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Plovdiv
Plovdiv
(Bulgarian: Пловдив, pronounced ['pɫovdif]) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,567 as of 2015[update] and 675,586 in the greater metropolitan area. It is an important economic, transport, cultural, and educational center. There is evidence of habitation in Plovdiv
Plovdiv
dating back to the 6th millennium BCE, when the first Neolithic
Neolithic
settlements were established; it is said to be one of the oldest cities in Europe.[4][5][6] During most of its recorded history, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was known in the West by the name Philippopolis (Greek: Φιλιππούπολις; Turkish: Filibe; "Philip's Town") after Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
conquered the city in the 4th century BCE. The city was originally a Thracian settlement[6] and subsequently was invaded by Persians, Greeks, Celts, Romans, Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Slavs, Rus people, Crusaders, and Turks. On January 4, 1878, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was liberated from Ottoman rule by the Russian army. It remained within the borders of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
until July of the same year, when it became the capital of the autonomous Ottoman region of Eastern Rumelia. In 1885, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
and Eastern Rumelia
Eastern Rumelia
joined Bulgaria. Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is situated in a fertile region of south-central Bulgaria
Bulgaria
on the two banks of the Maritsa
Maritsa
River. The city has historically developed on seven syenite hills, some of which are 250 metres (820 feet) high. Because of these hills, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is often referred to in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
as "The City
City
of the Seven Hills". Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is host to a huge variety of cultural events such as the International Fair Plovdiv, the international theatrical festival "A stage on a crossroad", the TV festival "The golden chest," and many more novel festivals, such as Night/ Plovdiv
Plovdiv
in September, Kapana Fest, and Opera Open. There are many preserved ruins such as the ancient Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Roman theatre, a Roman odeon, a Roman aqueduct, the Plovdiv Roman Stadium, the archaeological complex Eirene, and others. The oldest American educational institution outside the United States, the American College of Sofia, was founded in Plovdiv
Plovdiv
in 1860 and later moved to Sofia. On September 5, 2014, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was selected as the Bulgarian host of the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
2019.[7] This happened with the help of the Municipal Foundation " Plovdiv
Plovdiv
2019″, a non-government organization, which was established in 2011 by Plovdiv's City
City
Council whose main objectives were to develop and to prepare Plovdiv's bid book for European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2019.

Contents

1 Name 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 History

3.1 Antiquity 3.2 Middle Ages 3.3 Ottoman Rule

3.3.1 National revival

3.4 Eastern Rumelia 3.5 Recent history

4 Population

4.1 Ethnicity and religion

5 City
City
government 6 Districts and neighbourhoods 7 Main sights

7.1 Roman City 7.2 Museums and protected sites 7.3 Churches, mosques and temples

8 Culture

8.1 Theatre and music 8.2 Literature 8.3 Arts 8.4 European Capital of Culture

9 Economy

9.1 Economic Indicators 9.2 Industry 9.3 Shopping and commerce

10 Transport 11 Education 12 Sports and recreation 13 Notable citizens 14 International relations

14.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

15 Honour 16 Gallery 17 See also 18 References 19 External links

Name[edit]

Ancient settlements with names related to "deva". Pulpudeva denotes Plovdiv
Plovdiv
in which the latter name is rooted.

Map describing the city as "Philippopolis, que et Poneropolis, Duloupolis, Eumolpiada, item Trimontium, at que Pulpudena"

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was given various names throughout its long history. The Odrysian
Odrysian
capital Odryssa (Greek: ΟΔΡΥΣΣΑ, Latin: ODRYFA) is suggested to have been modern Plovdiv
Plovdiv
by numismatic research[8][9] or Odrin.[10] The Greek historian Theopompus[11] mentioned it in the 4th century BCE as a town named Poneropolis (Greek: ΠΟΝΗΡΟΠΟΛΙΣ "town of villains") in pejorative relation to the conquest by king Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
who is said to have settled the town with 2,000 men who were false-accusers, sycophants, lawyers, and other possible disreputables.[12] According to Plutarch, the town was named by this king after he had populated it with a crew of rogues and vagabonds,[13] but this is possibly a folk name that did not actually exist.[10] The names Dulon polis (Greek: ΔΟΥΛΩΝ ΠΟΛΙΣ "slaves' town") and possibly Moichopolis (Greek: ΜΟΙΧΟΠΟΛΙΣ "adulterer's town") likely have similar origins.[citation needed] The city has been called Philippopolis (ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΙΣ pronounced [pilpopolis]; Greek: Φιλιππούπολη, Philippoupoli pronounced [filpupoli]) or "the city of Philip", from Greek Philipos "horselover", most likely in honor of Philip II of Macedon[14] after his death or in honor of Philip V,[8][15] as this name was first mentioned in the 2nd century BCE by Polybius
Polybius
in connection with the campaign of Philip V.[8][15] Philippopolis was identified later by Plutarch
Plutarch
and Pliny as the former Poneropolis. Strabo
Strabo
identified Philip II's settlement of most "evil, wicked" (ponerotatus) as Calybe (Kabyle),[16] whereas Ptolemy
Ptolemy
considered the location of Poneropolis different than the rest. Kendrisia (Greek: ΚΕΝΔΡΕΙϹΕΙΑ) was an old name of the city.[6] Its earliest recorded use is on an artifact mentioning that king Beithys, priest of the Syrian goddess, brought gifts to Kendriso Apollo;[17] the deity is recorded to be named multiple times after different cities. Later Roman coins mentioned the name which is possibly derived from Thracian god Kendriso who is equated with Appolo,[18] the cedar forests, or from the Thracian tribe artifacts known as the kendrisi.[6][15] Another assumed name is the 1st century CE Tiberias in honor of the Roman emperor Tiberius, under whom the Odrysian
Odrysian
Kingdom was a client of Rome.[10] After the Romans
Romans
had taken control of the area, the city was named in Latin: TRIMONTIUM, meaning "The Three Hills", and mentioned in the 1st century by Pliny. At times the name was Ulpia, Flavia, Julia after the Roman families. Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
wrote in the 4th century CE that the then city had been the old Eumolpias/Eumolpiada, (Latin: EVMOLPIAS, EVMOLPIADA),[19] the oldest name chronologically.[10] It was named after the mythical Thracian king Eumolpos, son of Poseidon[20] or Jupiter,[21] who may have founded the city around 1200 BCE[22] or 1350 BCE,.[23] It is also possible that it was named after the Vestal Virgins in the temples - evmolpeya.[6] In the 6th century CE, Jordanes
Jordanes
wrote that the former name of the city was Pulpudeva (Latin: PVLPVDEVA) and that Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
named the city after himself. This name is most likely a Thracian oral translation[6] of the other as it kept all consonants of the name Philip + deva (city). Although the two names sound similar, they may not share the same origin as Odrin
Odrin
and Adrianople
Adrianople
do, and Pulpudeva may have predated the other names[24][25] meaning "lake city" in Thracian.[15] Since the 9th century CE the Slavic name began to appear as Papaldiv/n Plo(v)div, Pladiv, Pladin, Plapdiv, Plovdin, which evolved from a Thracian variant Pulpudeva.[26] As a result, the name has lost any meaning. In British English the Bulgarian variant Plòvdiv has become prevalent after World War I.[24] The Crusaders mentioned the city as Prineople, Sinople and Phinepople.[15] The Ottomans called the city Filibe, a corruption of "Philip", in a document from 1448.[27] Geography[edit]

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
seen from space

A view around the banks of the Maritsa.

A view of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
with the Balkan mountains in the background.

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is located on the banks of the Maritsa
Maritsa
river, southeast of the Bulgarian capital Sofia. The city is in the southern part of the Plain of Plovdiv, an alluvial plain that forms the western portion of the Upper Thracian Plain. From there, the peaks of the Sredna Gora mountain range rise to the northwest, the Chirpan
Chirpan
Heights to the east, and the Rhodope mountains
Rhodope mountains
to the south.[28] Originally, Plovdiv's development occurred south of Maritsa, with expansion across the river taking place only within the last 100 years. Modern Plovdiv
Plovdiv
covers an area of 101 km2 (39 sq mi), less than 0.1% of Bulgaria's total area. It is the most densely populated city in Bulgaria, with 3,769 inhabitants per km2. Inside the city proper are six syenite hills. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were seven syenite hills, but one (Markovo tepe) was destroyed. Three of them are called the Three Hills (Bulgarian: Трихълмие Trihalmie), the others are called the Hill
Hill
of the Youth (Bulgarian: Младежки хълм, Mladezhki halm), the Hill of the Liberators (Bulgarian: Хълм на освободителите, Halm na osvoboditelite), and the Hill
Hill
of Danov (Bulgarian: Данов хълм, Danov halm).[29] Climate[edit] Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with considerable humid continental influences. There are four distinct seasons with large temperature jumps between seasons. Summer (mid May to late September) is hot, moderately dry, and sunny with July and August having an average high of 33 °C (91 °F). Plovdiv
Plovdiv
sometimes experiences very hot days which are typical in the interior of the country. Summer nights are mild. Autumn starts in late September; days are long and relatively warm in early autumn. The nights become chilly by September. The first frost usually occurs by November. Winter is normally cold and snow is common. The average number of days with snow coverage in Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is 15. The average depth of snow coverage is 2 to 4 cm (1 to 2 in), and the maximum is normally 6 to 13 cm (2 to 5 in), but some winters coverage can reach 70 cm (28 in) or more. The average January temperature is −0.4 °C (31 °F). Spring begins in March and is cooler than autumn. The frost season ends in March. The days are mild and relatively warm in mid spring. The average relative humidity is 73% and is highest in December at 86% and lowest in August at 62%. The total precipitation is 540 mm (21.26 in) and is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The wettest months of the year are May and June, with an average precipitation of 66.2 mm (2.61 in), and the driest month is August, with an average precipitation of 31 mm (1.22 in). Gentle winds (0 to 5 m/s) are predominant in the city with wind speeds of up to 1 m/s, representing 95% of all winds during the year. Mists are common in the cooler months, especially along the banks of the Maritsa. On average there are 33 days with mist during the year.[30]

