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The PICTS were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland
Scotland
during the Late Iron Age
Iron Age
and Early Medieval periods. They are thought to have been ethnolinguistically Celtic . Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from the geographical distribution of brochs , Brittonic place name elements, and Pictish stones
Pictish stones
. Picts
Picts
are attested to in written records from before the Roman conquest of Britain
Roman conquest of Britain
to the 10th century, when they are thought to have merged with the Gaels
Gaels
. They lived to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde , and spoke the now-extinct Pictish language
Pictish language
, which is thought to have been closely related to the Celtic Brittonic language spoken by the Britons who lived to the south of them.

Picts
Picts
are assumed to have been the descendants of the Caledonii and other tribes that were mentioned by Roman historians or on the world map of Ptolemy
Ptolemy
. Pictland, also called Pictavia by some sources, gradually merged with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
to form the Kingdom of Alba
Kingdom of Alba
(Scotland). Alba then expanded, absorbing the Brittonic kingdom of Strathclyde and Northumbrian Lothian
Lothian
, and by the 11th century the Pictish identity had been subsumed into the "Scots " amalgamation of peoples.

Pictish society was typical of many Iron Age
Iron Age
societies in northern Europe, having "wide connections and parallels" with neighbouring groups. Archaeology gives some impression of the society of the Picts. While very little in the way of Pictish writing has survived, Pictish history since the late 6th century is known from a variety of sources, including Bede
Bede
's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum
Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum
, saints\' lives such as that of Columba
Columba
by Adomnán
Adomnán
, and various Irish annals .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Kings and kingdoms * 4 Society * 5 Religion * 6 Art * 7 Language * 8 Legacy * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY

What the Picts
Picts
called themselves is unknown. The Latin
Latin
word Picti first occurs in a panegyric written by Eumenius in AD 297 and is taken to mean "painted or tattooed people" (from Latin
Latin
pingere "to paint"; pictus, "painted", cf. Greek "πυκτίς" pyktis, "picture" ). As Sally M. Foster noted, "Much ink has been spilt over what the ancient writers meant by Picts, but it seems to be a generic term for people living north of the Forth –Clyde isthmus who raided the Roman Empire."

Their Old English name gave the modern Scots form Pechts and the Welsh word Ffichti. In writings from Ireland
Ireland
, the name Cruthin , Cruthini, Cruthni, Cruithni or Cruithini (Modern Irish : Cruithne) was used to refer both to the Picts
Picts
and to another group of people who lived alongside the Ulaid
Ulaid
in eastern Ulster
Ulster
. It is generally accepted that this is derived from *Qritani, which is the Goidelic /Q-Celtic version of the Britonnic / P-Celtic *Pritani. From this came Britanni, the Roman name for those now called the Britons . It has been suggested that Cruthin referred to all Britons not conquered by the Romans—those who lived outside Roman Britannia
Britannia
, north of Hadrian\'s Wall .

HISTORY

The so-called Daniel Stone , cross slab fragment found at Rosemarkie
Rosemarkie
, Easter Ross

A Pictish confederation was formed in Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
from a number of tribes—how and why is not known. Some scholars have speculated that it was partly in response to the growth of the Roman Empire.

Pictland had previously been described by Roman writers and geographers as the home of the Caledonii . These Romans also used other names to refer to tribes living in that area, including Verturiones , Taexali and Venicones . But they may have heard these other names only second- or third-hand, from speakers of Brittonic or Gaulish languages, who may have used different names for the same group or groups.

Pictish recorded history begins in the Dark Ages . At that time, the Gaels
Gaels
of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
controlled what is now Argyll
Argyll
, as part of a kingdom straddling the sea between Britain and Ireland. The Angles
Angles
of Bernicia
Bernicia
, which merged with Deira to form Northumbria
Northumbria
, overwhelmed the adjacent British kingdoms, and for much of the 7th century Northumbria
Northumbria
was the most powerful kingdom in Britain. The Picts
Picts
were probably tributary to Northumbria
Northumbria
until the reign of Bridei mac Beli , when, in 685, the Anglians suffered a defeat at the Battle of Dun Nechtain that halted their northward expansion. The Northumbrians continued to dominate southern Scotland
Scotland
for the remainder of the Pictish period. The Whitecleuch Chain , high status Pictish silver chain, one of ten known to exist, dating from between 400 and 800 AD

Dál Riata
Dál Riata
was subject to the Pictish king Óengus mac Fergusa during his reign (729–761), and though it had its own kings beginning in the 760s, does not appear to have recovered its political independence from the Picts. A later Pictish king, Caustantín mac Fergusa (793–820), placed his son Domnall on the throne of Dál Riata (811–835). Pictish attempts to achieve a similar dominance over the Britons of Alt Clut ( Dumbarton
Dumbarton
) were not successful.

