Porsche 911 (pronounced Nine Eleven or in German: Neunelfer) is a
two-door, 2+2 high performance rear-engined classic German sports car
made since 1963 by
Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. It has a
rear-mounted six cylinder boxer engine and all round independent
suspension. It has undergone continuous development, though the basic
concept has remained little changed. The engines were air-cooled
until the introduction of the Type 996 in 1998, with Porsche's "993"
series, produced in model years 1994–1998, being the last of the
The 911 has been modified by private teams and by the factory itself
for racing, rallying, and other forms of automotive competition. It is
among the most successful competition cars. In the mid-1970s,
naturally aspirated 911 Carrera RSRs won major world championship
sports car races, such as
Targa Florio and 24 Hours of Daytona, even
against prototypes. The 911-derived 935 turbo also won the 24 Hours of
Le Mans in 1979 and
Porsche won World Championship for Makes titles in
1976, 1977, 1978 and 1979 with 911-derived models.
In the 1999 international poll to determine the Car of the Century,
the 911 came fifth. It is one of two in the top five that had
remained continuously in production (the original Beetle remained in
production until 2003), and was until 1998 a successful surviving
application of the air- (now water-) cooled opposed rear-engine layout
pioneered by its ancestor, the
Porsche 356. It is one of the oldest
sports coupé nameplates still in production with one million
manufactured as of May 2017.
1 911 nomenclature
Air-cooled engines (1963–1998)
2.1 911 Carrera RS (1973 and 1974)
2.2 911 and 911S 2.7 (1973–1977)
2.3 Carrera 2.7 MFI and CIS (1974–1976)
2.4 912E (1976)
2.5 Carrera 3.0 (1976–1977)
2.6 930 Turbo and Turbo Carrera 3.0-litre (1975–1977)
2.7 930 Turbo 3.3-litre (1978–1989)
2.8 911SC (1978–1983)
2.9 Carrera 3.2 (1984–1989)
2.10 964 Series (1989–1993)
2.10.1 964 Turbo (1990–1994)
2.11 993 Series (1994–mid 1998)
2.11.1 993 Turbo (1995–1997)
Water-cooled engines (1998–present)
3.1 996 Series (1998/9–2004)
3.1.1 996 GT3 (1999–2004)
3.1.2 996 Turbo (2001–2005)
3.2 997 Series (2005–2012)
3.2.1 997 Turbo
3.2.2 997 GT3
3.2.3 997 GT3 RS
3.2.4 997 GT2
3.2.5 997 GT2 RS
3.3 991 Series (2012–)
3.3.1 911 R
4 911 GT1
5 Electric concept
9 Further reading
10 External links
Porsche changes the internal codes for its models, all 911
models were and are currently sold as a "911". The headings below use
Porsche's internal classifications.
Porsche 911 (1963–1989)
Porsche 930 (1975-1989) a turbo version of the original 911
Porsche 964 (1989–1994)
Porsche 993 (1995-1998)
Porsche 996 (1999-2004) all-new body and water-cooled engines
Porsche 997.1 (2004-2008),
Porsche 997.2 (2008-2012)
Porsche 991.1 (2012-2016),
Porsche 991.2 (2017-)
The series letter is used by
Porsche to indicate the revision for
production cars. It often changes annually to reflect changes for the
new model year.
Not all of the
Porsche 911 models ever produced are mentioned here.
The listed models are notable for their role in the advancements in
technology and their influence on other vehicles from Porsche.
911 Carrera line-up. Models offered: Carrera, Carrera S, Carrera 4,
Carrera 4S, Carrera GTS, Carrera 4 GTS, Carrera T. All models have
cabriolet options except 911 Carrera T.
911 Targa line-up. Models offered: Targa 4, Targa 4S, Targa 4 GTS.
911 Turbo line-up. Models offered: Turbo, Turbo S. All models have
GT3/GT3-RS : Track dedicated version of the 911 Carrera with a
naturally aspirated engine and rear wheel drive. No cabriolet
GT2/GT2-RS : The highest performance derivative, track dedicated
of the 911 Turbo with rear wheel drive. No cabriolet available.
Air-cooled engines (1963–1998)
Porsche 911 of 1968
Porsche 911 (classic)
The 911 traces its roots to sketches drawn by Ferdinand "Butzi"
Porsche in 1959. The
Porsche 911 was developed as a more powerful,
larger, more comfortable replacement for the
Porsche 356, the
company's first model. The new car made its public debut at the
Frankfurt Motor Show
Frankfurt Motor Show (German: Internationale
Automobil-Ausstellung). The car was developed with the
proof-of-concept twin-fan Type 745 engine, but the car presented at
the auto show had a non-operational mockup of the single-fan 901
engine, receiving a working one in February 1964.
It originally was designated as the "
Porsche 901" (901 being its
internal project number). A total of 82 cars were built as 901s.
Peugeot protested on the grounds that in France it had
exclusive rights to car names formed by three numbers with a zero in
the middle. Instead of selling the new model with a different name in
Porsche changed the name to 911. Internally, the cars' part
numbers carried on the prefix 901 for years. Production began in
September 1964, with the first 911s marketed to the US in February
Porsche 912 with Fuchs wheels, 1969
The first editions of the 911 had a rear-mounted 130 PS
(96 kW; 130 hp) Type 901/01 flat-6 engine, in the "boxer"
configuration like the 356, air-cooled displacing 1991 cc
compared with the 356's four-cylinder, 1582 cc unit. The car had
four seats although the rear seats were small, thus it is usually
called a 2+2 rather than a four-seater (the 356 was also a 2+2).
Available was a four- or five-speed manual "Type 901" transmission.
The styling was largely by Ferdinand "Butzi" Porsche, son of Ferdinand
"Ferry" Porsche. Erwin Komenda, the leader of the
Porsche car body
construction department who initially objected, but later was also
involved in the design.
Production of the 356 ended in 1965, but there was still a market for
a 4-cylinder car, particularly in the US. The
Porsche 912, introduced
the same year, served as a direct replacement, offering the de-tuned
version of 356 SC's 4-cylinder, 1582 cc, 90 hp (67 kW;
91 PS) boxer four Type 616/36 engine inside the 911 bodywork with
Type 901 four speed transmission (5-speed was optional).
Porsche introduced the more powerful 911S with Type 901/02
engine producing 160 PS (120 kW; 160 hp). Forged
aluminum alloy wheels from Fuchs, with a 5-spoke design, were offered
for the first time. In motor sport at the same time, the engine was
developed into Type 901/20 installed in the mid-engined
Porsche 906 with 210 PS (150 kW; 210 hp), as well
as fuel injected Type 901/21 installed in 906 and 910 with 220 PS
(160 kW; 220 hp).
In August 1967, the A series went into production with dual brake
circuits and widened (5.5J-15) wheels still fitted with Pirelli
Cinturato 165HR15 CA67 tyres., and the previously standard
gasoline-burning heater became optional. The Targa (meaning "plate" in
Italian) version was introduced. The Targa had a stainless
steel-clad roll bar, as automakers believed that proposed rollover
safety requirements by the US National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) would make it difficult for fully open
convertibles to meet regulations for sale in the US, an important
market for the 911. The name "Targa" came from the
Targa Florio sports
car road race in Sicily, Italy in which
Porsche had several victories
until 1973. The last win in the subsequently discontinued event was
scored with a 911 Carrera RS against prototypes entered by Ferrari and
Alfa Romeo. The road going Targa was equipped with a removable roof
panel and a removable plastic rear window (although a fixed glass
version was offered from 1968).
