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PHITSANULOK (Thai : พิษณุโลก, pronounced ) is an important, historic city in lower northern Thailand
Thailand
and is the capital of Phitsanulok Province , which stretches all the way to the Laotian border. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is one of the oldest cities in Thailand, founded over 600 years ago. It is probably best known as the birthplace of King Naresuan
Naresuan
, who freed the country from Burmese domination in the late 16th century, and that of his brother and successor King Ekathosarot (Sanphet III). As the crossroad between the northern and central regions of the country, it has long been important both for political and strategic reasons, and was fought over many times in centuries past. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
was the capital of Thailand
Thailand
for 25 years during the reign of King Boromma Trailokanat of Ayutthaya . On the banks of the Nan River, the city was originally a small Khmer outpost known as Song Kwae, before the Khwae Noi River changed its course in the 11th century CE. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
was also a provincial center of the Angkorian Empire during the Angkorian period. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is home to Naresuan
Naresuan
University and Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University , as well as to a major Royal Thai Army
Royal Thai Army
base.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Geography * 3 Climate * 4 Topography

* 5 History

* 5.1 Khmer Empire * 5.2 Sukhothai period * 5.3 Ayutthaya period * 5.4 19th century * 5.5 20th century * 5.6 Recent events

* 6 Government

* 6.1 Royal Thai Army
Royal Thai Army
* 6.2 Media

* 7 Demographics

* 7.1 Ethnic diversity * 7.2 Language * 7.3 Religion

* 8 Infrastructure

* 8.1 Educational Institutions * 8.2 Secondary (Mathayom) Institutions * 8.3 Hospitals * 8.4 Transportation

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Art * 9.2 Literature * 9.3 Sports

* 10 Temples

* 10.1 Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat * 10.2 Other temples

* 11 Other attractions * 12 Festivals and events * 13 References * 14 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat

* Song Khwae: The first element, "song", means the number "two". The second element, "khwae", means "tributary". A loose translation of the entire name would be "two rivers". * Phitsanulok: The first element, "Phitsanu" (Thai: พิษณุ; Sanskrit : viṣṇu विष्णु " Vishnu
Vishnu
"), is a cognate of Vishnu
Vishnu
, a Hindu god (see, e.g., Witnu, Thai: วิษณุ). Lack of a v sound in the Thai language
Thai language
accounts for the two forms. The second element, "lok" (Thai: โลก; Sanskrit : loka लोक "world") means "globe" or "world". A loose translation of the entire name would be "Vishnu's heaven".

GEOGRAPHY

Nan River

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is in the north of Thailand. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is about 377 kilometers north of Bangkok
Bangkok
by car. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
covers some 10815.8 square kilometers or 6.37 percentage of area in the north of Thailand and 2.1 percentage of area in Thailand. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
border on the north and the north-east of Thailand. The north is adjacent to Uttaradit and Loa. The south is adjacent to Phichit. The east is adjacent to Loei and Phetchabun. The west is adjacent to Kamphangphet and Sukothai. Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is consisting of the mountain region, the plain region and the highest point. It has many water falls, forests and caves. In the north is central area. In the north-west is a highland. It’s the important recreational area such as Kaeng Sopha waterfall, Phu Hin Rong Kla and Phu Soi Dow. In the south plains along the Yom River and the Nan River is the most important agricultural district of Phitsanulok.

CLIMATE

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw). Winters are dry and very warm. Temperatures rise until April, which is very hot with the average daily maximum at 37.4 °C (99.3 °F). The monsoon season runs from May through October, with heavy rain and somewhat cooler temperatures during the day, although nights remain warm.

