The PICTS were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is
today eastern and northern
Scotland during the Late
Iron Age and Early
Medieval periods. They are thought to have been ethnolinguistically
Celtic . Where they lived and what their culture was like can be
inferred from the geographical distribution of brochs , Brittonic
place name elements, and
Pictish stones .
Picts are attested to in
written records from before the
Roman conquest of Britain
Roman conquest of Britain to the 10th
century, when they are thought to have merged with the
Gaels . They
lived to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde , and spoke the
Pictish language , which is thought to have been closely
related to the Celtic Brittonic language spoken by the Britons who
lived to the south of them.
Picts are assumed to have been the descendants of the
other tribes that were mentioned by Roman historians or on the world
Ptolemy . Pictland, also called Pictavia by some sources,
gradually merged with the Gaelic kingdom of
Dál Riata to form the
Kingdom of Alba
Kingdom of Alba (Scotland). Alba then expanded, absorbing the
Brittonic kingdom of Strathclyde and Northumbrian
Lothian , and by the
11th century the Pictish identity had been subsumed into the "Scots "
amalgamation of peoples.
Pictish society was typical of many
Iron Age societies in northern
Europe, having "wide connections and parallels" with neighbouring
groups. Archaeology gives some impression of the society of the
Picts. While very little in the way of Pictish writing has survived,
Pictish history since the late 6th century is known from a variety of
Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum
Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum ,
saints\' lives such as that of
Adomnán , and various Irish
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Kings and kingdoms
* 4 Society
* 5 Religion
* 6 Art
* 7 Language
* 8 Legacy
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 12 Further reading
* 13 External links
Picts called themselves is unknown. The
Latin word Picti
first occurs in a panegyric written by
Eumenius in AD 297 and is taken
to mean "painted or tattooed people" (from
Latin pingere "to paint";
pictus, "painted", cf. Greek "πυκτίς" pyktis, "picture" ). As
Sally M. Foster noted, "Much ink has been spilt over what the ancient
writers meant by Picts, but it seems to be a generic term for people
living north of the Forth –Clyde isthmus who raided the Roman
Their Old English name gave the modern Scots form Pechts and the
Welsh word Ffichti. In writings from
Ireland , the name
Cruthini, Cruthni, Cruithni or Cruithini (Modern Irish : Cruithne) was
used to refer both to the
Picts and to another group of people who
lived alongside the
Ulaid in eastern
Ulster . It is generally
accepted that this is derived from *Qritani, which is the Goidelic
/Q-Celtic version of the Britonnic /
P-Celtic *Pritani. From this came
Britanni, the Roman name for those now called the Britons . It has
been suggested that
Cruthin referred to all Britons not conquered by
the Romans—those who lived outside Roman
Britannia , north of
Hadrian\'s Wall .
The so-called Daniel Stone , cross slab fragment found at
A Pictish confederation was formed in
Late Antiquity from a number of
tribes—how and why is not known. Some scholars have speculated that
it was partly in response to the growth of the Roman Empire.
Pictland had previously been described by Roman writers and
geographers as the home of the
Caledonii . These Romans also used
other names to refer to tribes living in that area, including
Venicones . But they may have heard these
other names only second- or third-hand, from speakers of Brittonic or
Gaulish languages, who may have used different names for the same
group or groups.
Pictish recorded history begins in the Dark Ages . At that time, the
Dál Riata controlled what is now
Argyll , as part of a
kingdom straddling the sea between Britain and Ireland. The
Bernicia , which merged with Deira to form
Northumbria , overwhelmed
the adjacent British kingdoms, and for much of the 7th century
Northumbria was the most powerful kingdom in Britain. The
probably tributary to
Northumbria until the reign of Bridei mac Beli ,
when, in 685, the Anglians suffered a defeat at the Battle of Dun
Nechtain that halted their northward expansion. The Northumbrians
continued to dominate southern
Scotland for the remainder of the
Pictish period. The
Whitecleuch Chain , high status Pictish
silver chain, one of ten known to exist, dating from between 400 and
Dál Riata was subject to the Pictish king Óengus mac Fergusa during
his reign (729–761), and though it had its own kings beginning in
the 760s, does not appear to have recovered its political independence
from the Picts. A later Pictish king, Caustantín mac Fergusa
(793–820), placed his son Domnall on the throne of Dál Riata
(811–835). Pictish attempts to achieve a similar dominance over the
Britons of Alt Clut (
Dumbarton ) were not successful.
