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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Poitiers
Poitiers
([pwatje] ( listen)) is a city on the Clain
Clain
river in west-central France. It is a commune and the capital of the Vienne department and also of the Poitou. Poitiers
Poitiers
is a major university centre. The centre of town is picturesque and its streets include predominantly historical architecture, especially religious architecture and especially from the Romanesque period. Two major military battles took place near the city: in 732, the Battle of Poitiers
Poitiers
(also known as the Battle of Tours), in which the Franks commanded by Charles Martel
Charles Martel
halted the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate, and in 1356, the Battle of Poitiers, a key victory for the English forces during the Hundred Years' War. This battle's consequences partly provoked the Jacquerie.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Location 1.2 Situation

2 Inhabitants and demography 3 Climate 4 History

4.1 Antiquity 4.2 Middle Ages 4.3 16th century 4.4 17th century 4.5 18th century 4.6 19th century 4.7 20th century and contemporary Poitiers

5 Landmarks and attractions 6 Sports 7 Tourism 8 Transport 9 Education 10 International relations

10.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

11 Notable people 12 See also 13 References

13.1 Bibliography 13.2 Notes

14 External links

Geography[edit] Location[edit] The city of Poitiers
Poitiers
is strategically situated on the Seuil du Poitou, a shallow gap between the Armorican and the Central Massif. The Seuil du Poitou
Poitou
connects the Aquitaine Basin
Aquitaine Basin
to the South to the Paris
Paris
Basin to the North. This area is an important geographic crossroads in France
France
and Western Europe. Situation[edit] Poitiers's primary site sits on a vast promontory between the valleys of the Boivre
Boivre
and the Clain. The old town occupies the slopes and the summit of a plateau which rises 130 feet (40 m) above the streams which surround it on three sides. Thus Poitiers
Poitiers
benefits from a very strong tactical situation. This was an especially important factor before and throughout the Middle Ages. Inhabitants and demography[edit] Inhabitants of Poitiers
Poitiers
are referred to as Poitevins or Poitevines, although this denomination can be used for anyone from the Poitou province. One out of three people in Poitiers
Poitiers
is under the age of 30 and one out of four residents in Poitiers
Poitiers
is a student.[citation needed]

Historical population of Poitiers (Source: [1][2])

Year 1936 1954 1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2013

Population 44,235 52,633 62,178 70,681 81,313 79,350 78,894 83,448 89,000 87,427

Climate[edit] The climate in the Poitiers
Poitiers
area is mild with mild temperature amplitudes, and adequate rainfall throughout the year. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this type of climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[3]

Climate data for Poitiers
Poitiers
(1981–2010 averages)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.7 (63.9) 21.8 (71.2) 25.1 (77.2) 29.3 (84.7) 33.6 (92.5) 38.0 (100.4) 40.8 (105.4) 39.6 (103.3) 34.8 (94.6) 30.9 (87.6) 22.9 (73.2) 19.0 (66.2) 40.8 (105.4)

Average high °C (°F) 7.8 (46) 9.3 (48.7) 12.9 (55.2) 15.5 (59.9) 19.5 (67.1) 23.2 (73.8) 25.8 (78.4) 25.7 (78.3) 22.2 (72) 17.4 (63.3) 11.5 (52.7) 8.2 (46.8) 16.6 (61.9)

Average low °C (°F) 1.5 (34.7) 1.3 (34.3) 3.1 (37.6) 4.9 (40.8) 8.6 (47.5) 11.5 (52.7) 13.4 (56.1) 13.1 (55.6) 10.4 (50.7) 8.2 (46.8) 4.0 (39.2) 2.0 (35.6) 6.9 (44.4)

Record low °C (°F) −17.9 (−0.2) −17.3 (0.9) −13.1 (8.4) −5.6 (21.9) −2.7 (27.1) 0.8 (33.4) 1.5 (34.7) 0.8 (33.4) 0.8 (33.4) −6.5 (20.3) −10.0 (14) −16.5 (2.3) −17.9 (−0.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 61.8 (2.433) 46.2 (1.819) 47.4 (1.866) 56.1 (2.209) 62.6 (2.465) 51.5 (2.028) 50.5 (1.988) 41.2 (1.622) 51.1 (2.012) 75.6 (2.976) 72.8 (2.866) 68.8 (2.709) 685.6 (26.992)