CLIMATE DATA FOR PHITSANULOK (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 36.3 (97.3) 38.4 (101.1) 40.0 (104) 41.8 (107.2) 41.5 (106.7) 39.4 (102.9) 37.6 (99.7) 36.7 (98.1) 35.7 (96.3) 35.7 (96.3) 36.4 (97.5) 35.3 (95.5) 41.8 (107.2)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 31.6 (88.9) 33.8 (92.8) 35.8 (96.4) 37.2 (99) 35.6 (96.1) 34.0 (93.2) 33.2 (91.8) 32.5 (90.5) 32.5 (90.5) 32.4 (90.3) 31.7 (89.1) 30.7 (87.3) 33.4 (92.1)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 24.8 (76.6) 26.9 (80.4) 29.2 (84.6) 30.8 (87.4) 29.9 (85.8) 29.0 (84.2) 28.5 (83.3) 28.1 (82.6) 28.1 (82.6) 27.8 (82) 26.5 (79.7) 24.3 (75.7) 27.8 (82)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 18.7 (65.7) 21.0 (69.8) 23.6 (74.5) 25.4 (77.7) 25.2 (77.4) 25.0 (77) 24.8 (76.6) 24.7 (76.5) 24.7 (76.5) 24.1 (75.4) 21.7 (71.1) 18.6 (65.5) 23.1 (73.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 10.4 (50.7) 13.0 (55.4) 12.7 (54.9) 19.6 (67.3) 20.4 (68.7) 21.0 (69.8) 21.5 (70.7) 21.4 (70.5) 21.7 (71.1) 17.1 (62.8) 12.1 (53.8) 8.9 (48) 8.9 (48)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 3.9 (0.154) 13.5 (0.531) 26.7 (1.051) 55.7 (2.193) 170.9 (6.728) 165.7 (6.524) 179.4 (7.063) 247.6 (9.748) 246.6 (9.709) 162.5 (6.398) 33.4 (1.315) 11.1 (0.437) 1,317 (51.85)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 1.3 2.2 3.3 5.6 13.7 16.2 18.1 20.4 18.7 13.3 3.5 1.0 117.3

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 67 64 62 63 71 76 78 80 81 78 72 67 72

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 257.3 243.0 275.9 243.0 198.4 117.0 120.9 117.8 108.0 179.8 219.0 257.3 2,337.4

MEAN DAILY SUNSHINE HOURS 8.3 8.6 8.9 8.1 6.4 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.6 5.8 7.3 8.3 6.6

Source #1: Thai Meteorological Department

Source #2: Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department (sun and humidity)

TOPOGRAPHY

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
lies primarily on flatland with some hills. The eastern portion of the city has some wooded area. The city is in the Nan Basin , which is part of the Chao Phraya watershed . Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is sometimes called Song Kwae, the city of two rivers, a name dating to a time centuries ago when the Nan and Khwae Noi Rivers met near the city. Today, only the Nan River flows through Phitsanulok.

HISTORY

PHITSANULOK HISTORY

This box contains links to selected articles with information related to the history of Phitsanulok Province .

PREHISTORIC ERA

Early Nan River Civilizations · Tai

KHMER EMPIRE

Song Khwae

SINGHANAVATI CITY-STATE

Chaiyasiri · Nakhon Thai

SUKHOTHAI PERIOD

Wat Chula Manee · Wat Aranyik Wat Chedi Yod Thong
Wat Chedi Yod Thong
Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat

AYUTTHAYA PERIOD

Borommatrailokkanat Wat Ratchaburana · Wat Nang Phaya Borommaracha III · Naresuan
Naresuan
Borommakot

MODERN SIAM / THAILAND

19th Century · 20th Century · Recent Events

This box:

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KHMER EMPIRE

During the 11th century, the city of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
was only a small Khmer outpost called Song Khwae, meaning two rivers. At that time, the Nan and Khwae Noi Rivers both flowed through the city, making it a strategic gateway to northern Thailand. The Thais were the majority in the area, however, and would soon establish their independence and form the Kingdom of Sukhothai.

SUKHOTHAI PERIOD

* Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
was the major city in the east of the Sukhothai Kingdom . * Wat Aranyik and Wat Chedi Yod Thong
Wat Chedi Yod Thong
were constructed.

