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Coordinates : 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122

Republic of the Philippines _Republika ng Pilipinas_ (Filipino )

Flag Coat of arms

MOTTO: " Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa
Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa
" "For God, People, Nature, and Country"

ANTHEM: _ Lupang Hinirang
Lupang Hinirang
_ _Chosen Land_

GREAT SEAL _ Dakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas _ (Tagalog) Great Seal of the Philippines

CAPITAL Manila
Manila
a 14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583°N 120.967°E / 14.583; 120.967

LARGEST CITY Quezon City
Quezon City
14°38′N 121°02′E / 14.633°N 121.033°E / 14.633; 121.033

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

* Filipino * English

RECOGNIZED REGIONAL LANGUAGES 19 languages

* Aklanon * Bikol * Cebuano * Chavacano
Chavacano
* Hiligaynon * Ibanag * Ilocano * Ivatan * Kapampangan * Kinaray-a * Maguindanao
Maguindanao
* Maranao * Pangasinan
Pangasinan
* Sambal * Surigaonon * Tagalog * Taūsug * Waray * Yakan

OPTIONAL LANGUAGESB

* Spanish * Arabic

ETHNIC GROUPS (2010 )

* 33.8% Visayan
Visayan
* 27.7% Tagalog * 9.8% Ilocano * 6.8% Bicolano * 5.1% Moro * 3.1% Kapampangan * 1.7% Igorot
Igorot
* 1.4% Pangasinense * 1.2% Chinese * 1.1% Zamboangueño * 6.8% others

RELIGION

* 92% Christianity
Christianity
* 5.57% Islam
Islam
* 2.43% others

DEMONYM

Filipino (_masculine_) Filipina (_feminine_) Pinoy
Pinoy
(_colloquial masculine_) Pinay (_colloquial feminine_) Philippine (_English_)

GOVERNMENT Unitary presidential constitutional republic

• PRESIDENT Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte

• VICE PRESIDENT Leni Robredo
Leni Robredo

• SENATE PRESIDENT Aquilino Pimentel III
Aquilino Pimentel III

• HOUSE SPEAKER Pantaleon Alvarez
Pantaleon Alvarez

• CHIEF JUSTICE Maria Lourdes Sereno
Maria Lourdes Sereno

LEGISLATURE Congress

• UPPER HOUSE Senate

• LOWER HOUSE House of Representatives

FORMATION OF THE REPUBLIC E

• INDEPENDENCE FROM SPAIN DECLARED June 12, 1898

• TREATY OF PARIS (1898) / SPANISH CESSION C December 10, 1898

• MALOLOS CONSTITUTION / FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC E January 21, 1899

• TYDINGS–MCDUFFIE ACT March 24, 1934

• COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES May 14, 1935

• TREATY OF MANILA / INDEPENDENCE FROM UNITED STATES D July 4, 1946

• CURRENT CONSTITUTION February 2, 1987

AREA

• TOTAL 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi) (72nd )

• WATER (%) 0.61 (inland waters)

• LAND 298,170 km2 115,120 sq mi

POPULATION

• 2015 CENSUS 100,981,437 (13th )

• DENSITY 336.60/km2 (871.8/sq mi) (37th )

GDP (PPP ) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $878.980 billion (29th )

• PER CAPITA $8,223 (118th )

GDP (NOMINAL) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $348.593 billion (36th )

• PER CAPITA $3,280 (124th )

GINI (2012) 43.0 medium · 44th

HDI (2015) 0.682 medium · 116th

CURRENCY Peso (Filipino: _piso_) (₱) (PHP )

TIME ZONE PST (UTC +8)

• SUMMER (DST ) not observed (UTC +8)

DATE FORMAT

* mm-dd-yyyy * dd-mm-yyyy (AD )

DRIVES ON THE right

CALLING CODE +63

ISO 3166 CODE PH

INTERNET TLD .ph

* ^ While Manila
Manila
proper is designated as the nation's capital, the whole of National Capital Region is designated as seat of government , hence the name of a region. This is because it has many government agencies, corporations or companies, and institutions aside from Malacanang Palace in the said capital city. * ^ The 1987 Philippine constitution specifies "Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis." * ^ Philippine revolutionaries declared independence from Spain
Spain
on June 12, 1898, but Spain
Spain
ceded the islands to the United States
United States
for $20 million in the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898 which eventually led to the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
. * ^ The United States
United States
of America recognized the independence of the Philippines
Philippines
on July 4, 1946, through the Treaty of Manila
Manila
. This date was chosen because it corresponds to the U.S. Independence Day , which was observed in the Philippines
Philippines
as _INDEPENDENCE DAY _ until May 12, 1962, when President Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
issued Presidential Proclamation No. 28, shifting it to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo 's proclamation. * ^ In accordance with article 11 of the Revolutionary Government Decree of June 23, 1898, the Malolos Congress
Malolos Congress
selected a commission to draw up a draft constitution on September 17, 1898. The commission was composed of Hipólito Magsalin, Basilio Teodoro, José Albert, Joaquín González , Gregorio Araneta , Pablo Ocampo, Aguedo Velarde, Higinio Benitez, Tomás del Rosario , José Alejandrino , Alberto Barretto, José Ma. de la Viña, José Luna, Antonio Luna , Mariano Abella, Juan Manday, Felipe Calderón , Arsenio Cruz and Felipe Buencamino. They were all wealthy and well educated.

The PHILIPPINES (/ˈfɪlᵻpiːnz/ (_ listen ); Filipino : Pilipinas_ or _Filipinas_ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES (Filipino: _Republika ng Pilipinas_), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon
Luzon
, Visayas
Visayas
, and Mindanao
Mindanao
. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila
Manila
and the most populous city is Quezon City
Quezon City
, both part of Metro Manila
Manila
. Bounded by the South China Sea
South China Sea
on the west, the Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
on the east and the Celebes Sea
Celebes Sea
on the southwest, the Philippines
Philippines
shares maritime borders with Taiwan
Taiwan
to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau
Palau
to the east and Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia
Indonesia
to the south.

The Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
and close to the equator makes the Philippines
Philippines
prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity . The Philippines
The Philippines
has an area of 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi), and a population of approximately 100 million. It is the eighth-most populated country in Asia
Asia
and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013 , approximately 10 million additional Filipinos
Filipinos
lived overseas , comprising one of the world's largest diasporas . Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay , Indian , and Islamic nations occurred. Then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus
Datus
, Rajahs , Sultans
Sultans
or Lakans .

The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
in Homonhon
Homonhon
, Eastern Samar
Eastern Samar
in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic
Hispanic
colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago _Las Islas Filipinas_ in honor of Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico
Mexico
City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established. The Philippines
The Philippines
became part of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila
Manila
became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia
Asia
with Acapulco
Acapulco
in the Americas
Americas
using Manila
Manila
galleons .

As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, there followed in quick succession the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
of conquest by US military force. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation , the United States
United States
retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II
World War II
, when the Philippines
Philippines
was recognized as an independent nation. Since then, the Philippines
Philippines
has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution .

It is a founding member of the United Nations
United Nations
, World Trade Organization , Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
forum, and the East Asia
Asia
Summit . It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
. The Philippines
Philippines
is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country , which has an economy transitioning from being one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. It is one of the only two predominantly Christian nations in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, the other being East Timor
East Timor
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory * 2.2 Precolonial epoch * 2.3 Colonial era * 2.4 Postcolonial period * 2.5 Contemporary history

* 3 Politics

* 3.1 Foreign relations * 3.2 Military * 3.3 Administrative divisions * 3.4 Administrative regions

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Biodiversity * 4.2 Climate
Climate

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Transportation * 5.2 Science and technology * 5.3 Communications * 5.4 Tourism
Tourism
* 5.5 Water supply and sanitation

* 6 Demographics

* 6.1 Cities * 6.2 Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
* 6.3 Languages * 6.4 Religion

* 7 Health * 8 Education

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Cosmopolitanism * 9.2 Music * 9.3 Visual art * 9.4 Values * 9.5 Dance * 9.6 Cuisine * 9.7 Literature * 9.8 Media * 9.9 Cinema * 9.10 Sports * 9.11 Games

* 10 See also * 11 Notes

* 12 References

* 12.1 Citations * 12.2 Bibliography

* 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Main article: Name of the Philippines Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
.

The Philippines
The Philippines
was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos , during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte
Leyte
and Samar
Samar
_Felipinas_ after the then- Prince of Asturias
Prince of Asturias
. Eventually the name _Las Islas Filipinas_ would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as _Islas del Poniente_ (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands _San Lázaro_ were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands.

The official name of the Philippines
Philippines
has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the _República Filipina_ or the _Philippine Republic _. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
(1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–46), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the _Philippine Islands_, a translation of the Spanish name. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris , the name _Philippines_ began to appear and it has since become the country's common name. Since the end of World War II
World War II
, the official name of the country has been the _Republic of the Philippines_.

HISTORY

Main article: History of the Philippines
History of the Philippines

PREHISTORY

Further information: Prehistory of the Philippines
Prehistory of the Philippines
The Tabon Caves are the site of one of the oldest human remains known in the Philippines, the Tabon Man

The metatarsal of the Callao Man , reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date. This distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan
Palawan
, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were also among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines
Philippines
has not been reliably dated.

There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes that the ancestors of the Filipinos
Filipinos
evolved locally . Wilhelm Solheim 's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around 48,000 to 5000 BC rather than by wide-scale migration. The Austronesian Expansion Theory explains that Malayo-Polynesians coming from Taiwan
Taiwan
began migrating to the Philippines
Philippines
around 4000 BC, displacing earlier arrivals.

The most widely accepted theory, based on linguistic and archeological evidence, is the "Out-of-Taiwan" model , which hypothesizes that Austronesians from Taiwan
Taiwan
, who were themselves descended from the neolithic civilizations of the Yangtze river such as the Liangzhu culture , began migrating to the Philippines
Philippines
around 4000 BC, displacing earlier arrivals. During the neolithic period, a "jade culture" is said to have existed as evidenced by tens of thousands of exquisitely crafted jade artifacts found in the Philippines
Philippines
dated to 2000 BC.

The jade is said to have originated nearby in Taiwan
Taiwan
and is also found in many other areas in insular and mainland Southeast Asia. These artifacts are said to be evidence of long range communication between prehistoric Southeast Asian societies. By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies , and port principalities.