Average precipitation days 10.5 8.9 8.9 10.1 10.7 7.6 7.1 6.2 6.9 10.5 11.2 10.7 109.3

Average snowy days 2.6 2.8 1.9 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 2.2 10.9

Average relative humidity (%) 86 82 77 74 75 73 70 72 77 83 87 88 78.7

Mean monthly sunshine hours 69.7 96.1 153.8 174.6 206.5 232.9 242.7 241.8 194.2 128.8 82.6 65.2 1,888.8

Source #1: Meteo France[4][5]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)[6]

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Poitiers Antiquity[edit] Poitiers
Poitiers
was founded by the Celtic tribe of the Pictones
Pictones
and was known as the oppidum Lemonum before Roman influence. The name is said to have come from the Celtic word for elm, Lemo. After Roman influence took over, the town became known as Pictavium, or later "Pictavis", after the original Pictones
Pictones
inhabitants themselves. There is a rich history of archeological finds from the Roman era in Poitiers. In fact until 1857 Poitiers
Poitiers
hosted the ruins of a vast Roman amphitheatre, which was larger than that of Nîmes. Remains of Roman baths, built in the 1st century and demolished in the 3rd century, were uncovered in 1877. In 1879 a burial-place and tombs of a number of Christian martyrs
Christian martyrs
were discovered on the heights to the south-east of the town. The names of some of the Christians had been preserved in paintings and inscriptions. Not far from these tombs is a huge dolmen (the Pierre Levée), which is 6.7 metres (22 ft) long, 4.9 metres (16 ft) broad and 2.1 metres (7 ft) high, and around which used to be held the great fair of Saint Luke. The Romans also built at least three aqueducts. This extensive ensemble of Roman constructions suggests Poitiers
Poitiers
was a town of first importance, possibly even the capital of the Roman province
Roman province
of Gallia Aquitania during the 2nd century. As Christianity
Christianity
was made official and gradually introduced across the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the 3rd and 4th centuries, the first bishop of Poitiers
Poitiers
from 350 to 367, Hilary of Poitiers
Hilary of Poitiers
or Saint Hilarius, proceeded to evangelize the town. Exiled by Constantius II, he risked death to return to Poitiers
Poitiers
as Bishop
Bishop
after discovering that the Christian "Eastern" Church were not heretical as believed in Rome, but had, rather, reached many of the same conclusions about the Holy Trinity as had the Western Church. The first foundations of the Baptistère Saint-Jean
Baptistère Saint-Jean
can be traced to that era of open Christian evangelization. He was named "Doctor of The Church" by Pope Pius IX. In the 4th century, a thick wall 6m wide and 10m high was built around the town. It was 2.5 km (2 mi) long and stood lower on the naturally defended east side and at the top of the promontory. Around this time, the town began to be known as Poitiers. Fifty years later Poitiers
Poitiers
fell into the hands of the Arian Visigoths, and became one of the principal residences of their kings. Visigoth King Alaric II
Alaric II
was defeated by Clovis I
Clovis I
at Vouillé, not far from Poitiers, in 507, and the town thus came under Frankish dominion. Middle Ages[edit]

Charles-de-Gaulle place and its medieval heritage

During most of the Early Middle Ages, the town of Poitiers
Poitiers
took advantage of its defensive tactical site and of its location, which was far from the centre of Frankish power. As the seat of an évêché (bishopric) since the 4th century, the town was a centre of some importance and the capital of the Poitou
Poitou
county. At the height of their power, the Counts of Poitiers
Poitiers
governed a large domain, including both Aquitaine
Aquitaine
and Poitou. The town was often referred to as Poictiers, a name commemorated in warships of the Royal Navy, after the battle of Poi(c)tiers.[7] The first decisive victory of a Christian army over a Muslim
Muslim
power, the Battle of Tours, was fought by Charles Martel's men in the vicinity of Poitiers
Poitiers
on 10 October 732. For many historians, it was one of the world's pivotal moments.[8] Eleanor of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
frequently resided in the town, which she embellished and fortified, and in 1199 entrusted with communal rights. In 1152 she married the future King Henry II of England
Henry II of England
in Poitiers Cathedral. During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Poitiers, an English victory, was fought near the town of Poitiers
Poitiers
on 19 September 1356. Later in the war In 1418, under duress, the royal parliament moved from Paris
Paris
to Poitiers, where it remained in exile until the Plantagenets finally withdrew from the capital in 1436. During this interval, in 1429 Poitiers
Poitiers
was the site of Joan of Arc's formal inquest. The University of Poitiers
University of Poitiers
was founded in 1431. During and after the Reformation, John Calvin
John Calvin
had numerous converts in Poitiers
Poitiers
and the town had its share of the violent proceedings which underlined the Wars of Religion throughout France. In 1569 Poitiers
Poitiers
was defended by Gui de Daillon, comte du Lude, against Gaspard de Coligny, who after an unsuccessful bombardment and seven weeks, retired from a siege he had laid to the town. 16th century[edit]