Viking Age brought great changes in Britain and Ireland, no less
Scotland than elsewhere, conquering and settling the islands and
various mainland areas, including
Sutherland and Galloway
. In the middle of the 9th century
Ketil Flatnose is said to have
Kingdom of the Isles
Kingdom of the Isles , governing many of these
territories, and by the end of that century the Vikings had destroyed
the Kingdom of Northumbria, greatly weakened the Kingdom of
Strathclyde , and founded the
Kingdom of York
Kingdom of York . In a major battle in
839, the Vikings killed the King of
Fortriu , Eógan mac Óengusa ,
the King of
Áed mac Boanta , and many others. In the
aftermath, in the 840s, Cínaed mac Ailpín (Kenneth MacAlpin) became
king of the Picts.
During the reign of Cínaed's grandson, Caustantín mac Áeda
(900–943), outsiders began to refer to the region as the Kingdom of
Alba rather than the Kingdom of the Picts, but it is not known whether
this was because a new kingdom was established or Alba was simply a
closer approximation of the Pictish name for the Picts. However,
Pictish language did not disappear suddenly, a process of
Gaelicisation (which may have begun generations earlier) was clearly
underway during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a
certain point, probably during the 11th century, all the inhabitants
of northern Alba had become fully Gaelicised Scots, and Pictish
identity was forgotten. Later, the idea of
Picts as a tribe was
revived in myth and legend .
KINGS AND KINGDOMS
List of Kings of the Picts Approximate location of
Pictish kingdoms, based on the information given here
The early history of Pictland is unclear. In later periods multiple
kings existed, ruling over separate kingdoms, with one king, sometimes
two, more or less dominating their lesser neighbours. De Situ Albanie
, a late document, the
Pictish Chronicle , the
Duan Albanach , along
with Irish legends, have been used to argue the existence of seven
Pictish kingdoms. These are as follows; those in BOLD are known to
have had kings, or are otherwise attested in the Pictish period:
* Cait , or Cat, situated in modern
* Ce , situated in modern Mar and
* CIRCINN, perhaps situated in modern Angus and the Mearns
* Fib, the modern
Fife , now known as 'the Kingdom of Fife'
* Fidach, location unknown, but possibly near
* FOTLA, modern
* FORTRIU , cognate with the
Verturiones of the Romans; recently
shown to be centred on
More small kingdoms may have existed. Some evidence suggests that a
Pictish kingdom also existed in
De Situ Albanie is not the
most reliable of sources, and the number of kingdoms, one for each of
the seven sons of Cruithne, the eponymous founder of the Picts, may
well be grounds enough for disbelief. Regardless of the exact number
of kingdoms and their names, the Pictish nation was not a united one.
Map showing the approximate areas of the kingdom of
neighbours c. 800, and the kingdom of Alba c. 900
For most of Pictish recorded history the kingdom of
dominant, so much so that king of
Fortriu and king of the
mean one and the same thing in the annals. This was previously thought
to lie in the area around Perth and southern
Strathearn ; however,
recent work has convinced those working in the field that
name referring to a very much larger area in the High Middle Ages than
the county of
Moray ) was the core of Fortriu.
Picts are often said to have practised matrilineal kingship
succession on the basis of Irish legends and a statement in
history. The kings of the
Bede was writing were Bridei
and Nechtan, sons of Der Ilei, who indeed claimed the throne through
their mother Der Ilei, daughter of an earlier Pictish king.