PRECOLONIAL EPOCH

Further information: History of the Philippines (900–1521) , Religion in pre-colonial Philippines , and Cultural achievements of pre-colonial Philippines
Philippines
_ A pure gold ceremonial belt worn by Indianized royalty, found in archaeological digs at Butuan
Butuan
. The Banaue Rice Terraces where Ifugao/ Igorot
Igorot
utilized terrace farming in the steep mountainous regions of northern Philippines
Philippines
over 2000 years ago. A Boxer Codex
Boxer Codex
image illustrating the ancient kadatuan_ or _tumao '_ (noble class).

Some of the societies scattered in the islands of what would later become the Philippines
Philippines
remained isolated but many evolved into states that developed substantial trade and contacts with the peoples of eastern, southern and southeastern Asia; including those from Brunei
Brunei
, China
China
, India
India
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Japan
Japan
as well as other Austronesian islands.

The first millennium saw the rise of the port principalities and their growth into maritime states composed of autonomous barangays independent of or allied with larger nations which were either Malay Kedatuans led by Datus
Datus
, tributary states to China
China
ruled by Wangs or Indianized kingdoms governed by Rajahs.

The Kedatuan
Kedatuan
of Madja-as was founded following a civil war in collapsing Srivijaya
Srivijaya
, wherein loyalists of the Malay datus of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
defied the invading Chola Dynasty
Chola Dynasty
and its puppet-Rajah, called Makatunao, and set up a guerrilla-state in the islands of the Visayas
Visayas
. Its founding datu, Puti, had purchased land for his new realms from the aboriginal Ati hero, Marikudo.

Madja-as was founded on Panay
Panay
island (named after the destroyed state of Pannai allied under Srivijaya
Srivijaya
which was located in Sumatra
Sumatra
). Afterwards, the people of Madja-as often raided the port cities of southern China
China
and warred with the Chinese navy.

The Rajahnate of Cebu
Rajahnate of Cebu
was a neighbor of Madja-as in the Visayas
Visayas
led by Rajamuda Sri
Sri
Lumay, a monarch with partial Tamil descent. This state grew wealthy by making use of the inter-island shipping within the archipelago.

Meanwhile, the Rajahnate of Butuan in northeastern Mindanao
Mindanao
attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri
Sri
Bata Shaja, who was from a Buddhist ruling-class governing a Hindu nation. This state became powerful due to the local goldsmith industry and it also had commercial ties and a diplomatic rivalry with the Champa
Champa
civilization. Both the Rajahnates of Butuan
Butuan
and Cebu
Cebu
also maintained contact and had trade routes with Kutai
Kutai
, a Hindu country in south Borneo
Borneo
established by Indian traders.

The nation of Ma-i
Ma-i
, believed to be located either in Bay, Laguna
Bay, Laguna
or on the island of Mindoro , was noted for its honesty and trust-worthiness in trade. In northern Luzon
Luzon
, the Wangdom of Pangasinan
Pangasinan
under Wang Taymey, exported horses and silver to China, the Kingdom of Ryukyu and Japan
Japan
.

In Luzon, the Kingdom of Tondo
Kingdom of Tondo
was ruled over by the Lakandula dynasty and the kingdom grew wealthy via their exclusive distribution rights for Chinese goods which they marketed in southeast Asia. This was granted to them by the Ming
Ming
Dynasty. The Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
also instituted a Chinese governor on Luzon
Luzon
during Zheng He
Zheng He
's voyages and appointed Ko Ch'a-lao to that position.

The 1300s saw the arrival and eventual spread of Islam
Islam
in the Philippine archipelago. In 1380, Karim ul\' Makdum and Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab
Arab
trader born in Johore, arrived in Sulu from Malacca
Malacca
and established the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
by converting Sulu's rajah, Rajah Baguinda Ali and marrying his daughter. At the end of the 15th century, Shariff Mohammed Kabungsuwan of Johor introduced Islam
Islam
in the island of Mindanao
Mindanao
and established the Sultanate of Maguindanao
Sultanate of Maguindanao
. The sultanate form of government extended further into Lanao .

Around this time, the people of Luzon
Luzon
were collectively called Lucoes and they rose to prominence by participating in trading ventures and military campaigns in Myanmar
Myanmar
, Malacca
Malacca
and East Timor
East Timor
where they were employed as traders and mercenaries.

Islam
Islam
then started to spread out of Mindanao
Mindanao
in the south and went into Luzon
Luzon
in the north. Manila
Manila
in Luzon
Luzon
was Islamized during the reign of Sultan
Sultan
Bolkiah
Bolkiah
in 1485 to 1521. This was accomplished because the Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
subjugated the Kingdom of Tondo
Kingdom of Tondo
by defeating Rajah Gambang and thereafter installing the Muslim
Muslim
rajah, Rajah Sulaiman I to the throne and by establishing the Bruneian puppet-state of the Kingdom of Maynila
Kingdom of Maynila
. Sultan
Sultan
Bolkiah
Bolkiah
also married Laila Mecana, the daughter of Sulu
Sulu
Sultan
Sultan
Amir Ul-Ombra to expand Brunei
Brunei
's influence in both Luzon
Luzon
and Mindanao
Mindanao
. The Muslims then proceeded to wage wars and conduct slave-raids against the Visayans. Participating in the Muslim
Muslim
raids, the Sultanate of Ternate
Sultanate of Ternate
consequently destroyed the Kedatuan
Kedatuan
of Dapitan in Bohol.

Nevertheless, states like the animist Igorot
Igorot
, Malay Madja-as , Sinified Pangasinan
Pangasinan
, and Indianized Butuan
Butuan
still maintained their cultures. The rivalries between the datus , rajahs , wangs, sultans , and lakans eventually eased Spanish colonization . Furthermore, the islands were sparsely populated due to consistent natural disasters and inter-kingdom conflicts. Therefore, colonization was made easy and the small states of the archipelago quickly became incorporated into the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
and were Hispanicized and Christianized.

COLONIAL ERA

Further information: History of the Philippines
History of the Philippines
(1521–1898) and History of the Philippines
History of the Philippines
(1898–1946) A sketch of a Manila galleon used during the Manila- Acapulco
Acapulco
Trade .

In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
's expedition arrived in the Philippines, claimed the islands for Spain
Spain
and was then killed at the Battle of Mactan
Battle of Mactan
. Colonization
Colonization
began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
arrived from Mexico
Mexico
in 1565 and formed the first Hispanic
Hispanic
settlements in Cebu. After relocating to Panay
Panay
island and consolidating a coalition of native Visayan
Visayan
allies, Hispanic soldiers and Latin-American mercenaries, the Spaniards then invaded Islamic Manila
Manila
, therein they put down the Tondo Conspiracy and exiled the conspirators to Guam
Guam
and Guerrero
Guerrero
. Under Spanish rule, they established Manila
Manila
as the capital of the Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies
(1571).

They also defeated the Chinese-warlord Limahong . To counter-act the Islamization of the Philippines, the Spanish then conducted the Castilian War
Castilian War
which was aimed against the Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
and war was also waged against the Sultanate of Ternate
Sultanate of Ternate
and Tidore
Tidore
(in response to Ternatean slaving and piracy against Bohol
Bohol
and Butuan
Butuan
). Fortifications were also set up in Taiwan
Taiwan
and the Maluku islands
Maluku islands
. These were abandoned and the Spanish soldiers, along with the newly Christianized Papuan natives of the Moluccas
Moluccas
, withdrew back to the Philippines
Philippines
in order to re-concentrate their military forces because of a threatened invasion by the Japan-born Ming
Ming
-dynasty loyalist, Koxinga
Koxinga
, ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning
Kingdom of Tungning
. However, the planned invasion was aborted. Meanwhile, settlers were sent to the Pacific islands of Palau
Palau
and the Marianas .

Spanish rule eventually contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the fragmented states of the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines
Philippines
was governed as a territory of the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain
Viceroyalty of New Spain
and then was administered directly from Madrid
Madrid
after the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
. The Manila
Manila
galleons , the largest wooden ships ever built, were constructed in Bicol and Cavite
Cavite
. The Manila
Manila
galleons were accompanied with a large naval escort as it traveled to and from Manila
Manila
and Acapulco
Acapulco
. The galleons sailed once or twice a year, between the 16th and 19th centuries. The Manila
Manila
Galleons brought with them goods , settlers and military reinforcements destined for the Philippines, from Latin America .

Trade introduced foodstuffs such as maize , tomatoes , potatoes , chili peppers , chocolate and pineapples from Mexico
Mexico
and Peru
Peru
. Within the Philippines, the Marquisate of Buglas was established and the rule of it was awarded to Sebastian Elcano and his crew, the survivors of the first circumnavigation of the world, as well as his descendants. New towns were also created and Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity
Christianity
. They also founded schools, a university, hospitals and churches which were built along the Earthquake Baroque
Earthquake Baroque
architectural style. To defend their settlements, the Spaniards constructed and manned a network of military fortresses (called "Presidios ") across the archipelago. The Spanish also decreed the introduction of free public schooling in 1863. As a result of these policies the Philippine population increased exponentially. The landing of the Spanish expedition to Sulu
Sulu
by Antonio Brugada .

During its rule, Spain
Spain
quelled various indigenous revolts . There were also several external military challenges from Chinese and Japanese pirates, the Dutch, the English, the Portuguese and the Muslims of Southeast Asia. Those challengers were fought-off despite the hostile forces having encircled the Philippine archipelago in a crescent formed from Japan
Japan
to Indonesia. British forces occupied Manila
Manila
from 1762 to 1764 in an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years\' War . Spanish rule was restored following the 1763 Treaty of Paris . The Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain
Spain
conquered portions of Mindanao
Mindanao
and the Moro Muslims in the Sulu
Sulu
Sultanate formally recognized Spanish sovereignty.

In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Philippine society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines
Philippines
(_criollos _) and those of mixed ancestry (_mestizos _) became wealthy and an influx of Latin American immigrants opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
(_peninsulares _). The ideals of revolution also began to spread through the islands. _Criollo_ dissatisfaction resulted in the 1872 Cavite
Cavite
Mutiny that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution.

Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three priests— Mariano Gómez , José Burgos
José Burgos
, and Jacinto Zamora (collectively known as Gomburza
Gomburza
)—were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed. This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar
Marcelo H. del Pilar
, José Rizal
José Rizal
, and Mariano Ponce , lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal
Rizal
was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion. As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the secret society called the Katipunan , who sought independence from Spain
Spain
through armed revolt.