The Viking Age
Viking Age
brought great changes in Britain and Ireland, no less in Scotland
Scotland
than elsewhere, conquering and settling the islands and various mainland areas, including Caithness
Caithness
, Sutherland
Sutherland
and Galloway . In the middle of the 9th century Ketil Flatnose is said to have founded the Kingdom of the Isles
Kingdom of the Isles
, governing many of these territories, and by the end of that century the Vikings had destroyed the Kingdom of Northumbria, greatly weakened the Kingdom of Strathclyde , and founded the Kingdom of York
Kingdom of York
. In a major battle in 839, the Vikings killed the King of Fortriu , Eógan mac Óengusa , the King of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
Áed mac Boanta , and many others. In the aftermath, in the 840s, Cínaed mac Ailpín (Kenneth MacAlpin) became king of the Picts.

During the reign of Cínaed's grandson, Caustantín mac Áeda (900–943), outsiders began to refer to the region as the Kingdom of Alba rather than the Kingdom of the Picts, but it is not known whether this was because a new kingdom was established or Alba was simply a closer approximation of the Pictish name for the Picts. However, though the Pictish language
Pictish language
did not disappear suddenly, a process of Gaelicisation (which may have begun generations earlier) was clearly underway during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point, probably during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of northern Alba had become fully Gaelicised Scots, and Pictish identity was forgotten. Later, the idea of Picts
Picts
as a tribe was revived in myth and legend .

KINGS AND KINGDOMS

See also: List of Kings of the Picts Approximate location of Pictish kingdoms, based on the information given here

The early history of Pictland is unclear. In later periods multiple kings existed, ruling over separate kingdoms, with one king, sometimes two, more or less dominating their lesser neighbours. De Situ Albanie , a late document, the Pictish Chronicle , the Duan Albanach
Duan Albanach
, along with Irish legends, have been used to argue the existence of seven Pictish kingdoms. These are as follows; those in BOLD are known to have had kings, or are otherwise attested in the Pictish period:

* Cait , or Cat, situated in modern Caithness
Caithness
and Sutherland
Sutherland
* Ce , situated in modern Mar and Buchan
Buchan
* CIRCINN, perhaps situated in modern Angus and the Mearns * Fib, the modern Fife
Fife
, now known as 'the Kingdom of Fife' * Fidach, location unknown, but possibly near Inverness
Inverness
* FOTLA, modern Atholl
Atholl
(Ath-Fotla) * FORTRIU , cognate with the Verturiones of the Romans; recently shown to be centred on Moray
Moray

More small kingdoms may have existed. Some evidence suggests that a Pictish kingdom also existed in Orkney
Orkney
. De Situ Albanie is not the most reliable of sources, and the number of kingdoms, one for each of the seven sons of Cruithne, the eponymous founder of the Picts, may well be grounds enough for disbelief. Regardless of the exact number of kingdoms and their names, the Pictish nation was not a united one. Map showing the approximate areas of the kingdom of Fortriu and neighbours c. 800, and the kingdom of Alba c. 900

For most of Pictish recorded history the kingdom of Fortriu appears dominant, so much so that king of Fortriu and king of the Picts
Picts
may mean one and the same thing in the annals. This was previously thought to lie in the area around Perth and southern Strathearn
Strathearn
; however, recent work has convinced those working in the field that Moray
Moray
(a name referring to a very much larger area in the High Middle Ages than the county of Moray
Moray
) was the core of Fortriu.

The Picts
Picts
are often said to have practised matrilineal kingship succession on the basis of Irish legends and a statement in Bede
Bede
's history. The kings of the Picts
Picts
when Bede
Bede
was writing were Bridei and Nechtan, sons of Der Ilei, who indeed claimed the throne through their mother Der Ilei, daughter of an earlier Pictish king.