Climate data for Plovdiv
Plovdiv
(1952-2017)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 23.0 (73.4) 24.0 (75.2) 30.0 (86) 34.2 (93.6) 36.0 (96.8) 41.0 (105.8) 45.0 (113) 42.5 (108.5) 37.6 (99.7) 36.8 (98.2) 27.0 (80.6) 22.9 (73.2) 45.0 (113)

Average high °C (°F) 7.0 (44.6) 9.0 (48.2) 14.0 (57.2) 20.4 (68.7) 25.0 (77) 29.0 (84.2) 33.0 (91.4) 32.5 (90.5) 27.0 (80.6) 22.0 (71.6) 13.5 (56.3) 8.0 (46.4) 18.5 (65.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 0.9 (33.6) 3.2 (37.8) 7.2 (45) 12.3 (54.1) 17.3 (63.1) 21.5 (70.7) 23.9 (75) 23.2 (73.8) 19.0 (66.2) 13.1 (55.6) 6.9 (44.4) 2.3 (36.1) 12.7 (54.9)

Average low °C (°F) −3.0 (26.6) −1.5 (29.3) 2.0 (35.6) 8.0 (46.4) 11.0 (51.8) 15.0 (59) 19.0 (66.2) 17.5 (63.5) 12.6 (54.7) 7.6 (45.7) 2.6 (36.7) −2.5 (27.5) 7.1 (44.8)

Record low °C (°F) −31.5 (−24.7) −16.4 (2.5) −14.4 (6.1) −4.7 (23.5) 0.0 (32) 4.0 (39.2) 5.0 (41) 8.0 (46.4) 1.0 (33.8) −10.2 (13.6) −9.8 (14.4) −19.0 (−2.2) −31.5 (−24.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 27 (1.06) 34 (1.34) 37 (1.46) 41 (1.61) 77 (3.03) 57 (2.24) 39 (1.54) 43 (1.69) 35 (1.38) 37 (1.46) 36 (1.42) 39 (1.54) 502 (19.76)

Average precipitation days 4.8 5.1 5.8 4.7 6.5 6.2 3.8 3.1 3.1 3.9 5.8 6.2 60.7

Average relative humidity (%) 76 67 60 53 53 50 45 46 48 59 69 76 59

Mean monthly sunshine hours 94 110 170 200 252 281 328 315 230 162 120 77 2,339

Source #1: Climatebase.ru

Source #2: Danish Meteorological Institute (sun and relative humidity),[31]

History[edit] Main articles: History of Plovdiv, Timeline of Plovdiv, and Philippopolis (Thracia)

History of Plovdiv

Timeline of events

6000-5000 BC Establishment of the earliest settlements on the territory of modern Plovdiv
Plovdiv
(Yasa Tepe 1 and Yasa Tepe 2)

5th century BC Ancient Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was incorporated into the Odrysian
Odrysian
kingdom

347–342 BC The Thracian town was conquered by Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
who named it Philippopolis

46 Philippopolis was incorporated into the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by emperor Claudius

1st–3rd century Philippopolis became the central city of the Roman province
Roman province
Thracia

250 The whole city was burned down by the Goths

4th century Philippopolis regained its previous size. The city was part of the Eastern Roman Empire

836 Khan Malamir incorporated the city into the First Bulgarian Empire

976–1014 Basil II based his army in Philippopolis during the war with Samuel of Bulgaria

1189 The city was conquered by the crusader army of Frederick Barbarossa

1205 Philippoupolis was conquered and raided by the Latin Empire
Latin Empire
and Kaloyan of Bulgaria

1371 Phillipopolis was conquered by the Ottomans. The city name was changed to Filibe

January 1878 Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was liberated from Ottoman rule during the Battle of Philippopolis

July 1878 Plovdiv
Plovdiv
became capital of Eastern Rumelia

1885 Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is at the center of the events that led to the Bulgarian unification

1920–1960 Period of industrialization

1970-1980 Discovery of the archeological sights in Plovdiv, the Old town was restored

1999 Plovdiv
Plovdiv
hosted European Cultural Month

2014 Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was awarded the title European capital of culture
European capital of culture
2019

Antiquity[edit]

Plan of the known parts of the Roman city superimposed on a plan of modern Plovdiv.

"This Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is the biggest and loveliest of all cities. Its beauty shines from faraway..."

Roman writer Lucian.

Part of a series on the ancient city of

Philippopolis

Buildings and structures

Public

 • Theatre  • Stadium  • Forum  • Odeon  • Library

Religious

 • Great Basilica  • Small Basilica  • Synagouge

Fortification

 • Nebet Tepe  • Hisar Kapia  • Eastern gate

Residential

 • Eirene Residence

Related topics

 • History • Timeline

v t e

The history of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
spans more than eight millennia. Numerous nations have left their traces on the twelve-metre-thick (39-foot) cultural layers of the city. The earliest signs of habitation on the territory of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
date as far back as the 6th millennium BCE.[5][6] Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has settlement traces including necropolises dating from the Neolithic
Neolithic
era, roughly 6000-5000 BCE, like the mounds Yasa Tepe 1 in Philipovo district and Yasa Tepe 2 in Lauta park.[32][33][34] Archaeologists have discovered fine pottery[35] and objects of everyday life on Nebet Tepe
Nebet Tepe
from as early as the Chalcolithicera , showing that at the end of the 4th millennium BCE, there was already an established settlement there which was continuously inhabited since then.[36][37][38] Thracian necropolises dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE have been discovered, while the Thracian town was established between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BCE.[39] The town was a fort of the independent local Thracian tribe Bessi.[40] In 516 BCE during the rule of Darius the Great, Thrace
Thrace
was included in the Persian empire.[41] In 492 BCE, the Persian general Mardonius subjected Thrace
Thrace
again, and it became nominally a vassal of Persia until 479 BCE and the early rule of Xerxes I.[42] The town was included in the Odrysian
Odrysian
kingdom (460 BCE-46 CE), a Thracian tribal union. The town was conquered by Philip II of Macedon,[43] and the Odrysian
Odrysian
king was deposed in 342 BCE. Ten years after the Macedonian invasion, the Thracian kings started to exercise power again after the Odrysian
Odrysian
Seuthes III had re-established their kingdom under Macedonian suzerainty as a result of a somehow successful revolt against Alexander the Great's rule resulting in a stalemate.[44] The Odrysian kingdom gradually overcome the Macedonian suzerainty, while the city was destroyed by the Celts
Celts
as part of the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe, most likely in the 270s BC.[45] In 183 BCE, Philip V of Macedon conquered the city, but shortly after, the Thracians re-conquered it. In 72 BCE, the city was seized by the Roman general Marcus Lucullus but was soon restored to Thracian control. In 46 CE, the city was finally incorporated into the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by emperor Claudius;[46] it served as capital of the province of Thrace
Thrace
and gained city status in the late 1st century.[47] Trimontium was an important crossroad for the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and was called "the largest and most beautiful of all cities" by Lucian. Although it was not the capital of the Province of Thrace, the city was the largest and most important centre in the province.[48] As such, the city was the seat of the Union of Thracians.[49] In those times, the Via Militaris
Via Militaris
(or Via Diagonalis), the most important military road in the Balkans, passed through the city.[50][51] The Roman times were a period of growth and cultural excellence.[52] The ancient ruins tell a story of a vibrant, growing city with numerous public buildings, shrines, baths, theatres, a stadium, and the only developed ancient water supply system in Bulgaria. The city had an advanced water system and sewage. In 179 CE, a second wall was built to encompass Trimontium which had already extended out of the Three hills into the valley. Many of those are still preserved and can be seen by tourists. Today only a small part of the ancient city has been excavated.[53] In 250 CE, the whole city was burned down by the Goths
Goths
who were led by their ruler Cniva. Many of its citizens, 100,000 according to Ammianus Marcellinus, died or were taken captive.[54] It took a century and hard work to recover the city. However, it was destroyed again by Attila's Huns
Huns
in 441-442 CE and by the Goths
Goths
of Teodoric Strabo
Strabo
in 471 CE.[55] Middle Ages[edit]

Monument of Krum in Plovdiv, who was the first Bulgarian ruler to capture Plovdiv.

