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The Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti (Italian pronunciation: [paˈlattso ˈpitti]), in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast, mainly Renaissance, palace in Florence, Italy. It is situated on the south side of the River Arno, a short distance from the Ponte Vecchio. The core of the present palazzo dates from 1458 and was originally the town residence of Luca Pitti, an ambitious Florentine banker. The palace was bought by the Medici family in 1549 and became the chief residence of the ruling families of the Grand Duchy
Grand Duchy
of Tuscany. It grew as a great treasure house as later generations amassed paintings, plates, jewelry and luxurious possessions. In the late 18th century, the palazzo was used as a power base by Napoleon
Napoleon
and later served for a brief period as the principal royal palace of the newly united Italy. The palace and its contents were donated to the Italian people by King Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
in 1919. The palazzo is now the largest museum complex in Florence. The principal palazzo block, often in a building of this design known as the corps de logis, is 32,000 square metres.[1] It is divided into several principal galleries or museums detailed below.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 The Medici

2 The cortile and extensions

2.1 Houses of Lorraine and Savoy

3 Palatine Gallery

3.1 Rooms of Palatine Gallery[17] 3.2 Principal works of art

4 Other Galleries

4.1 Royal Apartments 4.2 Gallery of Modern Art 4.3 Silver Museum 4.4 Porcelain Museum 4.5 Costume Gallery 4.6 Carriages Museum

5 The Palazzo
Palazzo
today 6 Pastiche 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit]

Luca Pitti
Luca Pitti
(1398–1472) began work on the palazzo in 1458.

Eleonora di Toledo, Duchess of Florence, bought the palazzo from the Pitti in 1549 for the Medici. Portrait after Bronzino.

The construction of this severe and forbidding[2] building was commissioned in 1458 by the Florentine banker Luca Pitti
Luca Pitti
(1398-1472), a principal supporter and friend of Cosimo de' Medici. The early history of the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti is a mixture of fact and myth. Pitti is alleged to have instructed that the windows be larger than the entrance of the Palazzo
Palazzo
Medici. The 16th-century art historian Giorgio Vasari
Vasari
proposed that Brunelleschi was the palazzo's architect, and that his pupil Luca Fancelli
Luca Fancelli
was merely his assistant in the task, but today it is Fancelli who is generally credited.[3] Besides obvious differences from the elder architect's style, Brunelleschi died 12 years before construction of the palazzo began. The design and fenestration suggest that the unknown architect was more experienced in utilitarian domestic architecture than in the humanist rules defined by Alberti in his book De Re Aedificatoria.[4] Though impressive, the original palazzo would have been no rival to the Florentine Medici residences in terms of either size or content. Whoever the architect of the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti was, he was moving against the contemporary flow of fashion. The rusticated stonework gives the palazzo a severe and powerful atmosphere, reinforced by the three-times-repeated series of seven arch-headed apertures, reminiscent of a Roman aqueduct. The Roman-style architecture appealed to the Florentine love of the new style all'antica. This original design has withstood the test of time: the repetitive formula of the façade was continued during the subsequent additions to the palazzo, and its influence can be seen in numerous 16th-century imitations and 19th-century revivals.[4] Work stopped after Pitti suffered financial losses following the death of Cosimo de' Medici
Cosimo de' Medici
in 1464. Luca Pitti died in 1472 with the building unfinished.[5] The Medici[edit]

A lunette painted in 1599 by Giusto Utens, depicts the palazzo before its extensions, with the amphitheatre and the Boboli Gardens
Boboli Gardens
behind. The red stone excavated from the site was used in extensions to the palazzo.

