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PLATERESQUE, meaning "in the manner of a silversmith" (Plata means silver in Spanish ), was an artistic movement, especially architectural , developed in Spain
Spain
and its territories , which appeared between the late Gothic and early Renaissance
Renaissance
in the late 15th century, and spread over the next two centuries. It is a modification of Gothic spatial concepts and an eclectic blend of Mudéjar
Mudéjar
, Flamboyant
Flamboyant
Gothic and Lombard decorative components, as well as Renaissance
Renaissance
elements of Tuscan origin.

Examples of this syncretism are the inclusion of shields and pinnacles on facades, columns built in the Renaissance
Renaissance
neoclassical manner, and facades divided into three parts (in Renaissance architecture they are divided into two). It reached its peak during the reign of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
, especially in Salamanca , but also flourished in other such cities of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
as León and Burgos
Burgos
and in the territory of New Spain
New Spain
, which is now Mexico
Mexico
.

Plateresque
Plateresque
has been considered down to current times a Renaissance style by many scholars. To others, it is its own style, and sometimes receives the designation of Protorenaissance. Some even call it First Renaissance
Renaissance
in a refusal to consider it as a style in itself, but to distinguish it from non-Spanish Renaissance
Renaissance
works.

The style is characterized by ornate decorative facades covered with floral designs, chandeliers, festoons , fantastic creatures and all sorts of configurations. The spatial arrangement, however, is more clearly Gothic-inspired. This fixation on specific parts and their spacing, without structural changes of the Gothic pattern, causes it to be often classified as simply a variation of Renaissance
Renaissance
style. In New Spain
New Spain
the Plateresque
Plateresque
acquired its own configuration, clinging tightly to its Mudéjar
Mudéjar
heritage and blending with Native American influences.

In the 19th century with the rise of historicism , the Plateresque architectural style was revived under the name of Monterrey Style .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Problems of geographical area and consideration as Style

* 3 Features

* 3.1 Spanish Plateresque
Plateresque
* 3.2 American Plateresque
Plateresque

* 4 History

* 4.1 Isabelline Style (15th century) * 4.2 Plateresque
Plateresque
Gothic (late 15th century–1530) * 4.3 Plateresque
Plateresque
Renaissance
Renaissance
(1530–1560) * 4.4 Monterrey Style (19th century and first third of 20th century)

* 5 Examples

* 5.1 Plateresque
Plateresque
architects and artists * 5.2 Plateresque
Plateresque
buildings, architectural elements, and other works

* 6 Plateresque
Plateresque
Revival * 7 See also * 8 References

ETYMOLOGY

The name Plateresque
Plateresque
came from the silversmith trade. Diego Ortiz de Zúñiga used it for the first time, applying it to the Royal Chapel of the Cathedral of Seville
Cathedral of Seville
in the 17th century.

PROBLEMS OF GEOGRAPHICAL AREA AND CONSIDERATION AS STYLE

Altar plateresque of the Cistercian monastery of Santa María del Salvador, in Cañas (La Rioja ) Tomb of the Saint Juan de Ortega in the church of the convent of Santa Dorotea, Burgos
Burgos

Traditionally Plateresque
Plateresque
has been considered a style exclusively "Spanish", a term also applied to architecture in the Spanish territories held by the Spanish Crown between the 15th and 17th centuries. But by the mid-20th century this geographical connotation was questioned under the arguments of several authors, especially Camón Aznar (1945) and Rosenthal (1958), who defined Plateresque generically as a unitary amalgam of elements – Gothic, Muslim, and Renaissance. Aznar does not regard it as a style properly denoted as Renaissance, and Rosenthal emphasizes its association with certain buildings in other European countries, mainly France and Portugal, but also Germany and others.

This problem highlights the imprecision of the name Plateresque
Plateresque
and the difficulties inherent in using it to describe productions from a period of confusion and transition between styles, especially since they are characterized by decorative profusion suggesting an attempt to disguise the failure of Spanish architects to develop new structural and spatial ideas. It has even been suggested that this problem could be solved by identifying what is called Plateresque
Plateresque
as the replacement of Gothic decoration with grotesques inspired by the works of the Italian Sebastiano Serlio
Sebastiano Serlio
.

Any persuasive argument, however, must admit that the Plateresque
Plateresque
or Protorenaissance was an artistic movement that responded to the demands of the ruling classes of imperial Spain, which had just completed the Reconquista
Reconquista
and begun the colonization of the Americas. The Spanish were developing a consciousness of their growing power and wealth, and in their exuberance launched a period of construction of grand monuments to symbolize these with what are now considered national treasures.

