share the same makeup of the fellow Western Europeans.[29] Western Coast of Iberia which compose the land of Galicia and Portugal
Portugal
was a converging point of migratory movements in the past and during the Portuguese Discoveries, the Portuguese were introduced to new cultures and ethnicities. With the end of the Indigenous Statute in the early 1960's,[30] indigenous people of Portuguese colonies were granted Portuguese citizenship until the end of Portuguese colonialism marked with the hand over of Macau
Macau
after five hundred years to the Peoples Republic of China
China
in 1999. Regarding this it is comprehensible that any relationship between citizenship and anthropometrical features can be questioned, nevertheless, it is possible to draw the anthropometrical features of the generality of the Portuguese. Dark to medium brown hair and brown and hazel eyes predominate in a majority of Portuguese people. However, light brown and blond hair and blue and green eyes are also found frequently. Chestnut and auburn-colored hair types occur generally. Legitimate black hair—not espresso brown—can be found, but it is not very common. Light, true red hair (meaning red shades that are non-auburn) is seen on occasion. Pigmentation field studies by Tamagnini (1916, 1936), Correa (1919) and others recorded national average fair hair ("blondism") frequencies of between 15 and 21%.[31] True red hair (ginger) amounts to approximately 3%. However, there are higher percentages of individuals with auburn and dark red-brown shades. Dark and light sandy hair is common. Light eyes run between 19% and 30% [32] according to recently published pigmentation maps of Europe
Europe
(see P. Frost, 2006). A recent study by Candille et al. (2012) comparing pigmentation levels between the Portuguese and three other ethnically indigenous European national groups—the Irish, the Polish and the Italians—concluded that, in parts of the body not exposed to the sun, the Irish were in the lightest end of the spectrum, followed by the Portuguese, Poles and Italians, with the latter being darkest. In terms of hair color, the Portuguese averaged lighter hair than Italians
Italians
and darker than Irish and Poles. The Portuguese exhibited significantly lower frequencies in lighter eye shades in comparison to the Irish and Polish, and marginally less, compared to Italians.[33] Demography[edit] Demographics of Portugal[edit] Main article: Demographics of Portugal

Portuguese men playing Fado

Portuguese women in traditional costumes, from Viana do Castelo

There are around 10 million native Portuguese in Portugal, out of a total population of 10.34 million (estimate). Native minority languages in Portugal[edit] A small minority of about 15,000 speak the Mirandese language, (part of the Asturian-Leonese linguistic group which includes the Asturian and Leonese minority languages of Northwestern Spain
Spain
[34][35][36][37]) in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Vimioso
Vimioso
and Mogadouro. All of the speakers are bilingual with Portuguese. An even smaller minority of no more than 2,000 people speak Barranquenho, a dialect of Portuguese heavily influenced by Extremaduran, spoken in the Portuguese town of Barrancos
Barrancos
(in the border between Extremadura
Extremadura
and Andalusia, in Spain, and Portugal). Ethnic minorities in Portugal[edit] Some people from the former colonies, namely Brazil, Portuguese Africa, Macau
Macau
(China), Portuguese India
Portuguese India
and East Timor, have been migrating to Portugal
Portugal
since the 1900s. More recently, a great number of Slavs, especially Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(now the third biggest ethnic minority[38]) and Russians, as well as Moldovans and Romanians, keep migrating to Portugal. There is also a Chinese minority, which are mainly of Macau
Macau
Cantonese origin. In addition, there is a small minority of Gypsies (Ciganos) about 40,000 in number,[39] Muslims
Muslims
about 34,000 in number[40] and an even smaller minority of Jews of about 5,000 people (the majority are Sephardi such as the Belmonte Jews, while some are Ashkenazi). Portuguese diaspora[edit] In the whole world there are easily more than one hundred million people with recognizable Portuguese ancestors, due to the colonial expansion and worldwide immigration of Portuguese from the 16th century onwards to India, the Americas, Macau
Macau
(see Macanese people), East-Timor, Malaysia, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Africa. Between 1886 and 1966, Portugal
Portugal
lost to emigration more than any West European country except Ireland.[41] From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, nearly two million Portuguese left Europe
Europe
to live mainly in Brazil
Brazil
and with significant numbers to the United States.[42] About 40 million Brazilians have relatively recent Portuguese background, due to massive immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[citation needed] About 1.2 million Brazilian citizens are native Portuguese.[43] Significant verified Portuguese minorities exist in several countries (see table).[44] Portuguese Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
(mostly descendants) are also in Israel, the Netherlands, the United States, France, Venezuela, Brazil[45] and Turkey. In Brazil
Brazil
many of the colonists were also originally Sephardi Jews, who, converted, were known as New Christians.