The building was sold in 1549 by Buonaccorso Pitti, a descendant of Luca Pitti, to Eleonora di Toledo. Raised at the luxurious court of Naples, Eleonora was the wife of Cosimo I de' Medici
Cosimo I de' Medici
of Tuscany, later the Grand Duke.[3] On moving into the palace, Cosimo had Vasari enlarge the structure to fit his tastes; the palace was more than doubled by the addition of a new block along the rear. Vasari
Vasari
also built the Vasari
Vasari
Corridor, an above-ground walkway from Cosimo's old palace and the seat of government, the Palazzo
Palazzo
Vecchio, through the Uffizi, above the Ponte Vecchio
Ponte Vecchio
to the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti.[6] This enabled the Grand Duke and his family to move easily and safely from their official residence to the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti. Initially the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti was used mostly for lodging official guests and for occasional functions of the court, while the Medicis' principal residence remained the Palazzo
Palazzo
Vecchio. It was not until the reign of Eleonora's son Francesco I and his wife Johanna of Austria that the palazzo was occupied on a permanent basis and became home to the Medicis' art collection.[7] Land on the Boboli hill at the rear of the palazzo was acquired in order to create a large formal park and gardens, today known as the Boboli Gardens.[3] The landscape architect employed for this was the Medici court artist Niccolò Tribolo, who died the following year; he was quickly succeeded by Bartolommeo Ammanati. The original design of the gardens centred on an amphitheatre, behind the corps de logis of the palazzo.[4] The first play recorded as performed there was Andria by Terence
Terence
in 1476. It was followed by many classically inspired plays of Florentine playwrights such as Giovan Battista Cini. Performed for the amusement of the cultivated Medici court, they featured elaborate sets designed by the court architect Baldassarre Lanci.[8] The cortile and extensions[edit]

19th-century architectural drawing and plan of the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti

With the garden project well in hand, Ammanati turned his attentions to creating a large courtyard immediately behind the principal façade, to link the palazzo to its new garden. This courtyard has heavy-banded channelled rustication that has been widely copied, notably for the Parisian palais of Maria de' Medici, the Luxembourg. In the principal façade Ammanati also created the finestre inginocchiate ("kneeling" windows, in reference to their imagined resemblance to a prie-dieu, a device of Michelangelo's), replacing the entrance bays at each end. During the years 1558–70, Ammanati created a monumental staircase to lead with more pomp to the piano nobile, and he extended the wings on the garden front that embraced a courtyard excavated into the steeply sloping hillside at the same level as the piazza in front, from which it was visible through the central arch of the basement. On the garden side of the courtyard Amannati constructed a grotto, called the "grotto of Moses" on account of the porphyry statue that inhabits it. On the terrace above it, level with the piano nobile windows, Ammanati constructed a fountain centered on the axis; it was later replaced by the Fontana del Carciofo ("Fountain of the Artichoke"), designed by Giambologna's former assistant, Francesco Susini, and completed in 1641.[9] In 1616, a competition was held to design extensions to the principal urban façade by three bays at either end. Giulio Parigi
Giulio Parigi
won the commission; work on the north side began in 1618, and on the south side in 1631 by Alfonso Parigi. During the 18th century, two perpendicular wings were constructed by the architect Giuseppe Ruggeri to enhance and stress the widening of via Romana, which creates a piazza centered on the façade, the prototype of the cour d'honneur that was copied in France. Sporadic lesser additions and alterations were made for many years thereafter under other rulers and architects.[10] To one side of the Gardens is the bizarre grotto designed by Bernardo Buontalenti. The lower façade was begun by Vasari
Vasari
but the architecture of the upper storey is subverted by "dripping" pumice stalactites with the Medici coat of arms at the centre. The interior is similarly poised between architecture and nature; the first chamber has copies of Michelangelo's four unfinished slaves emerging from the corners which seem to carry the vault with an open oculus at its centre and painted as a rustic bower with animals, figures and vegetation. Figures, animals and trees made of stucco and rough pumice adorn the lower walls. A short passage leads to a small second chamber and to a third which has a central fountain with Giambologna's Venus in the centre of the basin, peering fearfully over her shoulder at the four satyrs spitting jets of water at her from the edge.[11] Houses of Lorraine and Savoy[edit] The palazzo remained the principal Medici residence until the last male Medici heir died in 1737. It was then occupied briefly by his sister, the elderly Electress Palatine; on her death, the Medici dynasty became extinct and the palazzo passed to the new Grand Dukes of Tuscany, the Austrian House of Lorraine, in the person of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.[12] The Austrian tenancy was briefly interrupted by Napoleon, who used the palazzo during his period of control over Italy.[13] When Tuscany
Tuscany
passed from the House of Lorraine
House of Lorraine
to the House of Savoy in 1860, the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti was included. After the Risorgimento, when Florence
Florence
was briefly the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II resided in the palazzo until 1871. His grandson, Victor Emmanuel III, presented the palazzo to the nation in 1919.[3] The palazzo and other buildings in the Boboli Gardens
Boboli Gardens
were then divided into five separate art galleries and a museum, housing not only many of its original contents, but priceless artefacts from many other collections acquired by the state. The 140 rooms open to the public are part of an interior, which is in large part a later product than the original portion of the structure, mostly created in two phases, one in the 17th century and the other in the early 18th century. Some earlier interiors remain, and there are still later additions such as the Throne Room. In 2005 the surprise discovery of forgotten 18th-century bathrooms in the palazzo revealed remarkable examples of contemporary plumbing very similar in style to the bathrooms of the 21st century.[14] Palatine Gallery[edit]

