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Coordinates: 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122

Republic
Republic
of the Philippines Republika ng Pilipinas

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto:  "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"[1] "For God, People, Nature, and Country"

Anthem: Lupang Hinirang Chosen Land

Great Seal

Dakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas  (Tagalog) Great Seal of the Philippines

Capital Manilaa 14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583°N 120.967°E / 14.583; 120.967

Largest city Quezon
Quezon
City 14°38′N 121°02′E / 14.633°N 121.033°E / 14.633; 121.033

Official languages

Filipino English

Recognized regional languages

19 languages

Aklanon Bikol Cebuano Chavacano Hiligaynon Ibanag Ilocano Ivatan Kapampangan Kinaray-a Maguindanao Maranao Pangasinan Sambal Surigaonon Tagalog Taūsug Waray Yakan[2]

National language Filipino

Auxiliary languageb

Spanish Arabic

Ethnic groups (2010[3])

33.8% Visayan 27.7% Tagalog 9.8% Ilocano 6.8% Bicolano 5.1% Moro 3.1% Kapampangan 1.7% Igorot 1.4% Pangasinense 1.2% Chinese 1.1% Zamboangueño 8.3% others

Religion

92% Christianity 5.57% Islam 2.43% others[4]

Demonym Filipino (masculine or neutral) Filipina (feminine) Pinoy (colloquial masculine) Pinay (colloquial feminine) Philippine

Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic

• President

Rodrigo Duterte

• Vice President

Leni Robredo

• Senate President

Aquilino Pimentel III

• House Speaker

Pantaleon Alvarez

• Chief Justice

Maria Lourdes Sereno

Legislature Congress

• Upper house

Senate

• Lower house

House of Representatives

Formation of the republic e

• Independence from Spain
Spain
declared

June 12, 1898

•  Treaty of Paris (1898)
Treaty of Paris (1898)
/ Spanish Cessionc

December 10, 1898

•  Malolos Constitution
Malolos Constitution
/ First Philippine Republic
Republic
e

January 21, 1899

• Tydings–McDuffie Act

March 24, 1934

• Commonwealth of the Philippines

May 14, 1935

• Treaty of Manila
Manila
/ Independence from United States
United States
d

July 4, 1946

• Current constitution

February 2, 1987

Area

• Total

343,448[5] km2 (132,606 sq mi) (63rd)

• Water (%)

0.61[6] (inland waters)

• Land

341,353[5]

Population

• 2015 census

100,981,437[7] (12th)

• Density

294/km2 (761.5/sq mi) (47th)

GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate

• Total

$955.587 billion[8]

• Per capita

$8,815[8]

GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate

• Total

$389.484 billion[8]

• Per capita

$3,593[8]

Gini (2012) 43.0[9] medium · 44th

HDI (2015)  0.682[10] medium · 116th

Currency Peso (₱) (PHP)

Time zone PST (UTC+8)

• Summer (DST)

not observed (UTC+8)

Date format

mm-dd-yyyy dd-mm-yyyy (AD)

Drives on the right[11]

Calling code +63

ISO 3166 code PH

Internet TLD .ph

Website National Government Portal Official Gazette of the Republic
Republic
of the Philippines

^ While Manila
Manila
proper is designated as the nation's capital, the whole of National Capital Region (NCR) is designated as seat of government, hence the name of a region. This is because it has many national government institutions aside from Malacanang Palace and some agencies/institutions that are located within the capital city.[12] ^ The 1987 Philippine constitution specifies "Spanish and Arabic
Arabic
shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis."[13] ^ Filipino revolutionaries declared independence from Spain
Spain
on June 12, 1898, but Spain
Spain
ceded the islands to the United States
United States
for $20 million in the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898 which eventually led to the Philippine–American War. ^ The United States
United States
of America recognized the independence of the Philippines
Philippines
on July 4, 1946, through the Treaty of Manila.[14] This date was chosen because it corresponds to the U.S. Independence Day, which was observed in the Philippines
Philippines
as Independence Day until May 12, 1962, when President Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
issued Presidential Proclamation No. 28, shifting it to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's proclamation.[15] ^ In accordance with article 11 of the Revolutionary Government Decree of June 23, 1898, the Malolos Congress
Malolos Congress
selected a commission to draw up a draft constitution on September 17, 1898. The commission was composed of Hipólito Magsalin, Basilio Teodoro, José Albert, Joaquín González, Gregorio Araneta, Pablo Ocampo, Aguedo Velarde, Higinio Benitez, Tomás del Rosario, José Alejandrino, Alberto Barretto, José Ma. de la Viña, José Luna, Antonio Luna, Mariano Abella, Juan Manday, Felipe Calderón, Arsenio Cruz and Felipe Buencamino.[16] They were all wealthy and well educated.[17]

The Philippines
The Philippines
(/ˈfɪlɪpiːnz/ ( listen); Filipino: Pilipinas [ˌpɪlɪˈpinɐs] or Filipinas [ˌfɪlɪˈpinɐs]), officially the Republic
Republic
of the Philippines
Philippines
(Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas)[a] is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands[18] that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines
Philippines
is Manila
Manila
and the most populous city is Quezon
Quezon
City, both part of Metro Manila.[19] Bounded by the South China Sea
South China Sea
on the west, the Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
on the east and the Celebes Sea
Celebes Sea
on the southwest, the Philippines
Philippines
shares maritime borders with Taiwan
Taiwan
to the north, Vietnam
Vietnam
to the west, Palau
Palau
to the east and Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia
Indonesia
to the south. The Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
and close to the equator makes the Philippines
Philippines
prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines
The Philippines
has an area of 343,448 square kilometers (132,606 sq mi)[5] and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.[7] As of January 2018[update], it was the eighth-most populated country in Asia
Asia
and the 12th most populated country in the world. Approximately 10 million additional Filipinos
Filipinos
lived overseas,[20] comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples.[21] Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Islamic nations occurred. Then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar
Eastern Samar
in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic
Hispanic
colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico
Mexico
City, in 1565, the first Hispanic
Hispanic
settlement in the archipelago was established.[22] The Philippines
The Philippines
became part of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia
Asia
with Acapulco
Acapulco
in the Americas
Americas
using Manila
Manila
galleons.[23] As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution quickly followed, which then spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War.[24] Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines
Philippines
was recognized as an independent nation. Since then, the Philippines
Philippines
has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution.[25] It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia
Asia
Summit. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank.[26] The Philippines
The Philippines
is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country,[27] which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing.[28] It is one of the only two predominantly Christian nations in Southeast Asia, the other being East Timor.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Precolonial epoch

2.2.1 Early historic coastal polities

2.3 Colonial era

2.3.1 Spanish rule 2.3.2 American rule 2.3.3 Japanese rule

2.4 Postcolonial period 2.5 Contemporary history

3 Politics

3.1 Foreign relations 3.2 Military 3.3 Administrative divisions

3.3.1 Administrative regions

4 Geography

4.1 Biodiversity 4.2 Climate

5 Economy

5.1 List of Philippine Regions by 2016 GDP at current (2016) prices 5.2 Transportation 5.3 Science and technology 5.4 Communications 5.5 Tourism 5.6 Water supply and sanitation

6 Demographics

6.1 Cities 6.2 Ethnic groups 6.3 Languages 6.4 Religion

7 Health 8 Education 9 Culture

9.1 Architecture 9.2 Music 9.3 Dance 9.4 Visual art 9.5 Values 9.6 Cuisine 9.7 Literature 9.8 Media 9.9 Cinema 9.10 Sports 9.11 Games

10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Citations 12.2 Bibliography

13 External links

Etymology Main article: Name of the Philippines

Philip II of Spain.