Poitiers
Poitiers
in the 16th century

The type of political organisation existing in Poitiers
Poitiers
during the late medieval or early modern period can be glimpsed through a speech given on 14 July 1595 by Maurice Roatin, the town's mayor. He compared it to the Roman state, which combined three types of government: monarchy (rule by one person), aristocracy (rule by a few), and democracy (rule by the many). He said the Roman consulate corresponded to Poitiers' mayor, the Roman senate
Roman senate
to the town's peers and échevins, and the democratic element in Rome corresponded to the fact that most important matters "can not be decided except by the advice of the Mois et Cent" (broad council).1 The mayor appears to have been an advocate of a mixed constitution; not all Frenchmen in 1595 would have agreed with him, at least in public; many spoke in favour of absolute monarchy. The democratic element was not as strong as the mayor's words may seem to imply: in fact, Poitiers
Poitiers
was similar to other French cities, Paris, Nantes, Marseille, Limoges, La Rochelle, Dijon, in that the town's governing body (corps de ville) was "highly exclusive and oligarchical": a small number of professional and family groups controlled most of the city offices. In Poitiers
Poitiers
many of these positions were granted for the lifetime of the office holder.2 The city government in Poitiers
Poitiers
based its claims to legitimacy on the theory of government where the mayor and échevins held jurisdiction of the city's affairs in fief from the king: that is, they swore allegiance and promised support for him, and in return he granted them local authority. This gave them the advantage of being able to claim that any townsperson who challenged their authority was being disloyal to the king. Every year the mayor and the 24 échevins would swear an oath of allegiance "between the hands" of the king or his representative, usually the lieutenant général or the sénéchaussée. For example, in 1567, when Maixent Poitevin was mayor, king Henry III came for a visit, and, although some townspeople grumbled about the licentious behaviour of his entourage, Henry smoothed things over with a warm speech acknowledging their allegiance and thanking them for it.2 In this era, the mayor of Poitiers
Poitiers
was preceded by sergeants wherever he went, consulted deliberative bodies, carried out their decisions, "heard civil and criminal suits in first instance", tried to ensure that the food supply would be adequate, visited markets.2 In the 16th century, Poitiers
Poitiers
impressed visitors because of its large size, and important features, including "royal courts, university, prolific printing shops, wealthy religious institutions, cathedral, numerous parishes, markets, impressive domestic architecture, extensive fortifications, and castle."3 16th-century Poitiers
Poitiers
is closely associated with the life of François Rabelais and with the community of Bitards. 17th century[edit] The town saw less activity during the Renaissance. Few changes were made in the urban landscape, except for laying way for the rue de la Tranchée. Bridges were built where the inhabitants had used gués. A few hôtels particuliers were built at that time, such as the hôtels Jean Baucé, Fumé and Berthelot. Poets Joachim du Bellay
Joachim du Bellay
and Pierre Ronsard met at the University of Poitiers, before leaving for Paris. During the 17th century, many people emigrated from Poitiers
Poitiers
and the Poitou
Poitou
to the French settlements in the new world and thus many Acadians
Acadians
or Cajuns
Cajuns
living in North America today can trace ancestry back to this region. 18th century[edit] During the 18th century, the town's activity mainly depended on its administrative functions as a regional centre: Poitiers
Poitiers
served as the seat for the regional administration of royal justice, the évêché, the monasteries and the intendance of the Généralité du Poitou. The Vicomte de Blossac, intendant of Poitou
Poitou
from 1750 to 1784, had a French garden
French garden
landscaped in Poitiers. He also had Aliénor d'Aquitaine's ancient wall razed and modern boulevards were built in its place. 19th century[edit] During the 19th century, many army bases were built in Poitiers because of its central and strategic location. Poitiers
Poitiers
became a garrison town, despite its distance from France's borders. The Poitiers
Poitiers
train station was built in the 1850s, and connected Poitiers
Poitiers
to the rest of France. 20th century and contemporary Poitiers[edit] Poitiers
Poitiers
was bombed during World War II, particularly the area around the railway station which was heavily hit on 13 June 1944. From the late 1950s until the late 1960s when Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
ended the American military presence, the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force had an array of military installations in France, including a major Army logistics and communications hub in Poitiers, part of what was called the Communication Zone (ComZ), and consisting of a logistics headquarters and communications agency located at Aboville Caserne, a military compound situated on a hill above the city. Hundreds of graduates ("Military Brats") of Poitiers
Poitiers
American High School, a school operated by the Department of Defense School System (DODDS), have gone on to successful careers, including the recent commander-in-chief of U.S. Special
Special
Forces Command, Army General Bryan (Doug) Brown. The Caserne also housed a full support community, with a theater, commissary, recreation facilities and an affiliate radio station of the American Forces Network, Europe, headquartered in Frankfurt (now Mannheim, Germany).[citation needed] The town benefited from industrial décentralisation in the 1970s, for instance with the installation during that decade of the Michelin
Michelin
and Compagnie des compteurs Schlumberger
Schlumberger
factories. The Futuroscope theme-park and research park project, built in 1986–1987 in nearby Chasseneuil-du-Poitou, after an idea by René Monory, consolidated Poitiers' place as a touristic destination and as a modern university centre, and opened the town to the era of information technology.[citation needed] Landmarks and attractions[edit]