The Slavs
Slavs
had fully settled in the area by the middle of the 6th century CE. This was done peacefully as there are no any records for their attacks.[56] With the establishment of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 681 CE, Philippoupolis, the name of the city then, became an important border fortress of the Byzantine Empire. It was captured by Khan Krum in 812 CE, but the region was fully incorporated into the Bulgarian Empire in 834 CE during the reign of Khan Malamir.[57] It was reconquered by the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in 855–856 CE for a short time until it was returned to Boris I of Bulgaria.[58][59] From Philippoupolis, the influence of dualistic doctrines spread to Bulgaria
Bulgaria
forming the basis of the Bogomil
Bogomil
heresy. The city possibly remained in Bulgarian hands until 970 CE.[60] However, the city is described at the time of Constantine VII
Constantine VII
in the 10th century as being within the Byzantine province (theme of Macedonia). The historian John Fine describes Philippopolis as being a Byzantine possession at the time it was sacked by the ruler of Rus' Sviatoslav I of Kiev
Sviatoslav I of Kiev
in 969 CE who impaled 20,000 citizens.[61] Before and after the Rus' massacre, the city was settled by Paulician
Paulician
heretics transported from Syria and Armenia
Armenia
to serve as military settlers on the European frontier with Bulgaria. Aime de Varennes in 1180 CE encountered the singing of Byzantine songs in the city that recounted the deeds of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and his predecessors over 1300 years before.[62] Byzantine rule was interrupted by the Third crusade(1189-1192) when the army of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick Barbarossa
Frederick Barbarossa
conquered Philippopolis. Ivanko was appointed as the governor of the Byzantine Theme of Philippopolis in 1196 CE, but between 1198 and 1200 separated it from Byzantium in a union with Bulgaria. The Latin Empire
Latin Empire
conquered Philippoupolis in 1204 CE, and there were two short interregnum periods as the city was twice occupied by Kaloyan of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
before his death in 1207.[63] In 1208 CE, Kaloyan's successor Boril was defeated by the Latins in the Battle of Philippopolis.[64] Under Latin rule, Philippopolis was the capital of the Duchy of Philippopolis, which was governed by Renier de Trit and later on by Gerard de Strem. The city was possibly at times a vassal of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
or Venice. Ivan Asen II conquered the duchy finally in 1230 but the city had possibly been conquered earlier.[65] Afterwards, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was conquered by Byzantium. According to some information, by 1300 Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was a possession of Theodore Svetoslav
Theodore Svetoslav
of Bulgaria. It was conquered from Byzantium by George Terter II of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1322.[66] Andronikos III Palaiologos unsuccessfully besieged the city, but a treaty restored Byzantine rule once again in 1323 CE. In 1344 the city and eight other cities were surrendered to Bulgaria
Bulgaria
by the regency for John V Palaiologos as the price for Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria's support in the Byzantine civil war of 1341–47.[67] Ottoman Rule[edit] In 1364 CE, the Ottoman Turks under Lala Shahin Pasha seized Plovdiv.[68][69] According to other data, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was not Ottoman until the Battle of Maritsa
Maritsa
in 1371 CE, after which, the citizens and the Bulgarian army fled leaving the city without resistance. Refugees settled in Stanimaka. During the Ottoman Interregnum
Ottoman Interregnum
in 1410 CE, Musa Çelebi conquered the city killing and displacing inhabitants.[70] The city was the centre of the Rumelia Eyalet
Rumelia Eyalet
between 1364–1443 CE, a sanjak centre of it between 1443-1593 CE, the sanjak centre in Silistra Eyalet
Silistra Eyalet
between 1593-1826 CE, the sanjak centre in Eyalet of Adrianople
Adrianople
between 1826-1867 CE, and the sanjak centre of Edirne Vilayet between 1867–1878 CE. During that period Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was a major economic center along with Constantinople, Edirne, and Thessaloniki. The richer citizens constructed beautiful houses many of which can still be seen in the Architectural reserve Old Plovdiv. National revival[edit] Main article: Bulgarian National Revival

The Virgin Mary Church.

Under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, Filibe (as the city was known at that time) was a focal point for the Bulgarian national movement and survived as one of the major cultural centers for Bulgarian culture and tradition. Filibe was described as consisting of Turks, Bulgarians, Hellenized Bulgarians, Armenians, Jews, Vlachs, Arvanites, Greeks, and Roma people. In the 16-17 century a significant number of Sephardic
Sephardic
Jews settled along with a smaller Armenian community from Galicia. The Paulicians adopted Catholicism or lost their identity. The abolition of Slavonic as the language of the Bulgarian Church as well as the complete abolition of the church in 1767 CE and the introduction of the Millet System led to ethnic division among people of different religions. Christian and Muslim Bulgarians
Bulgarians
were subjected to Hellenization
Hellenization
and Turkification
Turkification
respectively. A major part of the inhabitants was fully or partly Hellenized due to the Greek patriarchate. The "Langeris" are described as Greeks
Greeks
from the area of the nearby Stenimachos. The process of Hellenization
Hellenization
flourished until the 1830s but declined with the Tanzimat
Tanzimat
as the idea of the Hellenic nation of Christians
Christians
grew and was associated with ethnic Greeks. The re-establishment of the Bulgarian Church in 1870 was a sign of ethnic and national consciousness. Thus, although there is a little doubt about the Bulgarian origin of the Gulidas, the city could be considered of Greek or Bulgarian majority in the 19th century.[71] Raymond Detrez has suggested that when the Gudilas and Langeris claimed to be Greek it was more in the sense of "Romei than Ellines, in a cultural rather than an ethnic sense".[72] According to the statistics by the Bulgarian and Greek authors, there are no Turks in the city, according to an alternative estimate the city was of Turkish majority.[73] Filibe had an important role in the struggle for Church independence which was, according to some historians, a peaceful bourgeois revolution. Filibe became the center of that struggle with leaders such as Nayden Gerov, Dr Valkovich, Joakim Gruev, and whole families. In 1836 the first Bulgarian school was inaugurated, and in 1850, modern secular education began when the "St Cyrill and Metodius" school was opened. On May 11, 1858, the day of Saints Cyril and Methodius was celebrated for the first time; this later became a National holiday which is still celebrated today (but on the 24th May due to Bulgaria's 1916 transition from the Old Style
Old Style
(Julian) to the New Style (Gregorian) calendar. In 1858 in the Church of Virgin Mary, the Christmas liturgy was served for the first time in the Bulgarian language since the beginning of the Ottoman occupation. Until 1906 there were Bulgarian and Greek bishops in the city. In 1868 the school expanded into the first grammar school. Some of the intellectuals, politicians, and spiritual leaders of the nation graduated that school.[15] The city was conquered by the Russians
Russians
under Aleksandr Burago
Aleksandr Burago
for several hours during the Battle of Philippopolis on January 17, 1878.[69] It was the capital of the Provisional Russian Administration in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
between May and October. According to the Russian census of the same year Filibe had a population of 24,000 citizens, of which ethnic Bulgarians
Bulgarians
comprised 45.4%, Turks - 23.1% and Greeks
Greeks
- 19.9%. Eastern Rumelia[edit] Main article: Bulgarian unification

Nebet Tepe, drawing from The Graphic - London, 1885

Taat tepe, in Plovdiv, with the governor's palace and Maritsa
Maritsa
river in the foreground. Drawing from The Graphic - London, 1885

According to the Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of San Stefano
on March 3, 1878, the Principality of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
included the lands with predominantly Bulgarian population. Plovdiv
Plovdiv
which was the biggest and most vibrant Bulgarian city was selected as a capital of the restored country and for a seat of the Temporary Russian Government.[74] Great Britain and Austria-Hungary, however, did not approve that treaty and the final result of the war was concluded in the Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
which divided the newly liberated country into several parts. It separated the autonomous region of Eastern Rumelia
Eastern Rumelia
from Bulgaria, and Plovdiv became its capital. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
created a constitution and appointed a governor.[75] In the spring of 1885, Zahari Stoyanov
Zahari Stoyanov
formed the Secret Bulgarian Central Revolutionary Committee in the city which actively conducted propaganda for the unification of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Eastern Rumelia. On September 5, several hundred armed rebels from Golyamo Konare (now Saedinenie) marched to Plovdiv. In the night of 5–6 September these men, led by Danail Nikolaev, took control of the city and removed from office the General-Governor Gavril Krastevich. A provisional government was formed led by Georgi Stranski, and universal mobilization was announced.[76] After the Serbs were defeated in the Serbo-Bulgarian War, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Turkey
Turkey
reached an agreement that the Principality of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Eastern Rumelia
Eastern Rumelia
had a common government, Parliament, administration, and army. Today September 6 is celebrated as the Unification Day and the Day of Plovdiv. Recent history[edit] After the unification, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
remained the second most populous city in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
after the capital Sofia. The first railway in the city was built in 1874 connecting it with the Ottoman capital, and in 1888, it was linked with Sofia. In 1892 Plovdiv
Plovdiv
became host of the First Bulgarian Fair with international participation which was succeeded by the International Fair Plovdiv. After the liberation, the first brewery was inaugurated in the city. In the beginning of the 20th century, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
grew as a significant industrial and commercial center with well-developed light and food industry. In 1927 the electrification of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has started. German, French, and Belgian
Belgian
capital was invested in the city in development of modern trade, banking, and industry. In 1939 there were 16,000 craftsmen and 17,000 workers in manufacturing factories, mainly for food and tobacco processing. During the Second World War, the tobacco industry expanded as well as the export of fruit and vegetables. In 1943, 1,500 Jews
Jews
were saved from deportation in concentration camps by the archbishop of Plovdiv, Cyril, who later became the Bulgarian Patriarch. In 1944 the city was bombed by British-American coalition. Tobacco
Tobacco
Depot workers went on strike on May the 4th, 1953. On 6 April 1956 the first trolleybus line was opened and in the 1950s the Trimontsium Hotel was constructed. In the 1960s and 1970s, there was a construction boom and many of the modern neighborhoods took shape. In the 1970s and 1980s, antique remains were excavated and the Old Town was fully restored. In 1990 the sports complex "Plovdiv" was finished. It included the largest stadium and rowing canal in the country. In that period, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
became the birthplace of Bulgaria's movement for democratic reform, which by 1989 had garnered enough support to enter government. Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has hosted specialized exhibitions of the World's Fair
World's Fair
in 1981, 1985, and 1991. Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was the first geographic location to be featured as a theme day in Reddit's Picturegame[77]