Bonifacio and the Katipunan
Katipunan
started the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo of Cavite
Cavite
province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio's position as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
took over. In 1898, the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
began in Cuba
Cuba
and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain
Spain
in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898, and the First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
was established in the Barasoain Church
Barasoain Church
in the following year. U.S. soldiers battling with Moro fighters during the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
, 1913

The islands were ceded by Spain
Spain
to the United States
United States
as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
. A compensation of US$20 million was paid to Spain
Spain
according to the terms of the 1898 Treaty of Paris . As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the nascent First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
broke out, the First Republic was defeated, and the archipelago was administered under an Insular Government
Insular Government
. The war resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of combatants as well as a couple of hundred thousand civilians, mostly from a cholera epidemic. General Douglas MacArthur
General Douglas MacArthur
returns to the Philippines
Philippines
with President Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
during World War II
World War II
in Palo, Leyte
Leyte
, October 1944.

The Americans then suppressed other rebellious sub-states: mainly, the waning Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
, as well as the insurgent Tagalog Republic , the Cantonal Republic of Negros in the Visayas, and the Republic of Zamboanga in Mindanao. During this era, a renaissance in Philippine culture occurred, with the expansion of Philippine cinema and literature . Daniel Burnham built an architectural plan for Manila
Manila
which would have transformed it into a modern city. In 1935, the Philippines
Philippines
was granted Commonwealth status with Manuel Quezon
Manuel Quezon
as president. He designated a national language and introduced women's suffrage and land reform. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II
World War II
when the Japanese Empire invaded and the Second Philippine Republic
Second Philippine Republic
of José P. Laurel
José P. Laurel
was established as a collaborator state.

Many atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war such as the Bataan Death March
Bataan Death March
and the Manila
Manila
massacre that culminated with the Battle of Manila
Manila
. In 1944, Quezon
Quezon
died in exile in the United States and Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
succeeded him. The Allied Forces then employed a strategy of island hopping towards the Philippine archipelago , in the process, retaking territory conquered by Imperial Japan.

From mid-1942 through mid-1944, the Filipino guerrilla resistance had been supplied and encouraged by U.S. Navy submarines and a few parachute drops, so that the guerrillas could harass the Japanese Army and take control of the rural areas, jungles and mountains – thus, the Japanese empire only controlled 12 out of 48 provinces. While remaining loyal to the United States, many Filipinos
Filipinos
hoped and believed that liberation from the Japanese would bring them freedom and their already-promised independence.

Eventually, the largest naval battle in history, according to gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte
Leyte
Gulf , occurred when Allied forces started the liberation of the Philippines
Philippines
from the Japanese Empire . Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos
Filipinos
had died.

POSTCOLONIAL PERIOD

Further information: History of the Philippines
History of the Philippines
(1946–65) and History of the Philippines
History of the Philippines
(1965–86)

On October 11, 1945, the Philippines
Philippines
became one of the founding members of the United Nations
United Nations
and the following year, on July 4, 1946, it became recognized by the United States
United States
as independent, during the presidency of Manuel Roxas
Manuel Roxas
. Disgruntled remnants of the communist Hukbalahap
Hukbalahap
continued to roam the countryside but were put down by President Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
's successor Ramon Magsaysay
Ramon Magsaysay
. Magsaysay's successor, Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos P. Garcia
, initiated the Filipino First Policy , which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo 's declaration , while furthering the claim on the eastern part of North Borneo
Borneo
. Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos
Imelda Marcos
, 1979.

In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos . Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects but was accused of massive corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds. Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972. This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations but the US were steadfast in their support. His wife Imelda continued to live a lavish lifestyle as the majority of Filipinos
Filipinos
remained in poverty.

On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival, opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. , was assassinated on the tarmac at Manila
Manila
International Airport . Marcos eventually called snap presidential elections in 1986 . Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent, leading to the People Power Revolution
People Power Revolution
. Marcos and his allies fled to Hawaii
Hawaii
and Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino was recognized as president.

CONTEMPORARY HISTORY

Further information: History of the Philippines
History of the Philippines
(1986–present)

The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts , disasters , a persistent communist insurgency , and a military conflict with Moro separatists . During Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
's administration, U.S. forces withdrew from the Philippines, due to the rejection of the U.S. Bases Extension Treaty , and leading to the official transfer of Clark Air Base
Clark Air Base
in November 1991 and Subic Bay
Subic Bay
to the government in December 1992. The administration also faced a series of natural disasters, including the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. After introducing a constitution that limited presidents to a single term, Aquino did not stand for re-election. President Fidel Ramos
Fidel Ramos
salutes at the Pentagon with U.S. Secretary of Defense William Cohen
William Cohen
during a State visit in 1998.

Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel V. Ramos
, who won the Philippine presidential election held in May 1992. During this period the country's economic performance remained modest, with a 5–7 percent GDP growth rate. However, the political stability and economic improvements, such as the peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front in 1996, were overshadowed by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis . On his Presidency the death penalty was revived in the light of the Rape-slay case of Eileen Sarmienta and Allan Gomez in 1993 and the first person to be executed was Leo Echegaray in 1999.

Ramos' successor, Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
assumed office in June 1998 and managed to regain the economy from −0.6% growth to 3.4% by 1999 amidst the 1997 Asian financial crisis
1997 Asian financial crisis
. The government had announced a war against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Moro Islamic Liberation Front
in March 2000 and neutralized the camps including the headquarters of the insurgents. In the middle of ongoing conflict with the Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
, accusations of alleged corruption, and a stalled impeachment process, Estrada 's administration was overthrown by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and succeeded by his Vice President , Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
on January 20, 2001.

In Arroyo 's 9-year administration, The economy experienced GDP growth from 4% in 2002 to 7% growth in 2007 with the completion of infrastructure projects like the LRT Line 2 in 2004 and managed to avoid the Great Recession
Great Recession
. Nevertheless, it was tied with graft and political scandals like the Hello Garci scandal
Hello Garci scandal
pertaining to the alleged manipulation of votes in the 2004 presidential elections . On November 23, 2009, the Maguindanao massacre led to the murder of 34 journalists.

Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
won the 2010 national elections and served as the 15th President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
. He was the third youngest person to be elected president and the first to be a bachelor , beginning with the 2010 Manila
Manila
hostage crisis that caused deeply strained relations between Manila
Manila
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
for a time. During the previous years, The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro was signed on October 15, 2012, as the first step of the creation of an autonomous political entity named Bangsamoro . However, territorial disputes in eastern Sabah
Sabah
and the South China Sea
South China Sea
have escalated.

The economy performed well at 7.2% GDP growth, the second fastest in Asia. Aquino signed the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, commonly known as K–12 program in May 15, 2013 aiming to enhance the educational system in the country. On November 8, 2013, Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) struck and heavily devastated the country, especially in the Visayas
Visayas
. On April 28, 2014, when United States
United States
President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
visited the Philippines, the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement , was signed. From January 15 to 19, 2015, Pope Francis stayed in the Philippines
Philippines
for an apostolic and state visit and paid visits to the victims of Typhoon Haiyan
Typhoon Haiyan
(Yolanda). On January 25, 2015, 44 members of the Philippine National Police
Philippine National Police
- Special
Special
Action Force were killed after a clash took place in Mamasapano , Maguindanao putting efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law into law in an impasse. On December 20, 2015, Pia Wurtzbach
Pia Wurtzbach
won the Miss Universe 2015 , making her the third Filipino to win the Miss Universe
Miss Universe
title following Gloria Diaz
Gloria Diaz
in 1969 and Margarita Moran in 1973 . On January 12, 2016, the Philippine Supreme Court upheld the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement paving the way for the return of United States Armed Forces bases into the country. On March 23, 2016, Diwata-1 was launched to the International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS), becoming the country's first micro-satellite and the first satellite to be built and designed by Filipinos. Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte
, the current President of the Philippines.

Davao City
Davao City
mayor Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte
of PDP–Laban
PDP–Laban
won the 2016 presidential election becoming the first president from Mindanao
Mindanao
. Camarines Sur
Camarines Sur
representative Leni Robredo
Leni Robredo
won the vice presidency. On July 12, 2016, the Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration
ruled in favor of the Philippines
Philippines
in its case against China\'s claims in the South China Sea. On August 1, 2016, the Duterte administration launched a 24-hour complaint office accessible to the public through a nationwide hotline, 8888 , and changed the nationwide emergency telephone number from 117 to 911 . After winning the Presidency, Duterte launched an intensified anti-drug campaign to fulfill a campaign promise of wiping out criminality in six months. By March 2017, the death toll for the Philippine Drug War
Philippine Drug War
passed 8,000 people, with 2,679 killed in legitimate police operations and the rest the government claims to be homicide cases.

POLITICS

Main articles: Politics of the Philippines
Politics of the Philippines
, President of the Philippines
Philippines
, and Constitution of the Philippines
Constitution of the Philippines
Malacañang Palace is the President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
' official residence.

The Philippines
The Philippines
has a democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system . It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao
Mindanao
(ARMM), which is largely free from the national government. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal , unicameral , or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.

The President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces . The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet . The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate , serving as the upper house , with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives , serving as the lower house , with members elected to a three-year term.

Senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation. The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court , composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices , all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council
Judicial and Bar Council
.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Main article: Foreign relations of the Philippines U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
meeting with President Benigno Aquino III during his state visit in Manila, 2014.

Trust rating of Seven countries, October 2016 COUNTRY MUCH TRUST UNDECIDED LITTLE TRUST M-L

United States
United States
76 13 11 +65

Australia
Australia
62 21 15 +47

Japan
Japan
56 22 21 +35

Norway
Norway
41 31 26 +16

Netherlands
Netherlands
40 31 26 +14

Republic of China
China
36 29 34 +2

China
China
22 22 55 -33

The Philippines' international relations are based on trade with other nations and the well-being of the 10 million overseas Filipinos living outside the country. As a founding and active member of the United Nations
United Nations
, the Philippines
Philippines
has been elected several times into the Security Council . Carlos P. Romulo
Carlos P. Romulo
was a former President of the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly . The country is an active participant in the Human Rights Council
Human Rights Council
as well as in peacekeeping missions, particularly in East Timor
East Timor
.

In addition to membership in the United Nations, the Philippines
Philippines
is also a founding and active member of ASEAN
ASEAN
(Association of Southeast Asian Nations), an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among states in the Southeast Asian region. It has hosted several summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.

The Philippines
The Philippines
values its relations with the United States. It supported the United States
United States
during the Cold War
Cold War
and the War on Terror and is a major non- NATO
NATO
ally . Despite this history of goodwill, controversies related to the presence of the now former U.S. military bases in Subic Bay
Subic Bay
and Clark and the current Visiting Forces Agreement have flared up from time to time. Japan, the biggest contributor of official development assistance to the country, is thought of as a friend. Although historical tensions still exist on issues such as the plight of comfort women , much of the animosity inspired by memories of World War II
World War II
has faded.