Church of St. Hilary le Grand

Church of Notre-Dame la Grande

Baptistère Saint-Jean
Baptistère Saint-Jean
(4th century), the oldest church in France Palace of Poitiers, the seat of the dukes of Aquitaine Église Notre-Dame-la-Grande, oldest romanesque architecture church in Europe Cathédrale Saint-Pierre, Poitiers's cathedral (12th century) Musée Sainte-Croix, the largest museum in Poitiers Church of St. Radegonde (6th century) Église Saint-Hilaire-le-Grand
Église Saint-Hilaire-le-Grand
(11th century) Hypogée des Dunes (underground chapel) Jardin des Plantes de Poitiers, a park and botanical garden Église de Montierneuf Théâtre Municipal de Poitiers, by the French architect Édouard Lardillier Parc du Futuroscope
Futuroscope
(European Park of the Moving Image, some 10 km (6.2 mi) north of Poitiers; theme is visual communication technology in ultramodern buildings) Le Confort Moderne

Sports[edit] The Stade Poitevin, founded in 1900, is a multi-sports club, which fields several top-level teams in a variety of sports. These include a volleyball team that play in the French Pro A volleyball league, a basketball team, an amateur football team and a professional rugby team (as of the 2008–2009 season.) The PB86 or Poitiers Basket 86
Poitiers Basket 86
(www.pb86.fr) play in the French Pro A basketball league. In the 2009–10 season, three Americans played for PB86: Rasheed Wright, Kenny Younger and Tommy Gunn. The team played the French championship playoffs in the 2009–10 season and was the Pro B French Champion
Champion
for the 2008–2009 season. The team's communication strategy is considered by some to be one of the best in the French basketball league. Brian Joubert, the figure skating champion, practices at an ice rink in Poitiers
Poitiers
and lives with his family in the city. Tourism[edit] Historic churches, in particular Romanesque church buildings, are the main attraction inside Poitiers
Poitiers
itself. The town's centre is picturesque, with generally well-preserved architecture and a recently re-zoned pedestrian area. There are numerous shops, cafes and restaurants in the town centre. Since 1987, Poitiers' tourist industry has indirectly benefited from the Futuroscope
Futuroscope
theme-park and research park in nearby Chasseneuil-du-Poitou. The centre of town receives visits in complement to the theme-park and benefits from a larger proportion of European tourists, notably from the United Kingdom. In conjunction, Poitiers' tourism has directly benefited from the TGV
TGV
high-speed rail link to Paris. Transport[edit] Poitiers' railway station lies on the TGV Atlantique
TGV Atlantique
line between Paris
Paris
and Bordeaux. The station is in the valley to the west of the old town centre. Services run to Angoulême, Limoges
Limoges
and La Rochelle in addition to Paris
Paris
and Bordeaux. The direct TGV
TGV
puts Poitiers
Poitiers
1h40 from Paris' Gare Montparnasse. Poitiers - Biard Airport
Poitiers - Biard Airport
is located 2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi) west of Poitiers
Poitiers
with flights to Lyon-Saint Exupéry, London-Stansted, Edinburgh and Shannon, Ireland on Ryanair. Urban transportation in Poitiers
Poitiers
is provided by a company called Vitalis. Regional ground transportation in the department of the Vienne
Vienne
is provided by private bus companies such as "Ligne en Vienne". Rail transportation in the region is provided by the public TER Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Nouvelle-Aquitaine
(regional express train). From January 2009 to December 2012, Poitiers' town centre went through deep changes to make it less accessible to motor vehicles. The project, named "Projet Coeur d'Agglo", focused on re-thinking the way people use individual cars to access the town centre and as an everyday way of transportation. On 29 September 2010, 12 streets were permanently closed off to motor vehicles and transformed into an entirely pedestrian zone. Eventually, a new line of fast buses will be added around 2017.