In Ireland, kings were expected to come from among those who had a great-grandfather who had been king. Kingly fathers were not frequently succeeded by their sons, not because the Picts
Picts
practised matrilineal succession, but because they were usually followed by their own brothers or cousins, more likely to be experienced men with the authority and the support necessary to be king. This was similar to tanistry .

The nature of kingship changed considerably during the centuries of Pictish history. While earlier kings had to be successful war leaders to maintain their authority, kingship became rather less personalised and more institutionalised during this time. Bureaucratic kingship was still far in the future when Pictland became Alba, but the support of the church, and the apparent ability of a small number of families to control the kingship for much of the period from the later 7th century onwards, provided a considerable degree of continuity. In much the same period, the Picts' neighbours in Dál Riata
Dál Riata
and Northumbria
Northumbria
faced considerable difficulties, as the stability of succession and rule that previously benefited them ended.

The later Mormaers are thought to have originated in Pictish times, and to have been copied from, or inspired by, Northumbrian usages. It is unclear whether the Mormaers were originally former kings, royal officials, or local nobles, or some combination of these. Likewise, the Pictish shires and thanages , traces of which are found in later times, are thought to have been adopted from their southern neighbours.

SOCIETY

The harpist on the Dupplin Cross
Dupplin Cross
, Scotland, c. 800 AD

The archaeological record provides evidence of the material culture of the Picts. It tells of a society not readily distinguishable from its British, Gaelic, or Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
neighbours. Although analogy and knowledge of other so-called 'Celtic' societies (a term they never used for themselves) may be a useful guide, these extended across a very large area. Relying on knowledge of pre-Roman Gaul
Gaul
, or 13th century Ireland, as a guide to the Picts
Picts
of the 6th century may be misleading if analogy is pursued too far.

As with most peoples in the north of Europe in Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
, the Picts
Picts
were farmers living in small communities. Cattle and horses were an obvious sign of wealth and prestige, sheep and pigs were kept in large numbers, and place names suggest that transhumance was common. Animals were small by later standards, although horses from Britain were imported into Ireland
Ireland
as breed-stock to enlarge native horses. From Irish sources it appears that the élite engaged in competitive cattle-breeding for size, and this may have been the case in Pictland also. Carvings show hunting with dogs, and also, unlike in Ireland, with falcons. Cereal crops included wheat , barley , oats and rye . Vegetables included kale , cabbage , onions and leeks , peas and beans and turnips , and some types no longer common, such as skirret . Plants such as wild garlic , nettles and watercress may have been gathered in the wild. The pastoral economy meant that hides and leather were readily available. Wool
Wool
was the main source of fibres for clothing, and flax was also common, although it is not clear if they grew it for fibres, for oil, or as a foodstuff. Fish, shellfish, seals, and whales were exploited along coasts and rivers. The importance of domesticated animals suggests that meat and milk products were a major part of the diet of ordinary people, while the élite would have eaten a diet rich in meat from farming and hunting.

No Pictish counterparts to the areas of denser settlement around important fortresses in Gaul
Gaul
and southern Britain, or any other significant urban settlements, are known. Larger, but not large, settlements existed around royal forts, such as at Burghead Fort , or associated with religious foundations. No towns are known in Scotland until the 12th century.

The technology of everyday life is not well recorded, but archaeological evidence shows it to have been similar to that in Ireland
Ireland
and Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England. Recently evidence has been found of watermills in Pictland. Kilns
Kilns
were used for drying kernels of wheat or barley, not otherwise easy in the changeable, temperate climate. Reconstructed crannóg on Loch Tay
Loch Tay

The early Picts
Picts
are associated with piracy and raiding along the coasts of Roman Britain
Roman Britain
. Even in the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
, the line between traders and pirates was unclear, so that Pictish pirates were probably merchants on other occasions. It is generally assumed that trade collapsed with the Roman Empire, but this is to overstate the case. There is only limited evidence of long-distance trade with Pictland, but tableware and storage vessels from Gaul, probably transported up the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
, have been found. This trade may have been controlled from Dunadd
Dunadd
in Dál Riata, where such goods appear to have been common. While long-distance travel was unusual in Pictish times, it was far from unknown as stories of missionaries, travelling clerics and exiles show.