The Philippines
The Philippines
was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte
Leyte
and Samar
Samar
Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands.[29][30][31][32][33] The official name of the Philippines
Philippines
has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
(1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–46), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name.[24] From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines
Philippines
began to appear and it has since become the country's common name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic
Republic
of the Philippines.[34] History Main article: History of the Philippines Prehistory Further information: Prehistory of the Philippines

The Tabon Caves
Tabon Caves
are the site of one of the oldest human remains known in the Philippines, the Tabon Man

The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date.[35] This distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.[36][37] Negritos were also among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines
Philippines
has not been reliably dated.[38] There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes that the ancestors of the Filipinos
Filipinos
evolved locally. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory[39] postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland
Sundaland
area around 48,000 to 5000 BC rather than by wide-scale migration. The Austronesian Expansion Theory explains that Malayo-Polynesians coming from Taiwan began migrating to the Philippines
Philippines
around 4000 BC, displacing earlier arrivals.[40] The most widely accepted theory, based on linguistic and archeological evidence, is the "Out-of-Taiwan" model, which hypothesizes that Austronesians from Taiwan, who were themselves descended from the neolithic civilizations of the Yangtze river such as the Liangzhu culture,[41] began migrating to the Philippines
Philippines
around 4000 BC, displacing earlier arrivals.[40][42] During the neolithic period, a "jade culture" is said to have existed as evidenced by tens of thousands of exquisitely crafted jade artifacts found in the Philippines
Philippines
dated to 2000 BC.[43][44] The jade is said to have originated nearby in Taiwan
Taiwan
and is also found in many other areas in insular and mainland Southeast Asia. These artifacts are said to be evidence of long range communication between prehistoric Southeast Asian societies.[45] By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and port principalities.[46] Precolonial epoch Further information: History of the Philippines
History of the Philippines
(900–1521), Religion in pre-colonial Philippines, and Cultural achievements of pre-colonial Philippines

A Boxer Codex
Boxer Codex
image illustrating the ancient kadatuan or tumao (noble class).

The current demarcation between the Prehistory and the Early history of the Philippines
Philippines
is 21 April 900, which is the equivalent on the Proleptic Gregorian calendar for the date indicated on the Laguna Copperplate Inscription—the earliest known surviving written record to come from the Philippines.[47] This date came in the middle of what anthropologists refer to as the Philippines' "Emergent Phase" (1st–14th centuries CE), which was characterized by newly emerging socio-cultural patterns, the initial development of large coastal settlements, greater social stratification and specialization, and the beginnings of local and international trade.[48] By the 1300s, a number of the large coastal settlements had become progressive trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes, ushering complex lifeways which characterized what F. Landa Jocano called the "Barangic Phase" of early Philippine history, beginning from the 14th century through the arrival of Spanish colonizers and the beginning of the Philippines' colonial period.[48] The discovery of iron at around the 1st century AD created significant social and economic changes which allowed settlements to grow larger and develop new social patterns, characterized by social stratification and specialization.[48] Some of these polities, particularly the coastal settlements at or near the mouths of large rivers,[49] eventually developed substantial trade contacts with the early trading powers of Southeast Asia, most importantly the Indianized kingdoms
Indianized kingdoms
of Malaysia
Malaysia
and Java, the various dynasties of China,[49] Thailand,[50] and later, the Muslim
Muslim
Sultanate of Brunei.[51] They also traded with Vietnam,[50] Japan,[52] and other Austronesian islands.[53] Based on archeological findings, trade with China
China
is believed to have begun in the Tang dynasty, but grew more extensive during the Song dynasty.[51] By the 2nd millennium CE, some (but not all) Philippine polities were known to have sent trade delegations which participated in the Tributary system enforced by the Chinese imperial court.[51] These "tributary states" nominally acknowledged the Sinocentric system which saw China
China
and the imperial court as the cultural center of the world. Among the early Philippine polities, this arrangement fulfilled the requirements for trade with China, but did not actually translate into political or military control.[51][49]

The Ifugao/ Igorot people
Igorot people
utilized terrace farming in the steep mountainous regions of northern Philippines
Philippines
over 2000 years ago.

Regarding the relations of early Philippine polities with the various state-level polities of Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia, legendary accounts often mention the interaction of early Philippine polities with the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
empire, but there is not much archeological evidence to definitively support such a relationship.[48] Considerable evidence exists, on the other hand, for extensive trade with the Majapahit empire.[54] The exact scope and mechanisms of Indian cultural influences on early Philippine polities are still the subject of some debate among Southeast Asian historiographers,[48][55] but the current scholarly consensus is that there was probably little or no direct trade between India
India
and the Philippines,[48][55] and Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices,[54] filtered in during the 10th through the early 14th centuries, through early Philippine polities' relations with the Hindu Majapahit
Majapahit
empire.[48] The Philippine archipelago is thus one of the countries, (others include Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Southern Vietnam) just at the outer edge of what is considered the "Greater Indian cultural zone".[55] The early polities of the Philippine archipelago were typically characterized by a three-tier social structure.[48][49] Although different cultures had different terms to describe them, this three-tier structure invariably consisted of an apex nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen called "alipin" or "oripun."[48][49] Among the members of the nobility class were leaders who held the political office of "Datu," which was responsible for leading autonomous social groups called "barangay" or "dulohan".[48] Whenever these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement[48] or a geographically looser alliance group,[49] the more senior or respected among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu", variedly called a Lakan, Sultan, Rajah, or simply a more senior Datu.[51][48][56] Early historic coastal polities

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, c. 900. The oldest known historical record found in the Philippines, discovered at Lumban, Laguna.