Population[edit] The population by permanent address for the municipality of Plovdiv for 2007 is 380,682,[78] which makes it the second in population in the nation. According to the data of the National Institute of Statistics (NSI), the people who actually live in Plovdiv
Plovdiv
are 346,790.[79] According to the 2012 census, 339,077 live within the city limits and 403,153 in the municipal triangle of Plovdiv, including Maritsa
Maritsa
municipality and Rodopi municipality.[80] Population of Plovdiv:

Plovdiv

Year 1887 1910 1934 1946 1956 1965 1975 1985 1992 2001 2005 2009 2011 2013

Population 33,032 47,981 99,883 126,563 161,836 225,508 299,638 342,131 341,058 338,224 341,9 338,2 338,153 341,041

Highest number 348,465 in 2009

Sources: National Statistical Institute,[81][82] „citypopulation.de“,[83] „pop-stat.mashke.org“,[84] Bulgarian Academy of Sciences[85]

At the first census after the Liberation of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1880 with 24,053 citizens,[86] Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is the second largest city behind Ruse, which had 26,163 citizens then,[87] and ahead of the capital Sofia, which had 20,501 citizens then. As of the 1887 census, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was the largest city in the country for several years with 33,032 inhabitants compared to 30,428 for Sofia. According to the 1946 census, Plovdiv was the second largest city with 126,563 inhabitants compared to 487,000 for the capital.[74] Ethnicity and religion[edit] Demographics of the Ottoman city by ethnoreligious groups

Year[88] Muslims Christians Roma Jews

1472 81.7% 18.3%

1489 87.1% 8.2% 3.5%

1490(households)[89] 796 78 33

1516 86.7% 7% 2.8% 2.5%

1525 85.2% 7.5% 3.2% 3%

1530 82.1% 9.1% 3.8% 3.7%

1570 82% 9.3% 2.7% 5.4%

1595 78.2% 14% 2.9% 4.8%

1614 68.3% 22.6% 7.7% 4.1%

1695(people)[70] 1108 (81%) 295

Population of the Ottoman kaza by ethnic groups:

Year Bulgarians Turks Muslim Roma Christian Roma Greeks Armenians Jews

1876[90] 80 107 35 400 5474 495 3700 380 691

Population by ethnic groups under Russian administration, Eastern Rumelia and Bulgaria:

Census Total Bulgarians Turks Jews Greeks Armenians Roma Others Unspecified

1878 24 053[91] 10 909 (45.35%) 5558 (23.10%) 1134 (4.71%) 4781 (19.88%) 806 (3.35%) 865 (3.60%) 902 (3.75%)

1884[92] 33 442 16 752 (50,09%) 7144 (21,36%) 2168 (6,48%) 5497 (16,44%) 979 (2,93%) 112 902 (2,70%)

1887 33 032 19 542 5615 2202 3930 903 348 492

1892 36 033 20 854 6381 2696 3906 1024 237 935

1900 43 033 24 170 4708 3602 3908 1844 1934 2869

1910 47 981 32 727 2946 4436 1571 1794 3524 983

1920 64 415 46 889 5605 5144 1071 3773 1342 591

1926 84 655 63 268 4748 5612 549 5881 2746 1851

1934 99 883 77 449 6102 5574 340 5316 2728 2374

1939 105 643 (100%) 82 012 (77,63%) 6462 (6,12%) 5960 (5,64%) 200 (0,19%) 6591 (6,24%) 2982 (2,82%) 1436 (1,36%)

2001[93] 338,224 302 858 (89.5%) 22,501 (6.7%)

5,192 (1.5%) 5,764 (1.7%) 1,909

2011[94][95] 338,153 277 804 (89.9%) 16 032 (5,2%)

9,438 (3.1%) 1436 (1,36%) 31,774

In its ethnic character Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is the second or the third-largest cosmopolitan city inhabited by Bulgarians, after Sofia
Sofia
and possibly Varna. According to the 2001 census, out of a population of 338,224 inhabitants, the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
numbered 302,858 (90%). Stolipinovo
Stolipinovo
in Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is the largest Roma neighbourhood in the Balkans, having a population of around 20,000 alone; further Roma ghettos are Hadji Hassan Mahala and Sheker Mahala. Therefore, the census number is a deflation of the number of Roma people, and they are most likely the second-largest group after the Bulgarians, most of all because the Muslim Roma
Muslim Roma
in Plovdiv
Plovdiv
claim to be of Turkish ethnicity and Turkish-speaking at the census (" Xoraxane
Xoraxane
Roma").[96] For further information see the article Roma people
Roma people
in Plovdiv. Like elsewhere in the country, Roma people
Roma people
are subjected to discrimination and segregation (See the Bulgaria
Bulgaria
section of the article Antiziganism). After the Wars for National Union ( Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
and World War I), the city became home for thousands of refugees from the former Bulgarian lands in Macedonia, Western and Eastern Thrace. Many of the old neighbourhoods are still referred to as Belomorski, Vardarski. Most of the Jews
Jews
left the city after the foundation of Israel
Israel
in 1948, as well as most of the Turks and Greeks. Prior to the population exchange, as of 1 January 1885, the city of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
had a population of 33,442, of which 16,752 were Bulgarians
Bulgarians
(50%), 7,144 Turks (21%), 5,497 Greeks (16%), 2,168 Jews
Jews
(6%), 1,061 Armenians
Armenians
(3%), 151 Italians, 112 Germans, 112 Romani people, 80 French people, 61 Russians
Russians
and 304 people of other nationalities.[92] The vast majority of the inhabitants are Christians, mostly Eastern Orthodox, Catholics, Eastern Catholics, and Protestant trends (Adventists, Baptists
Baptists
and others). There are also some Muslims
Muslims
and Jews. In Plovdiv
Plovdiv
there are many churches, two mosques and one synagogue (see Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Synagogue).

The Virgin Mary Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church

The Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Synagogue

A Protestant church

The St Louis Roman Catholic Cathedral

St George Armenian Church

The Dzhumaya Mosque

The Orthodox seminary

City
City
government[edit] Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is the administrative center of Plovdiv Province
Plovdiv Province
which consists of the Municipality of Plovdiv, the Maritsa
Maritsa
municipality, and the Rodopi municipality. The mayor of the Municipality of Plovdiv, Ivan Totev,[97] with the six district mayors represent the local executive authorities. The Municipal Council which consists of 51 municipal counselors, represents the legislative power, and is elected according to the proportional system by parties' lists.[98] The executive government of the Municipality of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
consists of a mayor who is elected by majority representation, five deputy mayors, and one administrative secretary. All the deputy mayors and the secretary control their administrative structured units. According to the Law for the territorial subdivision of the Capital municipality and the large cities,[99] the territory of Plovdiv Municipality is subdivided into six district administrations with their mayors being appointed following approval by the Municipal Council. Districts and neighbourhoods[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Number Neighbourhood Number Neighbourhood Number Neighbourhood Number Neighbourhood

1 Center 12 Sadiiski 23 Hristo Smirnenski 34 Sheker Mahala

2 Old Town 13 Stochna Gara 24 Proslav

3 Kamenitsa 1 14 Kyutchuk Paris 25 Mladezhki Halm

4 Kamenitsa 2 15 Vastannicheski 26 Otdih i Kultura

5 Izgrev 16 Belomorski 27 Marasha

6 Stolipinovo 17 Institut po Ovoshtarstvo 28 Maritsa
Maritsa
Sever

7 Izgrev 18 Ostromila 29 Zaharna Fabrika

8 Industrial zone - East 19 Yuzhen 30 Karshiaka

9 Trakia 20 Tsentralna Gara 31 Gagarin

10 Industrial zone - Trakia 21 Komatevo 32 Industrial Zone - North

11 Industrial zone - South 22 Komatevski Vazel 33 Filipovo

In 1969 the villages of Proslav and Komatevo were incorporated into the city. In 1987 the municipalities of Maritsa
Maritsa
and Rodopi were separated from Plovdiv
Plovdiv
which remained their administrative center. In the last several years, the inhabitants from those villages had taken steps to rejoin the "urban" municipality.[100] Main sights[edit] The city has more than 200 archaeological sites,[101] 30 of which are of national importance. There are many remains from antiquity. Plovdiv is among the few cities with two ancient theatres; remains of the medieval walls and towers; Ottoman baths and mosques; a well-preserved old quarter from the National Revival period with beautiful houses; churches; and narrow paved streets. There are numerous museums, art, galleries and cultural institutions. Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is host to musical, theatrical, and film events. The city is a starting point for trips to places in the region, such as the Bachkovo Monastery
Bachkovo Monastery
at 30 km (19 mi) to the south, the ski-resort Pamporovo
Pamporovo
at 90 km (56 mi) to the south or the spa resorts to the north Hisarya, Banya, Krasnovo, and Strelcha.[102] Roman City[edit]