Brochs are popularly associated with the Picts. Although these were built earlier in the Iron Age
Iron Age
, with construction ending around 100 AD, they remained in use into and beyond the Pictish period. Crannóg , which may originate in Neolithic
Neolithic
Scotland, may have been rebuilt, and some were still in use in the time of the Picts. The most common sort of buildings would have been roundhouses and rectangular timbered halls. While many churches were built in wood, from the early 8th century, if not earlier, some were built in stone.

The Picts
Picts
are often said to have tattooed themselves, but evidence for this is limited. Naturalistic depictions of Pictish nobles, hunters and warriors, male and female, without obvious tattoos, are found on monumental stones . These stones include inscriptions in Latin
Latin
and ogham script, not all of which have been deciphered. The well known Pictish symbols found on standing stones and other artifacts, have defied attempts at translation over the centuries. Pictish art can be classed as 'Celtic ' (a term not coined till the 1850s), and later as Insular . Irish poets portrayed their Pictish counterparts as very much like themselves.

RELIGION

Main article: Christianisation of Scotland
Scotland
An early 20th century depiction of Saint Columba
Columba
's miracle at the gate of King Bridei 's fortress, described in Adomnán
Adomnán
's late 7th century Vita Columbae Animal head from St Ninian\'s Isle Treasure

Early Pictish religion is presumed to have resembled Celtic polytheism in general, although only place names remain from the pre-Christian era. When the Pictish elite converted to Christianity
Christianity
is uncertain, but traditions place Saint Palladius in Pictland after he left Ireland
Ireland
, and link Abernethy with Saint Brigid of Kildare
Brigid of Kildare
. Saint Patrick
Saint Patrick
refers to "apostate Picts", while the poem Y Gododdin does not remark on the Picts
Picts
as pagans. Bede
Bede
wrote that Saint Ninian (confused by some with Saint Finnian of Moville
Finnian of Moville
, who died c. 589), had converted the southern Picts. Recent archaeological work at Portmahomack
Portmahomack
places the foundation of the monastery there, an area once assumed to be among the last converted, in the late 6th century. This is contemporary with Bridei mac Maelchon and Columba, but the process of establishing Christianity
Christianity
throughout Pictland will have extended over a much longer period.

Pictland was not solely influenced by Iona
Iona
and Ireland. It also had ties to churches in Northumbria, as seen in the reign of Nechtan mac Der Ilei . The reported expulsion of Ionan monks and clergy by Nechtan in 717 may have been related to the controversy over the dating of Easter
Easter
, and the manner of tonsure , where Nechtan appears to have supported the Roman usages, but may equally have been intended to increase royal power over the church. Nonetheless, the evidence of place names suggests a wide area of Ionan influence in Pictland. Likewise, the Cáin Adomnáin (Law of Adomnán
Adomnán
, Lex Innocentium) counts Nechtan's brother Bridei among its guarantors.

The importance of monastic centres in Pictland was not, perhaps, as great as in Ireland. In areas that have been studied, such as Strathspey and Perthshire
Perthshire
, it appears that the parochial structure of the High Middle Ages existed in early medieval times. Among the major religious sites of eastern Pictland were Portmahomack, Cennrígmonaid (later St Andrews
St Andrews
), Dunkeld
Dunkeld
, Abernethy and Rosemarkie
Rosemarkie
. It appears that these are associated with Pictish kings, which argues for a considerable degree of royal patronage and control of the church. Portmahomack
Portmahomack
in particular has been the subject of recent excavation and research, published by Martin Carver .

The cult of Saints was, as throughout Christian lands, of great importance in later Pictland. While kings might patronise great Saints, such as Saint Peter
Saint Peter
in the case of Nechtan, and perhaps Saint Andrew in the case of the second Óengus mac Fergusa , many lesser Saints, some now obscure, were important. The Pictish Saint Drostan appears to have had a wide following in the north in earlier times, although he was all but forgotten by the 12th century. Saint Serf of Culross
Culross
was associated with Nechtan's brother Bridei. It appears, as is well known in later times, that noble kin groups had their own patron saints, and their own churches or abbeys.