FEATURES

SPANISH PLATERESQUE

Typical Plateresque
Plateresque
facades, like those of altarpieces , were made as carefully as if they were the works of goldsmiths , and decorated as profusely. The decoration, although of various inspirations, was mainly of plant motifs, but also had a profusion of medallions, heraldic devices and animal figures, among others. Plateresque utilized a wealth of materials: gold plates on crests and roofs, vases, etc. There is evidence of more polychrome works at the conclusion of the first third of the 16th century, when there appeared heraldic crests of historical provenance and long balustrades, to mention one kind of less busy decoration.

The proliferation of decoration for all architectural surfaces led to the creation of new surfaces and subspaces, which were in turn decorated profusely, such as niches and aediculas .

Italian elements were also being developed progressively as decoration: rustications , classical capitals , Roman arches and especially grotesques.

The decoration had specific meanings and can not be read as merely decorative; thus laurels, military shields and horns-of-plenty were placed in the houses of military personnel. In a similar vein, Greek and Roman myths were depicted elsewhere to represent abstract humanist ideals, so that the decorative became a means to express and disseminate Renaissance
Renaissance
ideals.

Plataresque implemented and preferred new spatial aspects, so caustrales, or stairs of open boxes, made their appearance. However, there were few spatial changes with respect to the Gothic tradition.

AMERICAN PLATERESQUE

In America, especially in today's Mexico, various indigenous cultures were in certain stages of development that can be considered Baroque when the Spanish brought with them the Plateresque
Plateresque
style. This European phenomenon mixed symbiotically with local traditions, so that pure Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
was not built in America itself, but the Plateresque
Plateresque
mixed with Native American influences, soon evolving into what came to be called American Baroque.

HISTORY

The Plateresque
Plateresque
style follows the line of Isabelline , where decorative elements of Italianate origin combine with Iberian traditional elements to form ornamental complexes that overlay the Gothic structures. We can speak of Plateresque
Plateresque
that retains Gothic forms as a basis until 1530. After that date, although it continued to be used and Plateresque
Plateresque
ornaments were still evolving, it became part of an architecture that was beginning to incorporate Renaissance ideas. In 1563, with the start of construction of the monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial
El Escorial
, the Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture was purified through the interventions of Juan de Herrera
Juan de Herrera
, which ended the splendor and spread of the Plateresque
Plateresque
in the Iberian Peninsula. But in Mexico
Mexico
it was not forgotten, leading to a Neo-Plateresque style in the 18th century.

In any case the Plateresque, considered or not as a style, and whether exclusively Spanish or more broadly European, represents the transition between Gothic and Renaissance
Renaissance
styles.

ISABELLINE STYLE (15TH CENTURY)

Main articles: Isabelline style and Manueline
Manueline

In the 15th century a tendency to decorate with flamboyance began to develop in the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
from Flemish , Islamic and Castilian architecture, which received the name of Isabelline Gothic
Isabelline Gothic
because most of the construction was done at the command of Isabella I of Castile . These ornaments, which were of progressive complexity, did not influence the internal structure of the buildings.

Something similar happened in the same period in Portugal, resulting in what became known as the Manueline
Manueline
style.

PLATERESQUE GOTHIC (LATE 15TH CENTURY–1530)

A movement began in late 15th century Spain
Spain
to disguise Gothic buildings with florid decoration, especially grotesques, but the superficial application of this principle did not change the spatial qualities or architectural structure of those buildings. This process began when the Renaissance
Renaissance
arrived in Spain
Spain
and architects began copying Renaissance
Renaissance
architectural features without understanding the new ideas behind them, that is, without letting go of medieval forms and ideas.

Many of the Plateresque
Plateresque
buildings were already built, to which were added only layers of Renaissance
Renaissance
ornamentation, especially around openings (windows and doors), and in general, all non-architectural elements, with some exceptions.

Although the appellation 'Plateresque' is usually applied to the act of superimposing new Renaissance
Renaissance
elements on forms governed by medieval guidelines in architecture, this trend is also seen in the Spanish painting and sculpture of the time.

