POLITICAL SCIENCE, also called GOVERNMENT, is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts and political behaviour. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics which is commonly thought of as determining of the distribution of power and resources. Political scientists "see themselves engaged in revealing the relationships underlying political events and conditions, and from these revelations they attempt to construct general principles about the way the world of politics works."
Political science comprises numerous subfields, including comparative politics , political economy , international relations , political theory , public administration , public policy and political methodology . Furthermore, political science is related to, and draws upon, the fields of economics , law , sociology , history , philosophy , geography , psychology , and anthropology .
Comparative politics is the science of comparison and teaching of different types of constitutions , political actors, legislature and associated fields, all of them from an intrastate perspective. International relations deals with the interaction between nation-states as well as intergovernmental and transnational organizations. Political theory is more concerned with contributions of various classical and contemporary thinkers and philosophers.
Political science is methodologically diverse and appropriates many methods originating in social research . Approaches include positivism , interpretivism , rational choice theory , behaviouralism , structuralism , post-structuralism , realism , institutionalism , and pluralism. Political science, as one of the social sciences , uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources such as historical documents and official records, secondary sources such as scholarly journal articles, survey research, statistical analysis , case studies , experimental research and model building.
* 1 Overview * 2 Ancient
* 3 Modern political science
* 4 Cognate fields
* 9 External links
* 9.1 Library Guides to Political Science
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Political scientists study matters concerning the allocation and transfer of power in decision making , the roles and systems of governance including governments and international organizations , political behaviour and public policies . They measure the success of governance and specific policies by examining many factors, including stability , justice , material wealth , peace and public health . Some political scientists seek to advance positive (attempt to describe how things are, as opposed to how they should be) theses by analysing politics. Others advance normative theses, by making specific policy recommendations.
Political scientists provide the frameworks from which journalists, special interest groups, politicians, and the electorate analyse issues. According to Chaturvedy, "...Political scientists may serve as advisers to specific politicians, or even run for office as politicians themselves. Political scientists can be found working in governments, in political parties or as civil servants. They may be involved with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or political movements. In a variety of capacities, people educated and trained in political science can add value and expertise to corporations . Private enterprises such as think tanks , research institutes, polling and public relations firms often employ political scientists." In the United States, political scientists known as "Americanists " look at a variety of data including constitutional development , elections , public opinion and public policy such as Social Security reform , foreign policy , US Congressional committees, and the US Supreme Court — to name only a few issues.
Political science, possibly like the social sciences as a whole, "as
a discipline lives on the fault line between the 'two cultures' in the
academy, the sciences and the humanities ." Thus, in some American
colleges where there is no separate School or College of Arts and
As a social science, contemporary political science started to take
shape in the latter half of the 19th century. At that time it began to
separate itself from political philosophy, which traces its roots back
to the works of
Seeing in the work of Chinese "Legalist" Shen Buhai the "seeds of the civil service examination ", Sinologist Herrlee G. Creel considered him possibly the first political scientist - with exaggeration.
MODERN POLITICAL SCIENCE
Modern political science was founded by
Niccolò Machiavelli .
Because political science is essentially a study of human behaviour ,
in all aspects of politics , observations in controlled environments
are often challenging to reproduce or duplicate, though experimental
methods are increasingly common (see experimental political science ).
Citing this difficulty, former American Political Science Association
Lawrence Lowell once said "We are limited by the
impossibility of experiment.
Like all social sciences, political science faces the difficulty of observing human actors that can only be partially observed and who have the capacity for making conscious choices unlike other subjects such as non-human organisms in biology or inanimate objects as in physics . Despite the complexities, contemporary political science has progressed by adopting a variety of methods and theoretical approaches to understanding politics and methodological pluralism is a defining feature of contemporary political science.
The advent of political science as a university discipline was marked by the creation of university departments and chairs with the title of political science arising in the late 19th century. In fact, the designation "political scientist" is typically for those with a doctorate in the field, but can also apply to those with a master's in the subject. Integrating political studies of the past into a unified discipline is ongoing, and the history of political science has provided a rich field for the growth of both normative and positive political science, with each part of the discipline sharing some historical predecessors. The American Political Science Association was founded in 1903 and the American Political Science Review was founded in 1906 in an effort to distinguish the study of politics from economics and other social phenomena.
BEHAVIOURAL REVOLUTION AND NEW INSTITUTIONALISM
In the 1950s and the 1960s, a behavioural revolution stressing the systematic and rigorously scientific study of individual and group behaviour swept the discipline. A focus on studying political behaviour, rather than institutions or interpretation of legal texts, characterized early behavioural political science, including work by Robert Dahl , Philip Converse , and in the collaboration between sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld and public opinion scholar Bernard Berelson .
The late 1960s and early 1970s witnessed a take off in the use of deductive, game theoretic formal modelling techniques aimed at generating a more analytical corpus of knowledge in the discipline. This period saw a surge of research that borrowed theory and methods from economics to study political institutions, such as the United States Congress, as well as political behaviour, such as voting. William H. Riker and his colleagues and students at the University of Rochester were the main proponents of this shift.