Porsche 911 2.0 Coupe inside the
The 110 PS (81 kW; 110 hp) 911T was also launched in
1967 with Type 901/03 engine. The 130 PS (96 kW;
130 hp) model was renamed the 911L with Type 901/06 engine and
ventilated front disc brakes. The brakes had been introduced on the
previous 911S. The 911R with 901/22 engine had a limited production
(20 in all), as this was a lightweight racing version with thin
fiberglass reinforced plastic doors, a magnesium crankcase, twin
overhead camshafts, and a power output of 210 PS (150 kW;
The B series went into production in August 1968, replacing the 911L
model with 911E with fuel injection. It remained in production until
July 1969. The 911E gained 185/70VR15
Pirelli Cinturato CN36. and
The C series was introduced in August 1969 with an enlarged 2.2-litre
engine (84 mm bore x 66 mm stroke). The wheelbase for all
911 and 912 models was increased from 2,211 to 2,268 mm
(87.0–89.3 in), to help remedy to the cars' nervous handling at
the limit. The overall length of the car did not change, but the rear
wheels were relocated further back.
Fuel injection arrived for the
911S (901/10 engine) and for a new middle model, 911E (901/09 engine).
A semi-automatic Sportomatic model, composed of a torque
converter, an automatic clutch, and the four-speed transmission was
added. It was canceled after the 1980 model year partly because of
the elimination of a forward gear to make it a three-speed.
The D series was produced from Aug. 1970 to July 1971. The 2.2-litre
911E (C and D series) had lower power output of the 911/01 engine
(155 PS (114 kW; 153 hp) at 6200 rpm) compared to
the 911S's Type 911/02 (180 PS (130 kW; 180 hp) at
6500 rpm), but 911E was quicker in acceleration up to 160
kilometres per hour (99 mph).
The E series for 1972–1973 model years (August 1971 to July 1972
production) consisted of the same models, but with a new, larger
2341 cc engine. This is known as the "2.4 L" engine, despite
its displacement being closer to 2.3 litres. The 911E (Type 911/52
engine) and 911S (Type 911/53) used Bosch mechanical fuel injection
(MFI) in all markets. For 1972 the 911T (Type 911/57) was carbureted,
except in the US and some Asian markets where the 911T also came with
(MFI) mechanical fuel injection (Type 911/51 engine) with power
increase over European models (130HP) to 140 HP, commonly known as a
With the power and torque increases, the 2.4-litre cars also got a
newer, stronger transmission, identified by its
Porsche type number
915. Derived from the transmission in the
Porsche 908 race car, the
915 did away with the 901 transmission's "dog-leg" style first gear
arrangement, opting for a traditional H pattern with first gear up to
the left, second gear underneath first, etc. The E series had the
unusual oil filler behind the right side door, with the dry sump oil
tank relocated from behind the right rear wheel to the front of it in
an attempt to move the center of gravity slightly forward for better
handling. An extra oil filler/inspection flap was located on the rear
wing, for this reason it became known as an "Oil Klapper", "Ölklappe"
or "Vierte Tür (4th door)".
The F series (August 1972 to July 1973 production) moved the oil tank
back to the original behind-the-wheel location. This change was in
response to complaints that gas-station attendants often filled
gasoline into the oil tank. In January, 1973, US 911Ts were switched
to the new K-
Jetronic CIS (Continuous Fuel Injection) system from
Bosch on Type 911/91 engine.
911S models also gained a small spoiler under the front bumper to
improve high-speed stability. The cars weighed 1,050 kg
(2,310 lb). The 911 ST was produced in small numbers for racing
(the production run for the ST lasted from 1970 to 1971). The cars
were available with engines of either 3987 cc or 3494 cc,
producing 270 PS (200 kW; 270 hp) at 8000 rpm.
Weight was down to 960 kg (2,120 lb). The cars had success
at the Daytona 6 Hours, the Sebring 12 Hours, the 1000 km
Nürburgring, and the Targa Florio.
911 Carrera RS (1973 and 1974)
Porsche 911 Carrera RS
Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 retro
RS stands for Rennsport in German, meaning race sport. The Carrera
name was reintroduced from the 356 Carrera which had itself been named
after Porsche's class victories in the
Carrera Panamericana races in
Mexico in the 1950s. The RS was built to meet motorsport homologation
requirements. Compared to a standard 911S, the Carrera 2.7 RS had a
larger engine (2687 cc) developing 210 PS (150 kW;
210 hp) with Bosch (Kugelfischer) mechanical fuel injection,
revised and stiffened suspension, a "ducktail" rear spoiler, larger
brakes, wider rear wheels and rear fenders. In RS Touring form it
weighed 1,075 kg (2,370 lb), in Sport Lightweight form it
was about 100 kg (220 lb) lighter, the saving coming from
thin gauge steel used for parts of the body shell and also the use of
thinner glass. In total, 1,580 were made, and qualified for the FIA
Group 4 class. 49 Carrera RS cars were built with 2808 cc engines
producing 300 PS (220 kW; 300 hp).
For the 1974 IROC Championship (which started in December 1973), 1973
Carrera RSR models were fitted with the 3.0 engine and a flat "whale
tail" in place of the ducktail spoiler.
Porsche created the Carrera RS 3.0 with mechanical fuel
injection producing 230 PS (170 kW; 230 hp). Its price
was almost twice that of the 2.7 RS, but it offered racing capability.
The chassis was largely similar to that of the 1973 Carrera RSR and
the brake system was from the
Porsche 917. The use of thinner metal
plate panels and a spartan interior enabled its weight to be reduced
to around 900 kg (2,000 lb).
Porsche 911 2.7
The Carrera RSR 3.0 was sold to racing teams and scored wins in
several major sports car races of the mid-1970s. Also, a prototype
Carrera RSR Turbo (with 2.1-litre engine due to a 1.4x equivalency
formula) came second at the
24 Hours of Le Mans
24 Hours of Le Mans in 1974 and won
several major races, a significant event in that its engine would form
the basis of many future
Porsche attempts in sports car racing. This,
and the earlier
Porsche 917, was Porsche's commitment to turbocharger
applications in its cars.
911 and 911S 2.7 (1973–1977)
Model year 1974 (G Series. Aug. 1973 to July 1974 production) saw
three significant changes. First, the engine size was increased to
2687 cc achieving higher torque. Second, new impact bumpers
conformed with low-speed protection requirements of US regulations.
Thirdly, the use of K-
Jetronic CIS Bosch fuel injection in two of the
three models in the line up— the 911 and 911S models, retaining the
narrow rear arches of the old 2.4, now had a 2.7-litre engine
producing 150 PS (110 kW; 150 hp) and 175 PS
(129 kW; 173 hp), respectively. The standard 911 version,
received an increase to 165 PS (121 kW; 163 hp) for
Manufacturing Year 1976, which meant that starting from MY 1976, there
was only a difference in power of 10 HP between the 911 and the 911S.
The engine remained a K-
Jetronic 2.7-litre. The 911S 2.7 engine was
rated during the entire lifespan at 175 hp (130 kW;
Carrera 2.7 MFI and CIS (1974–1976)
The Carrera 2.7 model built for all markets, except for the United
States, used the 210 PS (150 kW; 210 hp) RS 911/83
engine with Bosch mechanical fuel injection pump from the 1973 Carrera
RS. These Carrera 2.7 MFI models were built from 1974 until 1976 and
were mechanically identical to the 1973 Carrera RS. The Carrera 2.7
model produced for the North American markets, often referred to as
the Carrera 2.7 CIS, was powered by the same 2.7-litre engine as the
911S which produced 175 PS (129 kW; 173 hp). The
initial Carrera 2.7 models had the same welded-on rear RS flares,
before switching to the SC stamped style rear flares during the middle
of the 1974 production year. The Carrera 2.7 coupés weighed in at
1,075 kg (2,370 lb), the same weight as the 1973 Carrera RS
For the 1974 model year, the Carrera 2.7 was available with the
"ducktail" rear spoiler first introduced with the 1973 Carrera RS. In
the North American markets the ducktail was standard equipment for the
Carrera. All other markets the ducktail was optional, except or the
home German market where the ducktail had been outlawed by the TÜV
road homologation department. This led to the introduction of the
whale tail rear spoiler, available as an option on the 1974-75 Carrera
2.7 models, as well as the newly introduced
Porsche 930 Turbo.