Relations with other nations are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western and European countries while similar economic concerns help in relations with other developing countries. Historical ties and cultural similarities also serve as a bridge in relations with Spain
Spain
. Despite issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting overseas Filipino workers, relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly as seen in the continuous employment of more than two million overseas Filipinos living there.

With communism no longer the threat it once was, once hostile relations in the 1950s between the Philippines
Philippines
and China
China
have improved greatly. Issues involving Taiwan, the Spratly Islands, and concerns of expanding Chinese influence, however, still encourage a degree of caution. Recent foreign policy has been mostly about economic relations with its Southeast Asian and Asia-Pacific neighbors.

The Philippines
The Philippines
is an active member of the East Asia
Asia
Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC), the Latin Union , the Group of 24
Group of 24
, and the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
. It is also seeking to strengthen relations with Islamic countries by campaigning for observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
.

MILITARY

Main article: Armed Forces of the Philippines
Armed Forces of the Philippines

The Armed Forces of the Philippines
Armed Forces of the Philippines
(AFP) are responsible for national security and consist of three branches: the Philippine Air Force , the Philippine Army
Philippine Army
, and the Philippine Navy
Philippine Navy
(includes the Marine Corps ). The Armed Forces of the Philippines
Armed Forces of the Philippines
are a volunteer force . Civilian security is handled by the Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG).

In the Autonomous Region in Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao, the largest separatist organization, the Moro National Liberation Front
Moro National Liberation Front
, is now engaging the government politically. Other more militant groups like the Moro Islamic Liberation Front , the communist New People\'s Army , and the Abu Sayyaf
Abu Sayyaf
have previously kidnapped foreigners for ransom, particularly on the southern island of Mindanao
Mindanao
. Their presence has decreased in recent years due to successful security provided by the Philippine government. At 1.1 percent of GDP, the Philippines spent less on its military forces than the regional average. As of 2014 Malaysia
Malaysia
and Thailand
Thailand
were estimated to spend 1.5%, China
China
2.1%, Vietnam
Vietnam
2.2% and South Korea
South Korea
2.6%.

The Philippines
The Philippines
has been an ally of the United States
United States
since World War II. A mutual defense treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951. The Philippines
The Philippines
supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean and Vietnam
Vietnam
wars. It was a member of the now dissolved SEATO , a group that was intended to serve a role similar to NATO
NATO
and that included Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. After the start of the War on Terror
War on Terror
, the Philippines
Philippines
was part of the coalition that gave support to the United States
United States
in Iraq. _ The BRP Gregorio del Pilar_ (FF-15) , a _Del Pilar_-class frigate of the Philippine Navy
Philippine Navy
. An AgustaWestland AW109
AgustaWestland AW109
of the Philippine Navy
Philippine Navy
. 2 FA-50s of the Philippine Air Force
Philippine Air Force
.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main article: Administrative divisions of the Philippines
Administrative divisions of the Philippines

The Philippines
The Philippines
is divided into three island groups: Luzon
Luzon
, Visayas , and Mindanao
Mindanao
. These are further divided into 18 regions , 81 provinces , 145 cities , 1,489 municipalities , and 42,036 barangays . In addition, Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the definition of the territorial sea around the Philippine archipelago does not affect the claim over the eastern part of Sabah
Sabah
.

ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS AUTONOMOUS REGION

* Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
(Region I) * Cagayan Valley
Cagayan Valley
(Region II) * Central Luzon
Luzon
(Region III) * Calabarzon
Calabarzon
(Region IV-A) * Southwestern Tagalog Region ( Mimaropa
Mimaropa
Region) * Bicol Region
Bicol Region
(Region V) * Western Visayas
Visayas
(Region VI) * Central Visayas
Visayas
(Region VII) * Eastern Visayas
Visayas
(Region VIII) * Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
(Region IX) * Northern Mindanao
Mindanao
(Region X) * Davao Region
Davao Region
(Region XI) * Soccsksargen
Soccsksargen
(Region XII) * Caraga
Caraga
(Region XIII) * Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
(CAR) * National Capital Region (NCR) * Negros Island Region
Negros Island Region
(NIR/Region XVIII)

* Autonomous Region in Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao
Mindanao
(ARMM)

PROVINCES

* Abra * Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Norte
* Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
* Aklan
Aklan
* Albay
Albay
* Antique * Apayao
Apayao
* Aurora * Basilan
Basilan
* Bataan
Bataan
* Batanes
Batanes
* Batangas
Batangas
* Benguet
Benguet
* Biliran
Biliran
* Bohol
Bohol
* Bukidnon
Bukidnon
* Bulacan
Bulacan
* Cagayan
Cagayan
* Camarines Norte
Camarines Norte
* Camarines Sur
Camarines Sur
* Camiguin
Camiguin
* Capiz
Capiz
* Catanduanes
Catanduanes
* Cavite
Cavite
* Cebu
Cebu
* Compostela Valley
Compostela Valley
* Cotabato
Cotabato
* Davao del Norte
Davao del Norte
* Davao del Sur
Davao del Sur
* Davao Occidental * Davao Oriental
Davao Oriental
* Dinagat Islands
Dinagat Islands
* Eastern Samar
Eastern Samar
* Guimaras
Guimaras
* Ifugao
Ifugao
* Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
* Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
* Iloilo
Iloilo
* Isabela * Kalinga * La Union
La Union
* Laguna * Lanao del Norte
Lanao del Norte
* Lanao del Sur
Lanao del Sur
* Leyte
Leyte
* Maguindanao
Maguindanao
* Marinduque
Marinduque
* Masbate
Masbate
* Misamis Occidental
Misamis Occidental
* Misamis Oriental
Misamis Oriental
* Mountain Province
Mountain Province
* Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
* Negros Oriental
Negros Oriental
* Northern Samar
Samar
* Nueva Ecija
Nueva Ecija
* Nueva Vizcaya
Nueva Vizcaya
* Occidental Mindoro * Oriental Mindoro * Palawan
Palawan
* Pampanga
Pampanga
* Pangasinan
Pangasinan
* Quezon
Quezon
* Quirino
Quirino
* Rizal
Rizal
* Romblon
Romblon
* Samar
Samar
* Sarangani
Sarangani
* Siquijor
Siquijor
* Sorsogon
Sorsogon
* South Cotabato
Cotabato
* Southern Leyte
Leyte
* Sultan
Sultan
Kudarat * Sulu
Sulu
* Surigao del Norte
Surigao del Norte
* Surigao del Sur
Surigao del Sur
* Tarlac
Tarlac
* Tawi-Tawi
Tawi-Tawi
* Zambales
Zambales
* Zamboanga del Norte
Zamboanga del Norte
* Zamboanga del Sur
Zamboanga del Sur
* Zamboanga Sibugay
Zamboanga Sibugay

CITIES AND MUNICIPALITIES

See: List of cities in the Philippines
List of cities in the Philippines
and List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines
Philippines

BARANGAYS

See: Lists of barangays in Philippine provinces

-------------------------

ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS

Main article: Regions of the Philippines
Regions of the Philippines

_Regions_ in the Philippines
Philippines
are administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience. The Philippines
The Philippines
is divided into 18 regions (17 administrative and 1 autonomous ). Most government offices are established by region instead of individual provincial offices, usually (but not always) in the city designated as the regional center. As of 2015 , CALABARZON
CALABARZON
was the most populated region while the National Capitol Region (NCR) the most densely populated.

10 Most Populous Regions of the Philippines
Regions of the Philippines
(2015) RANK DESIGNATION NAME AREA POPULATION (AS OF 2015 ) % OF POPULATION POPULATION DENSITY

1st Region IV CALABARZON
CALABARZON
16,873.31 km2 (6,514.82 sq mi) 14,414,774 7001142700000000000♠14.27% 850/km2 (2,200/sq mi)

2nd NCR National Capital Region 613.94 km2 (237.04 sq mi) 12,877,253 7001127500000000000♠12.75% 21,000/km2 (54,000/sq mi)

3rd Region III Central Luzon
Luzon
22,014.63 km2 (8,499.90 sq mi) 11,218,177 7001111100000000000♠11.11% 510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)

4th Region VII Central Visayas
Visayas
10,102.16 km2 (3,900.47 sq mi) 6,041,903 7000598000000000000♠5.98% 600/km2 (1,600/sq mi)

5th Region V Bicol Region
Bicol Region
18,155.82 km2 (7,010.00 sq mi) 5,796,989 7000574000000000000♠5.74% 320/km2 (830/sq mi)

6th Region I Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
16,873.31 km2 (6,514.82 sq mi) 5,026,128 7000498000000000000♠4.98% 300/km2 (780/sq mi)

7th Region XI Davao Region
Davao Region
20,357.42 km2 (7,860.04 sq mi) 4,893,318 7000485000000099999♠4.85% 240/km2 (620/sq mi)

8th Region X Northern Mindanao
Mindanao
20,496.02 km2 (7,913.56 sq mi) 4,689,302 7000464000000099999♠4.64% 230/km2 (600/sq mi)

9th Region XII SOCCSKSARGEN
SOCCSKSARGEN
22,513.30 km2 (8,692.43 sq mi) 4,545,276 7000450000000000000♠4.50% 200/km2 (520/sq mi)

10th Region VI Western Visayas
Visayas
12,828.97 km2 (4,953.29 sq mi) 4,477,247 7000443000000000000♠4.43% 350/km2 (910/sq mi)

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of the Philippines
Geography of the Philippines
Topography of the Philippines
Philippines

The Philippines
The Philippines
is an archipelago composed of about 7,641 islands with a total land area, including inland bodies of water, of 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi). Its 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi) of coastline makes it the country with the 5th longest coastline in the world. It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
to the east, the South China Sea
South China Sea
to the west, and the Celebes Sea
Celebes Sea
to the south. The island of Borneo
Borneo
is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan
Taiwan
is located directly to the north. The Moluccas
Moluccas
and Sulawesi
Sulawesi
are located to the south-southwest and Palau
Palau
is located to the east of the islands.

Most of the mountainous islands are covered in tropical rainforest and volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is Mount Apo
Mount Apo
. It measures up to 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao. The Galathea Depth in the Philippine Trench is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world . The trench is located in the Philippine Sea.

The longest river is the Cagayan
Cagayan
River in northern Luzon. Manila
Manila
Bay , upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila
Manila
lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay
Laguna de Bay
, the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River
Pasig River
. Subic Bay
Subic Bay
, the Davao Gulf
Davao Gulf
, and the Moro Gulf
Moro Gulf
are other important bays. The San Juanico Strait
San Juanico Strait
separates the islands of Samar
Samar
and Leyte
Leyte
but it is traversed by the San Juanico Bridge
San Juanico Bridge
.

Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
, the Philippines
Philippines
experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The Benham Plateau
Benham Plateau
to the east in the Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction . Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon
Luzon
earthquake .

There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano
Mayon Volcano
, Mount Pinatubo , and Taal Volcano
Taal Volcano
. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo
Mount Pinatubo
in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River , the area represents a habitat for biodiversity conservation , the site also contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in Asia.

Due to the volcanic nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa
South Africa
and one of the largest copper deposits in the world. It is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Despite this, poor management, high population density, and environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped. Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy
is a product of volcanic activity that the Philippines
Philippines
has harnessed more successfully. The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power.

* Geography of the Philippines

*

_ Mount Pinatubo
Mount Pinatubo
_ *

_ Chocolate
Chocolate
Hills _ in Bohol
Bohol
*

_El Nido _ in Palawan
Palawan
*

_ Taal Volcano
Taal Volcano
_, the smallest active volcano in the world *

_Sierra Madre mountain range _ *

_ Luzon
Luzon
tropical pine forests _

BIODIVERSITY

Main article: Wildlife of the Philippines See also: List of threatened species of the Philippines
Philippines
_ Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta_), one of the smallest primates .

The Philippines' rainforests and its extensive coastlines make it home to a diverse range of birds, plants, animals, and sea creatures. It is one of the ten most biologically megadiverse countries . Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere. The Philippines
The Philippines
has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines
Philippines
has risen and likely will continue to rise. Native mammals include the palm civet cat , the dugong , the cloud rat and the Philippine tarsier
Philippine tarsier
associated with Bohol
Bohol
.

Although the Philippines
Philippines
lacks large mammalian predators, it does have some very large reptiles such as pythons and cobras , together with gigantic saltwater crocodiles . The largest crocodile in captivity, known locally as Lolong , was captured in the southern island of Mindanao.

The national bird , known as the Philippine eagle
Philippine eagle
has the longest body of any eagle . Moalboal
Moalboal
Reef in Cebu
Cebu
.

Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as 2,200,000 square kilometers (849,425 sq mi) producing unique and diverse marine life, an important part of the Coral Triangle . The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively. New records and species discoveries continuously increase these numbers underlining the uniqueness of the marine resources in the Philippines. The Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu
Sulu
Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of pearls, crabs, and seaweeds.

With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands, Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora, including many rare types of orchids and rafflesia . Deforestation
Deforestation
, often the result of illegal logging, is an acute problem in the Philippines
Philippines
. Forest cover declined from 70% of the Philippines's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999. Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, which the Philippines
Philippines
is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 21st century. According to Conservation International , "the country is one of the few nations that is, in its entirety, both a hotspot and a megadiversity country, placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation."

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of the Philippines
Climate of the Philippines
_ Typhoon Haiyan (locally known as Yolanda_) at peak intensity.

The Philippines
The Philippines
has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: _tag-init_ or _tag-araw_, the hot dry season or summer from March to May; _tag-ulan_, the rainy season from June to November; and _tag-lamig_, the cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan. Temperatures usually range from 21 °C (70 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F) although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.

The average yearly temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. Whether in the extreme north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio
Baguio
at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), making it a popular destination during hot summers.

Sitting astride the typhoon belt , most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and thunderstorms from July to October, with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys. The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 1911 cyclone , which dropped over 1,168 millimeters (46.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio. _Bagyo_ is the local term for a tropical cyclone in the Philippines.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of the Philippines A proportional representation of the Philippines' exports, 2012.

The Philippine economy is the 34th largest in the world , with an estimated 2017 gross domestic product (nominal) of $348.593 billion. Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil , and fruits. Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand. Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso
Philippine peso
(₱ or PHP). Agriculture employs 30% of the Filipino workforce as of 2014 .

A newly industrialized country , the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing. Of the country's total labor force of around 40.813 Million, the agricultural sector employs 30% of the labor force , and accounts for 14% of GDP. The industrial sector employs around 14% of the workforce and accounts for 30% of GDP. Meanwhile, the 47% of workers involved in the services sector are responsible for 56% of GDP.

The unemployment rate as of 14 December 2014 , stands at 6.0%. Meanwhile, due to lower charges in basic necessities, the inflation rate eases to 3.7% in November. Gross international reserves as of October 2013 are $83.201 billion. The Debt-to-GDP ratio continues to decline to 38.1% as of March 2014 from a record high of 78% in 2004. The country is a net importer but it is also a creditor nation.

After World War II, the Philippines
Philippines
was for a time regarded as the second wealthiest in East Asia, next only to Japan. In the 1960s its economic performance started being overtaken. The economy stagnated under the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
as the regime spawned economic mismanagement and political volatility. The country suffered from slow economic growth and bouts of economic recession . Only in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization did the economy begin to recover.

The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis
1997 Asian Financial Crisis
affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. The extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth. There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades. Average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia
Asia
and the Pacific region as a whole. The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines
Philippines
remains less than $2.

The economy is heavily reliant upon remittances from overseas Filipinos
Filipinos
, which surpass foreign direct investment as a source of foreign currency. Remittances peaked in 2010 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% in 2012 and in 2014, Philippines
Philippines
total worth of foreign exchange remittances was US$28 billion. Regional development is uneven, with Luzon
Luzon
– Metro Manila
Manila
in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions, although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the country. Despite constraints, service industries such as tourism and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country.

Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
includes the country in its list of the " Next Eleven
Next Eleven
" economies but China
China
and India
India
have emerged as major economic competitors. Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
estimates that by the year 2050, it will be the 20th largest economy in the world. HSBC
HSBC
also projects the Philippine economy to become the 16th largest economy in the world, 5th largest economy in Asia
Asia
and the largest economy in the South East Asian region by 2050. The Philippines
The Philippines
is a member of the World Bank , the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO), the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
which is headquartered in Mandaluyong
Mandaluyong
, the Colombo Plan
Colombo Plan
, the G-77 and the G-24 among other groups and institutions.

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transportation in the Philippines The North Luzon Expressway connects Metro Manila
Manila
to the provinces of Central Luzon
Luzon

The transportation infrastructure in the Philippines
Philippines
is relatively underdeveloped. This is partly due to the mountainous terrain and the scattered geography of the islands, but also the result of consistently low investment in infrastructure by successive governments. In 2013, about 3% of national GDP went towards infrastructure development – much lower than many of its neighbors. There are 213,151 kilometers (132,446 mi) of roads in the Philippines, with only 25.56% of roads paved.

Under President Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
's administration, various projects were initiated in an attempt to improve the country's infrastructure and transportation systems. Buses, jeepneys , taxis, and motorized tricycles are commonly available in major cities and towns. In 2007, there were about 5.53 million registered motor vehicles with registrations increasing at an average annual rate of 4.55%.

The Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines
Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines
manages airports and implementation of policies regarding safe air travel with 85 public airports operational as of 2014 . Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) serves the Greater Manila
Manila
Area together with Clark International Airport . Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
, Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name, and Cebu
Cebu
Pacific , the leading low-cost airline, are the major airlines serving most domestic and international destinations. A LRT-2 train at Santolan Station .

Expressways and highways are mostly located on the island of Luzon including the Pan-Philippine Highway , connecting the islands of Luzon , Samar
Samar
, Leyte
Leyte
, and Mindanao
Mindanao
, the North Luzon
Luzon
Expressway , South Luzon
Luzon
Expressway , and the Subic–Clark– Tarlac
Tarlac
Expressway .

Rail transport in the Philippines
Philippines
only plays a role in transporting passengers within Metro Manila. This area is served by three rapid transit lines: LRT-1 , and LRT-2 and MRT-3 . In the past, railways served major parts of Luzon, and railroad services were available on the islands of Cebu
Cebu
and Negros. Railways were also used for agricultural purposes, especially in tobacco and sugar cane production. Rail freight transportation was almost non-existent as of 2014 . A few transportation systems are under development: DOST -MIRDC and UP are implementing pre-feasibility studies on Automated Guideway Transit. A so-called _Hybrid Electric Road Train_ which is a long bi-articulated bus , was also being tested as of 2015 . A vessel of Trans- Asia
Asia
Shipping Lines at the Port of Cebu
Cebu
.

As an archipelago, inter-island travel using watercraft is often necessary. The busiest seaports are Manila
Manila
, Batangas
Batangas
, Subic , Cebu , Iloilo
Iloilo
, Davao , Cagayan
Cagayan
de Oro, and Zamboanga . 2GO Travel
2GO Travel
and Sulpicio Lines
Sulpicio Lines
serve Manila, with links to various cities and towns through passenger vessels. The 919-kilometer (571 mi) Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established in 2003. The Pasig River Ferry Service serves the major rivers in Metro Manila, including the Pasig River
Pasig River
and Marikina River
Marikina River
having numerous stops in Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig
Pasig
and Marikina.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Main article: Science and technology in the Philippines
Science and technology in the Philippines
An IRRI researcher studying rice DNA
DNA
under ultraviolet light .

The Philippines
The Philippines
has pursued efforts to improve the field of science and technology. The Department of Science and Technology is the governing agency responsible for the development of coordination of science- and technology-related projects in the Philippines. The National Scientist of the Philippines
National Scientist of the Philippines
award is given to individuals that have contributed to different field of science in the country. Notable Filipino scientists include Maria Orosa , a food technologist famous for her formulated food products like calamansi nip, soyalac and the banana ketchup ,

Fe del Mundo
Fe del Mundo
, a pediatrician whose pioneering work in pediatrics as an active medical practice spanned 8 decades, Paulo Campos , a physician who was dubbed as "_The Father of Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines_" for his contributions in the field of nuclear medicine , Ramon Barba , an inventor and horticulturist known for his method to induce more flowers in mango trees.

Research organizations include the International Rice
Rice
Research Institute , an international independent research and training organization established in 1960 with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna , focusing on the development of new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques to help farmers in the country improve their lives. The Philippines
The Philippines
bought its first satellite in 1996. In 2016, the Philippines
Philippines
first micro-satellite , Diwata-1 was launched aboard the US Cygnus spacecraft.

COMMUNICATIONS

Main articles: Telecommunications in the Philippines , Internet in the Philippines
Philippines
, and Social networking in the Philippines
Social networking in the Philippines

The Philippines
The Philippines
has a sophisticated cellular phone industry and a high concentration of users. Text messaging
Text messaging
is a popular form of communication and, in 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day. Over five million mobile phone users also use their phones as virtual wallets, making it a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks. The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company commonly known as PLDT is the leading telecommunications provider. It is also the largest company in the country.