The earliest historical record of these kingdoms is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, which indirectly refers to the Tagalog polity of Tondo (c. before 900–1589) and two to three other settlements believed to be located somewhere near Tondo, as well as a settlement near Mt. Diwata
Diwata
in Mindanao, and the temple complex of Medang in Java.[47] Although the precise political relationships between these polities is unclear in the text of the inscription, the artifact is usually accepted as evidence of intra- and inter-regional political linkages as early as 900 CE.[47][51][49] By the arrival of the earliest European ethnographers during the 1500s, Tondo was led by the paramount ruler called a "Lakan".[51][49] It had grown into a major trading hub, sharing a monopoly with the Rajahnate of Maynila
Rajahnate of Maynila
over the trade of Ming
Ming
dynasty[57] products throughout the archipelago.[51] This trade was significant enough that the Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
appointed a Chinese governor named Ko Ch'a-lao to oversee it.[58][59] The next historical record referred a location in the Philippines
Philippines
is Volume 186 of official history of the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
which describes the "country" of Ma-i
Ma-i
(c. before 971 – after 1339). Song dynasty traders visited Ma-i
Ma-i
annually, and their accounts described Ma-i's geography, trade products, and the trade behaviors of its rulers.[60] Because the descriptions of Mai's location in these accounts are not clear, there is some dispute about Mai's possible location, with some scholars believing it was located in Bay, Laguna,[61] and others believing it was on the island of Mindoro.[37]

The Butuan Ivory Seal
Butuan Ivory Seal
(c. 1002) was recovered in the 1970s in Butuan.

The official history of the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
next refers to the Rajahnate of Butuan
Butuan
(c. before 1001–1756) in northeastern Mindanao
Mindanao
which is the first polity from the Philippine archipelago recorded as having sent a tribute mission to the Chinese empire – on March 17, 1001 CE. Butuan
Butuan
attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri
Sri
Bata Shaja,[53] who was from a Buddhist ruling-class governing a Hindu nation. This state became powerful due to the local goldsmith industry and it also had commercial ties and a diplomatic rivalry with the Champa civilization. The Kedatuan of Madja-as
Madja-as
(c. 1200–1569) was founded following a civil war in collapsing Srivijaya, wherein loyalists of the Malay datus of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
defied the invading Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
and its puppet-Rajah, called Makatunao, and set up a guerrilla-state in the islands of the Visayas. Its founding datu, Puti, had purchased land for his new realms from the aboriginal Ati hero, Marikudo.[62][63][verification needed] Madja-as
Madja-as
was founded on Panay island (named after the destroyed state of Pannai
Pannai
allied under Srivijaya
Srivijaya
which was located in Sumatra). Afterwards, the people of Madja-as
Madja-as
often raided the port cities of southern China
China
and warred with the Chinese navy.[64] The Rajahnate of Cebu[65] (c. 1200–1565) was a neighbor of Madja-as
Madja-as
in the Visayas
Visayas
led by Rajamuda Sri
Sri
Lumay, a monarch with partial Tamil descent. This state grew wealthy by making use of the inter-island shipping within the archipelago.[66] Both the Rajahnates of Butuan
Butuan
and Cebu
Cebu
were allied to each other and they also maintained contact and had trade routes with Kutai, a Hindu country[67] in south Borneo
Borneo
established by Indian traders.[68] The earliest legendary date mentioning the Rajahnate of Maynila (c. 1258–1571) on the island of Luzon
Luzon
across the Pasig River
Pasig River
from Tondo has to do with the naval victory of the Bruneian Rajah Ahmad over the Majapahit
Majapahit
Rajah Avirjirkaya, who ruled a prior pre-Muslim settlement in the same location.[51] Chinese records of this period also mention a polity called "Luzon." This is believed to be a reference to Maynila
Maynila
since Portuguese and Spanish accounts from the 1520s explicitly state that "Luçon" and "Maynila" were "one and the same",[51] although some historians argue that since none of these observers actually visited Maynila, "Luçon" may simply have referred to all the Tagalog and Kapampangan polities that rose up on the shores of Manila
Manila
Bay.[69] Either way, from the early 1500s to as late as the 1560s, this seafaring people was referred to in Portuguese Malacca
Malacca
as Luções, and they participated in trading ventures and military campaigns in Burma, Malacca
Malacca
and Eastern Timor[70][71][72] where they were employed as traders and mercenaries.[73][74][75] In northern Luzon, Caboloan
Caboloan
(Pangasinan) (c. 1406–1576) sent emissaries to China
China
in 1406–1411,[76] and it also traded with Japan.[77]

Map showing the extent of the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
in 1822.

The 1300s saw the arrival and eventual spread of Islam
Islam
in the Philippine archipelago. In 1380, Karim ul' Makdum and Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab
Arab
trader born in Johore, arrived in Sulu
Sulu
from Malacca
Malacca
and established the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
by converting Sulu's rajah, Rajah Baguinda Ali and marrying his daughter.[78][79] At the end of the 15th century, Shariff Mohammed Kabungsuwan
Mohammed Kabungsuwan
of Johor introduced Islam
Islam
in the island of Mindanao
Mindanao
and established the Sultanate of Maguindanao. The sultanate form of government extended further into Lanao.[80] Islam
Islam
then started to spread out of Mindanao
Mindanao
in the south and went into Luzon
Luzon
in the north. Manila
Manila
in Luzon
Luzon
was Islamized during the reign of Sultan
Sultan
Bolkiah
Bolkiah
in 1485 to 1521. This was accomplished because the Sultanate of Brunei
Sultanate of Brunei
subjugated Tondo by defeating Rajah Gambang in battle and thereafter installing the Muslim
Muslim
rajah, Rajah Salalila to the throne and by establishing the Bruneian puppet-state of the Rajahnate of Maynila.[81][82][83][84] Sultan
Sultan
Bolkiah
Bolkiah
also married Laila Mecana, the daughter of Sulu
Sulu
Sultan
Sultan
Amir Ul-Ombra to expand Brunei's influence in both Luzon
Luzon
and Mindanao.[85] The Muslims then proceeded to wage wars and conduct slave-raids against the Visayans.[86] Participating in the Muslim
Muslim
raids, the Sultanate of Ternate consequently destroyed the Kedatuan of Dapitan
Kedatuan of Dapitan
in Bohol.[87] The Hindu Rajahnates of Butuan
Butuan
and Cebu
Cebu
also endured slave raids from, and waged wars against the Sultanate of Maguindanao.[88] Simultaneous with these slave-raids, was the rebellion of Datu
Datu
Lapu-Lapu
Lapu-Lapu
of Mactan against Rajah Humabon
Rajah Humabon
of Cebu.[89] There was also a simmering territorial conflict between the Polity of Tondo and the Bruneian vassal-state, the Islamic Rajahnate of Maynila, to which the ruler of Maynila, Rajah Matanda, sought military assistance against Tondo from his relatives at the Sultanate of Brunei.[90] The rivalries between the Datus, Rajahs, Sultans, and Lakans eventually eased Spanish colonization. Furthermore, the islands were sparsely populated[91] due to consistent natural disasters[92] and inter-kingdom conflicts. Therefore, colonization was made easy and the small states of the archipelago quickly became incorporated into the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
and were Hispanicized and Christianized.[93] Colonial era Journalist Alan Robles has opined, "Colonialism created the Philippines, shaped its political culture and continues to influence its mindset. The 333 years under Spain
Spain
and nearly five decades under the USA decisively moulded the nation".[94] Anthropologist Prospero Covar has observed, "Our thinking, culture, and psychology became virtually westernized, when we were, in fact, Asians."[95] Spanish rule Further information: History of the Philippines
History of the Philippines
(1521–1898)

A sketch of a Manila
Manila
galleon used during the Manila- Acapulco
Acapulco
Trade.