Panoramic view of Poitiers
Poitiers
at sunset.

Education[edit] The city of Poitiers
Poitiers
has a very old tradition as a university centre, starting in the Middle Ages. The University of Poitiers
University of Poitiers
was established in 1431 and has welcomed many famous philosophers and scientists throughout the ages (notably François Rabelais; René Descartes; Francis Bacon; Samir Amin). Today Poitiers
Poitiers
is one of the biggest university towns in France; in fact it has more students per inhabitant than any other large town or city in France. All around, there are over 27,000 university students in Poitiers, nearly 4,000 of which are foreigners, hailing from 117 countries. The University covers all major fields from sciences to geography, history, languages economics and law. The law degree at the University of Poitiers
University of Poitiers
is considered to be one of the best in France. The program was ranked second by l'Étudiant magazine in 2005.[citation needed] In addition to the University, Poitiers
Poitiers
also hosts two engineering schools and two business schools:

the École nationale supérieure de mécanique et d'aérotechnique (ENSMA) the École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de Poitiers
École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de Poitiers
(ENSIP) the France
France
Business School (FBS) the Institut d'Administration des Entreprises de Poitiers
Poitiers
(IAE).

Since 2001, the city of Poitiers
Poitiers
has hosted the first cycle of "the South America, Spain and Portugal" program from the Paris
Paris
Institute of Political Studies. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Poitiers
Poitiers
is twinned with:

Northampton, United Kingdom Marburg, Germany Lafayette, Louisiana, United States

Coimbra, Portugal[9] Yaroslavl, Russia Iaşi, Romania

Azrou, Morocco Moundou, Chad Eggelsberg, Austria

Notable people[edit] This is a list of people of interest who were born or resided in Poitiers:

Hilary of Poitiers
Hilary of Poitiers
(c300–367), elected bishop of Poitiers
Poitiers
around the year 350, exiled and returned to die there Saint Radegonde
Saint Radegonde
or Radegund
Radegund
(c. 520 to 587), Thuringian princess and queen of France, founded an abbey in Poitiers
Poitiers
and performed miracles there Charles Martel, French general who defeated the Muslim
Muslim
Umayyad
Umayyad
army in the Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours
in 732 Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen Consort of France
France
(1137-1152) and England (1152-1204), was born, periodically lived, and died in Poitiers.[10] François Rabelais, Renaissance
Renaissance
writer and humanist Pope Clement V St. Venantius Fortunatus, 6th-century Latin
Latin
poet and hymnodist and Bishop
Bishop
in the Roman Catholic Church Blessed Marie Louise Trichet William Longchamp, buried at the abbey of Le Pin, 1197 René Descartes
René Descartes
studied law at the University of Poitiers Saint Louis de Montfort Michel Aco, the explorer, was born in Poitiers.[11] Paul Rougnon, composer and professor at the Conservatoire de Paris Fernand Fau, born in Poitiers
Poitiers
in 1858, French illustrator and cartoonist Louis Vierne, organist & composer, eventually at the Notre Dame cathedral, Paris. Camille Guérin, born in Poitiers
Poitiers
in 1872, discovered a vaccine against tuberculosis with Albert Calmette
Albert Calmette
in 1924 Hélène Grémillon, (born 1977), writer, winner of the 2011 Prix Emmanuel Roblès Michel Foucault, French philosopher Marie- France
France
Garaud, born in Poitiers
Poitiers
in 1934, French politician Joël Robuchon, born in Poitiers
Poitiers
in 1945, French chef and restaurateur Jean-Pierre Raffarin, French politician and senator for Vienne, former Prime Minister of France
France
(2002–2005) Jean-Pierre Thiollet, born in Poitiers
Poitiers
in 1956, French author Georges Simenon, Belgian-French author of Maigret novels, set The Marriage of Poitiers
Poitiers
in the bourgeois capital Susann Cokal, novelist, lived in Poitiers
Poitiers
in mid-1980s and based her first novel, Mirabilis, on the geography of the city Maryse Ewanje-Epee, athlete Monique Ewanje-Epee, athlete Mahyar Monshipour, Ex World Boxing Association Super bantamweight champion in 2003–2006. Simon Pagenaud, race car driver Bruce Inkango, footballer Elsa N'Guessan, swimmer Brian Joubert, French ice skating champion Francis N'Ganga, footballer Romain Édouard, chess player and grandmaster Ribar Baikoua, basketball player Yassine Jebbour, footballer Camille Berthomier, singer in English rock band Savages