The Carrera 2.7 was replaced by the Carrera 3.0 for the 1976 model,
except for a special run of 113 1976 Carrera 2.7 MFI coupés were
built for the German market featuring the 911/83 RS engine, with an
additional 20 narrow-bodied 1976 Carrera MFI 2.7 Targas being supplied
to the Belgian Gendarmerie. The 1976 Carrera 2.7 MFI Sondermodells
were the last mechanically fuel injected 911 produced by Porsche, and
still featured the 1973 RS engine.
For the 1976 model year, the 912E was produced for the U.S. market.
This was 4-cylinder version of the 911 in the same manner as the 912
that had last been produced in 1969. It used the I-series chassis
powered by the
Volkswagen 2.0 engine also used in the
Porsche 914 for
1973 through 1975 model years. 2,099 units were produced. The 912E was
replaced by the front-engine
Porsche 924 for the 1977 model year.
Carrera 3.0 (1976–1977)
Porsche 911 Carrera 3.0
Porsche 911 Carrera 3.0
For the 1976 model year,
Porsche introduced the Carrera 3.0 with wide
rear flares, optional whaletail, and a variety of other luxury
options. It was available in all markets except North America. The
Carrera 3.0 was fitted with a variation of the 930 Turbo's
2994 cc engine (minus the turbocharger). The engine (dubbed the
930/02) featured K-
Jetronic CIS. It developed 200 PS
(150 kW; 200 hp) in contrast to the older Carrera 2.7 MFI
model's 210 PS (150 kW; 210 hp). The crankcase and
gearbox housing were made of aluminium rather than magnesium for
Magnesium cases were renown for thermal
expansion/contraction issues as engines grew in displacement and heat
generation also increased.
The new engine, which featured bigger intake and exhaust valves,
produced greater torque allowing the Carrera 3.0 to achieve the same
performance as the previous Carrera 2.7, 0–100 km/h
(0–62 mph) in 6.1 seconds and 0–200 km/h
(0–124 mph) in 27 seconds. Both versions boasted a top speed of
approximately 236 km/h (147 mph).
Weight increased marginally by 45 kg (99 lb) to
1,120 kg (2,470 lb).
The 911 Carrera 3.0 was produced in both targa (1,125 examples
produced) and coupé (2,566) versions. The Carrera 3.0 was available
with manual gearbox (type 915) with 4 or 5 speeds as well as 3-speed
automatic transmission (called the Sportomatic). Production totals
were 3,691 manual cars and 58 Sportomatics.
930 Turbo and Turbo Carrera 3.0-litre (1975–1977)
Porsche 911 Turbo 3.0
For the 1975 model year,
Porsche introduced the first production
turbocharged 911. Although called the 930 Turbo (930 being its
internal type number) in Europe, it was marketed as the 930 Turbo
Carrera in North America. The body shape incorporated wide
wheel-arches to accommodate the wide tires, and a large rear spoiler
often known as a "whale tail" on the early cars (modified from the
original 1974 IROC design). They were initially fitted with a
3.0-litre engine 260 PS (190 kW; 260 hp) and four-speed
Production of the first 400 units qualified the 930 for FIA Group 4
competition, with the racing version called the
Porsche 934 of 1976.
They participated at Le Mans and other races including battles with
the BMW 3.0 CSL "Batmobile". The FIA Group 5 version called Porsche
935 evolved from the 934. Fitted with a slope nose, the 500+ PS car
was campaigned in 1976 by the factory, winning the world championship
title. Private teams went on to win many races, like Le Mans in 1979,
and continued to compete successfully with the car well into the 1980s
until the FIA and IMSA rules were changed.
Porsche 911 SC upgraded for track racing
930 Turbo 3.3-litre (1978–1989)
1982 911 Turbo Slantnose edition
For the 1978 model year,
Porsche revised the 930 with a larger
3.3-litre turbocharged engine with intercooler that produced
300 PS (220 kW; 300 hp). To fit the intercooler a newly
designed "tea-tray" tail replaced the earlier whale tail. Porsche
dropped the "Carrera" nomenclature for the North American markets and
simply call it the
Porsche Turbo worldwide. The larger engine helped
reduce some of the turbo lag inherent in the earlier version.
Only in 1989, its last year of production, was the 930 equipped with a
five-speed gearbox. The 930 was replaced in 1990 with a 964 version
featuring the same 3.3-litre engine. There have been turbocharged
variants of each subsequent generation of 911.
Porsche 911SC, the last production year of the Super Carrera
Henri Toivonen at rallye des 1000 pistes in 1984 on a
Porsche 911 SC
Porsche introduced the new version of the 911, called the
Porsche reintroduced the SC designation for the first time
since the 356SC (as distinguished from the race engined 356 Carrera).
There was no Carrera version of the 911SC. The "SC" stands for "Super
Carrera". It featured a 3.0-litre aluminum engine with Bosch
Jetronic fuel injection and a 5-speed 915 transmission. Originally
power output was 180 PS (130 kW; 180 bhp), later
188 bhp (140 kW; 191 PS) and then in 1981 it was
increased to 204 PS (150 kW; 201 bhp). The move to an
aluminum engine was to regain case reliability, something missing for
many years with magnesium. In 1981 a Cabriolet concept car was
introduced at the
Frankfurt Motor Show. The convertible body design
also featured four-wheel drive, although this was dropped in the
production version. The first 911 Cabriolet debuted in late 1982, as a
1983 model. This was Porsche's first cabriolet since the 356 of the
mid-1960s. A total of 4,214 were sold in its introductory year,
despite its premium price relative to the open-top targa.
Cabriolet versions of the 911 have been offered ever since.
Porsche had made plans to replace the 911 with their new 928.
Sales of the 911 remained so strong however, that
Porsche revised its
strategy and decided to inject new life into the 911 editions. 911 SC
sales totaled 58,914 cars.
Peter W. Schutz
Peter W. Schutz (CEO
Porsche AG 1981–1987) wrote:
The decision to keep the 911 in the product line occurred one
afternoon in the office of Dr. Helmuth Bott de:Helmuth Bott, the
Porsche operating board member responsible for all engineering and
development. I noticed a chart on the wall of Professor Bott's office.
It depicted the ongoing development schedules for the three primary
Porsche product lines: 944, 928 and 911. Two of them stretched far
into the future, but the 911 program stopped at the end of 1981. I
remember rising from my chair, walking over to the chart, taking a
black marker pen, and extending the 911 program bar clean off the
chart. I am sure I heard a silent cheer from Professor Bott, and I
knew I had done the right thing. The
Porsche 911, the company icon,
had been saved, and I believe the company was saved with it.
Carrera 3.2 (1984–1989)
Porsche 911 Carrera Cabriolet
The replacement for the SC series came in 1984 named 911 3.2 Carrera,
reviving the Carrera name for the first time since 1977. This was the
last iteration in the original 911 series, with all subsequent models
featuring new body styling with new brake, electronic and suspension
A new higher-displacement motor, a 3.2-litre horizontally opposed flat
6-cylinder, was utilized. At the time
Porsche claimed it was 80%
new. The new swept volume of 3164 cc was achieved using the
95 mm (3.7 in) bore (from the previous SC model) combined
with the 1978 Turbo 3.3 crankshaft's 74.4 mm (2.9 in)
stroke. In addition, higher domed pistons increased the compression
ratio from 9.8 to 10.3:1 (9.5:1 for the US market). New inlet manifold
and exhaust systems were fitted. The 915 transmission was carried over
from the SC series for the first three model years. In 1987, the
Carrera got a new five-speed gearbox sourced from Getrag, model number
G50 with proven
BorgWarner synchronizers. This slightly heavier
version also featured a hydraulically operated clutch.