The National Telecommunications Commission is the agency responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country. There are approximately 383 AM and 659 FM radio stations and 297 television and 873 cable television stations. On March 29, 1994, the country went live on the Internet via a 64 kbit/s connection from a router serviced by PLDT to a Sprint router in California. Estimates for Internet penetration in the Philippines
Philippines
vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people. Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent Internet activities.

TOURISM

Main article: Tourism
Tourism
in the Philippines
Philippines
White sand beaches of Boracay
Boracay
.

The travel and tourism sector is a major contributor to the economy , contributing 7.1% to the Philippine GDP in 2013 and providing 1,226,500 jobs or 3.2 percent of total employment. 2,433,428 international visitors arrived from January to June 2014 up by 2.22% in the same period in 2013. South Korea, China, and Japan
Japan
accounted for 58.78% while the Americas
Americas
accounted for 19.28% and Europe 10.64%. The Department of Tourism
Tourism
has responsibility for the management and promotion of the tourism sector.

The country's rich biodiversity is one of the main tourist attractions with its beaches, mountains, rainforests, islands and diving spots among the most popular tourist destinations. As an archipelago consisting of about 7,500 islands, the Philippines
Philippines
has numerous beaches, caves and other rock formations. Boracay
Boracay
has glaring white sand beaches and was named as the best island in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012. The Banaue Rice Terraces in Ifugao, the historic town of Vigan
Vigan
in Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
, the Chocolate
Chocolate
Hills in Bohol, Magellan\'s Cross in Cebu
Cebu
and the Tubbataha Reef in Visayas
Visayas
are other highlights.

The Philippines
The Philippines
is also one of the favorite retirement destinations for foreigners due to its warm climate all year round, beaches and low cost of living.

WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in the Philippines Ambuklao Dam
Ambuklao Dam
in Bokod , Benguet
Benguet
.

Among the achievements of the government in the Philippines
Philippines
are a high access to an improved water source of 92% in 2010; the creation of financially sustainable water service providers ("Water Districts") in small and medium towns with the continuous long-term support of a national agency (the "Local Water Utilities Administration" LWUA); and the improvement of access, service quality and efficiency in Manila through two high-profle water concessions awarded in 1997.

The challenges include limited access to sanitation services, high pollution of water resources, often poor drinking water quality and poor service quality, a fragmentation of executive functions at the national level among numerous agencies, and a fragmentation of service provision at the local level into many small service providers.

In 2015 it was reported by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO
WHO
and UNICEF that 74% of the population had access to improved sanitation and that "good progress" had been made. The access to improved sanitation was reported to be similar for the urban and rural population.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main articles: Demographics of the Philippines
Demographics of the Philippines
, Filipinos
Filipinos
, and Overseas Filipinos
Filipinos
Population density per province as of 2009 per square kilometer.

The population of the Philippines
Philippines
increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame. The first official census in the Philippines
Philippines
was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.

It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. The 3.21% population growth rate between 1995 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005–2010 period, but remains a contentious issue . The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. Life expectancy at birth is 71.94 years, 75.03 years for females and 68.99 years for males. Poverty Incidence significantly dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012.

Since the liberalization of United States
United States
immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States
United States
having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. In 2007 there were an estimated 12 million Filipinos
Filipinos
living overseas .

According to the official count the population of the Philippines
Philippines
hit 100 million at the time of midnight on July 27, 2014, making it the 12th country to reach this number.

CITIES

Main article: Cities of the Philippines
Cities of the Philippines

Metro Manila
Manila
is the most populous of the 3 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines
Philippines
and the 11th most populous in the world. as of 2007 , census data showed it had a population of 11,553,427, comprising 13% of the national population. Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces ( Bulacan
Bulacan
, Cavite
Cavite
, Laguna , and Rizal
Rizal
) of Greater Manila
Manila
, the population is around 21 million.

Metro Manila's gross regional product was estimated as of 2009 to be ₱ 468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP. In 2011 Manila
Manila
ranked as the 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
.

* v * t * e

Largest cities in the Philippines
Philippines
PSA Census August 2015

RANK NAME REGION POP. RANK NAME REGION POP.

Quezon City
Quezon City

Manila
Manila
1 Quezon City
Quezon City
National Capital Region 2,936,116 11 Parañaque
Parañaque
National Capital Region 665,822

Davao City
Davao City

Caloocan
Caloocan

2 Manila
Manila
National Capital Region 1,780,148 12 Dasmariñas
Dasmariñas
Calabarzon
Calabarzon
659,019

3 Davao City
Davao City
Davao Region
Davao Region
1,632,991 13 Valenzuela National Capital Region 620,422

4 Caloocan
Caloocan
National Capital Region 1,583,978 14 Bacoor
Bacoor
Calabarzon
Calabarzon
600,609

5 Cebu
Cebu
City Central Visayas
Visayas
922,611 15 General Santos
General Santos
Soccsksargen
Soccsksargen
594,446

6 Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
861,799 16 Las Piñas
Las Piñas
National Capital Region 588,894

7 Taguig
Taguig
National Capital Region 804,915 17 Makati
Makati
National Capital Region 582,602

8 Antipolo
Antipolo
Calabarzon
Calabarzon
776,386 18 San Jose del Monte
San Jose del Monte
Central Luzon
Luzon
574,089

9 Pasig
Pasig
National Capital Region 755,300 19 Bacolod
Bacolod
Negros Island Region
Negros Island Region
561,875

10 Cagayan
Cagayan
de Oro Northern Mindanao
Mindanao
675,950 20 Muntinlupa
Muntinlupa
National Capital Region 504,509

ETHNIC GROUPS

Main article: Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
of the Philippines
Philippines
Dominant ethnic groups by province.

According to the 2000 census, 28.1% of Filipinos
Filipinos
are Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Visayans/Bisaya (excluding Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray), 7.5% Hiligaynon, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, and 25.3% as "others", which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro , the Kapampangan , the Pangasinense , the Ibanag , and the Ivatan . There are also indigenous peoples like the Igorot
Igorot
, the Lumad
Lumad
, the Mangyan , the Bajau
Bajau
, and the tribes of Palawan
Palawan
.

Filipinos
Filipinos
generally belong to several Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people. It is believed that thousands of years ago Austronesian-speaking Taiwanese aborigines
Taiwanese aborigines
migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan, bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing, eventually displacing the earlier Negrito
Negrito
groups of the islands. Negritos , such as the Aeta and the Ati , are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.

Being at the crossroads of the West and East, the Philippines
Philippines
is also home to migrants from places as diverse as China, Spain, Mexico, United States, India, South Korea, and Japan. Two important non-indigenous minorities are the Chinese and the Spaniards .

The Chinese , mostly descendants of immigrants from Fujian
Fujian
, China after 1898, number 2 million, although there are an estimated 27 percent of Filipinos
Filipinos
who have partial Chinese ancestry, stemming from precolonial and colonial Chinese migrants. Intermarriage between the groups is evident in the major cities and urban areas.

At least one-third of the population of Luzon
Luzon
(13.33% of the Filipino people) as well as a few old settlements in the Visayas
Visayas
and Zamboanga City at Mindanao, have partial Hispanic
Hispanic
ancestry (from varying points of origin and ranging from Latin America to Spain). Recent genetic studies confirm this partial European and Latin-American ancestry.

Other important non-indigenous minorities include Indians , Anglo-Americans , Britons
Britons
, and Japanese people
Japanese people
. Descendants of mixed couples are known as mestizos .

LANGUAGES

Main article: Languages of the Philippines
Languages of the Philippines

Population by mother tongue (2010) LANGUAGE SPEAKERS

TAGALOG 24.44 % 24.44 22,512,089

CEBUANO 21.35 % 21.35 19,665,453

ILOKANO 8.77 % 8.77 8,074,536

HILIGAYNON 8.44 % 8.44 7,773,655

WARAY 3.97 % 3.97 3,660,645

_OTHER LOCAL LANGUAGES/DIALECTS_ 26.09 % 26.09 24,027,005

_OTHER FOREIGN LANGUAGES/DIALECTS_ 0.09 % 0.09 78,862

_NOT REPORTED/NOT STATED_ 0.01 % 0.01 6,450

TOTAL 92,097,978

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority
Philippine Statistics Authority

_ Ethnologue _ lists 186 individual languages in the Philippines, 182 of which are living languages, while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Most native languages are part of the Philippine branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages
Malayo-Polynesian languages
, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family . The only language not classified as an Austronesian language is Chavacano
Chavacano
which is a creole language of Spanish and is classified as a Romance language
Romance language
.

Filipino and English are the official languages of the country. Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog , spoken mainly in Metro Manila
Manila
and other urban regions. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. However, most people outside cities do not speak much English. In most towns, the local indigenous language is spoken. The Philippine constitution provides for the promotion of Spanish and Arabic on a voluntary and optional basis, although neither are used on as wide a scale as in the past. Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use, but is experiencing revival due to government promotions, while Arabic is mainly used in Islamic schools in Mindanao. However, Spanish loanwords are still present today in many of the indigenous Philippine languages.

Nineteen regional languages act as auxiliary official languages used as mediums of instruction: Aklanon , Bikol , Cebuano , Chavacano
Chavacano
, Hiligaynon , Ibanag , Ilocano , Ivatan , Kapampangan , Kinaray-a , Maguindanao
Maguindanao
, Maranao , Pangasinan
Pangasinan
, Sambal , Surigaonon , Tagalog, Tausug , Waray , and Yakan . Other indigenous languages such as, Cuyonon , Ifugao
Ifugao
, Itbayat , Kalinga , Kamayo , Kankanaey , Masbateño , Romblomanon , Malay , and several Visayan
Visayan
languages are prevalent in their respective provinces.

Languages not indigenous to the islands are also taught in select schools. Mandarin is used in Chinese schools catering to the Chinese Filipino community. Islamic schools in Mindanao
Mindanao
teach Modern Standard Arabic in their curriculum. French , German , Japanese , Korean , and Spanish are taught with the help of foreign linguistic institutions. The Department of Education began teaching the Malay languages of Indonesian and Malaysian in 2013.

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in the Philippines
Religion in the Philippines
_ A detail of Carlos V. Francisco\'s First Mass in the Philippines_ painting Golden Mosque prayer hall

The Philippines
The Philippines
is an officially secular state , although Christianity
Christianity
is the dominant faith. Census data from 2010 found that about 80.58% of the population professed Catholicism . Around 37% regularly attend Mass and 29% identify as very religious. Protestants are 10.8% of the total population, mostly endorsing Evangelical Protestant
Evangelical Protestant
denominations that were introduced by American missionaries at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Philippine Independent Church
Philippine Independent Church
is a notable independent Catholic denomination. Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo
is a notable Restorationist denomination in the country.