Theatre

Nebet Tepe

Hisar Kapia

Eastern Gate

Stadium

Great Basilica

Small Basilica

Forum

Odeon

Library

Synagogue

Eirene Residence

Ancient monuments in Plovdiv

The Ancient theatre (Antichen teatur) is probably the best-known monument from antiquity in Bulgaria.[103] During recent archaeological survey, an inscription was found on a postament of a statue at the theatre. It revealed that the site was constructed at the 90s of the 1st century CE. The inscription itself refers to Titus Flavius Cotis, the ruler of the ancient city during the reign of Emperor Domitian. The Ancient theatre is situated in the natural saddle between two of the Three Hills. It is divided into two parts with 14 rows each divided with a horizontal lane. The theatre could accommodate up to 7,000 people.[104] The three-story scene is on the southern part and is decorated with friezes, cornices, and statues. The theatre was studied, conserved, and restored between 1968 and 1984. Many events are still held on the scene[105] including the Opera Festival
Festival
Opera Open, the Rock Festival
Festival
Sounds of the Ages, and the International Folklore festival. The Roman Odeon was restored in 2004.[106] It was built in the 2nd–5th centuries and is the second (and smaller) antique theatre of Philipopolis with 350 seats. It was initially built as a bulevterion, an edifice of the city council, and was later reconstructed as a theatre. The Ancient Stadium[107] is another important monument of the ancient city. It was built in the 2nd century during the reign of the Roman Emperor Hadrian. It is situated between Danov Hill
Hill
and one of the Three Hills, beneath the main street from Dzhumaya Square to Kamenitsa Square. It was modeled after the stadium in Delphi. It was approximately 240 metres (790 feet) long and 50 metres (160 feet) wide, and could seat up to 30,000 spectators. The athletic games at the stadium were organised by the General Assembly of the province of Thrace. In their honour the royal mint of Philippopolis coined money featuring the face of the ruling emperor as well as the types of athletic events held in the stadium. Only a small part of the northern section with 14 seat rows can be seen today; the larger part lies under the main street and a number of buildings. The Roman forum dates from the reign of Vespasian
Vespasian
in the 1st century and was finished in the 2nd century. It is near the modern post office next to the Odeon. It has an area of 11 hectares and was surrounded by shops and public buildings. The forum was a focal point of the streets of the ancient city.[108] The Eirene Residence is in the southern part of the Three Hills on the northern part of an ancient street in the Archeological underpass. It includes remains of a public building from the 3rd–4th centuries which belonged to a noble citizen. Eirene is the Christian name for Penelopa, a maiden from Megadon, who was converted to Christianity in the 2nd century. There are colourful mosaics which have geometrical forms and figures.[109] On Nebet hill are the remains of the first settlement which in 12th century BC grew to the Thracian city of Eumolpias, one of the first cities in Southeastern Europe. Massive walls surrounding a temple and a palace have been excavated. The oldest part of the fortress was constructed from large syenite blocks, the so-called "cyclopean construction".

Ancient monuments

Theatre

Stadium

Odeon

Forum

Bishop basilica

Small basilica

The Eastern Gate

3rd century round tower

Mosaics in Eirene residence

Aqueduct

Nebet Tepe

Museums and protected sites[edit] The Archaeological Museum
Museum
was established in 1882 as the People's Museum
Museum
of Eastern Rumelia.[110] In 1928 the museum was moved to a 19th-century edifice on Saedinenie Square built by Plovdiv
Plovdiv
architect Josef Schnitter. The museum contains a rich collection of Thracian art. The three sections "Prehistory",[111] "Antiquity",[112] and "Middle Ages"[113] contain precious artifacts from the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
to the early Ottoman period (15th–16th centuries).[114] The famous Panagyurishte treasure
Panagyurishte treasure
is part of the museum's collection.[115] The Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Regional Historical Museum[116] was founded in 1951 as a scientific and cultural institute for collecting, saving, and researching historical evidence about Plovdiv
Plovdiv
and the surrounding region from 16th to 20th centuries. The exhibition is situated in three buildings.[114] The Plovdiv Regional Ethnographic Museum
Plovdiv Regional Ethnographic Museum
was inaugurated in 1917. On October 14, 1943 it was moved to a house in the Old Town. In 1949 the Municipal House-museum was reorganized as a People's Ethnographic Museum
Museum
and in 1962 it was renovated. There are more than 40,000 objects.[114] The Museum
Museum
of Natural Science was inaugurated in 1955 in the old edifice of the Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Municipality built in 1880. It is among the most important museums in the country with rich collections in its Paleontology, Mineralogy, and Botanic sections. There are several rooms for wildlife and it contains Bulgaria's largest freshwater aquarium with 40 fish species.[114] It has a collection of minerals from the Rhodope mountains. The Museum
Museum
of Aviation was established on September 21, 1991 on the territory of the Krumovo
Krumovo
airbase[117] 12 km (7 mi) to the southeast of the city. The museum possesses 59 aircraft and indoor and outdoor exhibitions.[114] The Old Town of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is a historic preservation site known for its Bulgarian Renaissance architectural style. The Old Town covers the area of the three central hills (Трихълмие, Trihalmie). Almost every house in the Old Town has its characteristic exterior and interior decoration.

The Old Town

Balabanov House (left)

Lamartine House

Church of St Constantine and Helena

Klianti House

Street in the old town

Hisar gate with the ethnographical museum

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Regional Ethnographic Museum

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Regional Historical Museum

Hindliyan House

Churches, mosques and temples[edit] There are a number of 19th-century churches, most of which follow the distinctive Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
construction style. They are the Saint Constantine and Saint Helena, the Saint Marina, the Saint Nedelya, the Saint Petka, and the Holy Mother of God Churches. As the city has been a gatehring center for Orthodox Christians
Christians
for a long period of time, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is surrounded by several monasteries located at the foot of the Rhodope Mountains
Rhodope Mountains
such as "St. George", "St. Kozma and Damian", St. Kirik, and Yulita(Ulita). They remain good examples of the late Middle Age Orthodox architecture and iconography masterpieces typical for the region. There are also Roman Catholic cathedrals in Plovdiv, the Cathedral of St Louisbeing the largest. There are several more modern Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, and other Protestant churches, as well as older style Apostolic churches. Two mosques remain in Plovdiv
Plovdiv
from the time of Ottoman rule. The Djumaya Mosque is considered the oldest European mosque outside Moorish Spain. The Sephardic
Sephardic
Plovdiv Synagogue
Plovdiv Synagogue
is at Tsar Kaloyan Street 13 in the remnants of a small courtyard in what was once a large Jewish quarter. Dating to the 19th century, it is one of the best-preserved examples of the so-called "Ottoman-style" synagogues in the Balkans. According to author Ruth E. Gruber, the interior of the Plovdiv Synagogue
Plovdiv Synagogue
is a "hidden treasure…a glorious, if run-down, burst of color." An exquisite Venetian glass chandelier hangs from the center of the ceiling, which has a richly painted dome. All surfaces are covered in elaborate, Moorish-style, geometric designs in once-bright greens and blues. Torah scrolls are kept in the gilded Aron-ha-Kodesh.[118] Culture[edit] Theatre and music[edit]

A preserved medieval street in the Old town

A performance in the Roman Odeon

The Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Drama Theatre[119] is a successor of the first professional theatre group in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
founded in 1881. The Plovdiv Puppet Theatre, founded in 1948, remains one of the leading institutions in this genre. The Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Opera was established in 1953. Another pillar of Plovdiv's culture is the Philharmonic, founded in 1945.[120] Soloists such as Dmitri Shostakovich, Sviatoslav Richter, Mstislav Rostropovich, Yuri Boukov, and Mincho Minchev have worked with the Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Philharmonic. The orchestra has toured in almost all of the European countries. The Trakiya Folklore Ensemble, founded in 1974, has performed thousands of concerts in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and more than 42 countries.[121] The Trakiya Traditional Choir was nominated for a Grammy Award. The Detska Kitka Choir is one of the oldest and best-known youth choirs in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and the winner of numerous awards from international choral competitions. The Evmolpeya choir is another girls' choir from Plovdiv, whose establishing patron, Ivan Chomakov, became the then mayor in 2006. The choir was appointed a Goodwill Ambassador and a municipal choir. Literature[edit] Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is among the nation's primary literary centres. In 1855 Hristo G. Danov created the first Bulgarian publishing company and printing-press.[122] The city's traditions as a literary centre are preserved by the first public library in Bulgaria, the Ivan Vazov National Library, the 19 chitalishta (cultural centres), and by numerous booksellers and publishers. The library was founded in 1879[123] and named after the famous Bulgarian writer and poet Ivan Vazov who worked in Plovdiv
Plovdiv
for five years creating some of his best works.[124] Today the Ivan Vazov National Library
Ivan Vazov National Library
is the second largest national library institution with more than 1.5 million books,[125] owning rare Bulgarian and European publications. Arts[edit]