See also[edit]

Communes of the Vienne
Vienne
department Pierre-Marie Poisson The works of Maxime Real del Sarte

References[edit]

INSEE  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Bibliography[edit]

Archives communales de Poitiers, reg. 54, pp. 211–213; in Harry J. Bernstein, Between Crown and Community: Politics and Civic Culture in Sixteenth-Century Poitiers. 2004, Ithica N.Y., USA: Cornell University Press, p. 22. Harry J. Bernstein, Between Crown and Community: Politics and Civic Culture in Sixteenth-Century Poitiers. 2004, Ithaca N.Y., USA: Cornell University Press, p. 22–30. ibid., p. 2.

Notes[edit]

^ EHESS, commune of Poitiers ^ INSEE, commune of Poitiers ^ Climate Summary for Poitiers, France ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Poitiers" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 14, 2016.  ^ "Climat Poitou-Charentes" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 14, 2016.  ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Poitiers- Biard
Biard
(86) - altitude 117m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved January 14, 2016.  ^ Kendall B. Tarte (2007). Writing Places: Sixteenth-century City Culture and the Des Roches Salon. Associated University Presse. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-87413-965-5.  ^ Professor of religion Huston Smith
Huston Smith
says in The World's Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions: "But for their defeat by Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours
in 733 [sic], the entire Western world might today be Muslim." ^ "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). © 2009 Câmara Municipal de Coimbra
Coimbra
– Praça 8 de Maio – 3000-300 Coimbra. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "Eleanor of Aquitaine". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Marquis Who's Who. 1967. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Poitiers.

Official website of the City of Poitiers Grand- Poitiers
Poitiers
website Prefecture of the Vienne Vitalis Official website (Urban Transportation) Lignes en Vienne
Vienne
Official website ( Vienne
Vienne
transportation) Official website TER Poitou-Charentes Official Website of the train station in Poitiers Site of the Tourist Office of Poitiers The University of Poitiers
University of Poitiers
website Poitiers
Poitiers
– History, Churches, Streets and Museum

v t e

Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Prefectures of the regions of France

Metropolitan France

Lyon
Lyon
(Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Dijon
Dijon
(Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) Rennes
Rennes
(Brittany) Orléans
Orléans
(Centre-Val de Loire) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corsica) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Grand Est) Lille
Lille
(Hauts-de-France) Paris
Paris
(Île-de-France) Rouen
Rouen
(Normandy) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Nouvelle-Aquitaine) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Occitanie) Nantes
Nantes
(Pays de la Loire) Marseille
Marseille
(Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur)