Sign and frame about Portuguese immigration inside one subway station in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

In the United States, there are Portuguese communities in New Jersey, the New England
New England
states, and California. In the Pacific, Hawaii
Hawaii
has a sizable Portuguese element that goes back 150 years (see Portuguese Americans), Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
also have Portuguese communities (see Portuguese Australians, Portuguese New Zealanders). Canada, particularly Ontario, Quebec
Quebec
and British Columbia, has developed a significant Portuguese community since 1940 (see Portuguese Canadians). Argentina
Argentina
(See Portuguese Argentine
Portuguese Argentine
and Cape Verdean Argentine) and Uruguay
Uruguay
(see Portuguese Uruguayan) had Portuguese immigration in the early 20th century. So has Chile
Chile
where an estimated 50,000 descendants live, as the country's maritime industries attracted a small number of Portuguese as well.[citation needed] Portuguese fishermen, farmers and laborers dispersed across the Caribbean, especially Bermuda
Bermuda
(3.75%[46] to 10%[47] of the population), Guyana
Guyana
(4.3% of the population in 1891),[48] Trinidad,[49] St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and the island of Barbados
Barbados
where there is high influence from the Portuguese community.[50] In the early twentieth century the Portuguese government encouraged white emigration to Angola
Angola
and Mozambique, and by the 1970s, there were up to 1 million Portuguese settlers living in their overseas African provinces.[51] An estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal
Portugal
as the country's African possessions gained independence in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution, while others moved to Brazil
Brazil
and South Africa.[52] As a result, there are Portuguese influenced people with their own culture and Portuguese based dialects in parts of the world other than former Portuguese colonies, most notably in Malaysia, Singapore
Singapore
and Indonesia
Indonesia
(see Kristang people), Barbados, Jamaica, Aruba, Curaçao, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago, Guyana
Guyana
(see Portuguese immigrants in Guyana), Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(see Burgher people
Burgher people
and Portuguese Burghers). In 1989 some 4,000,000 Portuguese were living abroad, mainly in France, Germany, Brazil, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Canada, Venezuela, and the United States.[53] Portuguese constitute 13% of the population of Luxembourg. In 2006 there were estimates to be over half a million people of Portuguese origin in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(see Portuguese in the United Kingdom)—this is considerably larger than the around 88,000 Portuguese-born people alone residing in the country in 2009 (estimation; however this figure does not include British-born people of Portuguese descent). In areas such as Thetford
Thetford
and the crown dependencies of Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey, the Portuguese form the largest ethnic minority groups at 30% of the population, 7% and 3% respectively. The British capital London
London
is home to the largest number of Portuguese people
Portuguese people
in the UK, with the majority being found in the boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea, Lambeth
Lambeth
and Westminster.[54] The Portuguese diaspora
Portuguese diaspora
communities still are very attached to their language, their culture and their national dishes and particularly the bacalhau.[55] List of countries by population of Portuguese heritage[edit]

Country Population % of country Criterion

Portuguese in North America

Portuguese American 1,477,335 0.5%

[56]

Portuguese Canadian 429,850 1.3% Canada
Canada
2011 Census[57]

Portuguese in South America

Portuguese Argentine 40,100 0.9% [16]

Portuguese Brazilian 5 million (eligible for Portuguese citizenship) -

[58]

Portuguese Venezuelan 1,400,000 5% [citation needed]

Portuguese in Europe

Portuguese French 1,161,900 1.5%

[59]

Portuguese British 88,161 0.08%

[54]

Portuguese in the Netherlands 20,981 0.11%

[60][60]

Portuguese Luxembourger 82,300 16.1%

They constitute 16.1% of the population of Luxembourg, which makes them one of the largest ethnic groups as a proportion of the total national population. [61]

Portuguese in Asia

Luso-Indian 200,000 0.02%

Macanese people 25,000 - 46,000 2%

[62]

Portuguese Burghers 5,000 0.02%

[63]