ART

The Rogart brooch, National Museums of Scotland, FC2. Pictish penannular brooch , 8th century, silver with gilding and glass. Classified as Fowler H3 type. The Aberlemno Kirkyard Stone, Class II Pictish stone

Pictish art appears on stones, metalwork and small objects of stone and bone. It uses a distinctive form of the general Celtic Early Medieval development of La Tène style
La Tène style
with increasing influences from the Insular art
Insular art
of 7th and 8th century Ireland
Ireland
and Northumbria
Northumbria
, and then Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
and Irish art as the Early Medieval period continues. The most conspicuous survivals are the many Pictish stones
Pictish stones
that are located all over Pictland, from Inverness
Inverness
to Lanarkshire. An illustrated catalogue of these stones was produced by J. Romilly Allen as part of The Early Church Monuments of Scotland, with lists of their symbols and patterns. The symbols and patterns consist of animals including the Pictish Beast
Pictish Beast
, the "rectangle", the "mirror and comb", "double-disk and Z-rod" and the "crescent and V-rod", among many others. There are also bosses and lenses with pelta and spiral designs. The patterns are curvilinear with hatchings. The so-called cross-slabs are carved with Pictish symbols, Insular-derived interlace and Christian imagery, though interpretation is often difficult due to wear and obscurity. Several of the Christian images carved on various stones, such as David the harpist, Daniel and the lion, or scenes of St Paul and St Anthony meeting in the desert, have been influenced by the Insular manuscript tradition.

Pictish metalwork is found throughout Pictland (modern-day Scotland) and also further south; the Picts
Picts
appeared to have a considerable amount of silver available, probably from raiding further south, or the payment of subsidies to keep them from doing so. The very large hoard of late Roman hacksilver found at Traprain Law
Traprain Law
may have originated in either way. The largest hoard of early Pictish metalwork was found in 1819 at Norrie\'s Law in Fife, but unfortunately much was dispersed and melted down (Scottish law on treasure finds has always been unhelpful to preservation). Two famous 7th century silver and enamel plaques from the hoard, one shown above, have a "Z-rod", one of the Pictish symbols, in a particularly well-preserved and elegant form; unfortunately few comparable pieces have survived. Over ten heavy silver chains, some over 0.5m long, have been found from this period; the double-linked Whitecleuch Chain is one of only two that have a penannular ring, with symbol decoration including enamel, which shows how these were probably used as "choker" necklaces.

In the 8th and 9th centuries, after Christianization, the Pictish elite adopted a particular form of the Celtic brooch
Celtic brooch
from Ireland, preferring true penannular brooches with lobed terminals. Some older Irish pseudo-penannular brooches were adapted to the Pictish style, for example the Breadalbane Brooch ( British Museum
British Museum
). The St Ninian\'s Isle Treasure contains the best collection of Pictish forms. Other characteristics of Pictish metalwork are dotted backgrounds or designs and animal forms influenced by Insular art. The 8th century Monymusk Reliquary has elements of Pictish and Irish style.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Pictish language
Pictish language

The Pictish language
Pictish language
is extinct. Evidence is limited to place names, the names of people found on monuments, and the contemporary records. The evidence of place-names and personal names argues strongly that the Picts
Picts
spoke Insular Celtic languages related to the more southerly Brittonic languages
Brittonic languages
. A number of Ogham
Ogham
inscriptions have been argued to be unidentifiable as Celtic, and on this basis, it has been suggested that non- Celtic languages
Celtic languages
were also in use.

The absence of surviving written material in Pictish—if the ambiguous "Pictish inscriptions" in the Ogham
Ogham
script are discounted—does not indicate a pre-literate society. The church certainly required literacy in Latin, and could not function without copyists to produce liturgical documents. Pictish iconography shows books being read, and carried, and its naturalistic style gives every reason to suppose that such images were of real life. Literacy was not widespread, but among the senior clergy, and in monasteries, it would have been common enough.

Place-names often allow us to deduce the existence of historic Pictish settlements in Scotland. Those prefixed with the Brittonic prefixes "Aber-", "Lhan-", or "Pit-" (=? "peth", a thing) are claimed to indicate regions inhabited by Picts
Picts
in the past (for example: Aberdeen
Aberdeen
, Lhanbryde , Pitmedden , etc.). Some of these, such as "Pit-" (portion, share), may have been formed after Pictish times, and may refer to previous "shires" or "thanages".