See a partial list of work at Collections of Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti

Cornice of the Jupiter Room, showing lunette frescoes and stucco work by Pietro da Cortona.

The Palatine Gallery, the main gallery of Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti, contains a large ensemble of over 500 principally Renaissance
Renaissance
paintings, which were once part of the Medicis' and their successors' private art collection. The gallery, which overflows into the royal apartments, contains works by Raphael, Titian, Perugino (Lamentation over the Dead Christ), Correggio, Peter Paul Rubens, and Pietro da Cortona.[15] The character of the gallery is still that of a private collection, and the works of art are displayed and hung much as they would have been in the grand rooms for which they were intended rather than following a chronological sequence, or arranged according to school of art. The finest rooms were decorated by Pietro da Cortona
Pietro da Cortona
in the high baroque style. Initially Cortona frescoed a small room on the piano nobile called the Sala della Stufa with a series depicting the Four Ages of Man which were very well received; the Age of Gold and Age of Silver were painted in 1637, followed in 1641 by the Age of Bronze and Age of Iron. They are regarded among his masterpieces. The artist was subsequently asked to fresco the grand ducal reception rooms; a suite of five rooms at the front of the palazzo. In these five Planetary Rooms, the hierarchical sequence of the deities is based on Ptolomeic cosmology; Venus, Apollo, Mars, Jupiter (the Medici Throne room) and Saturn, but minus Mercury and the Moon which should have come before Venus. These highly ornate ceilings with frescoes and elaborate stucco work essentially celebrate the Medici lineage and the bestowal of virtuous leadership.[16] Cortona left Florence
Florence
in 1647, and his pupil and collaborator, Ciro Ferri, completed the cycle by the 1660s. They were to inspire the later Planet Rooms at Louis XIV's Versailles, designed by Le Brun. The collection was first opened to the public in the late 18th century, albeit rather reluctantly, by Grand Duke Leopold, Tuscany's first enlightened ruler, keen to obtain popularity after the demise of the Medici.[9] Rooms of Palatine Gallery[17][edit]

Artemisia Gentileschi
Artemisia Gentileschi
Judith and her hand servant with the head of Holofernes 1613-1618

The Palatine Gallery has 28 rooms, among them:

Room of Castagnoli: named after the painter of the ceiling frescoes. In this room are exposed Portraits of the Medici and Lorraine ruling families, and the Table of the Muses, a masterwork of stone-inlaid table realized by the Opificio delle Pietre Dure between 1837 and 1851. Room of the Ark: contains a painting by Giovan Battista Caracciolo (17th century). In 1816, the ceiling was frescoed by Luigi Ademollo with Noah entering Jerusalem with the Ark. Room of Psyche: was named after ceiling frescoes by Giuseppe Collignon; it contains paintings by Salvator Rosa
Salvator Rosa
from 1640–1650. Hall of Poccetti: The frescoes on the vault were once ascribed to Bernardino Poccetti, but now attributed to Matteo Rosselli. In the center of the hall is a table (1716) commissioned by Cosimo III. In the hall are also some works by Rubens and Pontormo. Room of Prometheus: was named after the subject of the frescoes by Giuseppe Collignon (19th century) and contains a large collection of round-shaped paintings: among them is the Madonna with the Child by Filippino Lippi
Filippino Lippi
(15th century), two portraits by Botticelli
Botticelli
and paintings by Pontormo
Pontormo
and Domenico Beccafumi. Room of Justice: has a ceiling frescoed by Antonio Fedi (1771–1843), and displays portraits (16th century) by Titian, Tintoretto
Tintoretto
and Paolo Veronese. Room of Ulysses: was frescoed in 1815 by Gaspare Martellini, it contains early works by Filippino Lippi
Filippino Lippi
and Raphael. Room of Iliad: contains the Madonna of the Family Panciatichi
Madonna of the Family Panciatichi
and the Madonna Passerini
Madonna Passerini
(c- 1522-1523 and 1526 respectively) by Andrea del Sarto, and paintings by Artemisia Gentileschi
Artemisia Gentileschi
(17th century). Room of Saturn: contains a Portrait of Agnolo Doni (1506), the Madonna of the chair(1516), and Portrait of Cardinal Inghirami (1516) by Raphael; it also contains an Annunciation(1528) by Andrea del Sarto, and Jesus and the Evangelists (1516) by Fra Bartolomeo. Room of Jupiter: contains the Veiled Lady, the famous portrait by Raphael
Raphael
(1516) that, according to Vasari, represents the woman loved by the artist. Among the other works in the room, Paintings by Rubens, Andrea del Sarto
Andrea del Sarto
and Perugin

Room of Mars: is characterized by works by Rubens: the allegories representing the Consequences of War (hence the name of the room) and the Four Philosophers (among them Rubens portrayed himself, on the left). On the vault is a fresco by Pietro da Cortona, Triumph of the Medici.

Room of Apollo: contains a Madonna with Saints (1522) by Il Rosso, originally from the Church of Santo Spirito, and two paintings by Titian: a Magdalen and Portrait of an English Nobleman (between 1530 and 1540). Room of Venus: contains the Venere Italica (1810) by Canova commissioned by Napoleon. On the walls are landscapes (1640–50) by Salvator Rosa
Salvator Rosa
and four paintings by Titian, 1510–1545. Among the Titian
Titian
paintings is a Portrait of Pope Julius II (1545) and La Bella (1535). White Hall: once the ball room of the palace, is characterized by the white decorations and is often used for temporary exhibitions.

The Royal Apartments include 14 rooms. Their decoration has been changed to Empire style by the Savoy, but there are still some rooms maintaining decorations and furniture from the age of the Medici. The Green Room, was frescoed by Giuseppe Castagnoli in early 19th Century. It exhibits an Intarsia Cabinet from the 17th century and a Collection of Gilded Bronzes; the Throne Room was decorated for King Vittorio Emanuele II
Vittorio Emanuele II
of Savoy and is characterized by the red brocate on the walls and by the Japanese and Chinese Vases (17th-18th century). The Blue Room contains collected Furniture (17th-18th century) and the Portraits of members of the Medici Family painted by Justus Sustermans (1597–1681). Principal works of art[edit]

Raphael The Granduca Madonna. 84 x 55 cm.

Raphael Madonna of the Canopy. 276 x 224 cm.

Raphael Portrait of Agnolo Doni. 63 x 45 cm.