Portuguese in Thailand 1,400 - 2,000

Portuguese in Oceania

Portuguese Australian 56,000 0.4%

[64]

Portuguese New Zealander 650 0.02%

[65]

Portuguese in Africa

Portuguese Angolan 500,000 1%

[11]

Portuguese Mozambicans 200,000 0.36%

[9]

Portuguese South African 126,476 0.15%

[9]

Total in Diaspora ~105,000,000

Portuguese people
Portuguese people
in Portugal 11,000,000

[5] Figure is only a population estimate of all residents of Portugal, and includes people of non-Portuguese ethnic origin

Total Worldwide unknown

Portuguese ancestry in the Brazilian population[edit]

This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2013)

Portuguese emigration to Brazil
Brazil
from the beginning of colonization, in 1500 to Present

Source: Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE)

Decade

Nationality 1500-1700 1701-1760 1808-1817 1827-1829 1837-1841 1856-1857 1881-1900 1901-1930 1931-1950 1951-1960 1961-1967 1981-1991 1991– 2017

Portuguese 100,000 600,000 24,000 2,004 629 16,108 316,204 754,147 148,699 235,635 54,767 4,605 400,000

Passport of an immigrant from the Braga
Braga
District to Brazil

In colonial times, over 700,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, and most of them went there during the gold rush of the 18th century.[66] Brazil
Brazil
received more European settlers during its colonial era than any other country in the Americas. Between 1500 and 1760, about 700,000 Europeans immigrated to Brazil, compared to 530,000 European immigrants in the United States.[67][68] They managed to be the only significant European population to populate the country during colonization, even though there were French and Dutch invasions. The Portuguese migration was strongly marked by the predominance of men (colonial reports from the 16th and 17th centuries almost always report the absence or rarity of Portuguese women). This lack of women worried the Jesuits, who asked the Portuguese King to send any kind of Portuguese women to Brazil, even the socially undesirable (e.g. prostitutes or women with mental maladies such as Down Syndrome) if necessary.[69][70] The Crown responded by sending groups of Iberian orphan maidens to marry both cohorts of marriageable men, the nobles and the peasants. Some of which were even primarily studying to be nuns.[69][71] The Crown also shipped over many Órfãs d'El-Rei of what was considered "good birth" to colonial Brazil
Brazil
to marry Portuguese settlers of high rank. Órfãs d'El-Rei (modern Portuguese órfãs do rei) literally translates to "Orphans of the King", and they were Portuguese female orphans in nubile age.[72] There were noble and non-noble maidens and they were daughters of military compatriots who died in battle for the king or noblemen who died overseas and whose upbringing was paid by the Crown.[72] Bahia's port in the East received one of the first groups of orphans in 1551.[73] The multiplication of descendants of Portuguese settlers also happened to a large degree through miscegenation with black and amerindian women. In fact, in colonial Brazil
Brazil
the Portuguese men competed for the women, because among the African slaves the female component was also a small minority.[74] This explains why the Portuguese men left more descendants in Brazil
Brazil
than the Amerindian
Amerindian
or African men did. The Indian and African women were "dominated" by the Portuguese men, preventing men of color to find partners with whom they could have children. Added to this, White people had a much better quality of life and therefore a lower mortality rate than the black and indigenous population. Then, even though the Portuguese migration during colonial Brazil
Brazil
was smaller (3.2 million Indians estimated at the beginning of colonization and 3.6 million Africans brought since then, compared to the descendants of the over 700,000 Portuguese immigrants) the "white" population (whose ancestry was predominantly Portuguese) was as large as the "non white" population in the early 19th century, just before independence from Portugal.[74] After independence from Portugal
Portugal
in 1822, around 1.7 million Portuguese immigrants settled in Brazil.[74] Portuguese immigration into Brazil in the 19th and 20th centuries was marked by its concentration in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The immigrants opted mostly for urban centers. Portuguese women appeared with some regularity among immigrants, with percentage variation in different decades and regions of the country. However, even among the more recent influx of Portuguese immigrants at the turn of the 20th century, there were 319 men to each 100 women among them.[75] The Portuguese were different from other immigrants in Brazil, like the Germans,[76] or Italians[77] who brought many women along with them (even though the proportion of men was higher in any immigrant community). Despite the small female proportion, Portuguese men married mainly Portuguese women. Female immigrants rarely married Brazilian men. In this context, the Portuguese had a rate of endogamy which was higher than any other European immigrant community, and behind only the Japanese among all immigrants.[78] Even with Portuguese heritage, many Portuguese-Brazilians identify themselves as being simply Brazilians, since Portuguese culture was a dominant cultural influence in the formation of Brazil