In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan's expedition arrived in the Philippines, claimed the islands for Spain
Spain
and was then killed at the Battle of Mactan.[96] Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
arrived from Mexico
Mexico
in 1565 and formed the first Hispanic
Hispanic
settlements in Cebu. After relocating to Panay
Panay
island and consolidating a coalition of native Visayan
Visayan
allies, Hispanic soldiers and Latin-American recruits, the Spaniards then invaded Islamic Manila, therein they put down the Tondo Conspiracy and exiled the conspirators to Guam
Guam
and Guerrero.[97] Under Spanish rule, they established Manila
Manila
as the capital of the Spanish East Indies (1571).[98] They also defeated the Chinese warlord Limahong.[99][100] To counteract the Islamization of the Philippines, the Spanish then conducted the Castilian War
Castilian War
which was aimed against the Sultanate of Brunei[101][102] and war was also waged against the Sultanate of Ternate and Tidore
Tidore
(in response to Ternatean slaving and piracy against Spain's allies: Bohol
Bohol
and Butuan).[103] The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
an extension of the Reconquista, a centuries-long campaign to retake and rechristianize the Spanish homeland which was invaded by the Muslims of the Umayyad Caliphate. The Spanish expeditions into the Philippines
Philippines
were also part of a larger Ibero-Islamic world conflict[104] that included a rivalry with the Ottoman Caliphate which had a center of operations at its nearby vassal, the Sultanate of Aceh.[105] Consequently, fortifications were also set up in Taiwan
Taiwan
and the Maluku islands. These were abandoned and the Spanish soldiers, along with the newly Christianized Papuan natives of the Moluccas, withdrew back to the Philippines
Philippines
in order to re-concentrate their military forces because of a threatened invasion by the Japan-born Ming-dynasty loyalist, Koxinga, ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning.[106] However, the planned invasion was aborted. Meanwhile, settlers were sent to the Pacific islands of Palau
Palau
and the Marianas.[107] Spanish rule eventually contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the fragmented states of the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines
Philippines
was governed as a territory of the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain
Viceroyalty of New Spain
and then was administered directly from Madrid
Madrid
after the Mexican War of Independence. The Manila galleons, the largest wooden ships ever built, were constructed in Bicol and Cavite.[108] The Manila
Manila
galleons were accompanied with a large naval escort as it traveled to and from Manila
Manila
and Acapulco.[109] The galleons sailed once or twice a year, between the 16th and 19th centuries.[110] The Manila
Manila
Galleons brought with them goods,[111] settlers[112] and military reinforcements destined for the Philippines, from Latin America.[113]

The landing of the Spanish expedition to Sulu
Sulu
by Antonio Brugada.

Trade introduced foodstuffs such as maize, tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, chocolate and pineapples from Mexico
Mexico
and Peru. Within the Philippines, the Marquisate of Buglas was established and the rule of it was awarded to Sebastian Elcano
Sebastian Elcano
and his crew, the survivors of the first circumnavigation of the world, as well as his descendants. New towns were also created[100] and Catholic
Catholic
missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity.[114] They also founded schools, a university, hospitals and churches which were built along the Earthquake Baroque
Earthquake Baroque
architectural style.[115] To defend their settlements, the Spaniards constructed and manned a network of military fortresses (called "Presidios") across the archipelago.[116] The Spanish also decreed the introduction of free public schooling in 1863.[117] As a result of these policies the Philippine population increased exponentially.[118][119] During its rule, Spain
Spain
quelled various indigenous revolts. There were also several external military challenges from Chinese and Japanese pirates, the Dutch, the English, the Portuguese and the Muslims of Southeast Asia. Those challengers were fought off despite the hostile forces having encircled the Philippine archipelago in a crescent formed from Japan
Japan
to Indonesia. British forces occupied Manila
Manila
from 1762 to 1764 in an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years' War. Spanish rule was restored following the 1763 Treaty of Paris.[93][120][121] The Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of Mindanao
Mindanao
and the Moro Muslims in the Sulu Sultanate formally recognized Spanish sovereignty.

Photograph of armed Filipino revolutionaries known as Katipuneros.

In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines
Philippines
(criollos)[122] and those of mixed ancestry (mestizos) became wealthy and an influx of Latin American immigrants[123] opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
(peninsulares). The ideals of revolution also began to spread through the islands. Criollo dissatisfaction resulted in the 1872 Cavite
Cavite
Mutiny that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution.[93][124][125][126] Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three priests—Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (collectively known as Gomburza)—were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed.[124][125] This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal
Rizal
was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion.[127] As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio
Andrés Bonifacio
in 1892 established the secret society called the Katipunan, who sought independence from Spain
Spain
through armed revolt.[126] Bonifacio and the Katipunan
Katipunan
started the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo of Cavite
Cavite
province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio's position as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
took over. In 1898, the Spanish–American War began in Cuba
Cuba
and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain
Spain
in Kawit, Cavite
Cavite
on June 12, 1898, and the First Philippine Republic
Republic
was established in the Barasoain Church in the following year.[93] American rule Further information: History of the Philippines
History of the Philippines
(1898–1946)

A depiction of the Battle of Paceo during the Philippine–American War.

The islands were ceded by Spain
Spain
to the United States
United States
as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War.[128] A compensation of US$20 million was paid to Spain
Spain
according to the terms of the 1898 Treaty of Paris.[129] As it became increasingly clear the United States
United States
would not recognize the nascent First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
broke out, the First Republic
Republic
was defeated, and the archipelago was administered under an Insular Government.[130] The war resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of combatants as well as a couple of hundred thousand civilians, mostly from a cholera epidemic.[130][131][132][133] The Americans then suppressed other rebellious sub-states: mainly, the waning Sultanate of Sulu, as well as the insurgent Tagalog Republic, the Cantonal Republic
Republic
of Negros in the Visayas, and the Republic
Republic
of Zamboanga in Mindanao.[134][135] During this era, a renaissance in Philippine culture occurred, with the expansion of Philippine cinema and literature.[136][137][138] Daniel Burnham
Daniel Burnham
built an architectural plan for Manila
Manila
which would have transformed it into a modern city.[139] In 1935, the Philippines
Philippines
was granted Commonwealth status with Manuel Quezon
Manuel Quezon
as president. He designated a national language and introduced women's suffrage and land reform.[140][141] Japanese rule Further information: Japanese occupation of the Philippines

General Douglas MacArthur
General Douglas MacArthur
landing ashore during the Battle of Leyte
Leyte
on October 20, 1944.

Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and the Second Philippine Republic
Republic
of José P. Laurel
José P. Laurel
was established as a collaborator state. Many atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war such as the Bataan Death March
Bataan Death March
and the Manila
Manila
massacre that culminated with the Battle of Manila.[142] In 1944, Quezon
Quezon
died in exile in the United States and Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
succeeded him. The Allied Forces then employed a strategy of island hopping towards the Philippine archipelago, in the process, retaking territory conquered by Imperial Japan. From mid-1942 through mid-1944, the Filipino guerrilla resistance[143][144] had been supplied and encouraged by U.S. Navy submarines and a few parachute drops, so that the guerrillas could harass the Japanese Army and take control of the rural areas, jungles and mountains – thus, the Japanese Empire only controlled 12 out of 48 provinces.[145] While remaining loyal to the United States, many Filipinos
Filipinos
hoped and believed that liberation from the Japanese would bring them freedom and their already-promised independence. Eventually, the largest naval battle in history, according to gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte
Leyte
Gulf, occurred when Allied forces started the liberation of the Philippines
Philippines
from the Japanese Empire.[146][147] Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos
Filipinos
had died.[148][149][150] Postcolonial period Further information: History of the Philippines
History of the Philippines
(1946–65) and History of the Philippines
History of the Philippines
(1965–86)

Proclamation of Philippine independence from the United States
United States
(1946).

On October 11, 1945, the Philippines
Philippines
became one of the founding members of the United Nations.[151] The following year, on July 4, 1946, the Philippines
Philippines
was officially recognized by the United States as an independent nation through the Treaty of Manila, during the presidency of Manuel Roxas.[6] Disgruntled remnants of the communist Hukbalahap[152] continued to roam the countryside but were put down by President Elpidio Quirino's successor Ramon Magsaysay.[153][154] Magsaysay's successor, Carlos P. Garcia, initiated the Filipino First Policy,[155] which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's declaration,[156][157] while furthering the claim on the eastern part of North Borneo.[158][159] In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects but was accused of massive corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds.[160] Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972.[161] This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations but the US were steadfast in their support.[162] On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival, opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr., was assassinated on the tarmac at Manila
Manila
International Airport. Marcos eventually called snap presidential elections in 1986.[163] Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent, leading to the People Power Revolution. Marcos and his allies fled to Hawaii
Hawaii
and Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino was recognized as president.[163][164] Contemporary history Further information: History of the Philippines
History of the Philippines
(1986–present)

The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo
Mount Pinatubo
is the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.

The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, disasters, a persistent communist insurgency,[165] and a military conflict with Moro separatists.[166] During Corazon Aquino's administration, U.S. forces withdrew from the Philippines, due to the rejection of the U.S. Bases Extension Treaty,[167][168] and leading to the official transfer of Clark Air Base
Clark Air Base
in November 1991 and Subic Bay to the government in December 1992.[169][170] The administration also faced a series of natural disasters, including the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991.[171][172] After introducing a constitution that limited presidents to a single term, Aquino did not stand for re-election. Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos, who won the Philippine presidential election held in May 1992. During this period the country's economic performance remained modest, with a 3.6%[173] percent GDP growth rate.[174] However, the political stability and economic improvements, such as the peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front in 1996,[175] were overshadowed by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[176][177] On his Presidency the death penalty was revived in the light of the Rape-slay case of Eileen Sarmienta and Allan Gomez in 1993 and the first person to be executed was Leo Echegaray in 1999.[178] Ramos' successor, Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
assumed office in June 1998 and managed to regain the economy from −0.6% growth to 3.4% by 1999 amidst the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[179][180][181] The government had announced a war against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Moro Islamic Liberation Front
in March 2000 and neutralized the camps including the headquarters of the insurgents.[182][183] In the middle of ongoing conflict with the Abu Sayyaf,[184] accusations of alleged corruption, and a stalled impeachment process, Estrada's administration was overthrown by the 2001 EDSA Revolution
2001 EDSA Revolution
and succeeded by his Vice President, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 20, 2001.[185] In Arroyo's 9-year administration, the economy experienced a phenomenal growth of 4-7% averaging at 5.33% from 2002 to 2007 with the completion of infrastructure projects like LRT Line 2 in 2004[186] and managed to avoid the Great Recession.[187] By comparison, the Philippines
Philippines
has been growing an average of 3.6% from 1965 to 2001 or 3.5% (1986-2001) if we include only those years when democracy was already achievement in the Philippines
Philippines
on 1986. The improvement of the Philippine annual growth rate from her predecessors (since Marcos Regime to Estrada Administration) was around 1.7–1.87%. And this jumpstart from a sluggish economy for almost 5 decades that left it behind by its neighbors in the 1960s would prove to be the Philippines rise from being the sick man of Asia
Asia
to become one of the "Tiger Cub Economy" for the next decade after her administration.[173] Nevertheless, it was tied with graft and political scandals like the Hello Garci scandal
Hello Garci scandal
pertaining to the alleged manipulation of votes in the 2004 presidential elections.[188][189][190][191] On November 23, 2009, the Maguindanao massacre
Maguindanao massacre
led to the murder of 34 journalists.[192][193] Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
won the 2010 national elections and served as the 15th President of the Philippines. The first major issue he dealt with was the 2010 Manila
Manila
hostage crisis that caused deeply strained relations between Manila
Manila
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
for a time. The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro was signed on October 15, 2012, as the first step of the creation of an autonomous political entity named Bangsamoro.[194] However, territorial disputes in eastern Sabah
Sabah
and the South China Sea
South China Sea
have escalated.[195][196][197] On May 15, 2013, the Philippines
Philippines
implemented the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, commonly known as K–12 program. It added two more years to the country's ten-year schooling system for primary and secondary education.[198] On November 8, 2013, Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) struck and heavily devastated the country, especially in the Visayas.[199][200] When the United States
United States
President Barack Obama visited the Philippines
Philippines
on April 28, 2014, the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, was signed, paving the way for the return of United States
United States
Armed Forces bases into the country.[201][202][203][204] On January 25, 2015, 44 members of the Philippine National Police- Special Action Force
Special Action Force
were killed after a clash took place in Mamasapano, Maguindanao
Mamasapano, Maguindanao
putting efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law into law in an impasse.[205][206]

Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte
takes his oath as he is sworn in as the 16th President of the Philippines

Former Davao City
Davao City
mayor Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte
of PDP–Laban
PDP–Laban
won the 2016 presidential election becoming the first president from Mindanao.[207] On July 12, 2016, the Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration
ruled in favor of the Philippines
Philippines
in its case against China's claims in the South China Sea.[208] After winning the Presidency, Duterte launched an intensified anti-drug campaign to fulfill a campaign promise of wiping out criminality in six months.[209] By March 2017, the death toll for the Philippine Drug War
Philippine Drug War
passed 8,000 people, with 2,679 killed in legitimate police operations and the rest the government claims to be homicide cases.[210][211][212] Duterte initiated the "Build, Build, Build" program, which aims to usher the Philippines
Philippines
into a new "golden age" of infrastructure. It will create more jobs and business opportunities, which, in turn, would sustain the country’s economic growth and accelerate poverty reduction.[213] The construction industry needs two million more workers to sustain the program.[214][215] The Build, Build, Build program is made up of 75 projects, which includes six air transport projects, 12 rail transport projects, and four water transport projects. It also includes four major flood management projects, 11 water supply and irrigation projects, four power projects, and three other public infrastructure projects.[216] The Philippines
The Philippines
is expected to spend $160 billion to $180 billion up to 2022 for the public investments in infrastructure.[217] Politics Main articles: Politics of the Philippines, President of the Philippines, and Constitution
Constitution
of the Philippines

Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
is the official residence of the President of the Philippines.