Despite considerable research progress in the discipline based on all the kinds of scholarship discussed above, it has been observed that progress toward systematic theory has been modest and uneven.
ANTICIPATING OF CRISES
The theory of political transitions, and the methods of their analysis and anticipating of crises, form an important part of political science. Several general indicators of crises and methods were proposed for anticipating critical transitions. Among them, a statistical indicator of crisis, simultaneous increase of variance and correlations in large groups, was proposed for crises anticipation and successfully used in various areas. Its applicability for early diagnosis of political crises was demonstrated by the analysis of the prolonged stress period preceding the 2014 Ukrainian economic and political crisis . There was a simultaneous increase in the total correlation between the 19 major public fears in the Ukrainian society (by about 64%) and also in their statistical dispersion (by 29%) during the pre-crisis years. A feature shared by certain major revolutions is that they were not predicted. The theory of apparent inevitability of crises and revolutions was also developed.
POLITICAL SCIENCE IN THE SOVIET UNION
In 1979, the 11th World Congress of IPSA took place in
After the fall of the Soviet Union, two of the major institutions dealing with political science, the Institute of Contemporary Social Theories and the Institute of International Affairs, were disbanded, and most of their members were left without jobs. These institutes were victims of the first wave of anticommunist opinion and ideological attacks. Today, the Russian Political Science Association unites professional political scientists from all around Russia.
In 2000, the Perestroika Movement in political science was introduced as a reaction against what supporters of the movement called the mathematicization of political science. Those who identified with the movement argued for a plurality of methodologies and approaches in political science and for more relevance of the discipline to those outside of it.
Evolutionary psychology theories argue that humans have evolved a highly developed set of psychological mechanisms for dealing with politics. However, these mechanisms evolved for dealing with the small group politics that characterized the ancestral environment and not the much larger political structures in today's world. This is argued to explain many important features and systematic cognitive biases of current politics.
Most political scientists work broadly in one or more of the following five areas:
Some political science departments also classify methodology as well as scholarship on the domestic politics of a particular country as distinct fields. In the United States, American politics is often treated as a separate subfield.
In contrast to this traditional classification, some academic departments organize scholarship into thematic categories, including political philosophy, political behaviour (including public opinion , collective action , and identity ), and political institutions (including legislatures and international organizations ). Political science conferences and journals often emphasize scholarship in more specific categories. The American Political Science Association, for example, has 42 organized sections that address various methods and topics of political inquiry.
Political science as a separate field is a rather late arrival in terms of social sciences. However, the term "political science" was not always distinguished from political philosophy, and the modern discipline has a clear set of antecedents including also moral philosophy, political economy, political theology, history, and other fields concerned with normative determinations of what ought to be and with deducing the characteristics and functions of the ideal state.
* Political science portal
* Outline of political science – structured list of political topics, arranged by subject area * Index of politics articles – alphabetical list of political subjects * Political lists – lists of political topics * Political science terminology * Outline of law * Index of law articles * Process tracing
* ^ _ahdictionary.com_
https://ahdictionary.com/word/search.html?q=Government. Definition 8:
'Political science' Missing or empty title= (help )
* ^ _merriam-webster.com_
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/government. Definition 7:
'political science' Missing or empty title= (help )
* ^ Oxford Dictionary: political science
* ^ Political Science. The University of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill (22 February 1999). Retrieved on 27 May 2014.
* ^ Chaturvedy, J. C. _Political Governance: Political theory_.
Isha Books. p. 4. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
* ^ Stoner, J. R. (22 February 2008). "Political Science and
Political Education". Paper presented at the annual meeting of the
APSA Teaching and Learning Conference (APSA ), San José Marriott, San
José, California . Archived from the original on 30 November 2009.
Retrieved 19 October 2011. ... although one might allege the same for
social science as a whole, political scientists receive funding from
and play an active role in both the
National Science Foundation and
the National Endowment for the
* ^ Creel, What Is Taoism?, 94
* Creel, 1974 p.4, 119 Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese Political Philosopher
of the Fourth Century B.C.
* Creel 1964: 155-6
* Herrlee G. Creel, 1974 p.119. Shen Pu-Hai: A Secular Philosopher
of Administration, Journal of Chinese
* ^ Druckman, James; Green, Donald; Kuklinski, James; et al., eds.
(2011). _Cambridge Handbook of Experimental Political Science_. New
York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-17455-8 .
* ^ Lowell, A. Lawrence. 1910. "The Physiology of Politics."
_American Political Science Review_ 4: 1-15.
* ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. "How to
Become a Political Scientist". Retrieved 13 September 2016.
* ^ Kim Quaile Hill, "In Search of General Theory," Journal of
* _The Evolution of Political Science_ (November 2006). APSR
Centennial Volume of _
American Political Science Review _.
_Apsanet.org_. 4 February 2009.
* _European Political Processes: Essays and Readings_ (1968). ed.,
with original essays, by Henry S. Albinski Lawrence K. Pettit.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon. vii, 448 p.
* Goodin, R. E.; Klingemann, Hans-Dieter (1996). _A New Handbook of
Political Science_. Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press