In Ireland, kings were expected to come from among those who had a
great-grandfather who had been king. Kingly fathers were not
frequently succeeded by their sons, not because the
matrilineal succession, but because they were usually followed by
their own brothers or cousins, more likely to be experienced men with
the authority and the support necessary to be king. This was similar
to tanistry .
The nature of kingship changed considerably during the centuries of
Pictish history. While earlier kings had to be successful war leaders
to maintain their authority, kingship became rather less personalised
and more institutionalised during this time. Bureaucratic kingship was
still far in the future when Pictland became Alba, but the support of
the church, and the apparent ability of a small number of families to
control the kingship for much of the period from the later 7th century
onwards, provided a considerable degree of continuity. In much the
same period, the Picts' neighbours in
Dál Riata and
considerable difficulties, as the stability of succession and rule
that previously benefited them ended.
The later Mormaers are thought to have originated in Pictish times,
and to have been copied from, or inspired by, Northumbrian usages. It
is unclear whether the Mormaers were originally former kings, royal
officials, or local nobles, or some combination of these. Likewise,
the Pictish shires and thanages , traces of which are found in later
times, are thought to have been adopted from their southern
The harpist on the
Dupplin Cross , Scotland, c. 800 AD
The archaeological record provides evidence of the material culture
of the Picts. It tells of a society not readily distinguishable from
its British, Gaelic, or
Anglo-Saxon neighbours. Although analogy and
knowledge of other so-called 'Celtic' societies (a term they never
used for themselves) may be a useful guide, these extended across a
very large area. Relying on knowledge of pre-Roman
Gaul , or 13th
century Ireland, as a guide to the
Picts of the 6th century may be
misleading if analogy is pursued too far.
As with most peoples in the north of Europe in
Late Antiquity , the
Picts were farmers living in small communities. Cattle and horses were
an obvious sign of wealth and prestige, sheep and pigs were kept in
large numbers, and place names suggest that transhumance was common.
Animals were small by later standards, although horses from Britain
were imported into
Ireland as breed-stock to enlarge native horses.
From Irish sources it appears that the élite engaged in competitive
cattle-breeding for size, and this may have been the case in Pictland
also. Carvings show hunting with dogs, and also, unlike in Ireland,
with falcons. Cereal crops included wheat , barley , oats and rye .
Vegetables included kale , cabbage , onions and leeks , peas and beans
and turnips , and some types no longer common, such as skirret .
Plants such as wild garlic , nettles and watercress may have been
gathered in the wild. The pastoral economy meant that hides and
leather were readily available.
Wool was the main source of fibres for
clothing, and flax was also common, although it is not clear if they
grew it for fibres, for oil, or as a foodstuff. Fish, shellfish,
seals, and whales were exploited along coasts and rivers. The
importance of domesticated animals suggests that meat and milk
products were a major part of the diet of ordinary people, while the
élite would have eaten a diet rich in meat from farming and hunting.
No Pictish counterparts to the areas of denser settlement around
important fortresses in
Gaul and southern Britain, or any other
significant urban settlements, are known. Larger, but not large,
settlements existed around royal forts, such as at
Burghead Fort , or
associated with religious foundations. No towns are known in Scotland
until the 12th century.
The technology of everyday life is not well recorded, but
archaeological evidence shows it to have been similar to that in
Anglo-Saxon England. Recently evidence has been found of
watermills in Pictland.
Kilns were used for drying kernels of wheat
or barley, not otherwise easy in the changeable, temperate climate.
Reconstructed crannóg on
Picts are associated with piracy and raiding along the
Roman Britain . Even in the
Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages , the line
between traders and pirates was unclear, so that Pictish pirates were
probably merchants on other occasions. It is generally assumed that
trade collapsed with the Roman Empire, but this is to overstate the
case. There is only limited evidence of long-distance trade with
Pictland, but tableware and storage vessels from Gaul, probably
transported up the
Irish Sea , have been found. This trade may have
been controlled from
Dunadd in Dál Riata, where such goods appear to
have been common. While long-distance travel was unusual in Pictish
times, it was far from unknown as stories of missionaries, travelling
clerics and exiles show.