Brazil
(like many British Americans in the United States, who will never describe themselves as of British extraction, but only as "Americans"). In 1872, there were 3.7 million Whites
Whites
in Brazil
Brazil
(the vast majority of them of Portuguese ancestry), 4.1 million mixed-race people (mostly of Portuguese-African-Native American ancestry) and 1.9 million Blacks. These numbers give the percentage of 80% of people with total or partial Portuguese ancestry in Brazil
Brazil
in the 1870s.[79] In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a new large wave of immigrants from Portugal
Portugal
arrived. From 1881 to 1991, over 1.5 million Portuguese immigrated to Brazil. In 1906, for example, there were 133,393 Portuguese-born people living in Rio de Janeiro, comprising 16% of the city's population. Rio is, still today, considered the largest "Portuguese city" outside of Portugal
Portugal
itself, with 1% Portuguese-born people.[67][80] Genetic studies also confirm the strong Portuguese genetic influence in Brazilians. According to a study, at least half of the Brazilian population's Y Chromosome
Y Chromosome
(male inheritance) comes from Portugal. Black Brazilians have an average of 48% non-African genes, most of them may come from Portuguese ancestors. On the other hand, 33% Amerindian
Amerindian
and 28% African contribution to the total mtDNA (female inheritance) of white Brazilians was found[3][4] An autosomal study from 2013, with nearly 1300 samples from all of the Brazilian regions, found a predominant degree of European ancestry (mostly Portuguese, due to the dominant Portuguese influx among European colonization and immigration to Brazil) combined with African and Native American contributions, in varying degrees. 'Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values from 51% to 74%). The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population'.[81] A large community-based multicenter autosomal study from 2015, considering representative samples from three different urban communities located in the Northeast (Salvador, capital of Bahia), Southeast (Bambuí, interior of Minas Gerais) and South Brazilian (Pelotas, interior of Rio Grande do Sul) regions, estimated European ancestry to be 42.4%, 83.8% and 85.3%, respectively.[82] In all three cities, European ancestors were mainly Iberian. It was estimated that around 25 million or more Brazilians can acquire Portuguese citizenship, due to the last Portuguese nationality law that grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals.[83] Genetics[edit] According to an early genetic study, the Portuguese are a relatively distinct population according to HLA data, as they have a high frequency of the HLA-A25-B18-DR15 and A26-B38-DR13 genes. The later is a unique Portuguese marker- the Portuguese have neither a significant contribution to their genetic pool from paleo-North Africans (A30-B18) nor Mediterraneans (A33-B14). As such may have remained in relative genetic isolation compared to the rest of the Iberian populations. The A25-B18-DR15 gene is only found in Portugal
Portugal
among Europeans; and is also observed in white North Americans and in Brazilians.[84] The pan-European (most probably Celtic) haplotype A1-B8-DR3 and the western-European haplotype A29-B44-DR7 are shared by Portuguese, Basques
Basques
and Spaniards. The later is also common in Irish, southern English, and western French populations.[84] The Portuguese cluster with the Basques, and these with the Spaniards and the Algerians, as data suggest that there is a common Iberian and paleo-North African origin according to some studies, showing a pre-neolithic Saharan northwards migration and admixture with ancient Iberians. The A2-B7-DR15 gene is common to those, the Cornish, Austrians and Germans, showing a much more ancient link between North Africans and western and central Europeans.[84] R1b-5 gene cluster is a male re-expansion 15,000-13,000 years ago from Northwestern Iberia heading towards Ireland, Wales and Northern Scotland. The Rory gene cluster (R1b-14) is one of the largest re-expansions also head towards Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland, however featuring particularly in Irish men with Gaelic names.[85] See also[edit]

Portugal
Portugal
portal

European ethnic groups List of Portuguese people Portuguese Indonesian

References[edit]

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Portuguese nationality law
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Portugueses (category)

Ethnographic Map of Pre-Roman Iberia (circa 200 BC) Wikimedia Atlas of Portugal Portugal
Portugal
(Emigration) from CIA Country Studies Series

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