The Art Gallery of Plovdiv

The city has traditions in iconography since the Middle Ages. During the Period of National Revival, a number of notable icon-painters (called in Bulgarian zografi, зографи) from all regions of the country worked in Plovdiv
Plovdiv
such as – Dimitar Zograf, his son Zafir Zograf, Zahari Zograf, Georgi Danchov, and others.[69] After the Liberation, the Bulgarian painter of Czech origin Ivan Mrkvička
Ivan Mrkvička
came to work in the city. The Painters' Society was established there by artists from southern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1912 whose members included painters Zlatyu Boyadzhiev, Tsanko Lavrenov
Tsanko Lavrenov
and Sirak Skitnik. Today the city has more than 40 art galleries with most of them being privately owned. The Art Gallery of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was founded in the late 19th century.[126] It possesses 5,000 pieces of art in four buildings. Since 1981, it has had a section for Mexican art donated by Mexican painters in honour of the 1,300-year anniversary of the Bulgarian State. European Capital of Culture[edit] On September 5, 2014, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was selected as Bulgarian host of European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2019.[7] The city will co-host the event with Matera
Matera
and another city (yet to be decided). After Plovdiv
Plovdiv
was elected as European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2019, an ambitious cultural program has started its realisation. According to this program, there will be an Island of Arts in the middle of the Maritsa River
Maritsa River
in Plovdiv. The "Kapana" area (the "Trap") will become a quarter of the arts where the creative industries are going to be developed and presented. This famous area, Kapana, was renovated in 2014, restoring its authentic outlook. It has been used for number of festivals and art events, attracting visitors from all over Bulgaria and the world. For 2019 the City
City
Under the Hills is planning a number of concerts, including "Balkan Music in Plovdiv".The city will host the Plovdiv Biennale and a number of international forums, such as a meeting of collectors from Europe, a summer art school, dance projects, etc.[127] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Plovdiv

GVA by sector (2013)   Agriculture (5%)   Industry (57%)   Services (38%)

Employees by sector (2014)    Manufacturing
Manufacturing
(36%)    Commerce
Commerce
(16%)   Education (8%)   Healthcare (7%)    Transport
Transport
(6%)   Other (27%)

Although it is located in the middle of a rich agricultural region, Plovdiv's economy has shifted from agriculture to industry since the beginning of the 20th century. Food processing, tobacco, brewing, and textiles formed the pillars of the industrial economic shift.[128] During Communist rule, the city's economy expanded and was dominated by heavy industry. After the fall of Communism
Communism
in 1989 and the collapse of Bulgaria's planned economy, a number of industrial complexes were closed; production of lead and zinc, machinery, electronics, motor trucks, chemicals, and cosmetics have continued. Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has one of the country's largest economies and contributes 7.5% of Bulgaria's GDP as of 2014[update].[129] In 2014, more than 35 thousand companies operate in the region which create jobs for 285,000 people.[129] The advantages of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
include the central geographic location, good infrastructure, and large population. Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has international airport, terminal for intermodal transport, several connections with Trakia motorway
Trakia motorway
(connecting Sofia
Sofia
and Burgas), proximity to Maritsa
Maritsa
motorway (the main corridor to Turkey), and well-developed road and rail infrastructure which all led to the development of the city as the leading city in terms of industrial output in Bulgaria. The economy of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has long tradition in manufacturing, commerce, transport, communications, and tourism. Apart from the industrial development of Plovdiv, there has been a significant surge in the IT and outsourcing service sector in the recent years, as well as a double digit increase in the tourism growth in the city every year for the past 5 years.[130] Economic Indicators[edit]

Indicator Unit 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

GDP BGN million 5,539 6,062 6,178 6,374 6,273

Share in Bulgaria's GDP % 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.8 7.5

GDP per capita BGN 7,924 8,888 9,087 9,394 9,268

Population Number 696,300 680,884 678,860 678,197 675,586

Average annual number of employees under labor contract Number 208,438 207,599 205,876 203,933 207,057

Average salary of employees under labor contract BGN 6,462 6,889 7,418 7,922 8,504

Economic activity rate % 64.9 64.2 67.7 70.7 71.7

Unemployment rate % 8.5 8.8 11.2 13.4 13.1

FDI EUR million 1.118 1.259 1.340 1.648 1.546

Source: The National Statistical Institute[129] Industry[edit] Industry has been the sole leader in attracting investment. Industry has been expanding since the late 1990s, with manufacturing plants being built in the city or in its outskirts mainly the municipality of Maritsa. In this period, some €500,000,000 has been invested in construction of new factories. Trakia Economic Zone
Trakia Economic Zone
which is one of the largest industrial zones in Eastern Europe, is located around Plovdiv. Some of the biggest companies in the region include the Austrian utility company EVN, PIMK (transport), Insa Oil (fuels), Liebherr
Liebherr
(refrigerator plant), Magna International
Magna International
9automotive industry), Bella Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(food manufacturing), Socotab (tobacco processing), ABB Group, Schneider Electric, Osram, Sensata Technologies, etc. Shopping and commerce[edit] The commercial sector is developing quickly. Shopping centers have been built mainly in the Central district and the district of Trakiya. Those include Shopping Center Grand,[131] Market Center,[132] and two more all on the Kapitan Raycho Street,[132] Forum in Trakiya, Excelsior, and others. Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has three large shopping centers: the €40 million Mall of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
(opened 2009) with a shopping area of 22,000 m2 (236,806.03 sq ft), 11 cinema halls, and parking for 700 cars;[133] Markovo tepe
Markovo tepe
Mall (opened 2016);[134] and Galeria Mall which is 6 stories high with 127 000 m2 area, half of which is the parking lot and the rest is shopping area. Due to high demand for business office space, new office and commercial buildings have been built. Several hypermarkets have been built mainly on the outskirts of the city: Metro, Kaufland, Triumf, Praktiker, Billa, Mr. Bricolage, Baumax, Technopolis, Technomarket Europa, and others. The main shopping area is the central street with its shops, cafés, and restaurants. A number of cafés, craftsmen workshops, and souvenir shops are in the Old Town and the small streets in the centre, known among the locals as "The Trap" (Bulgarian: Капана). The Plovdiv
Plovdiv
International Fair, held annually since 1892, is the largest and oldest fair in the country and all of southeastern Europe, gathering companies from all over the world in an exhibition area of 138,000 m2 (1,485,419.64 sq ft) located on a territory of 352,000 m2 (3,788,896.47 sq ft) on the northern banks of the Maristsa river.[135] It attracts more than 600,000 visitors from many countries.[136] The city has had a duty-free zone since 1987. It has a customs terminal handling cargo from trucks and trains.[136]

Mall Plovdiv

Galeria Mall

Markovo Tepe Mall

Forum Trakia shopping center

Transport[edit]

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Central railway station.

Plovdiv's geographical position makes it an international transport hub. Three of the ten Pan-European corridors
Pan-European corridors
run into or near the city: Corridor IV (Dresden–Bucharest–Sofia-Plovdiv- Istanbul), Corridor VIII (Durrës-Sofia-Plovdiv-Varna/Burgas), and Corridor X (Salzburg–Belgrade-Plovdiv-Istanbul).[137][138] A major tourist centre, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
lies at the foot of the Rhodope Mountains, and most people wishing to explore the mountains choose it as their trip's starting point. The city is a major road and railway hub in southern Bulgaria with[139] the Trakia motorway
Trakia motorway
(A1) only 5 km (3 mi) to the north. It lies on the important national route from Sofia
Sofia
to Burgas via Stara Zagora. First-class roads lead to Sofia
Sofia
to the west, Karlovo to the north, Asenovgrad, Kardzhali
Kardzhali
to the south, and Stara Zagora
Stara Zagora
and Haskovo
Haskovo
to the east. There are intercity buses which link Plovdiv
Plovdiv
with cities and towns all over the country and many European countries. They are based in three bus stations: South, Rodopi, and North. Railway transport in the city dates back to 1872 when it became a station on the Lyubimets–Belovo railway line. There are railway lines to Sofia, Panagyurishte, Karlovo, Peshtera, Stara Zagora, Dimitrovgrad, and Asenovgrad. There are three railway stations: – Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Central, Trakia, and Filipovo – as well as a freight station.[137] Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has a large public transport system[140] including around 29 main and 10 extra bus lines. However, there are no trams in the city, and the Plovdiv
Plovdiv
trolleybus system was closed in autumn 2012.[141] Six bridges span the Maritsa
Maritsa
river including a railway bridge and a covered bridge. There are important road junctions to the south, southwest, and north.