AYUTTHAYA PERIOD

* Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat was constructed in 1357. * King Borommatrailokanat moved the capital of the Ayutthaya kingdom to Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
in 1463 to strengthen the northern boundary of the kingdom. * Wat Ratchaburana and Wat Nang Phaya were all built during the reign of King Borommatrailokanat . * King Borommatrailokanat's successor, Boromma Ratchathirat III , returned the capital of the Ayutthaya kingdom
Ayutthaya kingdom
to Ayutthaya. * In 1555, King Naresuan
Naresuan
the Great was born in the city. * Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
was a major place of recruitment during Ayutthaya 's wars with Burma
Burma
. * Mother-of-pearl inlaid doors were made in 1756 for the entrance to Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat at the order of King Boromakot . * After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese in 1767 and the death of its last ruler, a mad monk proclaimed himself king and seized control of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
from its royal governor. King Taksin the Great was himself wounded by a musket ball during an unsuccessful attempt to capture the city from the monk. The monk later fled to the north.

King Naresuan
Naresuan

19TH CENTURY

King Mongkut
Mongkut
ordered the restoration of Wat Ratchaburana .

20TH CENTURY

* The Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
fire of 1955 destroyed much of the older portion of the city, which at the time consisted mostly of wooden buildings. * On Nov 28, 1961, the King Naresuan
Naresuan
Shrine was completed at Chandra Palace. * On January 25, 1967, the Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
campus of what is now Naresuan
Naresuan
University was established as the northern branch of the degree level College of Education. In 1974, the College of Education was upgraded as Srinakharinwirot University
Srinakharinwirot University
, with Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
as one of the six campuses. In 1990, the regional campuses became independent universities, and the Phitsanuloke campus was named for Phitsanulok-born King Naresuan
Naresuan
the Great. * Naresuan
Naresuan
Dam was constructed from 1976 to 1985 on the Nan River as part of the Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Irrigation Project. The dam was designed to help prevent flooding of the city.

RECENT EVENTS

* In June, 2001, Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
hosted the Asia-Pacific Summit of Women Mayors and Councillors .

GOVERNMENT

The chief executive of the city is the mayor. During election campaigns, candidates use signs, vehicles with loud speakers, and political parades to obtain votes.

ROYAL THAI ARMY

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is home to the Third Army Region of the Royal Thai Army, responsible for the northern and north-western parts of the kingdom..

MEDIA

The main channels for communication in the city are television and radio. The following public television and radio stations are broadcast from Phitsanulok:

* Sathaanii Witthayu Krajaisiang Thahaan Aakaat (Air Force Radio Station), 954 AM and 95.75, in the City of Phitsanulok * Witthayu Kong Phon Thahaan Raap Thii Sii (4th Infantry Division ), 1377 AM, at Fort Somdet Phra Naresuan
Naresuan
Maharat * Sathaanii Witthayu Phitaksantiraat (Communications Division, Royal Thai Police ), 1422 AM, in Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
City * ARMY-5 (television channel 5, owned and operated by the Royal Thai Army ) * PRD-11 (television channel 11, owned and operated by the Government Public Relations Department)

DEMOGRAPHICS

ETHNIC DIVERSITY

The majority ethnicity in the city is Thai. Others in the city consider themselves of Mon descent.

LANGUAGE

The vast majority of residents of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
speak central Thai .

RELIGION

The people of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
are predominantly Theravada
Theravada
Buddhists (as are 95% of the Thai population as a whole), with a small Christian community and a few Muslim families.

INFRASTRUCTURE

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Naresuan
Naresuan
University (abbreviated as Mor Nor for Mahawithayalai Naresuan) is an educational center of the lower northern region of Thailand. Now located in Tha Pho , near the city of Phitsanulok, the university was named after King Naresuan
Naresuan
the Great, and the campus features a large statue of him. Other universities and colleges in or around the city include Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
College (private), Sirindhorn College of Public Health , Rajabhat Pibulsongkram University (formerly a teacher training college), and the Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
campus of the Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna
Lanna
. There are numerous kindergartens, elementary schools, high schools and vocational schools in the province. CPS Institution, a private language school, is at Tesco Lotus Extra and offers courses in English, Japanese, and Thai.

