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Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
(Thai: พิษณุโลก, pronounced [pʰít.sā.nú.lôːk], also locally known as Pilok) is an important, historic city in lower northern Thailand
Thailand
and is the capital of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Province, which stretches all the way to the Laotian border. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is one of the oldest cities in Thailand, founded over 600 years ago. It is best known as the birthplace of King Naresuan, who freed the country from Burmese domination in the late 16th century, and that of his brother and successor King Ekathosarot (Sanphet III). As the crossroad between the northern and central regions of the country, it has long been important both for political and strategic reasons, and was fought over many times in centuries past. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
was the capital of Thailand
Thailand
for 25 years during the reign of King Boromma Trailokanat of Ayutthaya. On the banks of the Nan River, the city was originally a small Khmer outpost known as Song Kwae, before the Khwae Noi River changed its course in the 11th century CE. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
was also a provincial center of the Angkorian Empire during the Angkorian period.[1] Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is home to Naresuan University and Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University, as well as to a major Royal Thai Army
Royal Thai Army
base.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Topography 5 History

5.1 Khmer Empire 5.2 Sukhothai period 5.3 Ayutthaya period 5.4 19th century 5.5 20th century 5.6 Recent events

6 Government

6.1 Royal Thai Army 6.2 Media

7 Demographics

7.1 Ethnic diversity 7.2 Language 7.3 Religion

8 Infrastructure

8.1 Educational Institutions 8.2 Secondary (Mathayom) Institutions 8.3 Hospitals 8.4 Transportation

9 Culture

9.1 Art 9.2 Literature 9.3 Sports

10 Temples

10.1 Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat 10.2 Other temples

11 Other attractions 12 Festivals and events 13 References 14 External links

Etymology[edit]

Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat

Song Khwae: The first element, "song", means the number "two". The second element, "khwae", means "tributary". A loose translation of the entire name would be "two rivers". Phitsanulok: The first element, "Phitsanu" (Thai: พิษณุ; Sanskrit: viṣṇu विष्णु "Vishnu"), is a cognate of Vishnu, a Hindu god (see, e.g., Witnu, Thai: วิษณุ). Lack of a v sound in the Thai language
Thai language
accounts for the two forms. The second element, "lok" (Thai: โลก; Sanskrit: loka लोक "world") means "globe" or "world". A loose translation of the entire name would be "Vishnu's heaven".

Geography[edit]

Nan River

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is in the north of Thailand. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is about 377 kilometres north of Bangkok
Bangkok
by road. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
covers some 10,815 square kilometres, or 6.4 % of area in the north of Thailand
Thailand
and 2.1 % of area in Thailand. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
border on the north and the north-east of Thailand. The north is adjacent to Uttaradit
Uttaradit
and Loa. The south is adjacent to Phichit. The east is adjacent to Loei and Phetchabun. The west is adjacent to Kamphangphet and Sukothai. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
has many water falls, forests and caves. In the north is central area. In the north-west is a highland. It’s the important recreational area such as Kaeng Sopha waterfall, Phu Hin Rong Kla and Phu Soi Dow. In the south plains along the Yom River and the Nan River is the most important agricultural district of Phitsanulok. Climate[edit] Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw). Winters are dry and very warm. Temperatures rise until April, which is very hot with the average daily maximum at 37.4 °C (99.3 °F). The monsoon season runs from May through October, with heavy rain and somewhat cooler temperatures during the day, although nights remain warm.

Climate data for Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 36.3 (97.3) 38.4 (101.1) 40.0 (104) 41.8 (107.2) 41.5 (106.7) 39.4 (102.9) 37.6 (99.7) 36.7 (98.1) 35.7 (96.3) 35.7 (96.3) 36.4 (97.5) 35.3 (95.5) 41.8 (107.2)