With the new engine, power was increased to 207 bhp (154 kW;
210 PS) (at 5900 rpm) for North American-delivered cars and
to 231 bhp (172 kW; 234 PS) (at 5900 rpm) for most
other markets. This version of the 911 accelerated 0–60 mph
(0–97 km/h) in 5.4 seconds and had a top speed of 150 mph
(240 km/h) as measured by Autocar. Factory times were more
modest: 0–60 mph time of 6.3 seconds for the US version and 6.1
seconds for cars outside the American market.
The brake discs were increased in size to aid in more effective heat
dissipation and improved oil-fed chain tensioners were fitted to the
engine. To improve oil cooling, a finned cooler replaced the
serpentine lines in the front passenger fender well. This was further
improved in 1987, with the addition of a thermostatically controlled
Driving refinement and motor reliability were improved with an upgrade
of the fuel and ignition control components to an L-
Bosch Motronics 2 DME (Digital Motor Electronics system). An
improvement in fuel-efficiency was due to the DME providing a petrol
cut-off on the overrun. Changes in the fuel map and chip programming
from October 1986 further improved the power to 217 bhp
(162 kW; 220 PS) (at 5900 rpm) for North American
delivered cars as well as for other markets mandating low emissions,
Three basic models were available – coupé, targa and cabriolet. The
Carrera is almost indistinguishable from the SC with the external clue
being the front fog lights that were integrated into the front
valance. Only cosmetic changes were made during the production of the
Carrera, with a redesigned dash featuring larger air conditioning
vents appearing in 1986.
Porsche also introduced the M491 option. Officially called
the Supersport in the UK, it was commonly known as the "Turbo-look".
It was a style that resembled the
Porsche 930 Turbo with wide wheel
arches and the distinctive "tea tray" tail. It featured the stiffer
turbo suspension and the superior turbo braking system as well as the
wider turbo wheels. Sales of the Supersport were high for its first
two years in the United States because the desirable 930 was not
Porsche Carrera CS
The 911 Carrera Club Sport (CS) (option M637), 340 of which were
produced from August 1987 to September 1989, is a reduced weight
version of the standard Carrera that, with engine and suspension
modifications, was purpose built for club racing. The CS had a
blueprinted engine with hollow intake valves and a higher rev limit,
deletion of: all power options, sunroof (except one unit), air
conditioning (except two unit), radio, rear seat, undercoating, sound
insulation, rear wiper, door pocket lids, fog lamps, front hood
locking mechanism, engine and luggage compartment lights, lockable
wheel nuts and even the rear lid "Carrera" logo, all in order to save
an estimated 70 kg (150 lb) in weight. With the exception of
CSs delivered to the UK, all are identifiable by the "CS Club Sport"
decal on the left front fender and came in a variety of colors, some
special ordered. Some U.S. CS's did not have the decal installed by
the dealer; however, all CS's have a "SP" stamp on the crankcase and
cylinder head. The UK CS's were all "Grand Prix White" with a red
"Carrera CS" decal on each side of the car and red wheels. Although
the CS was well received by the club racers, because it cost more than
the stock 911, but had fewer comfort features. According to Porsche
Club of America and
Porsche Club Great Britain CS Registers, 21 are
documented as delivered to the U.S. in 1988 with 7 in 1989, one to
Canada in 1988 and 53 to the United Kingdom from 1987 to 1989.
Porsche produced 875 examples of the CE or Commemorative
Edition 911 Carrera in coupe, targa and cabriolet variants to mark the
production of the 250,000th 911. Distinguishing features include
special diamond blue metallic paint with color-matched Fuchs wheels,
front and rear spoilers, and interior carpets and leather. These cars
also featured Dr. Ferdinand Porsche’s signature embroidered on the
seats in the headrest area. Of the 875 examples produced, only 300
were imported to the US (120 coupes, 100 cabrios and 80 Targas), 250
were sold in Germany, 50 went to the UK, and the remainder to other
Porsche produced the 25th Anniversary
Special Edition model
to mark the 25th year of 911 production. The 1989
lists production of 500 U.S. market cars, of which 300 were coupés
(240 in silver metallic paint and 60 in satin black metallic, and 200
cabriolet models (160 in silver and 40 in black). All had "silk grey"
leather with black accent piping and silk grey velour carpeting.
Included were body color Fuchs wheels in 6x16 (front) and 8x16 (rear),
stitched leather console with an outside temperature gauge and a CD or
cassette holder, a limited slip differential, and a short shifting
gear lever, as well as small bronze "25th Anniversary
Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2 Speedster
According to the manufacturer, around 150,000 of the 911 cars from the
model years 1964 to 1989 are still on the road today.
The 911 Speedster (option M503), a low-roof version of the Cabriolet
which was evocative of the
Porsche 356 Speedster of the 1950s, was
produced in limited numbers (2,104) starting in January 1989 until
July 1989 as both a narrow body car and a Turbo-look. The narrow
version production was 171. The Speedster started as a design under
Helmuth Bott in 1983 but was not manufactured until six years later.
It was a two-seat convertible that featured a low swept
Total production of the 911 3.2 Carrera series was 76,473 cars (35,670
coupé, 19,987 cabrio, 18,468 targa).
964 Series (1989–1993)
Porsche 911 Carrera
In late 1989, the 911 underwent a major evolution with the
introduction of the Type 964. With technologies from the 959 model,
this would be an important car for Porsche, since the world economy
was undergoing recession and the company could not rely on its image
alone. It was launched as the Carrera 4, the "4" indicating
four-wheel-drive, demonstrating the company's commitment to
Drag coefficient was down to 0.32. A rear spoiler
deployed at high speed, preserving the purity of line when the vehicle
was at rest. The chassis was redesigned overall. Coil springs, ABS
brakes and power steering made their debut. The engine was increased
in size to 3600 cc and developed 250 PS (184 kW). The
rear-wheel-drive version, the Carrera 2, arrived a year later.
The 964 incarnation of the 911 Turbo returned in 1990 after an absence
from the price lists. At first it used a refined version of the
3.3 L engine of the previous Turbo, but two years later a turbo
engine based on the 3.6 L engine of the other 964 models was
Porsche introduced the ahead-of-its-time
transmission in the 964 Carrera 2, featuring adaptive electronic
management and full manual control. The 964 was one of the first cars
in the world offered with dual airbags standard (from 1991), the first
Porsche 944 Turbo (from 1987).
Porsche re-introduced a limited-edition RS model, inspired by
the 1973 Carrera RS and emissions-legal in Europe only. In 1993,
appeals from American customers resulted in
Porsche developing the RS
America of which 701 were built. In 1994, the RS America returned with
rear seats. A total of 84 RSA's were made in 1994. However, while
European RS was a homologation special, RS America was an option
delete variant of the regular model. The RS 3.8 of 1993 had
Turbo-style bodywork, a larger fixed whale tail in place of the
movable rear spoiler, and a 300 PS (221 kW) 3746 cc
Since the RS/RS America was intended as a no-frills, higher
performance version of the 964, there were four factory options
available: a limited-slip differential, AM/FM cassette stereo, air
conditioning, and a sunroof. The interior was more basic than a
standard 911 as well; for example the interior door panels lacked the
armrests and door pockets and had a simple pull strap for the opening
964 Turbo (1990–1994)
Porsche introduced a Turbo version of the 964 series. This car
is sometimes mistakenly called 965 (this type number actually referred
to a stillborn project that would have been a hi-tech turbocharged car
in the vein of the 959). For the 1991 through 1993 model years,
Porsche produced the 964 Turbo with the 930's proven 3.3 L
engine, improved to produce 320 PS (235 kW). 1994 brought
the Carrera 2/4's 3.6 L engine, now in turbo-charged form and
sending a staggering 360 PS (265 kW) to the rear wheels.
With the 993 on the way, this car was produced through 1994 and
remains rather rare.
993 Series (1994–mid 1998)
The mid-nineties Type 993 had sleeker bodywork. This is the
lightweight GT2 variant.