Overseas regions

Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte) Saint-Denis (Réunion)

v t e

Communes of the Vienne
Vienne
department

Adriers Amberre Anché Angles-sur-l'Anglin Angliers Antigny Antran Arçay Archigny Aslonnes Asnières-sur-Blour Asnois Aulnay Availles-en-Châtellerault Availles-Limouzine Avanton Ayron Basses Beaumont Saint-Cyr Bellefonds Benassay Berrie Berthegon Béruges Béthines Beuxes Biard Bignoux Blanzay Bonnes Bonneuil-Matours Bouresse Bourg-Archambault Bournand Brigueil-le-Chantre Brion Brux La Bussière Buxerolles Buxeuil Ceaux-en-Couhé Ceaux-en-Loudun Celle-Lévescault Cenon-sur-Vienne Cernay Chabournay Chalais Chalandray Champagné-le-Sec Champagné-Saint-Hilaire Champigny en Rochereau Champniers La Chapelle-Bâton La Chapelle-Montreuil La Chapelle-Moulière Chapelle-Viviers Charroux Chasseneuil-du-Poitou Chatain Château-Garnier Château-Larcher Châtellerault Châtillon Chaunay La Chaussée Chauvigny Chenevelles Cherves Chiré-en-Montreuil Chouppes Cissé Civaux Civray Cloué Colombiers Couhé Coulombiers Coulonges Coussay Coussay-les-Bois Craon Croutelle Cuhon Curçay-sur-Dive Curzay-sur-Vonne Dangé-Saint-Romain Dercé Dienné Dissay Doussay La Ferrière-Airoux Fleix Fleuré Fontaine-le-Comte Frozes Gençay Genouillé Gizay Glénouze Gouex La Grimaudière Guesnes Haims Ingrandes L'Isle-Jourdain Iteuil Jardres Jaunay-Marigny Jazeneuil Jouhet Journet Joussé Lathus-Saint-Rémy Latillé Lauthiers Lavausseau Lavoux Leigné-les-Bois Leignes-sur-Fontaine Leigné-sur-Usseau Lencloître Lésigny Leugny Lhommaizé Liglet Ligugé Linazay Liniers Lizant Loudun Luchapt Lusignan Lussac-les-Châteaux Magné Maillé Mairé Maisonneuve Marçay Marigny-Chemereau Marnay Martaizé Massognes Maulay Mauprévoir Mazerolles Mazeuil Messemé Mignaloux-Beauvoir Migné-Auxances Millac Mirebeau Moncontour Mondion Montamisé Monthoiron Montmorillon Montreuil-Bonnin Monts-sur-Guesnes Morton Moulismes Moussac Mouterre-Silly Mouterre-sur-Blourde Naintré Nalliers Nérignac Neuville-de-Poitou Nieuil-l'Espoir Nouaillé-Maupertuis Nueil-sous-Faye Orches Les Ormes Ouzilly Oyré Paizay-le-Sec Payré Payroux Persac Pindray Plaisance Pleumartin Poitiers Port-de-Piles Pouançay Pouant Pouillé Pressac Prinçay La Puye Queaux Quinçay Ranton Raslay La Roche-Posay La Roche-Rigault Roches-Prémarie-Andillé Roiffé Romagne Rouillé Saint-Benoît Saint-Christophe Saint-Clair Sainte-Radégonde Saint-Gaudent Saint-Genest-d'Ambière Saint-Georges-lès-Baillargeaux Saint-Germain Saint-Gervais-les-Trois-Clochers Saint-Jean-de-Sauves Saint-Julien-l'Ars Saint-Laon Saint-Laurent-de-Jourdes Saint-Léger-de-Montbrillais Saint-Léomer Saint-Macoux Saint Martin la Pallu Saint-Martin-l'Ars Saint-Maurice-la-Clouère Saint-Pierre-de-Maillé Saint-Pierre-d'Exideuil Saint-Rémy-sur-Creuse Saint-Romain Saint-Sauvant Saint-Savin Saint-Saviol Saint-Secondin Saires Saix Sammarçolles Sanxay Saulgé Savigné Savigny-Lévescault Savigny-sous-Faye Scorbé-Clairvaux Senillé-Saint-Sauveur Sérigny Sèvres-Anxaumont Sillars Smarves Sommières-du-Clain Sossais Surin Tercé Ternay Thollet Thurageau Thuré La Trimouille Les Trois-Moutiers Usseau Usson-du-Poitou Valdivienne Varennes Vaux Vaux-sur-Vienne Vellèches Vernon Verrières Verrue Vézières Vicq-sur-Gartempe Le Vigeant La Villedieu-du-Clain Villemort Villiers Vivonne Vouillé Voulême Voulon Vouneuil-sous-Biard Vouneuil-sur-Vienne Vouzailles Yversay

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131288582 LCCN: n79091184 GND: 4046470-2 SUDOC: 026398389 BNF:

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