PLATERESQUE RENAISSANCE (1530–1560)

This is the period in which the Renaissance
Renaissance
had taken hold on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
, although it had not yet reached its peak there. That event occurred with the amendments by Juan de Herrera
Juan de Herrera
and Philip II of Spain
Spain
to the design of the monastery of El Escorial
El Escorial
, whose construction began in 1563.

By that time the decoration, though still profuse, is completely within Italianate parameters and applied to buildings designed according to the logic of Renaissance
Renaissance
ideas.

MONTERREY STYLE (19TH CENTURY AND FIRST THIRD OF 20TH CENTURY)

Palace of Monterrey Facade of the City Hall of Seville
Seville
in the Plaza de San Francisco work by Diego de Riaño
Diego de Riaño
Main article: Monterrey style

The Monterrey style arose in the 19th century. It was named after the Palace of Monterrey in Salamanca
Salamanca
, which was built in a Neo-Plateresque style, an historicism of the Plateresque.

The style survived until the early 20th century, featured in national and regional 'revivals'. It spread widely, and though not accepted in the critical circles of academia, some examples can be found on the Gran Vía of Madrid
Madrid
.

In Mexico
Mexico
there was also a new iteration of Plateresque
Plateresque
which spread to the Southwestern United States, beginning in the first half of the 18th century. This Neo-plateresque is not to be confused with that of Spain
Spain
at the end of 19th and early 20th centuries, the so-called Monterrey style.

EXAMPLES

PLATERESQUE ARCHITECTS AND ARTISTS

* Of First Plateresque.

* Diego de Alcázar
Alcázar
* Alonso de Covarrubias * Martín de Gainza * Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón
Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón
* Gil de Siloé * Andrés de Vandelvira * Diego de Riaño
Diego de Riaño
* Diego Siloe * Vasco de la Zarza

* Of Neo-Plateresque.

* Eduardo Adaro Magro * José López Sallaberry

PLATERESQUE BUILDINGS, ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS, AND OTHER WORKS

Convento de San Esteban

* The facade of Convent of San Marcos (León). * The Tower of Guadramiro (Salamanca). * El castle of the Calle Maqueda. * La facade of the University of Salamanca
University of Salamanca
. * The Hospital of the Catholic Monarchs of Santiago de Compostela. * The facade of the New Cathedral of Salamanca
Salamanca
. * The facade of the Convent of San Esteban of Salamanca. * The cloister of the Convent of las Dueñas of Salamanca. * The facade of the Church of Sancti Spiritus of Salamanca. * The Palace of Monterrey in Salamanca. * The facade of the Colegio Mayor de San Ildefonso , of the University of Alcalá de Henares
University of Alcalá de Henares
. * The Casa de las Conchas of Salamanca. * The Convent of San Marcos of León. * The City Council of Seville
Seville
. * The facade of Forgiveness and the balcony of the relics of the Cathedral of Coria. * The Gate of la Pellejería of the Cathedral of Burgos
Burgos
. * The Hospital del Rey of Burgos. * The antecrypt and retrochoir of the Cathedral of Palencia
Cathedral of Palencia
. * The University of Oñati . * The Porta Maior of Viveiro
Viveiro
. * The ironworks of the Casa de Pilatos Seville. * The facade of the Church of Santo Tomás in Haro. * The pulpit of the Church of San Andrés Apóstol of Villanueva de los Infantes. * The Main Entrance of the Cathedral of Santa María la Menor of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
. * The House of the Sun of the Hearst Castle
Hearst Castle
of San Simeon, California
California
, USA, based in the Spanish plateresque architecture. * The Administration Building at Texas Tech University which was directly inspired by University of Alcalá
University of Alcalá
. * The Velarde Palace in Santillana del Mar
Santillana del Mar
. * Rosary Cathedral in Toledo, Ohio. * The cloister of the Real Monasterio De San Zoilo , Carrión de los Condes , Palencia

California
California
Building , Bertram Goodhue
Bertram Goodhue
, architect, 1917

PLATERESQUE REVIVAL

In the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture
Spanish Colonial Revival architecture
style centuries later, it was differentiated from the earlier and plainer Mission Revival style with the additional refinement of Plateresque
Plateresque
and Churrigueresque
Churrigueresque
detailing. Bertram Goodhue
Bertram Goodhue
and Carleton Winslow
Carleton Winslow
Sr. studied Spanish Colonial structures in Mexico
Mexico
before designing the 1915 Panama- California
California
Exposition in San Diego, California
California
, that introduced this style to the United States and subsequent widespread popularity.