Brochs are popularly associated with the Picts. Although these were
built earlier in the
Iron Age , with construction ending around 100
AD, they remained in use into and beyond the Pictish period. Crannóg
, which may originate in
Neolithic Scotland, may have been rebuilt,
and some were still in use in the time of the Picts. The most common
sort of buildings would have been roundhouses and rectangular timbered
halls. While many churches were built in wood, from the early 8th
century, if not earlier, some were built in stone.
Picts are often said to have tattooed themselves, but evidence
for this is limited. Naturalistic depictions of Pictish nobles,
hunters and warriors, male and female, without obvious tattoos, are
found on monumental stones . These stones include inscriptions in
Latin and ogham script, not all of which have been deciphered. The
well known Pictish symbols found on standing stones and other
artifacts, have defied attempts at translation over the centuries.
Pictish art can be classed as 'Celtic ' (a term not coined till the
1850s), and later as Insular . Irish poets portrayed their Pictish
counterparts as very much like themselves.
Main article: Christianisation of
Scotland An early 20th
century depiction of Saint
Columba 's miracle at the gate of King
Bridei 's fortress, described in
Adomnán 's late 7th century Vita
Columbae Animal head from St Ninian\'s Isle Treasure
Early Pictish religion is presumed to have resembled Celtic
polytheism in general, although only place names remain from the
pre-Christian era. When the Pictish elite converted to
uncertain, but traditions place Saint Palladius in Pictland after he
Ireland , and link Abernethy with Saint
Brigid of Kildare
Brigid of Kildare .
Saint Patrick refers to "apostate Picts", while the poem Y Gododdin
does not remark on the
Picts as pagans.
Bede wrote that Saint Ninian
(confused by some with Saint
Finnian of Moville
Finnian of Moville , who died c. 589),
had converted the southern Picts. Recent archaeological work at
Portmahomack places the foundation of the monastery there, an area
once assumed to be among the last converted, in the late 6th century.
This is contemporary with Bridei mac Maelchon and Columba, but the
process of establishing
Christianity throughout Pictland will have
extended over a much longer period.
Pictland was not solely influenced by
Iona and Ireland. It also had
ties to churches in Northumbria, as seen in the reign of Nechtan mac
Der Ilei . The reported expulsion of Ionan monks and clergy by Nechtan
in 717 may have been related to the controversy over the dating of
Easter , and the manner of tonsure , where Nechtan appears to have
supported the Roman usages, but may equally have been intended to
increase royal power over the church. Nonetheless, the evidence of
place names suggests a wide area of Ionan influence in Pictland.
Cáin Adomnáin (Law of
Adomnán , Lex Innocentium)
counts Nechtan's brother Bridei among its guarantors.
The importance of monastic centres in Pictland was not, perhaps, as
great as in Ireland. In areas that have been studied, such as
Perthshire , it appears that the parochial structure of
the High Middle Ages existed in early medieval times. Among the major
religious sites of eastern Pictland were Portmahomack, Cennrígmonaid
St Andrews ),
Dunkeld , Abernethy and
Rosemarkie . It appears
that these are associated with Pictish kings, which argues for a
considerable degree of royal patronage and control of the church.
Portmahomack in particular has been the subject of recent excavation
and research, published by
Martin Carver .
The cult of Saints was, as throughout Christian lands, of great
importance in later Pictland. While kings might patronise great
Saints, such as
Saint Peter in the case of Nechtan, and perhaps Saint
Andrew in the case of the second Óengus mac Fergusa , many lesser
Saints, some now obscure, were important. The Pictish Saint Drostan
appears to have had a wide following in the north in earlier times,
although he was all but forgotten by the 12th century. Saint Serf of
Culross was associated with Nechtan's brother Bridei. It appears, as
is well known in later times, that noble kin groups had their own
patron saints, and their own churches or abbeys.