Raphael Woman with a Veil. 82 x 60 cm.

Raphael Madonna della Seggiola. Diameter 71 cm.

Raphael Vision of Ezekiel. 41 x 30 cm.

Raphael Portrait of Tommaso Inghirami. 90 x 62 cm.

Raphael
Raphael
and Assistants Madonna dell'Impannata. 158 x 125 cm.

Raphael La Donna Gravida. 66 x 52 cm.

Titian Christ the Redeemer. 78 x 55 cm.

Titian The Concert. 87 x 124 cm.

Titian Isabella d'Este. 100 x 75 cm.

Titian Portrait of Vicenzo Monti. 85 x 67 cm.

Titian Portrait of Pope Julius II. 99 x 82 cm.

Titian Mary Magdalene. 84 x 69 cm.

Pieter Paul Rubens The Four Philiosophers. 167 x 143 cm.

Pieter Paul Rubens The Consequences of War. 206 x 342 cm.

Pieter Paul Rubens The Holy Family. 114 x 80 cm.

Filippo Lippi Bartolini Tondo. Diameter 135 cm

Caravaggio Fra Antonio Martelli. 118 x 95 cm.

Giorgione Three Ages of Man. 62 x 77 cm.

Verrocchio St. Jerome. 41 x 27 cm.

Caravaggio Sleeping Cupid. 72 x 105 cm.

Paolo Veronese Gentleman in a Lynx Fur. 140 x 107 cm.

Fra Bartolomeo Lamentation. 158 x 199 cm.

Andrea del Sarto Pieta with Saints. 239 x 199 cm.

Other Galleries[edit] Royal Apartments[edit] This is a suite of 14 rooms, formerly used by the Medici family, and lived in by their successors.[15] These rooms have been largely altered since the era of the Medici, most recently in the 19th century. They contain a collection of Medici portraits, many of them by the artist Giusto Sustermans.[18] In contrast to the great salons containing the Palatine collection, some of these rooms are much smaller and more intimate, and, while still grand and gilded, are more suited to day-to-day living requirements. Period furnishings include four-poster beds and other necessary furnishings not found elsewhere in the palazzo. The Kings of Italy
Italy
last used the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti in the 1920s.[19] By that time it had already been converted to a museum, but a suite of rooms (now the Gallery of Modern Art) was reserved for them when visiting Florence
Florence
officially. Gallery of Modern Art[edit]

Mary Stuart at Crookstone, by Giovanni Fattori, in the Gallery of Modern Art at the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti.

This gallery originates from the remodeling of the Florentine academy in 1748, when a gallery of Modern Art was established.[20] The gallery was intended to hold those art works which were prize-winners in the academy's competitions. The Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti was being redecorated on a grand scale at this time and the new works of art were being collected to adorn the newly decorated salons. By the mid-19th century so numerous were the Grand Ducal paintings of modern art that many were transferred to the Palazzo
Palazzo
della Crocetta (it), which became the first home of the newly formed "Modern Art Museum". Following the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
and the expulsion of the Grand Ducal family from the palazzo, all the Grand Ducal modern art works were brought together under one roof in the newly titled "Modern gallery of the Academy".[20] The collection continued to expand, particularly so under the patronage of Vittorio Emanuele II. However it was not until 1922 that this gallery was moved to the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti where it was complemented by further modern works of art in the ownership of both the state and the municipality of Florence. The collection was housed in apartments recently vacated by members of the Italian Royal family.[21] The gallery was first opened to public viewing in 1928. Today, further enlarged and spread over 30 rooms, this large collection includes works by artists of the Macchiaioli
Macchiaioli
movement and other modern Italian schools of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[22] The pictures by the Macchiaioli
Macchiaioli
artists are of particular note, as this school of 19th-century Tuscan painters led by Giovanni Fattori
Giovanni Fattori
were early pioneers and the founders of the impressionist movement.[23] The title "gallery of modern art" to some may sound incorrect, as the art in the gallery covers the period from the 18th to the early 20th century. No examples of later art are included in the collection since In Italy, "modern art" refers to the period before World War II; what has followed is generally known as "contemporary art" (arte contemporanea). In Tuscany
Tuscany
this art can be found at the Centro per l'arte contemporanea Luigi Pecci
Centro per l'arte contemporanea Luigi Pecci
at Prato, a city about 15 km (9 mi) from Florence. Silver Museum[edit] The Silver Museum, sometimes called "The Medici Treasury", contains a collection of priceless silver, cameos, and works in semi-precious gemstones, many of the latter from the collection of Lorenzo de' Medici, including his collection of ancient vases, many with delicate silver gilt mounts added for display purposes in the 15th century. These rooms, formerly part of the private royal apartments, are decorated with 17th-century frescoes, the most splendid being by Giovanni da San Giovanni, from 1635 to 1636. The Silver Museum also contains a fine collection of German gold and silver artefacts purchased by Grand Duke Ferdinand after his return from exile in 1815, following the French occupation.[24] Porcelain Museum[edit]