Average high °C (°F) 31.6 (88.9) 33.8 (92.8) 35.8 (96.4) 37.2 (99) 35.6 (96.1) 34.0 (93.2) 33.2 (91.8) 32.5 (90.5) 32.5 (90.5) 32.4 (90.3) 31.7 (89.1) 30.7 (87.3) 33.4 (92.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 24.8 (76.6) 26.9 (80.4) 29.2 (84.6) 30.8 (87.4) 29.9 (85.8) 29.0 (84.2) 28.5 (83.3) 28.1 (82.6) 28.1 (82.6) 27.8 (82) 26.5 (79.7) 24.3 (75.7) 27.8 (82)

Average low °C (°F) 18.7 (65.7) 21.0 (69.8) 23.6 (74.5) 25.4 (77.7) 25.2 (77.4) 25.0 (77) 24.8 (76.6) 24.7 (76.5) 24.7 (76.5) 24.1 (75.4) 21.7 (71.1) 18.6 (65.5) 23.1 (73.6)

Record low °C (°F) 10.4 (50.7) 13.0 (55.4) 12.7 (54.9) 19.6 (67.3) 20.4 (68.7) 21.0 (69.8) 21.5 (70.7) 21.4 (70.5) 21.7 (71.1) 17.1 (62.8) 12.1 (53.8) 8.9 (48) 8.9 (48)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 3.9 (0.154) 13.5 (0.531) 26.7 (1.051) 55.7 (2.193) 170.9 (6.728) 165.7 (6.524) 179.4 (7.063) 247.6 (9.748) 246.6 (9.709) 162.5 (6.398) 33.4 (1.315) 11.1 (0.437) 1,317 (51.85)

Average rainy days 1.3 2.2 3.3 5.6 13.7 16.2 18.1 20.4 18.7 13.3 3.5 1.0 117.3

Average relative humidity (%) 67 64 62 63 71 76 78 80 81 78 72 67 72

Mean monthly sunshine hours 257.3 243.0 275.9 243.0 198.4 117.0 120.9 117.8 108.0 179.8 219.0 257.3 2,337.4

Mean daily sunshine hours 8.3 8.6 8.9 8.1 6.4 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.6 5.8 7.3 8.3 6.6

Source #1: Thai Meteorological Department[2]

Source #2: Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department (sun and humidity)[3]

Topography[edit] Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
lies primarily on flatland with some hills.[4] The eastern portion of the city has some wooded area.[4] The city is in the Nan Basin, which is part of the Chao Phraya watershed.[5] Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is sometimes called Song Kwae, the city of two rivers, a name dating to a time centuries ago when the Nan and Khwae Noi Rivers met near the city. Today, only the Nan River
Nan River
flows through Phitsanulok. History[edit]

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
History This box contains links to selected articles with information related to the history of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Province.

Prehistoric Era

Early Nan River
Nan River
Civilizations · Tai

Khmer Empire

Song Khwae

Singhanavati
Singhanavati
City-State

Chaiyasiri · Nakhon Thai

Sukhothai Period

Wat Chula Manee · Wat Aranyik Wat Chedi Yod Thong Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat

Ayutthaya Period

Borommatrailokkanat Wat Ratchaburana · Wat Nang Phaya Borommaracha III · Naresuan Borommakot

Modern Siam / Thailand

19th Century · 20th Century · Recent Events

This box:

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Khmer Empire[edit] During the 11th century, the city of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
was only a small Khmer outpost called Song Khwae, meaning two rivers.[4] At that time, the Nan and Khwae Noi Rivers both flowed through the city, making it a strategic gateway to northern Thailand. The Thais were the majority in the area, however, and would soon establish their independence and form the Kingdom of Sukhothai. Sukhothai period[edit]

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
was the major city in the east of the Sukhothai Kingdom. Wat Aranyik and Wat Chedi Yod Thong
Wat Chedi Yod Thong
were constructed.

Ayutthaya period[edit]

Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat was constructed in 1357. King Borommatrailokanat moved the capital of the Ayutthaya kingdom
Ayutthaya kingdom
to Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
in 1463 to strengthen the northern boundary of the kingdom. Wat Ratchaburana and Wat Nang Phaya were all built during the reign of King Borommatrailokanat. King Borommatrailokanat's successor, Boromma Ratchathirat III, returned the capital of the Ayutthaya kingdom
Ayutthaya kingdom
to Ayutthaya. In 1555, King Naresuan
Naresuan
the Great was born in the city.[6] Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
was a major place of recruitment during Ayutthaya's wars with Burma.[6] Mother-of-pearl inlaid doors were made in 1756 for the entrance to Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat at the order of King Boromakot. After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese in 1767 and the death of its last ruler, a mad monk proclaimed himself king and seized control of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
from its royal governor. King Taksin the Great
Taksin the Great
was himself wounded by a musket ball during an unsuccessful attempt to capture the city from the monk. The monk later fled to the north.