The Rogart brooch, National Museums of Scotland, FC2. Pictish
penannular brooch , 8th century, silver with gilding and glass.
Classified as Fowler H3 type. The Aberlemno Kirkyard Stone,
Class II Pictish stone
Pictish art appears on stones, metalwork and small objects of stone
and bone. It uses a distinctive form of the general Celtic Early
Medieval development of
La Tène style
La Tène style with increasing influences from
Insular art of 7th and 8th century
Northumbria , and
Anglo-Saxon and Irish art as the Early Medieval period continues.
The most conspicuous survivals are the many
Pictish stones that are
located all over Pictland, from
Inverness to Lanarkshire. An
illustrated catalogue of these stones was produced by J. Romilly Allen
as part of The Early Church Monuments of Scotland, with lists of their
symbols and patterns. The symbols and patterns consist of animals
Pictish Beast , the "rectangle", the "mirror and comb",
"double-disk and Z-rod" and the "crescent and V-rod", among many
others. There are also bosses and lenses with pelta and spiral
designs. The patterns are curvilinear with hatchings. The so-called
cross-slabs are carved with Pictish symbols, Insular-derived interlace
and Christian imagery, though interpretation is often difficult due to
wear and obscurity. Several of the Christian images carved on various
stones, such as David the harpist, Daniel and the lion, or scenes of
St Paul and St Anthony meeting in the desert, have been influenced by
the Insular manuscript tradition.
Pictish metalwork is found throughout Pictland (modern-day Scotland)
and also further south; the
Picts appeared to have a considerable
amount of silver available, probably from raiding further south, or
the payment of subsidies to keep them from doing so. The very large
hoard of late Roman hacksilver found at
Traprain Law may have
originated in either way. The largest hoard of early Pictish metalwork
was found in 1819 at Norrie\'s Law in Fife, but unfortunately much was
dispersed and melted down (Scottish law on treasure finds has always
been unhelpful to preservation). Two famous 7th century silver and
enamel plaques from the hoard, one shown above, have a "Z-rod", one of
the Pictish symbols, in a particularly well-preserved and elegant
form; unfortunately few comparable pieces have survived. Over ten
heavy silver chains, some over 0.5m long, have been found from this
period; the double-linked
Whitecleuch Chain is one of only two that
have a penannular ring, with symbol decoration including enamel, which
shows how these were probably used as "choker" necklaces.
In the 8th and 9th centuries, after Christianization, the Pictish
elite adopted a particular form of the
Celtic brooch from Ireland,
preferring true penannular brooches with lobed terminals. Some older
Irish pseudo-penannular brooches were adapted to the Pictish style,
for example the
Breadalbane Brooch (
British Museum ). The St Ninian\'s
Isle Treasure contains the best collection of Pictish forms. Other
characteristics of Pictish metalwork are dotted backgrounds or designs
and animal forms influenced by Insular art. The 8th century Monymusk
Reliquary has elements of Pictish and Irish style.
Pictish language is extinct. Evidence is limited to place names,
the names of people found on monuments, and the contemporary records.
The evidence of place-names and personal names argues strongly that
Insular Celtic languages related to the more southerly
Brittonic languages . A number of
Ogham inscriptions have been argued
to be unidentifiable as Celtic, and on this basis, it has been
suggested that non-
Celtic languages were also in use.
The absence of surviving written material in Pictish—if the
ambiguous "Pictish inscriptions" in the
Ogham script are
discounted—does not indicate a pre-literate society. The church
certainly required literacy in Latin, and could not function without
copyists to produce liturgical documents. Pictish iconography shows
books being read, and carried, and its naturalistic style gives every
reason to suppose that such images were of real life. Literacy was not
widespread, but among the senior clergy, and in monasteries, it would
have been common enough.