Map of Plovdiv's cycling infrastructure Green: built Orange: planned

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has a well-developed cycling infrastructure which covers almost all districts of the city. The total length of the cycling roads is 60 kilometres (37 miles) (48 kilometres (30 miles) are completed and 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) are under construction). The city has a total of 690 bike parkings.

Cycling Infrastructure

The number of registered private automobiles in the city increased from 178,104 in 2005 to 234,298 in 2009.[142] There are around 658 cars per 1,000 inhabitants[143]

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Airport.

The Plovdiv
Plovdiv
International Airport is near the village of Krumovo, 5 km (3 mi) southeast of the city. It takes charter flights from Europe and has scheduled services with Ryanair to London and Frankfurt-Hahn and S7 to Moscow. Many small airports are in the city's surroundings, including the Graf Ignatievo Air Base
Graf Ignatievo Air Base
in Graf Ignatievo to the north of Plovdiv. The BIAF Airshow is held every two years on the Krumovo
Krumovo
airbase and is one of the biggest airshows in the Balkans.[citation needed] Education[edit] Around two thirds of the citizens (62,38%) have secondary, specialized, or higher education. That percentage increased from 1992 to 2001.[144] Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has 78 schools including elementary, high, foreign language, mathematics, technical, and art schools. There are also 10 private schools and a seminary. The number of pupils in 2005 was 36,964 and has been constantly decreasing since the mid-1990 due to lower birth rate.[144] Among the most prestigious schools are the English Language School, the High School of Mathematics, the Ivan Vazov
Ivan Vazov
Language School, the National Schools of Commerce – Plovdiv,[145] the English Academy,[146] the Academy of Music, Dance and Fine Arts Plovdiv,[147] and the French High School of Plovdiv.[148] The city has six universities and a number of state and private colleges and branches of other universities. Those include Plovdiv University,[149] with 900 lecturers and employees and 13,000 students; the Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Medical University, with 2,600 students;[150] the Medical College; the Technical University of Sofia – Branch Plovdiv;[151] the Agricultural University – Plovdiv;[152] the University of Food Technologies;[153] the Academy for Music, Dance and Fine Arts;[154] and others.[144] The 2009 International Olympiad in Informatics
International Olympiad in Informatics
(IOI) was held at the University of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
"Paisiy Hilendarski", between 8 and 15 August 2009. The 2009 IOI Honorary Patron was Bulgarian President Georgi Parvanov.[citation needed] Between 1875 and 1906, the Zariphios School
Zariphios School
was one of the local Greek educational institutions that provided elementary and secondary education.[155] Sports and recreation[edit] Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Sports Complex consists of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Stadium with several additional football fields, tennis courts, swimming pools, a rowing base with a 2 km-long channel, restaurants, and cafés in a spacious park in the western part of the city just south of the Maritsa
Maritsa
river. There are also playgrounds for children. It is popular among the citizens and guests of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
who use it for jogging, walking, and relaxation. Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Stadium (55,000 seats) is the largest football venue in Bulgaria.[156] Other stadiums include Stadion Botev, Lokomotiv (10,000 seats), Maritsa
Maritsa
Stadium (5,000 seats), and Todor Diev Stadium
Todor Diev Stadium
(7,000 seats). There are seven indoor sports halls: Kolodruma, University Hall, Olimpia, Lokomotiv, Dunav, Stroitel, Chaika, Akademik, and Total Sport. In 2006, Aqualand, a water park, was opened near the city centre.[157] Several smaller water parks are in the city as well.

Sport Facilities

Velodrome

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Stadium and sport complex

Rowing base

Lokomotiv Stadium

Hristo Botev Stadium

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
University sports hall

Football is the most popular sport in the city; Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has three professional teams. The city has PFC Botev Plovdiv, founded in 1912 and PFC Lokomotiv, founded in 1926.[158] Both teams are a regular fixture in the top Bulgarian league. The rivalry between them is considered to be even more fierce than the one between Levski and CSKA of Sofia. There are two other football clubs in the city – Maritsa FC (founded in 1921) and Spartak Plovdiv
Plovdiv
(1947).[159] Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is host of the international boxing tournament "Strandzha" which has taken place since 1949.[160] In 2007, 96 boxers from 20 countries participated in the tournament. There is a horse racing club and a horse base near the city. Plovdiv
Plovdiv
has several volleyball and basketball teams.

A view from the "signing fountains" in Tsar Simeon's garden.

A view from the City
City
garden.

Three of the city's seven hills are protected natural territories since 1995. Two of the first parks in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
are located in the city center  – Tsar Simeon garden - city garden, where the very first work of the Italian sculptor Arnoldo Zocchi
Arnoldo Zocchi
could be seen, and Dondukov garden - old city garden. Some of the larger parks include the Botanical garden, Beli Brezi, Ribnitsa, and Lauta. Notable citizens[edit]

Hristo Stoichkov

Zlatyu Boyadzhiev – (1903-1976), painter Ivan Vazov – (1850-1921), writer Boris Christoff – (1914-1993), basso Hristo G. Danov – (1828-1911), publisher Konstantin Stoilov – (1853-1901), former Prime Minister of Bulgaria George Ganchev – (born 1939), fencer, actor, writer, politician Nayden Gerov – (1823-1900), linguist, folklorist and writer Georgi Ivanov – cosmonaut Asen Kisimov – actor Stefka Kostadinova – world-record holder in the women's high jump Dimcho Debelyanov – writer Andrey Lyapchev – former Prime Minister of Bulgaria Apostolos Nikolaidis – athlete Todor Kableshkov – revolutionary Pencho Slaveykov – writer Sava Mutkurov – former Regent of Bulgaria, the chief architect of the Bulgarian unification Petko Karavelov – revolutionary Ivan Evstratiev Geshov – former Prime Minister of Bulgaria Tsvetana Pironkova – Bulgarian number-one tennis player and world number 40 The birthplace of Silvena Rowe – British chef, food writer, television personality and restaurateur Slavik Tabakov – medical physicist, President IOMP Hristo Stoichkov – football player Petar Stoyanov – former President of Bulgaria Yordan Yovkov – writer Aleksandar Malinov – former Prime Minister of Bulgaria Christos Tsigiridis  – electrical engineer and technological pioneer Zhan Videnov – former Prime Minister of Bulgaria Yordan Yovchev – gymnast Ivan Mrkvička
Ivan Mrkvička
 – painter Milcho Leviev  – musician Ivan Andonov – (1934-2011), actor Vladimir Arabadzhiev – (born 1984), racing driver Samuel Finzi – (born 1966), German actor Emma Tahmizian – (born 1957), pianist Serafim Todorov – (born 1969), boxer Sonya Yoncheva – (born 1981), opera singer Miroslav Barnyashev – (born 1984), professional wrestler, currently performing under the name of Rusev. Georgi Hristov – (born 1985), professional footballer, currently playing for the Tampa Bay Rowdies. Iva Prandzheva, long jumper and triple jumper

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Bulgaria Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Sign showing Plovdiv
Plovdiv
's sister cities.

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is twinned with the following cities:[161][162]

Brno, Czech Republic. Gyumri, Armenia.[163][164] Bursa, Turkey[165] Columbia, United States. Daegu, South Korea. Gyumri, Armenia. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Istanbul, Turkey. Surigao City, Philippines

Ivanovo, Russia. Košice, Slovakia. (since 2000)[166] Kumanovo, Macedonia. Kutaisi, Georgia. Leskovac, Serbia. Gornji Milanovac, Serbia. Luoyang, China. Ohrid, Macedonia.

Okayama, Japan. Petra, Jordan. Poznań, Poland. Rome, Italy Saint Petersburg, Russia. Thessaloniki, Greece.[167] Valencia, Venezuela. Kastoria, Greece. (since 2005)[168]

Honour[edit] The asteroid (minor planet) 3860 Plovdiv
Plovdiv
is named after the city. It was discovered by the Belgian
Belgian
astronomer Eric W. Elst and the Bulgarian astronomer Violeta G. Ivanova on August 8, 1986. Plovdiv Peak (1,040 m or 3,412 ft) on Livingston Island
Livingston Island
in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, is also named after Plovdiv. Gallery[edit]

A panoramic view

Looking down one of the streets in Plovdiv.