The evidence of place-names may also reveal the advance of Gaelic into Pictland. As noted, Atholl
Atholl
, meaning New Ireland, is attested in the early 8th century. This may be an indication of the advance of Gaelic. Fortriu also contains place-names suggesting Gaelic settlement, or Gaelic influences. A pre-Gaelic interpretation of the name as Athfocla meaning 'north pass' or 'north way', as in gateway to Moray, suggests that the Gaelic Athfotla may be a Gaelic misreading of the minuscule c for t.

LEGACY

Medieval Welsh tradition credited the founding of Gwynedd to the Picts
Picts
and traced their principal royal families—the Houses of Aberffraw and Dinefwr —to Cunedda Wledig , said to have invaded northern Wales from Lothian
Lothian
.

SEE ALSO

* Caledonians
Caledonians
* Duan Albanach
Duan Albanach
* Fortriu * Kings of the Picts * Mormaer
Mormaer

* Origins of the Kingdom of Alba
Kingdom of Alba
* Painted pebbles * Pictish stones
Pictish stones
* Picts in fantasy
Picts in fantasy
* Picts in literature and popular culture

* Prehistoric Scotland
Scotland
* St Andrews
St Andrews
Sarcophagus * Scotland
Scotland
in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
* List of Celtic tribes
List of Celtic tribes

NOTES

* ^ It has been proposed that they called themselves albidosi, a name found in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba during the reign of Máel Coluim mac Domnaill
Máel Coluim mac Domnaill
, but this idea has been disputed. See: Broun, "Alba", p. 258, note 95; Woolf, Pictland to Alba, pp. 177–181.