Place-names often allow us to deduce the existence of historic
Pictish settlements in Scotland. Those prefixed with the Brittonic
prefixes "Aber-", "Lhan-", or "Pit-" (=? "peth", a thing) are claimed
to indicate regions inhabited by
Picts in the past (for example:
Pitmedden , etc.). Some of these, such as
"Pit-" (portion, share), may have been formed after Pictish times, and
may refer to previous "shires" or "thanages".
The evidence of place-names may also reveal the advance of Gaelic
into Pictland. As noted,
Atholl , meaning New Ireland, is attested in
the early 8th century. This may be an indication of the advance of
Fortriu also contains place-names suggesting Gaelic
settlement, or Gaelic influences. A pre-Gaelic interpretation of the
name as Athfocla meaning 'north pass' or 'north way', as in gateway to
Moray, suggests that the Gaelic Athfotla may be a Gaelic misreading of
the minuscule c for t.
Medieval Welsh tradition credited the founding of Gwynedd to the
Picts and traced their principal royal families—the Houses of
Aberffraw and Dinefwr —to
Cunedda Wledig , said to have invaded
northern Wales from
Kings of the Picts
* Origins of the
Kingdom of Alba
Kingdom of Alba
Picts in fantasy
Picts in fantasy
Picts in literature and popular culture
St Andrews Sarcophagus
Scotland in the
Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
List of Celtic tribes
List of Celtic tribes
* ^ It has been proposed that they called themselves albidosi, a
name found in the
Chronicle of the Kings of Alba during the reign of
Máel Coluim mac Domnaill
Máel Coluim mac Domnaill , but this idea has been disputed. See:
Broun, "Alba", p. 258, note 95; Woolf, Pictland to Alba, pp.
* ^ Katherine Forsyth, Language in Pictland. The case against
non-Indo-European Pictisch, Studia Hamelina 2, Utrecht 1997
* ^ Foster 1996 . p. 17.
* ^ pingo, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A
Latin Dictionary, on
Perseus Digital Library
* ^ πυκτίς, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A
Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
* ^ Foster 1996 . p. 11.
* ^ The
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has pihtas and pehtas.
* ^ A B Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí. A New History of Ireland:
Prehistoric and Early Ireland. Oxford University Press, 2008. Page
* ^ A B Chadwick, Hector Munro. Early Scotland: the Picts, the
Scots cf. Bannerman, "Scottish Takeover", passim, representing the
* ^ For example, Pechs , and perhaps Pixies . However, Sally Foster
John Toland in 1726: "they are apt all over
Scotland to make
everything Pictish whose origin they do not know." The same could be
said of the
Picts in myth.
* ^ Broun, "Kingship", for
Ireland see, e.g. Byrne, Irish Kings and
High-Kings, and more generally Ó Cróinín, Early Medieval Ireland.
* ^ Forsyth, "Lost Pictish Source", Watson, Celtic Place Names, pp.
Scotland in the Middle Ages#Minor kingdoms
* ^ earls of moray. Irvinemclean.com (2010-12-15). Retrieved on
* ^ earls of ross. Irvinemclean.com (2011-04-22). Retrieved on
* ^ Bruford, "What happened to the Caledonians", Watson, Celtic
Place Names, pp. 108–113.
* ^ Woolf, "Dun Nechtain"; Yorke, Conversion, p. 47. Compare
earlier works such as Foster, Picts,
Gaels and Scots, p. 33.
* ^ Adomnán, "Life of Columba", editor's notes on pp. 342–343.
* ^ Broun, "Seven Kingdoms".
* ^ Woolf, "Dun Nechtain".
* ^ Bede, I, c. 1
* ^ The Female Royal Line: matrilineal succession amongst the
* ^ Clancy, "Nechtan".