The 911 was again revised for model year 1994 under the internal name
Type 993. This car was significant as it was the final incarnation of
the air-cooled 911 first introduced in 1964. Most enthusiasts and
collectors consider the 993 to be the best of the air-cooled 911
series. As Car & Driver noted, "Porsche's version of the
Goldilocks tale is the 993-generation 911, the one many Porschephiles
agree that the company got just right," with an "ideal blend of
technology and classic 911 air-cooled heritage."
refers to the 993 as "a significant advance, not just from a
technical, but also a visual perspective." "993s especially [are]
widely regarded as the best the 911 ever got."
The exterior featured all-new front and rear ends. The revised
bodywork was smoother, having a noticeably more aerodynamic front end
somewhat reminiscent of the 959. Styling was by Englishman Tony Hatter
under the supervision of design chief
Harm Lagaay and completed in
Along with the revised bodywork, mechanically the 993 also featured an
all-new multilink rear suspension that improved the car's ride and
handling. This rear suspension was largely derived from the stillborn
Porsche 989's rear multilink design, and served to rectify the
problems with earlier models' tendency to oversteer if the throttle or
brakes were applied mid-corner. These modifications also reduced
previous 911's lift-off oversteer problems to a much more moderate
The new suspension, along with chassis refinements, enabled the car to
keep up dynamically with the competition. Engine capacity remained at
3.6 L, but power rose to 272 PS (200 kW / 268 BHP)
thanks to better engine management and exhaust design, and beginning
with model year 1996 to 286 PS (210 kW / 281 BHP). The
993 was the first
Porsche to debut variable-length intake runners with
the "Variocam" system on 1996 models. This addressed the inherent
compromise between high-rpm power production and low-rpm torque
production, and was one of the first of its kind to be employed on
production vehicles. However, the Varioram version with its OBD II had
issues with carbon deposits, resulting in failed smog tests. This
caused expensive repairs, and made comparisons with the 1995 car (with
OBD I and just 12 hp less) inevitable. Meanwhile, a new
four-wheel-drive system was introduced as an option in the form of the
Carrera 4, the rear-wheel-drive versions simply being called Carrera
or C2. A lightweight RS 993 had a 3.8 L engine with 300 PS
(221 kW / 296 BHP), and was only rear-wheel drive.
Non-turbo models appeared that used the Turbo's wide bodyshell and
some other components (the Carrera 4S and later the Carrera S) but not
the large tack-on Turbo "hibachi" spoiler. "The Carrera S series (C2S)
from 1997 thru 1998 is (according to most
Porsche enthusiasts) the
most highly sought after version of the 993."
The Targa open-topped model also made a return, this time with a large
glass roof that slid under the rear window. The expensive air-cooled
993 Targa had a limited release between 1996 and 1998. [Production
numbers: 1996: US/Can: 462 ROW: 1980, 1997: US/Can: 567 ROW: 1276,
1998: US/Can: 122 (100
Tiptronic / 22 Manual)]
As an investment, the 1997 and 1998 C2S version has proven the most
desirable (apart from even rarer models such as the RS and Turbo S).
"Many find that they are the best looking 911 there is and used prices
have always seemed to reflect this. They command a hefty premium in
today's market and the very best example wide body cars can be priced
more than the higher mileage Turbos." Of the widebody 993 series,
"The purists will want 2 wheel drive and nothing else will do."
Similarly, purists will insist upon the manual transmission over the
automatic "Tiptronic" version; this is even more true in the case of
the 993 as compared with other models, because
Porsche 993s were the
first production model (apart from the 959 supercar) to feature a
6-speed manual transmission. The C2S wide-body 993s are in scarce
supply, with none built in 1995 or 1996, and just 759 units made for
North America in 1997, with a final supply of 993 in 1998, for a total
of 1,752 C2S examples overall.
993 Turbo (1995–1997)
A Turbo version of the 993 was launched in 1995 and became the first
Porsche with twin turbochargers and the first 911
Turbo to be equipped with permanent all-wheel-drive (the homologated
GT2 retained RWD). The similarity in specification and in performance
levels inspired several comparison road tests with the Porsche
959. The 3.6 L twin turbo M64/60 engine produced 408 PS
(300 kW / 402 BHP). The performance was outstanding, as 0 to
60mph has been measured at 3.2 seconds, and the braking was even more
impressive 60 to 0 in 2.3 seconds. The brakes were in fact able to
stop 1,000 hp. The car's top speed topped out at 200mph at 7,000 rpm.
This was the first turbo with all wheel drive and the capabilities to
match the famed 959. The differences were striking - the 959 had a
much smaller engine, sequential turbocharging and a computer
controlled all wheel drive system. The 993 turbo had parallel
turbochargers, 3.6 liters of displacement, and a viscous coupling for
the center differential in the AWD drivetrain. There were basically
two years of production 1996 model year and 1997 model years. The main
difference was that the ECU in the 1996 model year could not be
flashed for an upgrade, while the 1997 could. Additionally, the 1996
Porsche crested center caps on the wheels, while the 1997 had
turbo inscribed. Another difference is the motion sensor and map
lights above the interior rear view mirror on the 1997 while the 1996
had no such devices.
Porsche introduced a limited run of 183 copies of the 993 911
Turbo S with 24 PS (17.7 kW) over the regular Turbo's
400 PS (294 kW). Features include a scoop on the side right
behind the doors for engine cooling and vents on the whale tail rear
spoiler. Aside from an upgraded ECU mapping, a center oil cooler
behind the center air intake at the front bumper was added.
Water-cooled engines (1998–present)
996 Series (1998/9–2004)
2002 996 Carrera 4S
The water-cooled Type 996 replaced the air-cooled mechanism used in
the 911 for 34 years. This was also the first major re-design to
the body shell. The 996 styling shared its front end with Porsche's
mid engined Boxster. Pinky Lai's work on exterior won international
design awards between 1997 and 2003.
The Carrera model had a 0.30 coefficient of drag. The interior was
criticized for its plainness and its lack of relationship to prior 911
interiors, although this came largely from owners of older 911s.
The Type 996 spawned over a dozen variations, including
all-wheel-drive Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S (which had a 'Turbo look')
models, the club racing-oriented GT3, and the forced-induction 996
Turbo and GT2. The Turbo, four-wheel-drive and twin-turbo, often made
appearances in magazines' lists of the best cars on sale.
996 GT3 RS
The Carrera and Carrera 4 underwent revisions for model year 2002,
receiving clear lens front and rear indicator lights which were first
seen on the Turbo version two years earlier. This allowed the 911 to
be more distinguishable from the Boxster. A mildly revised front
fascia was also introduced, though the basic architecture remained.
Engine displacement was 3.4 L and power 300 PS (221 kW)
featuring a change to an "integrated dry sump" design and variable
valve timing, increased in 2002 to 3.6 L and 320 PS
The roof system on the convertible transformed the car from a coupé
to a roadster in 19 seconds. The car is equipped with a rear spoiler
that raises at speeds over 120 km/h (75 mph). It can also be
raised manually by means of an electric switch.
Starting from the models with water-cooled engines, 911 Carreras do
not come with rear limited-slip differential, except the 40th
Anniversary 911, GT2, GT3 and Turbo. The exception would be for MY1999
where the limited-slip differential was available as option code
996 GT3 (1999–2004)
Porsche released a road version GT3 version of the 996 series which
was derived from the company's racing GT3. Simply called GT3, the car
featured lightweight materials including thinner windows. The GT3 was
a lighter and more focused design with the emphasis on handling and
performance. The suspension ride height was lowered and tuned for
responsiveness over compliance and comfort. These revisions improved
handling and steering. Of more significance was the engine used in the
GT3. Instead of using a version of the water-cooled units found in
other 996s, the naturally aspirated engine was derived from the
Porsche 911 GT1 '98 sports-prototype racing car and featured
lightweight materials which enabled the engine to rotate at high
The engine was a naturally aspirated 3600 cc flat-six (F6) rather than
either engine from the pre-facelift and revised Carrera. It produced
360 bhp (268 kW; 365 PS) at first and later improved to
381 bhp (284 kW; 386 PS) at the end of the 996 series'
The GT3 did not feature rear seats.