Islam
Islam
is the second largest religion. The Muslim
Muslim
population of the Philippines
Philippines
was reported as 5.57% of the total population according to census returns in 2010, although a 2012 report by the National Commission on Muslim
Muslim
Filipinos
Filipinos
estimates it at 11%. The majority of Muslims live in the Bangsamoro region . Most practice Sunni Islam under the Shafi\'i school .

An unknown number of Filipinos
Filipinos
are irreligious , but they may form as much as 10% of the population. Catholicism's historic dominance is steadily declining, with about 9% of adherents considering leaving their church.

An estimated 2% of the total population practice Philippine traditional religions , whose practices and folk beliefs are often syncretized with Christianity
Christianity
and Islam. Buddhism is practiced by around 2% of the population, and is concentrated among Filipinos
Filipinos
of Chinese descent. The remaining population is divided between a number of religious groups, including Hindus , Jews , and Baha\'is .

HEALTH

Main article: Health in the Philippines The façade of the Bonifacio Global City
Bonifacio Global City
branch of St. Luke\'s Medical Center

There are an increasing number of private health providers and, as of 2009 , 67.1% of healthcare came from private expenditures while 32.9% was from government. In 2013, total expenditures on the health sector was 3.8% of GDP, below the WHO
WHO
target of 5%. Health expenditure represented about 6.1% of total government spending. Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was USD52. The budget allocation for Healthcare in 2010 was ₱28 billion (about USD597 million) or ₱310 ($7) per person but had an increase in budget in 2014 with a record high in the collection of taxes from the House Bill 5727 (commonly known as Sin tax Bill).

There are an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses, 43,220 dentists, and 1 hospital bed per every 769 people. Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. 70% of nursing graduates go overseas to work. The Philippines
The Philippines
is the biggest supplier of nurses for export.

In 2001 there were about 1,700 hospitals , of which about 40% were government-run and 60% private. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 25% of all deaths. According to official estimates, 1,965 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported in 2003, of which 636 had developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Despite the increase of HIV/AIDS cases from 12,000 in 2005 to 17,450 as of April 2014 with 5,965 people who were under anti-retroviral therapy, the country is still a low-HIV-prevalence country with less than 0.1% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in the Philippines The University of Santo Tomas , established in 1611, has the oldest extant university charter in Asia.

The Philippines
The Philippines
has a simple literacy rate of 95.6%, with 95.1% for males and 96.1% for females. The Philippines
The Philippines
had a functional literacy rate of 86.45%, with 84.2% for males and 88.7% for females in 2008. Spending on education accounted for 16.11% in the national budget proposed for 2015.

The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, 607 of which are public and 1,573 private. Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs. A 6-year elementary and 4-year high school education is mandatory with an additional two years being added in 2013.

Several government agencies are involved with education. The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers post-secondary, middle-level education training and development. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulates standards in higher education.

In 2004, madaris were mains-treamed in 16 regions nationwide, mainly in Muslim
Muslim
areas in Mindanao
Mindanao
under the auspices and program of the Department of Education. Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State Universities and Colleges (SUC) or Local Colleges and Universities (LCU). The University of the Philippines
University of the Philippines
, a system of eight (8) constituent universities, is the national university system of the Philippines.

CULTURE

Main articles: Festivals of the Philippines
Festivals of the Philippines
and Culture of the Philippines
Philippines

Philippine culture is a combination of Eastern and Western cultures . The Philippines
The Philippines
exhibits aspects found in other Asian countries with a Malay heritage, yet its culture also displays a significant number of Spanish and American influences.

Traditional festivities known as _barrio fiestas_ (district festivals) to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are common. These community celebrations are times for feasting, music, and dancing and the Moriones and Sinulog
Sinulog
festivals are a couple of the most well-known.

Some traditions, however, are changing or gradually being forgotten due to modernization. The Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has been lauded for preserving many of the various traditional folk dances found throughout the Philippines. They are famed for their iconic performances of Philippine dances such as the _tinikling _ and _singkil _ that both feature clashing bamboo poles.

COSMOPOLITANISM

One of the most visible Hispanic
Hispanic
legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldua , which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Hispanic
Hispanic
nomenclature on the population. The names of many streets, towns, and provinces are also in Spanish. Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines
Philippines
in the way many towns were designed around a central square or _plaza mayor_, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II. Some examples remain, mainly among the country's churches, government buildings, and universities. Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
: the San Agustín Church in Manila, the Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte, the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Ilocos Sur, and the Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo.

Vigan
Vigan
in Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
is also known for the many Hispanic-style houses and buildings preserved there. In Iloilo
Iloilo
, a lot of the colonial edifices constructed during the American occupation in the country can still be seen. Commercial buildings, houses and churches in that era are abundant in the city and especially in Calle Real .

However, certain areas of the country like Batanes
Batanes
have slight differences as both Spanish and Filipino ways of life assimilated differently due to the climate there and limestone and coral were used as building materials. Idjangs or Ivatan castles were the primary shelter of the people prior to the Spanish conquest of the whole Philippines.

The common use of the English language
English language
is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the ready acceptance and influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos' love of fast food and American film and music. Fast food
Fast food
outlets are found on many street corners. American global fast food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast food chains like Goldilocks and most notably Jollibee
Jollibee
, the leading fast food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against their foreign rivals.

*

Spanish colonial architecture in Vigan
Vigan
City *

Calle Real in Iloilo
Iloilo
City is home to art deco and beaux-arts buildings from the American colonial era *

Barasoain Church
Barasoain Church
in Malolos, Bulacan
Bulacan
, where the First Philippine Republic was founded

MUSIC

Main articles: Music of the Philippines
Music of the Philippines
and Original Pilipino Music
Original Pilipino Music

Philippine music has evolved rapidly due to the different influences stemming from colonialism under other countries. Before the Spanish conquest of the islands, most music was reminiscent of, or heavily influenced by, nature. Some examples of this tribal music is _Koyu No Tebulul_ of the T\'boli and Ambo Hato of the Ifugao
Ifugao
. This genre is often accompanied by gong music and one well known instrument is the Kulintang
Kulintang
. Percussion instruments that make up the Philippine kulintang ensemble, an example of pre- Hispanic
Hispanic
musical tradition

During the Spanish era Rondalya music, where traditional string orchestra mandolin type instruments were used, was widespread. In the Philippines, _Rondalya_ refers to any group of stringed instruments that are played using a plectrum or pick. Filipino instruments are made from indigenous Philippine wood; plectrums, or picks, are made from tortoise-shell. Other stringed instruments composing the standard Filipino rondalla are the 14-string bandurria found only in the Philippines, the laúd, the octavina, the Twelve-string guitar, the Ukulele, the bajo de uñas or double bass, the Guitarrón mexicano, and other Filipino-made instruments modeled and developed after the guitar. Harana and Kundiman are prevalent during this time wherein these songs are often used in courtship rituals.

Marcelo Adonay (organist), Simplicio Solis (organist), Diego C. Perez (pianist), Jose Conseco (pianist) and Doña Dolores Paterno (composer) were some of the recognized musicians in this era. Nowadays, American pop culture has a heavy hold on the Filipinos
Filipinos
that evolved from the Spanish times when the American occupation happened. Along with Korean pop, these two are dominating the recent music scene in media. However, the revival of Spanish-influence folk music has been done due to the different choir groups in and out of the country like the Philippine Madrigal Singers .

VISUAL ART

Main article: Art of the Philippines
Art of the Philippines
Emilio Jacinto Monument in Quezon
Quezon
City, Metro Manila.

Pottery and weaving are among the very first art forms showcasing Filipino artistic design and are evident from cave dwellings all over the country. Among these are mostly anthropomorphic earthenware jars dating from c. 5 BC to 225 AD. Weaving was mostly done by women, using fibers from abaca, pineapple, cotton, and bark to make clothes, rugs and hats. Baskets were mostly utilized to carry grain and other foods.

Early Philippine sculpture is characterized by frontal nudity. One of the earliest forms are the _bulols_ by the Ifugao
Ifugao
people which serve as an assurance for bountiful harvests. The original function of these sculptures are related to the ceremonies and beliefs of the tribes who created them. Arab
Arab
and Russian missionaries also brought beveled type of carvings in the form of _Okkil_. The beginnings of this sculpture type started with the Islamization of Sulu
Sulu
. The Spanish colonization of the country did not hinder Filipinos
Filipinos
creating sculptures for objects of adoration. During this time, sculptures of deities and saints were used to teach Filipinos
Filipinos
Christian doctrines. During the American colonialism, worshippers of faith were not discouraged to sculpt in order to adorn churches.

Filipinos' first exposure to painting happened when Spain
Spain
conquered the Philippines
Philippines
and these were used as religious propaganda often displayed in churches. However, as education progressed and wealth increased, more and more artists started to shift from the traditional religious motifs to a more secular pattern of imagery.

Paintings of early modernist painters such as Damián Domingo
Damián Domingo
often still had a religious association but the art of Juan Luna
Juan Luna
and Félix Hidalgo showed a trend towards political statement. The first Philippine national artist Fernando Amorsolo used post-modernism to produce paintings that illustrated aspects of Philippine culture, while other artists such as Fernando Zóbel used both realistic and abstract techniques.

In the modern period, the integration of architecture in the Art Deco style happened. Many of these examples can be seen in statues all over the country especially in public parks and spaces.

VALUES

Further information: Filipino values

As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos
Filipinos
is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity
Christianity
), and commercial relationships.

Filipino values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "_Hiya_", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and "_Amor propio_" or 'self-esteem'. Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.

Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.

Internationally, the Philippines
Philippines
has been well documented for its successes in beauty pageants. While in most of the world the popularity of formal female beauty contests has diminished, they remain both popular and widespread in the Philippines. The country's recent surge in the Miss Universe
Miss Universe
pageant alone in the 2010s marked the revived interest of not only the Philippines
Philippines
but also throughout the rest of Asia
Asia
up against their rivals in Latin America in international beauty pageantry. Binibining Pilipinas is a closely followed event throughout the country along with other major national pageants such as Miss Philippines Earth and Miss World Philippines . The Philippines
The Philippines
have garnered one Miss World
Miss World
, three Miss Universe, six Miss International
Miss International
and three Miss Earth
Miss Earth
crowns, making it the world's third country (after Brazil
Brazil
and Venezuela
Venezuela
, as well as Asia's first country) to win all four major international beauty pageant titles.

DANCE

Main article: Philippine Dance
Philippine Dance
Tinikling
Tinikling
as performed on stage.