The " Casino
Casino
del Cavaliere" in the Boboli Gardens
Boboli Gardens
now houses the porcelain museum.

Main article: Museo delle Porcellane First opened in 1973, this museum is housed in the Casino
Casino
del Cavaliere in the Boboli Gardens.[25] The porcelain is from many of the most notable European porcelain factories, with Sèvres and Meissen near Dresden
Dresden
being well represented. Many items in the collection were gifts to the Florentine rulers from other European sovereigns, while other works were specially commissioned by the Grand Ducal court. Of particular note are several large dinner services by the Vincennes factory, later renamed Sèvres, and a collection of small biscuit figurines. Costume Gallery[edit] Situated in a wing known as the "Palazzina della Meridiana (it)", this gallery contains a collection of theatrical costumes dating from the 16th century until the present. It is also the only museum in Italy
Italy
detailing the history of Italian fashions.[26] One of the newer collections to the palazzo, it was founded in 1983 by Kirsten Aschengreen Piacenti; a suite of fourteen rooms, the Meridiana apartments, were completed in 1858.[27] In addition to theatrical costumes, the gallery displays garments worn between the 18th century and the present day. Some of the exhibits are unique to the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti; these include the 16th-century funeral clothes of Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, and his wife Eleonora of Toledo and their son Garzia, both of whom died of malaria. Their bodies would have been displayed in state wearing their finest clothes, before being reclad in plainer attire before interment. The gallery also exhibits a collection of mid-20th century costume jewellery. The Sala Meridiana originally sponsored a functional solar meridian instrument, built into the fresco decoration by Anton Domenico Gabbiani. Carriages Museum[edit]

The garden facade facing the anfiteatro of the Boboli Gardens.

This ground floor museum exhibits carriages and other conveyances used by the Grand Ducal court mainly in the late 18th and 19th century. The extent of the exhibition prompted one visitor in the 19th century to wonder, "In the name of all that is extraordinary, how can they find room for all these carriages and horses".[28] Some of the carriages are highly decorative, being adorned not only by gilt but by painted landscapes on their panels. Those used on the grandest occasions, such as the "Carrozza d'Oro" (golden carriage), are surmounted by gilt crowns which would have indicated the rank and station of the carriage's occupants. Other carriages on view are those used by the King of the Two Sicilies, and Archbishops and other Florentine dignitaries. The Palazzo
Palazzo
today[edit]

A modern view of the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti.