The Philippines
The Philippines
has a democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system.[218] It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao
Mindanao
(ARMM), which is largely free from the national government. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.[219][220] The President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet.[221] The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house, with members elected to a three-year term.[221] Senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation.[221] The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.[221] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of the Philippines

President Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte
and U.S. President Donald Trump
Donald Trump
discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in Pasay, 2017.

The main office of the Department of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines
Philippines
in Pasay.

The Philippines' international relations are based on trade with other nations and the well-being of the 10 million overseas Filipinos living outside the country.[222] As a founding and active member of the United Nations, the Philippines
Philippines
has been elected several times into the Security Council. Carlos P. Romulo
Carlos P. Romulo
was a former President of the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly. The country is an active participant in the Human Rights Council
Human Rights Council
as well as in peacekeeping missions, particularly in East Timor.[223][224][225] In addition to membership in the United Nations, the Philippines
Philippines
is also a founding and active member of ASEAN
ASEAN
(Association of Southeast Asian Nations), an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among states in the Southeast Asian region.[226] It has hosted several summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.[227] The Philippines
The Philippines
values its relations with the United States.[222] It supported the United States
United States
during the Cold War
Cold War
and the War on Terror and is a major non- NATO
NATO
ally. Despite this history of goodwill, controversies related to the presence of the now former U.S. military bases in Subic Bay
Subic Bay
and Clark and the current Visiting Forces Agreement have flared up from time to time.[222] Japan, the biggest contributor of official development assistance to the country,[228] is thought of as a friend. Although historical tensions still exist on issues such as the plight of comfort women, much of the animosity inspired by memories of World War II
World War II
has faded.[229] Relations with other nations are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western and European countries while similar economic concerns help in relations with other developing countries. Historical ties and cultural similarities also serve as a bridge in relations with Spain.[230][231][232] Despite issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting overseas Filipino workers,[233][234] relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly as seen in the continuous employment of more than two million overseas Filipinos living there.[235] With communism no longer the threat it once was, once hostile relations in the 1950s between the Philippines
Philippines
and China
China
have improved greatly. Issues involving Taiwan, the Spratly Islands, and concerns of expanding Chinese influence, however, still encourage a degree of caution.[229] Recent foreign policy has been mostly about economic relations with its Southeast Asian and Asia-Pacific neighbors.[222] The Philippines
The Philippines
is an active member of the East Asia
Asia
Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC), the Latin Union, the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement.[221] It is also seeking to strengthen relations with Islamic countries by campaigning for observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.[236][237] Military Main article: Armed Forces of the Philippines

Clockwise from top: Philippine Marine Corps, BRP Gregorio del Pilar (FF-15) of the Philippine Navy, Philippine Army
Philippine Army
AIFVs and FA-50 of the Philippine Air Force.

The Armed Forces of the Philippines
Armed Forces of the Philippines
(AFP) are responsible for national security and consist of three branches: the Philippine Air Force, the Philippine Army, and the Philippine Navy
Philippine Navy
(includes the Marine Corps).[238][239][240] The Armed Forces of the Philippines
Armed Forces of the Philippines
are a volunteer force.[241] Civilian security is handled by the Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG).[242][243] In the Autonomous Region in Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao, the largest separatist organization, the Moro National Liberation Front, is now engaging the government politically. Other more militant groups like the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the communist New People's Army, and the Abu Sayyaf have previously kidnapped foreigners for ransom, particularly on the southern island of Mindanao.[245][246][247][248] Their presence decreased due to successful security provided by the Philippine government.[249][250] At 1.1 percent of GDP, the Philippines
Philippines
spent less on its military forces than the regional average. As of 2014[update] Malaysia
Malaysia
and Thailand
Thailand
were estimated to spend 1.5%, China 2.1%, Vietnam
Vietnam
2.2% and South Korea
South Korea
2.6%.[251][252] The Philippines
The Philippines
has been an ally of the United States
United States
since World War II. A mutual defense treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951. The Philippines
The Philippines
supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean and Vietnam
Vietnam
wars. It was a member of the now dissolved SEATO, a group that was intended to serve a role similar to NATO
NATO
and that included Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[253] After the start of the War on Terror, the Philippines
Philippines
was part of the coalition that gave support to the United States
United States
in Iraq.[254] Administrative divisions Main article: Administrative divisions of the Philippines The Philippines
The Philippines
is divided into three island groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. These are further divided into 17 regions, 81 provinces, 145 cities, 1,489 municipalities, and 42,036 barangays.[255] In addition, Section 2 of Republic
Republic
Act No. 5446 asserts that the definition of the territorial sea around the Philippine archipelago does not affect the claim over the eastern part of Sabah.[256][257]

v t e

Administrative Divisions of the Philippines

Administrative Regions

Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
(Region I) Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley (Region II) Central Luzon
Luzon
(Region III) Calabarzon
Calabarzon
(Region IV-A) Southwestern Tagalog Region ( Mimaropa
Mimaropa
Region) Bicol Region
Bicol Region
(Region V) Western Visayas
Visayas
(Region VI) Central Visayas
Visayas
(Region VII) Eastern Visayas
Visayas
(Region VIII) Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
(Region IX) Northern Mindanao
Mindanao
(Region X) Davao Region
Davao Region
(Region XI) Soccsksargen
Soccsksargen
(Region XII) Caraga
Caraga
(Region XIII) Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
(CAR) National Capital Region (NCR)

Autonomous Region

Autonomous Region in Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao
Mindanao
(ARMM)

Provinces

Abra Agusan del Norte Agusan del Sur Aklan Albay Antique Apayao Aurora Basilan Bataan Batanes Batangas Benguet Biliran Bohol Bukidnon Bulacan Cagayan Camarines Norte Camarines Sur Camiguin Capiz Catanduanes Cavite Cebu Compostela Valley Cotabato Davao del Norte Davao del Sur Davao Occidental Davao Oriental Dinagat Islands Eastern Samar Guimaras Ifugao Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur Iloilo Isabela Kalinga La Union Laguna Lanao del Norte Lanao del Sur Leyte Maguindanao Marinduque Masbate Misamis Occidental Misamis Oriental Mountain Province Negros Occidental Negros Oriental Northern Samar Nueva Ecija Nueva Vizcaya Occidental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro Palawan Pampanga Pangasinan Quezon Quirino Rizal Romblon Samar Sarangani Siquijor Sorsogon South Cotabato Southern Leyte Sultan
Sultan
Kudarat Sulu Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur Tarlac Tawi-Tawi Zambales Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga Sibugay

Cities and Municipalities

See: List of cities in the Philippines
List of cities in the Philippines
and List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines

Barangays

See: Lists of barangays in Philippine provinces

Administrative regions Main article: Regions of the Philippines Regions in the Philippines
Philippines
are administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience. The Philippines
The Philippines
is divided into 17 regions (16 administrative and 1 autonomous). Most government offices are established by region instead of individual provincial offices, usually (but not always) in the city designated as the regional center. As of 2015[update], CALABARZON
CALABARZON
was the most populated region while the National Capitol Region (NCR) the most densely populated.