SECONDARY (MATHAYOM) INSTITUTIONS

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is home to one of the top Science and Math Secondary schools in the country. Princess Chulabhorn's College Phitsanulok (PCCPL) is a magnet boarding school that educates ~750 students from lower northern Thailand
Thailand
that are looking to have active careers in the STEM fields. PCCPL also boasts some of the nicest facilities in the region with separate boys' and girls' dormitories, a multi-story sports complex, multiple volleyball and basketball courts, rugby and football fields, a centralized pond and lake on campus, an on-campus convenience mart, and many other amenities to enjoy while students are boarding and away from home. PCCPL is located about 25km from the city centre and is surrounded by a small number of local restaurants and food stands, lush rice paddies, and beautiful stretches of rural country highways.

HOSPITALS

There are several hospitals in the city, both public and private. The province's and the city's primary public hospital is Buddhachinaraj Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Hospital and the regional super tertiary care hospital is Naresuan
Naresuan
University Hospital at Naresuan
Naresuan
University , Tha Pho , 10 kilometers south of city center.

TRANSPORTATION

Phitsanulok Railway Station

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is approximately 75 km from the Unesco World Heritage site at Sukhothai . The city can be reached by both rail and air ( Phitsanulok Airport
Phitsanulok Airport
), and is on the intersection of several major highways linking the northern, north-eastern, and central regions of Thailand: Highway 11 (Ta Khli - Chiang Mai), Highway 12 (Mae Sot - Mukdahan) and Highway 117 ( Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
- Nakhon Sawan). Highway 126 is a ring road around the city, allowing through traffic to bypass the city centre. Phitsanulok Airport
Phitsanulok Airport

CULTURE

ART

Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is home to a number of historic sculptures of the Buddha and other religious artwork including the Buddha Chinnarat , the Buddha Chinnasri , the Phra Sri Satsada .

LITERATURE

Examples of important literary works of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
include:

* Lilit Yuan Pai (Thai: ลิลิตยวนพ่าย, English: Tale of the Fall of Lanna
Lanna
) * Lilit Prá Lô (Thai: ลิลิตพระลอ, English: Tale of the Hero Lô) * Klohng Táwâatsàmàat (Thai: โคลงทวาทศมาส, English: Poem of the Twelve Months) * Gam Sŏn Sĕe Bpràat (Thai: กำศรวลศรีปราชญ์, English: The Legendary Wise Archer's Grip)

The predominant literary language (as well as the predominant spoken language) is the central Thai dialect of the Thai language
Thai language
, which is written in the Thai alphabet .

SPORTS

Dragon boat
Dragon boat
racing has historically been an important element of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
culture. In recent times, football (soccer) has become increasingly popular. In 2005, Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
won the 2nd Northern Youth Football Championship in the U12 and U15 age groups.

Traditional Thai boxing is also a major sport in the city.

TEMPLES

Phra Buddha Chinnarat

WAT PHRA SRI RATTANA MAHATHAT

Main article: Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahatat Woramahawihan

Phitsanulok's main tourist attraction is Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat, known locally simply as Wat Yai (Thai : วัดใหญ่) (the big temple). This famous temple, built in 1357, is home to the Phra Buddha Chinnarat , which is one of the most revered Buddha figures in Thailand, and the official symbol of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Province. (An exact replica exists in the Marble Temple in Bangkok, and another in Wat Saranat Thammaram in Rayong .) The beautiful mother-of-pearl inlaid doors were built in 1756 by order of King Boromakot of Ayutthaya. The Buddha Chinnarat National Museum, on the temple grounds, houses a sizeable collection of Sukhothai period art. A large provincial fair is held at the temple every January. Pagoda

OTHER TEMPLES

Wat Ratchaburana

The city is home to the following 12 active temples where Theravada Buddhism is practiced by city residents:

* Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat (Thai : วัดพระศรีรัตนมหาธาตุ) * Wat Ratchaburana (Thai : วัดราชบูรณะ) * Wat Aranyik (Thai : วัดอรัญญิก) * Wat Nang Phaya (Thai : วัดนางพญา) * Wat Chedi Yod Thong
Wat Chedi Yod Thong
* Wat Tamajak (Thai : วัดธรรมจักร) * Wat Mai Opayaram (Thai : วัดใหม่อภัยาราม) * Wat Kuha Sawan (Thai : วัดคูหาสวรรค์) * Wat Nong Bua (Thai : วัดหนองบัว) * Wat Sri Wisut Tharam (Thai : วัดศรีวิสุทธาราม) * Wat Sra Gaew Pratum Thong (Thai : วัดสระแก้วปทุมทอง) * Wat Tha Maprang (Thai : วัดท่ามะปราง)

OTHER ATTRACTIONS

* Sergeant-Major Dr. Thawee Buranakhet Folklore Museum: Hosts a collection of folk arts , crafts, basketry, pottery and ancient kitchen utensils. The museum also houses a collection of antique traps for catching snakes, birds, tigers and porcupines.

Buranathai Buddha Foundry

* City walls: Unfortunately, most of the older portions of Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
were destroyed in a 1955 fire. Thus little else remains of the old town besides the famous temple, an ancient chedi across the road from it, and a small section of the city wall. The intact portion of the ancient city wall is accessible to visitors. * Buranathai Buddha Foundry: Specializes in casting bronze Buddha images. It is the only establishment of its kind in the province. Craftspersons specialize in the reproduction of the Phra Buddha Chinnarat Buddha image. Visitors are permitted to walk along the production line. * Nan River Houseboats: Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
is known throughout Thailand
Thailand
for the houseboats which still line the Nan River near Wat Phra Sri Rattana Maharat, though in recent years these are becoming fewer. A houseboat museum is open to visitors.

Naresuan
Naresuan
University

* Night Market: Each evening, vendors gather to form Phitsanulok's night market. Items sold include clothing and food, usually at reduced prices. * Chandra Palace: Chandra Palace was the birthplace of King Naresuan the Great, and contains a shrine to him. * Naresuan
Naresuan
University Art and Culture Gallery: The gallery holds over 100 artistic artworks of culturally significant Thai artists.

FESTIVALS AND EVENTS

River houses in Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok

* Phra Buddha Chinnarat Fair: Held each January at Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahatat Woramahawihan . * Suan Chom Nan Park Festival: Held twice a year along the Nan River . Food and local products are on sale. * Dragon Boat Races: On the first weekend of each October, dragon boat races are held outside Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahatat Woramahawihan in the Nan River . Each dragon boat has a crew of approximately 30 oarsmen.

REFERENCES

* ^ Thailand, A Short Story, David K. Wyatt, ISBN 0-300-03054-1 * ^ "Climatological Data for the Period 1981–2010". Thai Meteorological Department. p. 5. Retrieved 31 July 2016. * ^ "ปริมาณการใช้น้ำของพืชอ้างอิงโดยวิธีของ Penman Monteith (Reference Crop Evapotranspiration by Penman Monteith)" (PDF) (in Thai). Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department. p. 32. Retrieved 31 July 2016. * ^ A B C ThaiTambon.com * ^ Basins in Thailand * ^ A B Province page from the Tourist Authority of Thailand * ^ Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Irrigation Project * ^ Asia-Pacific Summit of Women Mayors and Councillors * ^ Radio Stations in Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Province, Thailand * ^ A B Thai TV: Television Stations in Thailand
Thailand
on VHF and UHF * ^ Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
wins the 2nd Northern Youth Football Championship * ^ A B C Thailand
Thailand
Guidebook- Phitsanulok
Phitsanulok
Province * ^ A B C D Buranathai Buddha Casting Foundry

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PHITSANULOK PROVINCE .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Phitsan