Today, transformed from royal palace to museum, the Palazzo
Palazzo
is in the hands of the Italian state through the "Polo Museale Fiorentino", an institution which administers twenty museums, including the Uffizi Gallery, and has ultimate responsibility for 250,000 catalogued works of art.[29] In spite of its metamorphosis from royal residence to a state-owned public building, the palazzo, sitting on its elevated site overlooking Florence, still retains the air and atmosphere of a private collection in a grand house. This is to a great extent due to the "Amici di Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti" (Friends of the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti), an organisation of volunteers and patrons founded in 1996, which raises funds and makes suggestions for the ongoing maintenance of the palazzo and the collections, and for the continuing improvement of their visual display.[30] Pastiche[edit] The Königsbau wing ('King's building / den') of the Munich Residenz, the former royal palace in the capital of Bavaria, was modelled after the Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti. Notes[edit]

^ Chiarini, Gloria. "Pitti Palace". The Florence
Florence
Art Guide. Retrieved 2007-01-12.  ^ The Iconographic Encyclopedia of the Arts and Sciences. Iconographic Pub. Co., 1888. p. 239. ^ a b c d Masson, p. 172 ^ a b c Dynes, p. 67 ^ Moretti, John. Frommer's Florence, Tuscany
Tuscany
& Umbria. Frommer's, 2006. p. 174. ISBN 0-471-76384-5 ^ Chiarini, p. 12 ^ Chiarini, p. 20 ^ Dynes, p. 70–71, 74 ^ a b Dynes p. 69 ^ Chiarini, pp. 13–14 ^ L.H. Heydenreich, Luwig & Lotz Wolfgang (1974), Architecture in Italy
Italy
1400–1600, Pelican History of Art ^ Masson, p. 144 ^ Levey, p. 451. ^ Chiarini, pp. 11–19 ^ a b Polo Museale Fiorentino (2007). "The Palatine Gallery and Royal Apartments". Polo Museale Fiorentino. Ministero per i Beni e le Attivit Culturali. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2008-01-08.  ^ Campbell, Malcolm (1977). Pietro da Cortona
Pietro da Cortona
at the Pitti Palace. A Study of the Planetary Rooms and Related Projects. Princeton University Press. p. 78.  ^ Palatine Gallery Rooms ^ Perlove, Shelley. "An Unpublished Medici Gamepiece by Justus Sustermans". The Burlington Magazine; 131, 1035, 1989. pp. 411–414 ^ Levey, p. 416. ^ a b Chiarini, p. 77 ^ Chiarini, p. 78 ^ Polo Museale Fiorentino (2007). "The Gallery of Modern Art". Polo Museale Fiorentino. Ministero per i Beni e le Attivit Culturali. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2008-01-08.  ^ Broude, Norma (1987). The Macchiaioli: Italian Painters of the Nineteenth Century. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03547-0 ^ Polo Museale Fiorentino (2007). "The "museo degli Argenti" (The Medici Treasury)". Polo Museale Fiorentino. Ministero per i Beni e le Attivit Culturali. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2008-01-08.  ^ Polo Museale Fiorentino (2007). "The Porcelain museum". Polo Museale Fiorentino. Ministero per i Beni e le Attivit Culturali. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2008-01-08.  ^ Polo Museale Fiorentino (2007). "The Costume Gallery". Polo Museale Fiorentino. Ministero per i Beni e le Attivit Culturali. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2008-01-08.  ^ Arnold, Janet (June 1984). "Review: Costumes at Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti. Florence". The Burlington Magazine. 126 (975): 371 + 378. JSTOR 881642.  ^ "The Parterre of fiction, poetry, history [&c.]". Oxford University, 1836. p. 144. ^ Polo Museale Fiorentino (2007). "Welcome". Polo Museale Fiorentino. Ministero per i Beni e le Attivit Culturali. Archived from the original on 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2008-01-08.  ^ "About us". Amici di Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti. Archived from the original on 2007-07-31. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 

References[edit]

Chiarini, Marco (2001). Pitti Palace. Livorno: Sillabe s.r.l. ISBN 88-8347-047-8.  Chierici, Gino (1964). Il Palazzo
Palazzo
Italiano. Milan.  Dynes, Wayne (1968). Palaces of Europe. London: Hamlyn.  Masson, Georgina (1959). Italian Villas and Palaces. London: Harry N. Abrams Ltd.  Pitti Palace
Palace
and Museums - see sub-pages for individual museums Levey, Michael. "Florence: A Portrait". Harvard University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-674-30658-9

Further reading[edit]

Gurrieri, Francesco; Patrizia Fabbri, (photography Stefano Giraldi) (1996). Palaces of Florence. Rizzoli. pp. 66–77. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Pitti Palace.