10 Most Populous Regions of the Philippines
Regions of the Philippines
(2015)[258]

Rank Designation Name Area Population (as of 2015[update]) % of Population Population density

1st Region IV CALABARZON 16,873.31 km2 (6,514.82 sq mi) 14,414,774 7001142700000000000♠14.27% 850/km2 (2,200/sq mi)

2nd NCR National Capital Region 619.57 km2 (239.22 sq mi) 12,877,253 7001127500000000000♠12.75% 21,000/km2 (54,000/sq mi)

3rd Region III Central Luzon 22,014.63 km2 (8,499.90 sq mi) 11,218,177 7001111100000000000♠11.11% 510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)

4th Region VII Central Visayas 10,102.16 km2 (3,900.47 sq mi) 6,041,903 7000598000000000000♠5.98% 600/km2 (1,600/sq mi)

5th Region V Bicol Region 18,155.82 km2 (7,010.00 sq mi) 5,796,989 7000574000000000000♠5.74% 320/km2 (830/sq mi)

6th Region I Ilocos Region 16,873.31 km2 (6,514.82 sq mi) 5,026,128 7000498000000000000♠4.98% 300/km2 (780/sq mi)

7th Region XI Davao Region 20,357.42 km2 (7,860.04 sq mi) 4,893,318 7000485000000099999♠4.85% 240/km2 (620/sq mi)

8th Region X Northern Mindanao 20,496.02 km2 (7,913.56 sq mi) 4,689,302 7000464000000099999♠4.64% 230/km2 (600/sq mi)

9th Region XII SOCCSKSARGEN 22,513.30 km2 (8,692.43 sq mi) 4,545,276 7000450000000000000♠4.50% 200/km2 (520/sq mi)

10th Region VI Western Visayas 12,828.97 km2 (4,953.29 sq mi) 4,477,247 7000443000000000000♠4.43% 350/km2 (910/sq mi)

Geography Main article: Geography of the Philippines

Topography of the Philippines

The Philippines
The Philippines
is an archipelago composed of about 7,641 islands[259] with a total land area, including inland bodies of water, of 343,448 square kilometers (132,606 sq mi)[5]. The 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi) of coastline makes it the country with the 5th longest coastline in the world.[221][260] It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea[261] to the east, the South China
China
Sea[262] to the west, and the Celebes Sea[263] to the south. The island of Borneo[264] is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan
Taiwan
is located directly to the north. The Moluccas
Moluccas
and Sulawesi
Sulawesi
are located to the south-southwest and Palau
Palau
is located to the east of the islands.[221] Most of the mountainous islands are covered in tropical rainforest and volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is Mount Apo. It measures up to 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao.[265][266] The Galathea Depth in the Philippine Trench is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world. The trench is located in the Philippine Sea.[267] The longest river is the Cagayan
Cagayan
River in northern Luzon.[268] Manila Bay, upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila
Manila
lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig
Pasig
River. Subic Bay, the Davao Gulf, and the Moro Gulf
Moro Gulf
are other important bays. The San Juanico Strait
San Juanico Strait
separates the islands of Samar
Samar
and Leyte
Leyte
but it is traversed by the San Juanico Bridge.[269] Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines
Philippines
experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The Benham Plateau
Benham Plateau
to the east in the Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction.[270] Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon
Luzon
earthquake.[271]

Mayon
Mayon
is the Philippines' most active volcano.

There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon
Mayon
Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo
Mount Pinatubo
in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century.[272] Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, the area represents a habitat for biodiversity conservation, the site also contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in Asia.[273] Due to the volcanic nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa
South Africa
and one of the largest copper deposits in the world.[274] It is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Despite this, poor management, high population density, and environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped.[274] Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy
is a product of volcanic activity that the Philippines
Philippines
has harnessed more successfully. The Philippines
Philippines
is the world's second-biggest geothermal producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power.[275] Biodiversity Main article: Wildlife of the Philippines See also: List of threatened species of the Philippines

Philippine tarsier
Philippine tarsier
(Tarsius syrichta), one of the smallest primates.

The Philippines' rainforests and its extensive coastlines make it home to a diverse range of birds, plants, animals, and sea creatures.[276] It is one of the ten most biologically megadiverse countries.[277][278][279] Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines
Philippines
including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere.[280] The Philippines
The Philippines
has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines
Philippines
has risen and likely will continue to rise.[281] Native mammals include the palm civet cat, the dugong, the cloud rat and the Philippine tarsier
Philippine tarsier
associated with Bohol. Although the Philippines
Philippines
lacks large mammalian predators, it does have some very large reptiles such as pythons and cobras, together with gigantic saltwater crocodiles. The largest crocodile in captivity, known locally as Lolong, was captured in the southern island of Mindanao.[282][283] The national bird, known as the Philippine eagle has the longest body of any eagle, it generally measures 86 to 102 cm (2.82 to 3.35 ft) in length and weighs 4.7 to 8.0 kg (10.4 to 17.6 lb).[284][285] The Philippine eagle
Philippine eagle
is part of the Accipitridae
Accipitridae
family and is endemic to the rainforests of Luzon, Samar, Leyte
Leyte
and Mindanao.

Rafflesia speciosa
Rafflesia speciosa
is endemic to the island of Panay.

Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as 2,200,000 square kilometers (849,425 sq mi) producing unique and diverse marine life, an important part of the Coral Triangle.[256] The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively.[276][280] New records[286][287] and species discoveries[288][289][290] continuously increase these numbers underlining the uniqueness of the marine resources in the Philippines. The Tubbataha Reef
Tubbataha Reef
in the Sulu
Sulu
Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of pearls, crabs, and seaweeds.[276][291] With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands,[280] Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora, including many rare types of orchids and rafflesia.[292][293] Deforestation, often the result of illegal logging, is an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the Philippines's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999.[294] Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia, which the Philippines
Philippines
is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 21st century.[295] According to Conservation International, "the country is one of the few nations that is, in its entirety, both a hotspot and a megadiversity country, placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation."[292] Climate

Typhoon Haiyan, locally known as Super Typhoon Yolanda, is one of the strongest typhoons that hit the Philippines.