SEE ALSO

* Churrigueresque
Churrigueresque

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C Bozal, Valeriano; Art
Art
history in Spain: From the origins to the Enlightenment, pp. 157, 165. Ed Akal (1978). ISBN 978-84-7090-025-9 . * ^ A B C D E Arellano, Fernando; The Hispanic American Art, pp. 13–14. Ed. Universidad Católica Andrés (1988). ISBN 978-980-244-017-7 . * ^ A B C Arias de Cossío, Ana María; The Art
Art
of the Spanish Renaissance, pp. 90–91. Ed. Encuentro (2009). ISBN 978-84-7490-909-8 . * ^ Marías, Fernando; The 16th century: Gothic and Renaissance, p. 24. Ed. Silex Ediciones (2002). ISBN 978-84-7737-037-6 . * ^ A B Alonso Ruiz, Begoña; Late Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
in Castile: los Rasines, p. 23. Ed. University of Cantabria (2003). ISBN 978-84-8102-304-6 . * ^ Bendala Galán, Manuel; Manual of the Spanish art, p. 416. Ed. Silex Ediciones (2003). ISBN 978-84-7737-099-4 . * ^ Bendala 2003, p. 739 * ^ Nieto Alcaide, Víctor Manuel; Morales, Alfredo José; Checa Cremades, Fernando; Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture in Spain, 1488–1599, p. 60. Ed. Cátedra (1989). ISBN 978-84-376-0830-3 . * ^ A B Bassegoda Nonell, Juan; History of the architecture, p. 224 * ^ Quesada Marco, Sebastián; Dictionary of Spanish culture and civilization, p. 64. Ed. Akal (1997). ISBN 978-84-7090-305-2 . * ^ A B C Ávila, Ana; Images and symbols in the Spanish painted architecture (1470–1560), pp 80–83. Ed. Anthropos (1993). ISBN 978-84-7658-417-0 . * ^ Amorós, Andrés, y Camarero, Manuel; Annotated Anthology of the Spanish literature: history and texts: 16th century, p. 183. Ed. Castalia (2006). ISBN 978-84-9740-125-8 . * ^ A B Marías, Fernando; El siglo XVU: Gothic and Renaissance, p. 163. Ed. Silex Ediciones (1992). ISBN 978-84-7737-037-6 . * ^ Carpentier, Alejo ; Márquez Rodríguez, Alexis; y García Carranza, Araceli; Recovered steps: Essays of Theory and Literary Criticism, p. 37. Ed. Fundación Biblioteca Ayacucho (2003). ISBN 978-980-276-354-2 . * ^ Navascués Palacio, Pedro, y Alonso Pereira, José Ramón; La Gran Vía de Madrid. Ed. Encuentro (2002). ISBN 978-84-7490-667-7 . * ^ Of San Antonio Gómez, Carlos; The Madrid
Madrid
of the, 98: architecture for a crisis. 1874–1918, p. 132. Ed. Community of Madrid, Ministry of Education and Culture (1998). ISBN 978-84-451-1485-8 . * ^ Zuno Hernández, José Guadalupe; History of the arts in the Mexican Revolution, vol. 2, p. 41. Ed. National Institute of Historical Studies of the Mexican Revolution (1967). * ^ Fernando Chueca Goitia; Ars Hispaniae: Architecture
Architecture
of the 16th century. Ed. Plus-Ultra (1953). * ^ Camón Aznar, José; La arquitectura plateresca. Ed. Instituto Diego Velázquez (1945). * ^ A B C Aguado Bleye, Pedro, y Alcázar
Alcázar
Molina, Cayetano; Manual of History of Spain: Christian Monarchs. House of Habsburg (1474–1700), p. 1064. Ed. Espasa-Calpe (1963). * ^ Soldevila, Ferrán; History of Spain, vol. 3. Ed. Ariel (1999). * ^ Rivas Carmona, Jesús; The retrochoir of spanish cathedrals: a study of an architectural typology, p. 93. Ed. Editum (1994). ISBN 978-84-7684-572-1 . * ^ Bozal, Valeriano; History of the Art
Art
in Spain. From Goya to the present day, p. 67. Ed. Akal (1991). ISBN 978-84-7090-027-3 . * ^ Bueno Fidel, María José; Architecture
Architecture
and nationalism: Spanish pabillions in the 19th century universal expositions, cap. 6. Ed. University of Málaga and Colegio de Arquitectos (1987).

* v * t * e

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