Just like the evolution of Philippine music, dance as well has been in constant change. Prior to colonial rule, the Philippines
Philippines
has a wide array of ethnic dances from different tribal groups. This is due mainly to the fact that Philippines
Philippines
is an island thus the different varieties of dance developed. Both Luzon
Luzon
and Visayas, at first, were more akin to tribal movements until the Spanish came. Mindanao represents more of an array of Muslim
Muslim
inspired dances and Spanish influence was minimal in the region of Zamboanga .

Universal dances in the Philippines
Philippines
are found at societal functions such as rituals, mimicry, life cycle and parties. During the Spanish era, most dances are accompanied by Rondalya music usually with 14-string bandurrias that the Filipinos
Filipinos
invented or by other type of stringed instruments that locally evolved in to the culture as well.

One famous dance that is well known is called the Tinikling
Tinikling
, where a band of Rondalya musicians play along with the percussive beat of the two bamboo poles. It usually starts with men and women acting a scene about "How rural townsfolk mingle". The dancers then graze thru the clashing of the bamboo poles held on opposite sides. The end displays the paired bamboo poles crossing each other. The Muslim
Muslim
version of this where bamboo poles are also used is called the Singkil
Singkil
. Nowadays, in the Modern and Post-Modern time periods, dances vary from the delicate ballet up to the more street-oriented styles of breakdancing to name a few.

CUISINE

Left-to-right: Lumpia
Lumpia
from Lumpia
Lumpia
Shack in New York, NY, Adobo
Adobo
, Sisig
Sisig
and Ube halaya
Ube halaya
. Main article: Philippine cuisine

Philippine cuisine
Philippine cuisine
has evolved over several centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian origins to become a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic , Chinese , American , and other Asian influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, such as the _paellas _ and _cocidos _ created for fiestas.

Popular dishes include _lechón _, _adobo _, _sinigang _, _kare-kare _, _tapa _, crispy _pata_ , _pancit _, _lumpia _, and _halo-halo _. Some common local ingredients used in cooking are calamansi , coconuts, _saba _ (a kind of short wide plantain ), mangoes , ube , milkfish , and fish sauce . Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors, but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors.

Unlike many of their Asian counterparts, Filipinos
Filipinos
do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Philippine cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork.

The traditional way of eating with the hands known as _kamayan_ (using the washed right hand for bringing food to the mouth ) was previously more often seen in the less urbanized areas. However, due to the various Filipino restaurants that introduced Filipino food to people of other nationalities as well as to Filipino urbanites, kamayan fast became popular. This recent trend also sometimes incorporates the "Boodle Fight" concept (as popularized and coined by the Philippine Army), wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates on top of which rice portions and Filipino viands are placed all together for a filial, friendly and/or communal _kamayan_ feasting.

LITERATURE

Main articles: Philippine literature
Philippine literature
, Philippine mythology
Philippine mythology
, and Deities of Philippine mythology
Philippine mythology
José Rizal
José Rizal
, a pioneer of Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
through his literary works in Spanish language
Spanish language

Philippine mythology
Philippine mythology
has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. While each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell, Hindu and Spanish influences can nonetheless be detected in many cases. Philippine mythology
Philippine mythology
mostly consists of creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures, such as the _aswang _, the _manananggal _, the _diwata /engkanto _, and nature. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are Maria Makiling
Maria Makiling
, Lam-Ang , and the Sarimanok
Sarimanok
.

Philippine literature
Philippine literature
comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created from the 17th to 19th century. Adarna , for example, is a famous epic about an eponymous magical bird allegedly written by José de la Cruz or "Huseng Sisiw". Francisco Balagtas the poet and playwright who wrote _ Florante at Laura _ is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Filipino language. José Rizal
José Rizal
wrote the novels _Noli Me Tángere _ (_Touch Me Not_) and _ El Filibusterismo
El Filibusterismo
_ (_The Filibustering_, also known as _The Reign of Greed_). He is considered a national hero. His depiction of the injustices of Spanish rule, and his death by firing squad, inspired other Philippine revolutionaries to seek independence. Several Filipino writers were awarded National Artist of the Philippines
Philippines
such as N. V. M. Gonzalez , Amado V. Hernandez , Francisco Arcellana , Nick Joaquín , F. Sionil José
F. Sionil José
and many more.

MEDIA

Main articles: Television in the Philippines
Television in the Philippines
, Radio in the Philippines
Philippines
, and Philippine drama

Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English. Other Philippine languages, including various Visayan
Visayan
languages are also used, especially in radio due to its ability to reach remote rural locations that might otherwise not be serviced by other kinds of media. The dominant television networks ABS-CBN
ABS-CBN
, GMA and TV5 also have extensive radio presence.

The entertainment industry is vibrant and feeds broadsheets and tabloids with an unending supply of details about celebrities and sensationalist daily scandals. Drama and fantasy shows are anticipated as are Latin telenovelas , Asianovelas , and anime . Daytime television is dominated by game shows, variety shows, and talk shows such as _ Eat Bulaga
Eat Bulaga
_ and _It\'s Showtime _. Philippine cinema has a long history and is popular domestically, but has faced increasing competition from American , Asian and European films . Critically acclaimed directors and actors include Lino Brocka and Nora Aunor
Nora Aunor
for films like _Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag _ (_Manila: In the Claws of Light_) and _ Himala
Himala
_ (_Miracle_). In recent years it has become common to see celebrities flitting between television and movies and then moving into politics provoking concerns.

CINEMA

Main article: Cinema of the Philippines
Cinema of the Philippines
A frequent contender in foreign film festivals, Director Brillante Mendoza
Brillante Mendoza
(middle) with some of the homegrown and accomplished Filipino actors. Left to right: Dennis Trillo, Eugene Domingo, Isabel Lopez, Iza Calzado
Iza Calzado
and Dodong Rotrot.

Salón de Pertierra in Manila
Manila
first introduced the moving picture on January 1, 1897 in the Philippines. All films were all in Spanish since Philippine cinema was first introduced during the final years of the Spanish era of the country. Antonio Ramos
Antonio Ramos
was the first known movie producer. He used the Lumiere Cinematograph when he filmed _Panorama de Manila_ ( Manila
Manila
landscape), _Fiesta de Quiapo_ (Quiapo Fiesta), _Puente de España_ (Bridge of Spain), and _Escenas Callejeras_ (Street scenes). Meanwhile, Jose Nepomuceno was dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Cinema". Dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Cinema", his work marked the start of cinema as an art form in the Philippines. His first film produced was entitled _Dalagang Bukid _ (Country Maiden) in 1919. During the American period, film showing resumed in 1900. Walgrah, a British entrepreneur, opened the Cine Walgrah at No. 60 Calle Santa Rosa in Intramuros. It was also during this time that a movie market was formally created in the country along with the arrival of silent movies. These silent films were always accompanied by gramophone, a piano, a quartet, or a 200-man choir. During the Japanese occupation, filmaking was put on hold. Nonetheless, it was continued on 1930s up until 1945 replacing the Hollywood market with Japanese films but met with little success. Postwar 1940s and the 1950s were known as the first golden age of Philippine cinema with the resurgence of mostly Visayan
Visayan
films through Lapu-Lapu
Lapu-Lapu
Pictures. During the 1960s, James Bond
James Bond
movies, bomba (soft porn) pictures and an era of musical films, produced mostly by Sampaguita Pictures, dominated the cinema. The second golden age occured from 1970s to early 1980s. It was during this era that filmmakers ceased to produce pictures in black and white. A rise in Hollywood films dominated theater sales during the late 1980s until the 2000s. The dawn of this era saw a dramatic decline of the mainstream Philippine movie industry. In the year 2009, however, presence of box-office films in the Philippine Box Office has surged. The mid 2010s also saw broader commercial success of films produced by independent studios.

SPORTS

Main article: Sports in the Philippines
Sports in the Philippines
A PBA basketball game at the Mall of Asia
Asia
Arena .

Various sports and pastimes are popular in the Philippines
Philippines
including basketball , boxing , volleyball , football (soccer), American football , both codes of Rugby football
Rugby football
, badminton , karate , taekwondo , billiards , ten-pin bowling , chess , and sipa . Motocross , cycling , and mountaineering are also becoming popular. Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines. In 2010, Manny Pacquiao was named "Fighter of the Decade" for the 2000s (decade) by the Boxing
Boxing
Writers Association of America (BWAA), World Boxing
Boxing
Council (WBC), and World Boxing
Boxing
Organization (WBO). The national martial art and sport of the country is Arnis
Arnis
, Eskrima
Eskrima
or Kali in some regions

The Philippines
The Philippines
has participated in the Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
since 1924 and was the first country in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
to compete and win a medal. The country had competed in every Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
since then, except when they participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics . The Philippines
The Philippines
is also the first tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
debuting in the 1972 edition.

GAMES

Sabong or Cock Derby in Davao City
Davao City
.

Traditional Philippine games such as _luksung baka_, _patintero_, _piko_, and _tumbang preso_ are still played primarily as children\'s games among the youth. _ Sungka
Sungka
_ is a traditional native Philippine board game. Card games
Card games
are popular during festivities, with some, including _pusoy_ and _tong-its_, being used as a form of illegal gambling . Mahjong
Mahjong
is played in some Philippine communities.

Sabong or cockfighting is another popular entertainment especially among Filipino men, and existed prior to the arrival of the Spanish. Antonio Pigafetta
Antonio Pigafetta
, Magellan's chronicler, first documented this pastime in the kingdom of Taytay. The yo-yo , a popular toy in the Philippines, was introduced in its modern form by Pedro Flores with its name coming from the Ilocano language
Ilocano language
.

SEE ALSO

* List of sovereign state leaders in the Philippines * Outline of the Philippines

* Philippines
Philippines
portal * Asia
Asia
portal

NOTES

* ^ In the recognized regional languages of the Philippines
Philippines
:

* Aklanon : _Republika it Pilipinas_ * Bikol : _Republika kan Filipinas_ * Cebuano : _Republika sa Pilipinas_ * Chavacano
Chavacano
: _República de Filipinas_ * Hiligaynon : _Republika sang Filipinas_ * Ibanag : _Republika nat Filipinas_ * Ilocano : _Republika ti Filipinas_ * Ivatan : _Republika nu Filipinas_ * Kapampangan : _Republika ning Filipinas_ * Kinaray-a : _Republika kang Pilipinas_ * Maranao : _Republika san Pilipinas_ * Pangansinan : _Republika na Filipinas_ * Sambal : _Republika nin Pilipinas_ * Surigaonon : _Republika nan Pilipinas_ * Waray : _Republika han Pilipinas_

In the recognized optional languages of the Philippines:

* Spanish : _República de Filipinas_ * Arabic : جمهورية الفلبين‎, translit. _Jumhuriat Alfalabin_‎

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