King Naresuan

19th century[edit] King Mongkut
Mongkut
ordered the restoration of Wat Ratchaburana. 20th century[edit]

The Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
fire of 1955 destroyed much of the older portion of the city, which at the time consisted mostly of wooden buildings. On 28 November 1961, the King Naresuan
Naresuan
Shrine was completed at Chandra Palace. On 25 January 1967, the Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
campus of what is now Naresuan University was established as the northern branch of the degree level College of Education. In 1974, the College of Education was upgraded as Srinakharinwirot University, with Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
as one of the six campuses. In 1990, the regional campuses became independent universities, and the Phitsanuloke campus was named after Phitsanulok-born King Naresuan
Naresuan
the Great. Naresuan
Naresuan
Dam was constructed from 1976 to 1985 on the Nan River
Nan River
as part of the Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Irrigation Project.[7] The dam was designed to help prevent flooding of the city.

Recent events[edit]

In June, 2001, Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
hosted the Asia-Pacific Summit of Women Mayors and Councillors.[8]

Government[edit] The chief executive of the city is the mayor. Royal Thai Army[edit] Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is home to the Third Army Region of the Royal Thai Army, responsible for the northern and north-western parts of the kingdom.. Media[edit] The main channels for communication in the city are television and radio. The following public television and radio stations[9] are broadcast from Phitsanulok:

Sathaanii Witthayu Krajaisiang Thahaan Aakaat (Air Force Radio Station), 954 AM and 95.75, in the City of Phitsanulok Witthayu Kong Phon Thahaan Raap Thii Sii (4th Infantry Division), 1377 AM, at Fort Somdet Phra Naresuan
Naresuan
Maharat Sathaanii Witthayu Phitaksantiraat (Communications Division, Royal Thai Police), 1422 AM, in Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
City ARMY-5 (television channel 5, owned and operated by the Royal Thai Army)[10] PRD-11 (television channel 11, owned and operated by the Government Public Relations Department)[10]

Demographics[edit] Ethnic diversity[edit] The majority ethnicity in the city is Thai. Others in the city consider themselves of Mon descent. Language[edit] The vast majority of residents of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
speak central Thai. Religion[edit] The people of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
are predominantly Theravada
Theravada
Buddhists (as are 95% of the Thai population as a whole), with a small Christian community and a few Muslim families. Infrastructure[edit] Educational Institutions[edit] Naresuan
Naresuan
University (abbreviated as Mor Nor for Mahawithayalai Naresuan) is an educational center of the lower northern region of Thailand. Now located in Tha Pho, near the city of Phitsanulok, the university was named after King Naresuan
Naresuan
the Great, and the campus features a large statue of him. Other universities and colleges in or around the city include Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
College (private), Sirindhorn College of Public Health, Rajabhat Pibulsongkram University (formerly a teacher training college), and the Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
campus of the Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna. Secondary (Mathayom) Institutions[edit] Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is home to one of the top Science and Math Secondary schools in the country. Princess Chulabhorn's College Phitsanulok (PCCPL) is a magnet boarding school that educates 750 students from lower northern Thailand
Thailand
that are looking to have active careers in the STEM fields. Hospitals[edit] There are several hospitals in the city, both public and private. The province's and the city's primary public hospital is Buddhachinaraj Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Hospital and the regional super tertiary care hospital is Naresuan
Naresuan
University Hospital at Naresuan
Naresuan
University, Tha Pho. Transportation[edit]

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Railway Station

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is approximately 75 km from the Unesco World Heritage site at Sukhothai. The city can be reached by both rail and air ( Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Airport), and is on the intersection of several major highways linking the northern, north-eastern, and central regions of Thailand: Highway 11 (Ta Khli - Chiang Mai), Highway 12 ( Mae Sot
Mae Sot
- Mukdahan) and Highway 117 ( Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
- Nakhon Sawan). Highway 126 is a ring road around the city, allowing through traffic to bypass the city centre.