* ^ Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings, pp. 35–41, 122–123, also
pp. 108, 287, stating that derbfhine was practised by the cruithni in
* ^ Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings, p. 35, "Elder for kin, worth
for rulership, wisdom for the church." See also Foster, Picts, Gaels
and Scots, pp. 32–34, Smyth, Warlords and Holy Men, p. 67ff.
* ^ Broun, "Kingship", Broun, "Pictish Kings"; for Dál Riata,
Broun, "Dál Riata", for a more positive view Sharpe, "The thriving of
Dalriada"; for Northumbria, Higham, Kingdom of Northumbria, pp.
* ^ Woolf, "Nobility".
* ^ Barrow, "Pre-Feudal Scotland", Woolf, "Nobility".
* ^ See, e.g. Campbell, Saints and Sea-kings for the
Gaels of Dál
Riata, Lowe, Angels, Fools and Tyrants for Britons and Anglians.
* ^ Foster, Picts,
Gaels and Scots, pp. 49–61. Fergus Kelly,
Early Irish Farming: a study based mainly on the law-texts of the 7th
and 8th centuries AD (School of Celtic Studies/DAIS, Dublin, 2000.
ISBN 1-85500-180-2 ) provides an extensive review of farming in
Ireland in the middle Pictish period.
* ^ The interior of the fort at Burghead was some 12 acres (5
hectares) in size, see Driscoll, "Burghead"; for Verlamion (later
Verulamium ), a southern British settlement on a very much
larger scale, see e.g. Pryor, Britain AD, pp. 64–70.
* ^ Dennison, "Urban settlement: medieval".
* ^ Carver (2008)
* ^ Foster, Picts,
Gaels and Scots, pp. 52–53.
* ^ Trade, see Foster, Picts,
Gaels and Scots, pp. 65–68;
seafaring in general, e.g. Haywood, Dark Age Naval Power, Rodger,
Safeguard of the Sea.
* ^ Armit, Towers In The North, chapter 7.
* ^ Crone, "Crannogs and Chronologies", PSAS, vol. 123, pp.
* ^ Foster, Picts,
Gaels and Scots, pp. 52–61.
* ^ See Clancy, "Nechtan", Foster, Picts,
Gaels and Scots, p. 89.
* ^ For art in general see Foster, Picts,
Gaels and Scots, pp.
26–28, Laing Laing, 310
* ^ Henderson, Isabel, "The 'David Cycle' in Pictish Art". Early
Medieval Sculpture. Ed. J.Higgitt. Oxford, 1986. pp. 87–113.
* ^ "The Meeting of Saint Paul and Saint Anthony: Visual and
Literary Uses of a Eucharistic Motif". Keimelia. Eds. P. Wallace and
G. M. Niocaill. Galway, 1989. pp. 1–58.
* ^ Youngs, 26–28; Poor image of 19th-century illustration
* ^ Youngs, 28
* ^ Youngs, 109–113
* ^ Forsyth, Language in Pictland, Price "Pictish", Taylor, "Place
names", Watson, Celtic Place Names. For K.H. Jackson's views, see "The
Language of the Picts" in Wainwright (ed.) The Problem of the Picts.
* ^ Jackson, "The Language of the Picts", discussed by Forsyth,
Language in Pictland.
* ^ Forsyth, "Literacy in Pictland".
* ^ For place names in general, see Watson, Celtic Place Names;
Nicolaisen, Scottish Place Names, pp 156–246. For shires and
thanages see Barrow, "Pre-Feudal Scotland".
* ^ Watson, Celtic Place Names, pp. 225–233.
* ^ James E. Fraser, The New Edinburgh History Of
Scotland Vol.1 -
From Caledonia To Pictland, Edinburgh University Press(2009) ISBN
* ^ The statement Nid oedhynt y Picteit onyd yr hen Gymry ("The
Picts were none other than the old Cymry", i.e., Welsh) is recorded in
Peniarth MS. 118. Op. cit.
Wade-Evans, Arthur . Welsh Medieval Law.
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Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), Spes
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