996 Turbo (2001–2005)
996 Turbo X50
Porsche launched the Turbo version of the Type 996 for MY
2001. Like the GT3, the new Turbo engine derived from the 911 GT1
engine and, like its predecessor, featured twin-turbos and now
developed 420 PS (309 kW). Also like its predecessor the
new Turbo was only available with all-wheel drive. In 2002, the X50
package, was available that boosted the engine output to 450 PS
(331 kW) with 620 N·m (457 lb·ftf) of torque across a
wide section of the power band. With the X50 package in place the car
could make 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) in 3.91 seconds.
Later on toward the end of the 996 life cycle, a 996 Turbo S coupé
also returned to the US along with a new debut of the Turbo S
Cabriolet boasting even more power— 450 PS (331 kW) and
620 N·m (457 lb·ftf)— than the regular Turbo. The Turbo
can reach a top speed of 189 mph (304 km/h).
The styling was more individual than previous Turbos. Along with the
traditional wider rear wings, the 996 Turbo had different front lights
and bumpers when compared to the Carrera and Carrera 4. The rear
bumper had air vents reminiscent of those on the
Porsche 959 and there
were large vents on the front bumper.
997 Series (2005–2012)
997 Carrera S
In 2005, the 911 was revised and the 996's replacement, the 997, was
unveiled. Some 2005 911s are 996 engines. The 997 keeps the basic
profile of the 996, bringing the drag coefficient down to 0.28, but
draws on the 993 for detailing. In addition, the new headlights revert
to the original bug-eye design, drifting from the teardrop scheme of
the 996. Its interior is also similarly revised, with strong links to
the earlier 911 interiors while at the same time looking fresh and
modern. The 997 shares less than a third of its parts with the
outgoing 996, but is still technically similar to it.
Initially, two versions of the 997 were introduced— the
rear-wheel-drive Carrera and Carrera S. While the base 997 Carrera
produced 325 PS (239 kW) from its 3.6 L Flat 6, a more
powerful 3.8 L 355 PS (261 kW) Flat 6 powers the
Carrera S. Besides a more powerful engine, the Carrera S also comes
standard with 19 inch (48 cm) "Lobster Fork" style wheels,
more powerful and larger brakes (with red calipers), lowered
suspension with PASM (
Porsche Active Suspension Management:
dynamically adjustable dampers), Xenon headlamps, and sports steering
In late 2005,
Porsche announced the all-wheel-drive versions to the
997 lineup. Carrera 4 models (both Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S) were
announced as 2006 models. Both Carrera 4 models are wider than their
rear-wheel-drive counterparts by 1.76 inches (32 mm) to
cover wider rear tires. 0–60 mph (97 km/h) for a base
Carrera 4 with the 325 PS (239 kW; 321 hp) engine was
reported at 4.5 seconds according to Edmunds.com. The
0–100 km/h (62 mph) acceleration for the Carrera S with
the 355 PS (261 kW; 350 hp) was noted to be as fast as
4.2 seconds in a recent
Motor Trend comparison, and Road &
Track has timed it at 3.8 seconds. The 997 lineup includes both
2- and 4-wheel-drive variants, named Carrera and Carrera 4
respectively. The Targas (4 and 4S), released in November 2006, are
4-wheel-drive versions that divide the difference between the coupés
and the cabriolets with their dual, sliding glass tops.
The change to the 7th generation (991) took place in the middle of the
model year 2012. A 2012
Porsche 911 can either be a 997 or a 991,
depending on the month of the production.
The 2009 model year 997 received a larger air intake in the front
bumper, new headlights, new rear taillights, new clean-sheet design
direct fuel injection engines, and the introduction of a dual-clutch
gearbox called PDK. They were also equipped with Bluetooth
The Turbo version of the 997 series featured the same 3.6 L
twin-turbocharged engine as the 996 Turbo, with modifications to
produce 480 PS (353 kW; 473 bhp) and 620 N⋅m
(457 lb⋅ft) of torque. It has VTG (variable turbine geometry),
that combines the low-rev boost and quick responses of a small
turbocharger with the high-rev power of a larger turbocharger. It also
offers higher fuel efficiency compared to the 996 Turbo.
The 997 Turbo features a new all-wheel-drive system, similar to the
one found on the
Porsche Cayenne. The new PTM (
Management) system incorporates a clutch-based system which varies the
amount of torque to the wheels to avoid tire slippage. According to
Porsche, redirecting torque to control oversteer or understeer results
in neutral handling as well as greatly improved performance in all
For the face lifted 2010 model year 911 Turbo, known internally as the
997.2 (as opposed to the 997.1 2007-2009 model years), launched in
August 2009, the PTM system has now been tweaked to give a more
rearward power bias. The new 911 Turbo introduces paddle shifters for
the PDK double-clutch gearbox. The new 911 turbo uses a different
engine. The previous water-cooled turbos (996 and 997) measured
3600cc. This new engine measures 3800cc (3.8 liters) and was first
developed for the Carrera that was launched in 2008. The variable-vane
twin turbochargers have also been reworked to increase responsiveness,
and the intercooler and fuel system have been uprated. It develops
493 PS (363 kW; 486 bhp) which is 20 bhp more than
the previous model. The steering wheel also houses a display
showing when Sport, Sport Plus and launch control have been selected
through the optional Sport Chrono package.
Porsche claims the new
911 turbo will go from 0 to 100 km/h (0 to 62 mph) in 3.4
seconds, or 0-60 mph in 3.2 seconds and reach a top-speed of
312 km/h (194 mph).
As with the 996 Turbo the car featured distinctive styling cues over
the Carreras including front LED driving/parking/indicator lights
mounted on a horizontal bar across the air intakes. The traditional
rear wing is a variation of the 996 bi-plane unit.
A new 911 Turbo S was set for production in 2010. It is a fully
Porsche 911 Turbo with a PDK gearbox and sport exhausts as
standard. It also comes with re engineered turbos to give an extra 30
horsepower to a total of 523 PS (385 kW; 516 bhp).
Turbo S 918 Spyder Edition:
When orders were first placed for Porsche's new 918 Spyder, Porsche
decided to launch a special edition 911 Turbo S exclusively for 918
buyers. These cars were based on 997 Turbo S coupés and convertibles
but had various modifications in styling such as Acid Green elements
including the badging and interior stitching, but could be altered to
match the colors of the owner's 918's colors.
The 911 GT3, announced on February 23, 2006 accelerates 0–100
kilometres per hour (0–62 mph) in 4.1 seconds and reaches
a top speed of 310 km/h (193 mph), almost as fast as the
Turbo. Porsche's factory reports can be conservative though;
Excellence magazine tested the 997 GT3 and recorded 0–100 km/h
in 3.9 seconds and a top speed of 312 km/h (194 mph).
The 997 GT3 was released in the summer of 2006. It was at that time
crowned "the best handling car in America" by Motor Trend.
997 GT3 RS
The 911 GT3 RS was announced in early 2006 as a homologation version
of the GT3 RSR racing car for competition events like Sebring and the
24 Hours of Le Mans.
The drivetrain of the RS is based on the 911 GT3, except for the
addition of a lightweight flywheel and closer gear ratios for further
improved response under acceleration. Unlike the GT3, the RS is built
on the body and chassis of the 911 Carrera 4 and Turbo, and
accordingly has a wider rear track for better cornering
characteristics on the track.
Visually, the RS is distinguished by its distinctive color scheme –
bright orange or green with black accents, which traces its roots to
the iconic Carrera RS of 1973. The plastic rear deck lid is topped by
a wide carbon-fiber rear wing. The front airdam has been fitted with
an aero splitter to improve front downforce and provide more cooling
air through the radiator.
The European version of the RS is fitted with lightweight plexiglass
rear windows and a factory-installed roll cage.