Plan of the medieval fortress

See also[edit]

List of airports in Bulgaria List of cities and towns in Bulgaria List of mayors of Plovdiv

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
portal Geography portal

References[edit]

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Plovdiv
International Fair". Fair.bg. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ a b Balabanov, G. (2005). This is Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(in Bulgarian and English). Sofia. p. 393. ISBN 954-91672-1-6.  ^ a b Transport
Transport
in Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Archived 4 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ See the map. ^ avtori Evgeni Dinchev ...; et al. (2002). Пътеводител България (in Bulgarian). София: ТАНГРА ТанНакРа ИК. pp. 143–144. ISBN 954-9942-32-5.  ^ "A map of the Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Public transport". Snimka.bg. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ Trolleybus Magazine No. 308 (March–April 2013), p. 47. National Trolleybus Association (UK). ISSN 0266-7452. ^ "Statistics of the European Cities – City
City
of Plovdiv[permanent dead link] (in Bulgarian). ^ "Eurostat. Transport
Transport
in Urban Audit cities, core city". ^ a b c [dead link] "Information for Plovdiv
Plovdiv
– Education". Pd.e-gov.bg. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ "National School of Commerce
Commerce
– Plovdiv". Ntg-plovdiv.net. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ "English Academy Plovdiv". Englishacademybg.com. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ "National School for Music and Dance Art Plovdiv" Archived 1 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Vassil Todorov. "French High School of Plovdiv". Feg.plovdiv.free.fr. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ "University of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
"Paisiy Hilendarski"". Uni-plovdiv.bg. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ "Medical University". Meduniversity-plovdiv.bg. 29 June 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ "Technical University of Sofia, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
branch". Tu-plovdiv.bg. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ "University of Agriculture". Au-plovdiv.bg. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ University of Food Technologies. Archived 10 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Academy of Music, Dance and Fine Arts. Archived 6 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Cornis-Pope, Marcel; Neubauer, John (2006). History of the literary cultures of East-Central Europe: junctures and disjunctures in the 19th and 20th centuries. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 143. ISBN 978-960-98903-5-9.  ^ "World Stadiums". World Stadiums. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ webmaster (4 August 2006). "Aqualand". Plovdivguide.com. Archived from the original on 3 November 2006. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ "Official site of Lokomotiv Plòvdiv". Lokomotivpd.com. 28 May 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ "Spartak Plovdiv". Spartakpd.info. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ "International boxing tournament Strandzha". Boxing.mdkbg.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ " Plovdiv
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Sister cities". Plovdiv.bg. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ " Plovdiv
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Twinning". Retrieved 3 July 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ Gyumri: Sister Cities Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Plovdiv: Sister Cities Archived 13 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved 2013-07-27.  ^ "Twin cities of the City
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has yet another sister city". Retrieved 1 March 2015. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Plovdiv.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Plovdiv.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Philippopolis.

Official website Tourism
Tourism
department - Visit Plovdiv The history of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
– short YouTube movie Pictures from Plovdiv
Plovdiv
(the old town) The Ancient Plovdiv Small Basilica, Plovdiv http://www.romanplovdiv.org/bg/small-basilica Plovdiv
Plovdiv
web page and virtual tour Ancient Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Municipal Institute Map of Plovdiv Information for Plovdiv
Plovdiv
(in Bulgarian) The Ancient Stadium and the Ancient city of Philippopolis Translation Agency ARTO Education for Democracy Center Virtual tour around Plovdiv "Night of museums and galleries – Plovdiv" Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Tours Plovdiv
Plovdiv
2019 Foundation - Capital of Culture

v t e

City
City
of Plovdiv

Geography

Areas

Thrace

Rivers

Maritsa
Maritsa
River

Hills

Markovo tepe Nebet Bunardzhika Sahat Taksim Dzhambaz Dzhendem

Landmarks

Roman

Ancient theatre Ancient Stadium Roman Forum Great Basilica Small Basilica

Temples

Cathedral of St Louis Church of the Holy Mother of God Church of St Constantine and Helena Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Synagogue Dzhumaya Mosque

Museums

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Regional Historical Museum Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Regional Ethnographic Museum

Other

Ivan Vazov
Ivan Vazov
National Library International Fair Plovdiv Alyosha Monument

Sports

PFC Botev Plovdiv PFC Lokomotiv Plovdiv FC Maritsa
Maritsa
Plovdiv FC Spartak Plovdiv Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Stadium Hristo Botev Stadium Lokomotiv Stadium Todor Diev Stadium

Education

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
University

Events

The Golden Chest A Scene on Crossroad

Transportation

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Airport Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Central railway station Plovdiv
Plovdiv
trolleybus system

People

List of people from Plovdiv

History

Timeline

v t e

Ancient City
City
of Plovdiv

Theatre Stadium Forum Nebet Tepe Great Basilica Small Basilica Odeon Hisar Kapia Synagouge Library Eirene Residence Eastern gate

v t e

Cities and towns of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(2011 census)

1,000,000+

Sofia
Sofia
(capital)

300,000+

Plovdiv Varna

200,000+

Burgas

100,000+

Pleven Ruse Stara Zagora

50,000+

Asenovgrad Blagoevgrad Dobrich Gabrovo Haskovo Pazardzhik Pernik Shumen Sliven Veliko Tarnovo Vratsa Yambol

20,000+

Aytos Botevgrad Dimitrovgrad Dupnitsa Gorna Oryahovitsa Kardzhali Karlovo Kazanlak Kyustendil Lom Lovech Montana Nova Zagora Petrich Razgrad Samokov Sandanski Sevlievo Silistra Smolyan Svishtov Targovishte Troyan Velingrad Vidin

10,000+

Balchik Bankya Berkovitsa Byala Slatina Cherven Bryag Chirpan Elhovo Etropole Gotse Delchev Harmanli Ihtiman Karnobat Kavarna Knezha Kostinbrod Kozloduy Mezdra Nesebar Novi Iskar Novi Pazar Panagyurishte Parvomay Pavlikeni Peshtera Pomorie Popovo Provadia Radnevo Radomir Rakovski Razlog Stamboliyski Svilengrad

5,000+

Aksakovo Bansko Belene Belogradchik Beloslav Bobov Dol Bozhurishte Byala, Ruse Province Chepelare Devin Devnya Dolni Chiflik Dryanovo Dulovo Elena Elin Pelin Galabovo General Toshevo Hisarya Isperih Kostenets Kotel Krichim Krumovgrad Kubrat Kuklen Levski Lukovit Lyaskovets Lyubimets Madan Momchilgrad Omurtag Oryahovo Perushtitsa Pirdop Rakitovo Saedinenie Septemvri Simeonovgrad Simitli Slivnitsa Sopot, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Province Sredets Straldzha Svoge Tervel Teteven Topolovgrad Tryavna Tsarevo Tutrakan Tvarditsa Varshets Veliki Preslav Yakoruda Zlatitsa Zlatograd

2,000+

Aheloy Apriltsi Ardino Batak Batanovtsi Belitsa Belovo Borovo Bratsigovo Bregovo Breznik Byala Chernomorets Dalgopol Debelets Dobrinishte Dolna Banya Dolna Mitropoliya Dolna Oryahovitsa Dolni Dabnik Dospat Dragoman Dunavtsi Dve Mogili Dzhebel Glodzhevo Godech Gulyantsi Gurkovo Hadzhidimovo Ignatievo* Iskar Ivaylovgrad Kableshkovo Kalofer Kameno Kaspichan Kilifarevo Klisura Kocherinovo Koprivshtitsa Kostandovo Koynare Kresna Kran Krivodol Kula Laki Letnitsa Loznitsa Maglizh Malko Tarnovo Marten Мizia Nedelino Nikolaevo Nikopol Obzor Opaka Pavel Banya Polski Trambesh Pordim Pravets Primorsko Rila Roman Rudozem Sadovo Sapareva Banya Sarnitsa Shabla Shivachevo Slavyanovo Slivo Pole Smyadovo Sozopol Strazhitsa Strelcha Sungurlare Suvorovo Sveti Vlas Tran Trastenik Tsar Kaloyan Ugarchin Valchedram Valchi Dol Varbitsa Vetovo Vetren Yablanitsa Zavet Zlataritsa

1,000+

Ahtopol Alfatar Antonovo Balgarovo Boboshevo Bolyarovo Boychinovtsi Brusartsi Byala Cherkva Chiprovtsi Dimovo Glavinitsa Gramada Kaolinovo Kermen Merichleri Momin Prohod Plachkovtsi Senovo Shipka Suhindol Zemen

500+

Kiten Madzharovo Pliska

499-

Melnik

Notes

city status after the census of 01.02.2011: Ignatievo, Kran

v t e

Municipalities of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Province

Asenovgrad Brezovo Hisarya Kaloyanovo Karlovo Krichim Kuklen Laki Maritsa Parvomay Perushtitsa
Perushtitsa
Municipality Plovdiv Rakovski Rodopi Sadovo Saedinenie Sopot Stamboliyski

v t e

Districts of Plovdiv

Central Northern Southern Eastern Western Trakiya

v t e

Maritsa
Maritsa
Municipality

Capital: Plovdiv

Villages

Benkovski Dink Graf Ignatievo Kalekovets Kostievo Krislovo Manole Manolsko Konare Radinovo Rogosh Skutare Stroevo Trilistnik Trud Tsaratsovo Voivodinovo Voisil Yasno Pole Zhelyazno

v t e

Rodopi Municipality

Capital: Plovdiv

Villages

Belashtitsa Boykovo Branipole Brestnik Brestovitsa Churen Dedovo Hrabrino Izvor Kadievo Krumovo Lilkovo Markovo Orizari Parvenets Sitovo Skobelevo Tsalapitsa Ustina Yagodovo Zlatitrap

Landmarks

Belashtitsa Monastery Sitovo inscription

Culture

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
International Airport

Notable people

Vanja Gesheva-Tsvetkova

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

Coordinates: 42°9′N 24°45′E / 42.150°N 24.750°E / 42.150; 24.750

Authority control

GND: 4076178-2 BNF: cb1197

.