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Airport

Culture[edit] Art[edit] Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is home to a number of historic sculptures of the Buddha and other religious artwork including the Buddha Chinnarat, the Buddha Chinnasri, the Phra Sri Satsada. Literature[edit] Examples of important literary works of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
include:

Lilit Yuan Pai (Thai: ลิลิตยวนพ่าย, English: Tale of the Fall of Lanna) Lilit Prá Lô (Thai: ลิลิตพระลอ, English: Tale of the Hero Lô) Klohng Táwâatsàmàat (Thai: โคลงทวาทศมาส, English: Poem of the Twelve Months) Gam Sŏn Sĕe Bpràat (Thai: กำศรวลศรีปราชญ์, English: The Legendary Wise Archer's Grip)

The predominant literary language (as well as the predominant spoken language) is the central Thai dialect of the Thai language, which is written in the Thai alphabet. Sports[edit] Dragon boat
Dragon boat
racing has historically been an important element of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
culture. In recent times, football (soccer) has become increasingly popular. In 2005, Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
won the 2nd Northern Youth Football Championship in the U12 and U15 age groups.[11] Traditional Thai boxing
Thai boxing
is also a major sport in the city. Temples[edit]

Phra Buddha Chinnarat

Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat[edit] Main article: Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahatat Woramahawihan Phitsanulok's main tourist attraction is Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat, known locally simply as Wat Yai (Thai: วัดใหญ่) (the big temple). This famous temple, built in 1357, is home to the Phra Buddha Chinnarat, which is one of the most revered Buddha figures in Thailand, and the official symbol of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Province. (An exact replica exists in the Marble Temple in Bangkok, and another in Wat Saranat Thammaram in Rayong.) The beautiful mother-of-pearl inlaid doors were built in 1756 by order of King Boromakot of Ayutthaya. The Buddha Chinnarat National Museum, on the temple grounds, houses a sizeable collection of Sukhothai period art. A large provincial fair is held at the temple every January.

Pagoda

Other temples[edit]

Wat Ratchaburana

The city is home to the following 12 active temples where Theravada Buddhism is practiced by city residents:

Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat (Thai: วัดพระศรีรัตนมหาธาตุ) Wat Ratchaburana (Thai: วัดราชบูรณะ) Wat Aranyik (Thai: วัดอรัญญิก) Wat Nang Phaya (Thai: วัดนางพญา) Wat Chedi Yod Thong Wat Tamajak (Thai: วัดธรรมจักร) Wat Mai Opayaram (Thai: วัดใหม่อภัยาราม) Wat Kuha Sawan (Thai: วัดคูหาสวรรค์) Wat Nong Bua (Thai: วัดหนองบัว) Wat Sri Wisut Tharam (Thai: วัดศรีวิสุทธาราม) Wat Sra Gaew Pratum Thong (Thai: วัดสระแก้วปทุมทอง) Wat Tha Maprang (Thai: วัดท่ามะปราง)

Other attractions[edit]

Sergeant-Major Dr. Thawee Buranakhet Folklore Museum: Hosts a collection of folk arts, crafts, basketry, pottery and ancient kitchen utensils.[12] The museum also houses a collection of antique traps for catching snakes, birds, tigers and porcupines.

Buranathai Buddha Foundry

City walls: Unfortunately, most of the older portions of Phitsanulok were destroyed in a 1955 fire. Thus little else remains of the old town besides the famous temple, an ancient chedi across the road from it, and a small section of the city wall. The intact portion of the ancient city wall is accessible to visitors.[12] Buranathai Buddha Foundry: Specializes in casting bronze Buddha images.[13] It is the only establishment of its kind in the province.[13] Craftspersons specialize in the reproduction of the Phra Buddha Chinnarat Buddha image.[13] Visitors are permitted to walk along the production line.[13] Nan River
Nan River
Houseboats: Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is known throughout Thailand
Thailand
for the houseboats which still line the Nan River
Nan River
near Wat Phra Sri Rattana Maharat, though in recent years these are becoming fewer.[12] A houseboat museum is open to visitors.