Production of the first generation 997 GT3 RS ended in 2009. An
estimated 413 units were delivered to the US and the worldwide
production run is estimated to be under 2,000 vehicles.
In August 2009,
Porsche announced the second generation of the 997 GT3
RS with an enlarged 3.8-litre engine producing 450 bhp
(336 kW), a modified suspension, dynamic engine mounts, new
titanium sport exhaust, and modified lightweight bodywork.
In April 2011,
Porsche announced the third generation of the 997 GT3
RS with an enlarged 4.0-litre engine producing 500 bhp
Porsche has designed the GT3 RS 4.0 using lightweight
components such as bucket seats, carbon-fibre bonnet and front wings,
and plastic rear windows for weight reduction, while using suspension
components from the racing version. Other characteristics include low
center of gravity, large rear wing and an aerodynamically optimised
body. The lateral front air deflection vanes, a first on a production
Porsche, increase downforce on the front axle. Aided by a steeply
inclined rear wing, aerodynamic forces exert an additional
190 kg, enhancing the 911 GT3 RS 4.0's grip to the tarmac. The
GT3 RS 4.0 weighs 2,998 pounds.
The Type 996 911 GT2 was superseded by the Type 997 GT2 in 2007. The
new car was announced on 16 July of that year, but was launched during
Frankfurt Motor Show, held every other year in Frankfurt,
Germany. It arrived in dealerships from November 2007.
The 997 GT2 has a twin-turbocharged 3.6-litre 6-cylinder engine, which
generates 523 hp (390 kW) at 6500 rpm, and
505 lb⋅ft (685 N⋅m) of torque from 2200 to 4500 rpm. It
has a 6-speed manual gearbox and rear wheel drive. With a curb weight
of 3,175 lb (1,440 kg), the
Porsche 997 GT2 does nought to
60 miles per hour (97 km/h) in 3.6 seconds, and nought to
100 mph (161 km/h) in 7.4 seconds, and has a top speed
of 204 mph (328 km/h). This makes it the first street-legal
911 to exceed 200 mph (322 km/h), with the exception of the
1998 911 GT1 road car (which is broadly considered not to be a true
911 due to its mid-mounted engine).
Motor Trend tested a 2008
Porsche 911 GT2 0–60 mph at
3.4 seconds, and 11.4 seconds at 127.9 miles per hour
(205.8 km/h) for the quarter mile. The GT2 also recorded a
braking distance from 60 to 0 miles per hour (97 to 0 km/h) of 98
feet (30 m) and recorded 1.10g lateral grip. The GT2 made an
appearance on Top Gear, where it had a lap time of 1:19.5, faster than
a Carrera GT by .3 of a second.
Its appearance differs slightly from its sister-car, the 911 (997)
Turbo, in a few ways. It does not have fog lights in the front bumper,
it has a revised front lip, it has a different rear wing (with two
small air scoops on either side), and it has a different rear bumper
(now featuring titanium exhaust pipes).
The 997 GT2 is also different from the 997 Turbo in that it is
rear-wheel-drive rather than all-wheel-drive.
997 GT2 RS
On May 4, 2010, an RS variant was announced to German dealers in
Leipzig. The GT2 RS develops 620 PS (456 kW; 612 hp)
and 700 N⋅m (516 lb⋅ft) of torque and weighs 70 kg
(150 lb) less than the standard GT2, allowing for a top speed of
330 km/h (205 mph) and 0–100 km/h (0-62 mph)
acceleration of 3.4 seconds.
991 Series (2012–)
The 991 is an entirely new platform, only the third platform since the
991 Carrera S
Porsche revealed basic information on the 991 Carrera and Carrera S on
23 August 2011. The Carrera is powered by a 350 hp
(257 kW) 3.4-litre engine. The Carrera S features a 3.8-litre
engine producing 400 hp (294 kW). A Power Kit (option X51)
is available for the Carrera S, increasing power to 430 hp. The
new 991's overall length grows by 2.2 inches and wheelbase grows
by 3.9 inches (now 96.5 in.) Overhangs are trimmed and the rear
axle moves rearward roughly 3 in. toward the engine (made possible by
new 3-shaft transmissions whose output flanges are moved closer to the
engine). There is a wider front track (2.0 inches wider for the
Carrera S). The design team was headed by Michael Mauer.
At the front, the new 991 has wide-set headlights that are more
three-dimensional. Front fender peaks are a bit more prominent, and
wedgy directionals now appear to float above the intakes for the twin
coolant radiators. The stretched rear 3/4 view has changed the most,
with a slightly more voluminous form and thin taillight slivers capped
with the protruding lip of the bodywork. The biggest and main change
in the interior is the center console, inspired by the Carrera GT and
adopted by the Panamera.
The 991 is the first 911 to use predominantly aluminum construction.
This means that even though the car is larger than the outgoing model,
it is still up to 50 kilograms (110 lb) lighter. The reduced
weight and increased power means that both the Carrera and Carrera S
are appreciably faster than the outgoing models. The 0–60 mph
(97 km/h) time for the manual transmission cars are 4.6 seconds
for the Carrera and 4.3 seconds for the Carrera S. When equipped with
PDK the 991 models can accelerate from 0–60 mph in 4.4 seconds
and 4.1 seconds for the Carrera and Carrera S respectively. With the
optional sports chrono package, available in cars with the PDK
transmission, the 991 Carrera can accelerate from 0–60 mph in
as little as 4.2 seconds and the Carrera S can do the same in 3.9
Apart from the reworked PDK transmission, the new 991 is also equipped
with an industry-first 7-speed manual transmission with rev-matching.
A new feature with the manual transmission is that it blips the
throttle during downshifts (if in Sport Plus mode). Also, the 7th gear
cannot be engaged unless the car is already in 5th or 6th gear.
One of Porsche's primary objectives with the new model was to improve
fuel economy as well as increase performance. In order to meet these
Porsche introduced a number of new technologies in the
911. One of the most controversial of these is the introduction of
electromechanical power steering instead of the previous hydraulic
steering. This steering helps reduce fuel consumption, but some
enthusiasts feel that the precise steering feedback for which the 911
is famous is reduced with the new system. The cars also feature an
engine stop/start system which turns the engine off at red lights, as
well as a coasting system which allows the engine to idle while
maintaining speed on downhill gradients on highways. This allows for
up to 16% reduction in fuel consumption and emissions over the
The new cars also have a number of technologies aimed at improving
handling. The cars include a torque vectoring system (standard on the
Carrera S and optional on the Carrera) which brakes the inner wheel of
the car when going into turns. This helps the car to turn in quicker
and with more precision. The cars also feature hydraulic engine mounts
(which help reduce the inertia of the engine when going into turns) as
part of the optional sports chrono package. Active suspension
management is standard on the Carrera S and optional on the Carrera.
This helps improve ride quality on straights, while stiffening the
suspension during aggressive driving. The new 991 is also equipped
with a new feature called
Chassis Control (PDCC).
Porsche claims that this new feature alone has shaved 4 seconds off
the standard car's lap time around the Nürburgring. PDCC helps the
car corner flat and is said to improve high-speed directional
stability and outright lateral body control, but according to several
reviews, the car is more prone to understeer when equipped with this
In January 2013,
Porsche introduced the all-wheel-drive variants of
the Carrera models. The '4' and '4S' models are distinguishable by
wider tires, marginally wider rear body-work and a red-reflector strip
that sits in between the tail-lights. In terms of technology, the new
4 and 4S models are equipped with an all-new all-wheel-drive system
that sends power to the front wheels only when needed, giving the
driver a sense of being in a rear-wheel-drive 911.