Official website The Museums of Florence
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S Maria Novella

Tornabuoni Chapel

SS Annunziata S Marco S Miniato al Monte S Maria del Carmine

Brancacci Chapel

S Trinita

Bartolini Salimbeni Chapel Sassetti Chapel

S Spirito

Churches

Badia Fiorentina Battistero di San Giovanni S Mary of the Angels Certosa Orsanmichele Ognissanti Oratorio dei Vanchetoni Oratory of Gesù Pellegrino Oratory of S Thomas Aquinas San Frediano in Cestello S Gaetano S Giovannino degli Scolopi S Giovannino dei Cavalieri S Jacopo sopr'Arno S Salvatore al Vescovo S Ambrogio S Felicita Santa Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi S Maria Maggiore S Martino del Vescovo Ss Apostoli S Pancrazio S Salvi Ss Simone e Giuda S Stefano al Ponte

Other

Great Synagogue

Museums, galleries and palaces

Bargello Casa Buonarroti Casa Guidi Galleria dell'Accademia

David

Garden of Archimedes Loggia del Bigallo Loggia del Mercato Nuovo Loggia del Pesce Loggia Rucellai Museo dell'Opera del Duomo Museo Galileo Museo Nazionale Alinari della Fotografia Museo Nazionale di San Marco Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze

La Specola

National Archaeological Museum Orsanmichele Ospedale degli Innocenti Palazzo
Palazzo
dell'Arte dei Beccai Palazzo
Palazzo
Davanzati Palazzo
Palazzo
Gondi Palazzo
Palazzo
Medici Riccardi

Magi Chapel

Palazzo
Palazzo
Pitti

Museo delle Porcellane

Palazzo
Palazzo
Vecchio

Studiolo of Francesco I

Palazzo
Palazzo
Spini Feroni Stibbert Museum Uffizi

Loggia dei Lanzi Vasari
Vasari
Corridor

Towers (Torri)

degli Amidei degli Alberti dei Della Bella dei Gianfigliazzi dei Mannelli dei Pulci Giotto's Campanile

Library

Biblioteca Riccardiana
Biblioteca Riccardiana
at Palazzo
Palazzo
Medici Riccardi British Institute of Florence Gabinetto Vieusseux
Gabinetto Vieusseux
( Palazzo
Palazzo
Strozzi) Kunsthistorisches Institut Laurentian Library National Central Library

Landmarks

Fountain of Neptune Giotto's Campanile Ponte Vecchio Monument to Dante

Theatres

Teatro Comunale Florence Teatro della Pergola Teatro Verdi

Squares

Squares of Florence Piazza
Piazza
del Duomo Piazza
Piazza
della Repubblica Piazza
Piazza
della Signoria Piazza
Piazza
Santa Croce Piazzale Michelangelo

Streets

Via Cavour Via de' Tornabuoni

Fort

Belvedere Fortezza da Basso

Gardens and parks

Boboli Gardens Giardino Bardini Giardino dell'Iris Giardino delle rose Orto Botanico di Firenze Parco delle Cascine

Villas

Medici villas

di Castello La Petraia di Careggi Medicea L'Ambrogiana del Poggio Imperiale

Gamberaia I Tatti Il Gioiello La Pietra Rusciano

Events and traditions

Calcio Fiorentino Maggio Musicale Fiorentino Scoppio del carro

Districts of Florence
Florence
• Trams in Florence

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 133032211 LCCN: n79063216 GND: 1094976-8 SUDOC: 029723361 BNF: cb12128627n (data) ULAN: 50030

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