Naresuan
Naresuan
University

Night Market: Each evening, vendors gather to form Phitsanulok's night market. Items sold include clothing and food, usually at reduced prices. Chandra Palace: Chandra Palace was the birthplace of King Naresuan
Naresuan
the Great, and contains a shrine to him. Naresuan
Naresuan
University Art and Culture Gallery: The gallery holds over 100 artistic artworks of culturally significant Thai artists.

Festivals and events[edit]

River houses in Phitsanulok

Phra Buddha Chinnarat Fair: Held each January at Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahatat Woramahawihan. Suan Chom Nan Park Festival: Held twice a year along the Nan River. Food and local products are on sale. Dragon Boat Races: On the first weekend of each October, dragon boat races are held outside Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahatat Woramahawihan
Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahatat Woramahawihan
in the Nan River. Each dragon boat has a crew of approximately 30 oarsmen.

References[edit]

^ Thailand, A Short Story, David K. Wyatt, ISBN 0-300-03054-1 ^ "Climatological Data for the Period 1981–2010". Thai Meteorological Department. p. 5. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ "ปริมาณการใช้น้ำของพืชอ้างอิงโดยวิธีของ Penman Monteith (Reference Crop Evapotranspiration by Penman Monteith)" (PDF) (in Thai). Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department. p. 32. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ a b c ThaiTambon.com ^ Basins in Thailand
Thailand
Archived 2008-02-22 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Province page from the Tourist Authority of Thailand
Thailand
Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Irrigation Project Archived 2008-05-03 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Asia-Pacific Summit of Women Mayors and Councillors Archived 2007-09-17 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Radio Stations in Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Province, Thailand ^ a b Thai TV: Television Stations in Thailand
Thailand
on VHF and UHF ^ Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
wins the 2nd Northern Youth Football Championship ^ a b c Thailand
Thailand
Guidebook- Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Province ^ a b c d Buranathai Buddha Casting Foundry

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Province.

External links[edit]

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
travel guide from Wikivoyage

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Metropolitan cities of Thailand

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City Municipalities (thesaban nakhon)

Chaophraya Surasak Chiang Mai Chiang Rai Hat Yai Khon Kaen Ko Samui Laem Chabang Lampang Mae Sot Nakhon Pathom Nakhon Ratchasima Nakhon Sawan Nakhon Si Thammarat Nonthaburi Om Noi Pak Kret Phitsanulok Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Phuket Rangsit Rayong Sakon Nakhon Samut Prakan Samut Sakhon Songkhla Surat Thani Trang Ubon Ratchathani Udon Thani Yala

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Ang Thong Ayothaya Ban Tom Bang Rin Bangkok Bueng Kan SAO Area Chachoengsao Chaeramae Chai Nat Chai Sathan Chaiyaphum Chanthaburi Chiang Mai Chiang Rai Chonburi Chumphon Kalasin Kanchanaburi Khelang Nakhon Khon Kaen Krabi Lamphun Loei Lopburi Mae Hong Son Mai Khet Map Ta Phut Mukdahan Nakhon Nayok Nakhon Phanom Nakhon Ratchasima Nakhon Sawan Nakhon Si Thammarat Narathiwat Non Nam Thaeng Nong Bua Lam Phu Nong Khai Nong Pling Nonthaburi Pathum Thani Pattani Phang Nga Phatthalung Phetchaburi Phichit Phitsanulok Phrae Phuket Prachuap Khiri Khan Ratchaburi Roi Et Sa Kaeo Sadiang Sakon Nakhon Samet Samut Prakan Samut Sakhon Samut Songkhram Sanam Chai Saraburi Satun Sing Buri Sisaket Songkhla Sukhothai Thani Surat Thani Surin Tak Thanon Khat Trang Trat Udon Thani Uthai Thani Uttaradit Waeng Nang Town

.