In May 2013,
Porsche announced changes to the model year 2014 911
Turbo and Turbo S models, increasing their power to 520 hp on the
'Turbo', and 560 hp on the 'Turbo S', giving them a 0-60 mph
time of 3.2 and 2.9 seconds, respectively. A rear-wheel steering
system has also been incorporated on the Turbo models that will steer
the rear wheels in the opposite direction at low speeds or the same
direction at high speeds to improve handling. During low-speed
maneuvers, this has the virtual effect of shortening the wheelbase,
while at high speeds, it is virtually extending the wheelbase for
higher driving stability and agility.
In January 2014,
Porsche introduced the new model year 2015 Targa 4
and Targa 4S models. These new models come equipped with an all-new
roof technology with the original Targa design, now with an
all-electric cabriolet roof along with the B-pillar and the glass
'dome' at the rear.
In September 2015,
Porsche revealed the second generation of 991
Carrera models at the
Frankfurt Motor Show. Both Carrera and Carrera S
models break with previous tradition by featuring a 3.0 turbo-charged
6-cylinder boxer engine, marking the first time that a forced
induction engine has been fitted to the base models within the 911
Porsche unveiled a limited production 911 R. Only 991
vehicles will be produced. It has an overall weight of
1,370 kg (3,020 lb), a high-revving 4.0 L six-cylinder
naturally aspirated engine from the 991 GT3 RS, and a six-speed manual
transmission, while an air conditioning system and an audio system are
removable options to save weight. The car goes from
0–97 km/h (0–60 mph) in 3.7 seconds and has a top speed
of 320 km/h (200 mph).
Porsche 911 GT1 Straßenversion
Porsche 911 GT1 on display at the
Porsche 911 GT1 is a car that was developed in 1996 for the GT1
class in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. In order to qualify for GT racing,
25 road-going models were built to achieve type homologation. These
models developed around 600 hp (447 kW; 608 PS) and did
0–60 mph in 3.3 seconds. The top speed was 205 mph
(330 km/h). Both the road and race cars carried the same twin
turbocharged engine as used in the 962, and the race car was a match
for the McLaren F1 GTRs that were racing at the time. A redeveloped
version of the 911 GT1 race car was later built, winning outright at
the 1998 24 Hours of Le Mans. The car is not considered to be a real
911, as it is derived from the 962 with the 996 911's
front section. It was the most powerful and fastest road-going Porsche
until the introduction of the 918 Spyder in 2013.
Porsche 911 in hillclimb
The eRuf Model A by
Ruf Automobile was an electric concept car based
on the 911.
In 1999, the 911 placed fifth in the
Car of the Century
Car of the Century competition,
trailing mass market cars: Ford Model T, BMC Mini, Citroën DS, and
Sports Car International
Sports Car International named the 911 number three on the
list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s, the Carrera RS number seven on
the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1970s, and the 911 Carrera number
seven on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1980s. In addition, the
911 was voted Number 2 on Automobile Magazine's list of the "100
Motor Trend chose the
Porsche 911 Carrera S as its Best
Driver's Car for 2012. It also won "World Performance Car Of The
Year" in 2014.
Porsche exhibited at its
Porsche Classic booths at
Le Mans Classic 2016 and then at Rétromobile
Paris 2018 a rare
Porsche 911 2.5 S / T in the color of
Louis Meznarie restored, which
had a turbulent history in motorsport and which notably won in its
category the 1972
24 Hours of Le Mans
24 Hours of Le Mans .
Car and Driver
Car and Driver named the
Porsche 911 "the best premium sports
car on the market".
^ a b Kandell, Jonathan (1998-03-28). "Ferdinand Porsche, Creator of
the Sports Car That Bore His Name, Is Dead at 88 (obituary)". The New
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^ Paternie, p. 7
^ "One Million Dreams: This Is the 1,000,000th
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^ a b c d e Paternie, Red Book, p. 8
^ a b Paternie, p. 11
Pirelli Cinturato Tires". cinturato.net. Retrieved 20 June
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Pirelli Cinturato Tires". www.cinturato.net. Retrieved
20 June 2017.
^ "Website for Sportomatic
Porsche models". Sportomatic.org. Archived
from the original on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
^ a b Paternie, p. 36
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Porsche 911 Red Book 1965–1999
Motorbooks International. ISBN 0-7603-0723-7
^ Corlett, p. 6
^ Corlett, p. 13
^ "A fountain of youth" (Press release). newsroom.porsche. 27 June
2014. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
^ Corlett, p. 45
^ Corlett, p. 74
^ Tate, James (May 2, 2013). "1995–98
Porsche 911 Carrera Buyer's
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^ www.porsche.com/usa/accessoriesand services/classic/models/993/993/
^ James Edition, April 28, 2015, "The Classic
Porsche 911 Market
Continues to Surprise."
^ 993 Buying Guide,
^ "993 World Wide Production numbers". Archived from the original on
November 28, 2012. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
^ 993 Buying Guide,
^ 993 Buying Guide; Id.
Porsche 993 Overview". Sloancars. 2013-08-13. Retrieved March 24,
^ "97 Porche 911 C2S". Ultimatecarcollection.com. 1997-01-13.
^ (f.e. Car and Driver, July 1997, p. 63)
^ "::Design & Styling::". designnstyling.com. Retrieved 24 January
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^ a b Paternie, p. 92
Porsche 911 Details Leaked!". Jalopnik. 25 April 2008.
Porsche 911". EVO. 20 June 2008.
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Frankfurt motor show:
Porsche 911 Turbo". Autocar.co.uk.
2009-09-15. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
^ "GT3 RS Registry". GT3 RS Registry. Archived from the original on
Porsche 911 GT3 RS". Automoblog.net.
^ Shunk, Chris (2011-04-28). "
Porsche 911 GT3 RS 4.0 takes to the
track". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
^ "New 911 GT2 with 530 Horsepower — High-Performance Sports Car
with Low Fuel Consumption" (Press release).
Porsche 911 GT2". Car and Driver. 2008. Archived from the
original on 2008-05-31. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
^ St. Antoine, Arthur (May 1, 2008). "2008
Porsche 911 GT2: Exclusive
First U.S. Test!". Motor Trend. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
Porsche 911 Carrera S: Technical Specs".
Porsche AG. Retrieved
^ "911 GT2 RS: scariest car ever?". Top Gear. 2010-05-12. Retrieved
^ "Official: 2012
Porsche 911 (991) revealed". AUSmotive.com.
Retrieved 23 August 2011.
^ "Technical Specs - 911 Carrera - All 911 Models". Porsche.com.
^ "Technical Specs - 911 Carrera S - All 911 Models". Porsche.com.
^ "Turbo Terror: New
Porsche 911 Turbo Announced". Automoblog.net.
2013-05-06. Retrieved 2013-05-13.
^ Turkus, Brandon (15 April 2015). "
Porsche says turbo'd 911 engines
will still be revvy". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2015-06-27.
^ a b Wolfkill, Kin (October 2016). "Pure and Simple". Road &
Track. 68 (3): 33–37.
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1, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
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Porsche 911 Reviews". Car and Driver. 2015-01-29. Retrieved
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Porsche 911 3.2 Carrera: The Last of the
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Porsche 911. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing.
Paternie, Patrick C. (2004).
Porsche 911 Red Book 1965–2005.
MotorBooks/MBI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7603-1960-4.
Frère, P. (2006).
Porsche 911 Story (eighth edition). J H Haynes.
Holmes, Mark (2007). Ultimate Convertibles: Roofless Beauty. London:
Kandour. pp. 128–133. ISBN 978-1-905741-62-5.
Meredith, L. (2000).
Porsche 911. Sutton Publishing.
Morgan, P. (1995). Original
Porsche 911. MBI Publishing.
Raby, P. (2005).
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Porsche 911 microsite
Porsche 911 page
Porsche Evolution microsite
Radio List for
Porsche 911 Carrera 1987
Pictures of 911 Speedster
Porsche 930 series 911 Turbo- The Car That Gave The World "Turbo
Production videos: How
Porsche 911 is made. Auto News. 2015-12-05.
Porsche 911 Engine Plant Assembly Line. Auto News. 2015-05-06.
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