REFERENCES

Footnotes

* ^ Katherine Forsyth, Language in Pictland. The case against non-Indo-European Pictisch, Studia Hamelina 2, Utrecht 1997 * ^ Foster 1996 . p. 17. * ^ pingo, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin
Latin
Dictionary, on Perseus Digital Library * ^ πυκτίς, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library * ^ Foster 1996 . p. 11. * ^ The Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle has pihtas and pehtas. * ^ A B Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí. A New History of Ireland: Prehistoric and Early Ireland. Oxford University Press, 2008. Page 213. * ^ A B Chadwick, Hector Munro. Early Scotland: the Picts, the Scots cf. Bannerman, "Scottish Takeover", passim, representing the "traditional" view. * ^ For example, Pechs , and perhaps Pixies . However, Sally Foster quotes John Toland
John Toland
in 1726: "they are apt all over Scotland
Scotland
to make everything Pictish whose origin they do not know." The same could be said of the Picts
Picts
in myth. * ^ Broun, "Kingship", for Ireland
Ireland
see, e.g. Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings, and more generally Ó Cróinín, Early Medieval Ireland. * ^ Forsyth, "Lost Pictish Source", Watson, Celtic Place Names, pp. 108–109. * ^ Scotland
Scotland
in the Middle Ages#Minor kingdoms * ^ earls of moray. Irvinemclean.com (2010-12-15). Retrieved on 2014-06-20. * ^ earls of ross. Irvinemclean.com (2011-04-22). Retrieved on 2014-06-20. * ^ Bruford, "What happened to the Caledonians", Watson, Celtic Place Names, pp. 108–113. * ^ Woolf, "Dun Nechtain"; Yorke, Conversion, p. 47. Compare earlier works such as Foster, Picts, Gaels
Gaels
and Scots, p. 33. * ^ Adomnán, "Life of Columba", editor's notes on pp. 342–343. * ^ Broun, "Seven Kingdoms". * ^ Woolf, "Dun Nechtain". * ^ Bede, I, c. 1 * ^ The Female Royal Line: matrilineal succession amongst the Picts? * ^ Clancy, "Nechtan". * ^ Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings, pp. 35–41, 122–123, also pp. 108, 287, stating that derbfhine was practised by the cruithni in Ireland. * ^ Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings, p. 35, "Elder for kin, worth for rulership, wisdom for the church." See also Foster, Picts, Gaels and Scots, pp. 32–34, Smyth, Warlords and Holy Men, p. 67ff. * ^ Broun, "Kingship", Broun, "Pictish Kings"; for Dál Riata, Broun, "Dál Riata", for a more positive view Sharpe, "The thriving of Dalriada"; for Northumbria, Higham, Kingdom of Northumbria, pp. 144–149. * ^ Woolf, "Nobility". * ^ Barrow, "Pre-Feudal Scotland", Woolf, "Nobility". * ^ See, e.g. Campbell, Saints and Sea-kings for the Gaels
Gaels
of Dál Riata, Lowe, Angels, Fools and Tyrants for Britons and Anglians. * ^ Foster, Picts, Gaels
Gaels
and Scots, pp. 49–61. Fergus Kelly, Early Irish Farming: a study based mainly on the law-texts of the 7th and 8th centuries AD (School of Celtic Studies/DAIS, Dublin, 2000. ISBN 1-85500-180-2 ) provides an extensive review of farming in Ireland
Ireland
in the middle Pictish period. * ^ The interior of the fort at Burghead was some 12 acres (5 hectares) in size, see Driscoll, "Burghead"; for Verlamion (later Roman Verulamium
Verulamium
), a southern British settlement on a very much larger scale, see e.g. Pryor, Britain AD, pp. 64–70. * ^ Dennison, "Urban settlement: medieval". * ^ Carver (2008) * ^ Foster, Picts, Gaels
Gaels
and Scots, pp. 52–53. * ^ Trade, see Foster, Picts, Gaels
Gaels
and Scots, pp. 65–68; seafaring in general, e.g. Haywood, Dark Age Naval Power, Rodger, Safeguard of the Sea. * ^ Armit, Towers In The North, chapter 7. * ^ Crone, "Crannogs and Chronologies", PSAS, vol. 123, pp. 245–254. * ^ Foster, Picts, Gaels
Gaels
and Scots, pp. 52–61. * ^ See Clancy, "Nechtan", Foster, Picts, Gaels
Gaels
and Scots, p. 89. * ^ For art in general see Foster, Picts, Gaels
Gaels
and Scots, pp. 26–28, Laing Laing, 310 * ^ Henderson, Isabel, "The 'David Cycle' in Pictish Art". Early Medieval Sculpture. Ed. J.Higgitt. Oxford, 1986. pp. 87–113. * ^ "The Meeting of Saint Paul and Saint Anthony: Visual and Literary Uses of a Eucharistic Motif". Keimelia. Eds. P. Wallace and G. M. Niocaill. Galway, 1989. pp. 1–58. * ^ Youngs, 26–28; Poor image of 19th-century illustration * ^ Youngs, 28 * ^ Youngs, 109–113 * ^ Forsyth, Language in Pictland, Price "Pictish", Taylor, "Place names", Watson, Celtic Place Names. For K.H. Jackson's views, see "The Language of the Picts" in Wainwright (ed.) The Problem of the Picts. * ^ Jackson, "The Language of the Picts", discussed by Forsyth, Language in Pictland. * ^ Forsyth, "Literacy in Pictland". * ^ For place names in general, see Watson, Celtic Place Names; Nicolaisen, Scottish Place Names, pp 156–246. For shires and thanages see Barrow, "Pre-Feudal Scotland". * ^ Watson, Celtic Place Names, pp. 225–233. * ^ James E. Fraser, The New Edinburgh History Of Scotland
Scotland
Vol.1 - From Caledonia To Pictland, Edinburgh University Press(2009) ISBN 978-0-7486-1232-1 . * ^ The statement Nid oedhynt y Picteit onyd yr hen Gymry ("The Picts
Picts
were none other than the old Cymry", i.e., Welsh) is recorded in Peniarth MS. 118. Op. cit. Wade-Evans, Arthur . Welsh Medieval Law. "Introduction". Oxford Univ., 1909. Accessed 30 Jan 2013.

Bibliography

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FURTHER READING

* James E. Fraser, The New Edinburgh History Of Scotland
Scotland
Vol.1 - From Caledonia To Pictland, Edinburgh University Press(2009) ISBN 978-0-7486-1232-1 * Fraser Hunter, Beyond the Edge of Empire: Caledonians, Picts
Picts
and Romans, Groam House Museum, Rosemarkie
Rosemarkie
(2007) ISBN 978-0-9540999-2-3 * Alex Woolf, The New Edinburgh History Of Scotland
Scotland
Vol.2 - From Pictland To Alba, Edinburgh University Press,(2007) ISBN 978-0-7486-1234-5 * Benjamin Hudson: The Picts. Wiley Blackwell, 2014. ISBN 978-1-4051-8678-0 (cloth); ISBN 978-1-118-60202-7 (paperback)

EXTERNAL LINKS

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* Glasgow University ePrints server, including Katherine Forsyth's

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