Main article: Climate
Climate
of the Philippines The Philippines
The Philippines
has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: tag-init or tag-araw, the hot dry season or summer from March to May; tag-ulan, the rainy season from June to November; and tag-lamig, the cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan.[296] Temperatures usually range from 21 °C (70 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F) although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.[221][297] The average yearly temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F).[296] In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. Whether in the extreme north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio
Baguio
at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), making it a popular destination during hot summers.[296] Sitting astride the typhoon belt, most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and thunderstorms from July to October,[298] with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall.[299][300][301] Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys.[298] The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 1911 cyclone, which dropped over 1,168 millimeters (46.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio.[302] Bagyo is the local term for a tropical cyclone in the Philippines.[302] Economy Main article: Economy of the Philippines

A proportional representation of the Philippines' exports, 2012.

The Philippine economy is the 34th largest in the world, with an estimated 2017 gross domestic product (nominal) of $348.593 billion.[8] Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, and fruits.[6] Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand.[6] Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso
Philippine peso
(₱ or PHP).[303]

Filipinos
Filipinos
planting rice. Agriculture employs 30% of the Filipino workforce as of 2014[update].[304]

A newly industrialized country, the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing. Of the country's total labor force of around 40.813 Million,[6] the agricultural sector employs 30% of the labor force, and accounts for 14% of GDP. The industrial sector employs around 14% of the workforce and accounts for 30% of GDP. Meanwhile, the 47% of workers involved in the services sector are responsible for 56% of GDP.[305][306] List of Philippine Regions by 2016 GDP at current (2016) prices [307] In millions GDP (Conversion: 1 USD = 47 Php, May 2016)

Region 2016 GRDP in Philippine Pesos 2016 Nominal GRDP (USD conversion) 2016 GRDP Growth Rate (%)

Ilocos Region 450,667.26 9,588.67 10.2

Cordillera (CAR) 242,619.91 5,162.13 3.4

Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley 250,983.60 5,340.08 6.0

Central Luzon 1,304,479.31 27,754.88 9.9

NCR 5,521,581.00 117,480.45 9.5

CALABARZON 2,143,549.99 45,607.45 4.1

MIMAROPA 210,822.33 4,485.58 2.9

Bicol Region 307,279.49 6,537.86 8.7

Western Visayas 597,274.98 12,707.98 8.6

Central Visayas 966,897.27 20,572.28 11.5

Eastern Visayas 312,493.45 6,648.80 14.9

Zamboanga Peninsula 295,451.11 6,286.19 6.6

Northern Mindanao 577,664.60 12,290.74 11.6

Davao Region 640,602.04 13,629.83 13.3

SOCCSKSARGEN 386,793.12 8,229.64 8.7

CARAGA
CARAGA
Region 167,629.07 3,566.58 5.4

ARMM 103,931.51 2,211.31 4.4

The unemployment rate as of 14 December 2014[update], stands at 6.0%.[308][309] Meanwhile, due to lower charges in basic necessities, the inflation rate eases to 3.7% in November.[310] Gross international reserves as of October 2013 are $83.201 billion.[311] The Debt-to-GDP ratio continues to decline to 38.1% as of March 2014[312][313] from a record high of 78% in 2004.[314] The country is a net importer[306] but it is also a creditor nation.[315] After World War II, the Philippines
Philippines
was for a time regarded as the second wealthiest in East Asia, next only to Japan.[222][316][317] In the 1960s its economic performance started being overtaken. The economy stagnated under the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos as the regime spawned economic mismanagement and political volatility.[222][317] The country suffered from slow economic growth and bouts of economic recession. Only in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization did the economy begin to recover.[222][317] The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis
1997 Asian Financial Crisis
affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. The extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth.[175] There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades.[318][319] Average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole. The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines
Philippines
remains less than $2.[320][321][322] The economy is heavily reliant upon remittances from overseas Filipinos, which surpass foreign direct investment as a source of foreign currency. Remittances peaked in 2010 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% in 2012 and in 2014, Philippines
Philippines
total worth of foreign exchange remittances was US$28 billion.[323][324] Regional development is uneven, with Luzon
Luzon
– Metro Manila
Manila
in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions,[325][326] although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the country. Despite constraints, service industries such as tourism and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country.[306][327] Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
includes the country in its list of the "Next Eleven" economies[328][329] but China
China
and India
India
have emerged as major economic competitors.[330] Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
estimates that by the year 2050, it will be the 20th largest economy in the world.[331] HSBC
HSBC
also projects the Philippine economy to become the 16th largest economy in the world, 5th largest economy in Asia
Asia
and the largest economy in the South East Asian region by 2050.[332][333][334] The Philippines
The Philippines
is a member of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
which is headquartered in Mandaluyong, the Colombo Plan, the G-77 and the G-24 among other groups and institutions.[6] Transportation Main article: Transportation in the Philippines

A section of the Tarlac–Pangasinan– La Union
La Union
Expressway.

The transportation infrastructure in the Philippines
Philippines
is relatively underdeveloped. This is partly due to the mountainous terrain and the scattered geography of the islands, but also the result of consistently low investment in infrastructure by successive governments. In 2013, about 3% of national GDP went towards infrastructure development – much lower than many of its neighbors.[335][336] There are 216,387 kilometers (134,457 mi) of roads in the Philippines, with only 61,093 kilometers (37,961 mi) of roads paved.[337] Buses, jeepneys, taxis, and motorized tricycles are commonly available in major cities and towns. In 2007, there were about 5.53 million registered motor vehicles with registrations increasing at an average annual rate of 4.55%.[338] The Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines
Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines
manages airports and implementation of policies regarding safe air travel[339][340] with 85 public airports operational as of 2014[update].[341] Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) serves the Greater Manila
Manila
Area together with Clark International Airport. Philippine Airlines, Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name, and Cebu Pacific, the leading low-cost airline, are the major airlines serving most domestic and international destinations.[342][343][344] Expressways and highways are mostly located on the island of Luzon including the Pan-Philippine Highway, connecting the islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao,[345][346] the North Luzon
Luzon
Expressway, South Luzon
Luzon
Expressway, and the Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway.[347][348][349][350][351][352]

A LRT-2
LRT-2
train at Santolan LRT Station.

Rail transport in the Philippines
Rail transport in the Philippines
only plays a role in transporting passengers within Metro Manila
Manila
and the province of Laguna. The region is served by three rapid transit lines: LRT-1, and LRT-2
LRT-2
and MRT-3.[353][354][355] In the past, railways served major parts of Luzon, and railroad services were available on the islands of Cebu
Cebu
and Negros. Railways were also used for agricultural purposes, especially in tobacco and sugar cane production. Rail freight transportation was almost non-existent as of 2014[update]. A few transportation systems are under development: DOST-MIRDC and UP are implementing pre-feasibility studies on Automated Guideway Transit.[356][357][358] A so-called Hybrid Electric Road Train which is a long bi-articulated bus, was also being tested as of 2015[update].[359][360][361] As an archipelago, inter-island travel using watercraft is often necessary.[362] The busiest seaports are Manila, Batangas, Subic, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan
Cagayan
de Oro, and Zamboanga.[363] 2GO Travel and Sulpicio Lines
Sulpicio Lines
serve Manila, with links to various cities and towns through passenger vessels. The 919-kilometer (571 mi) Strong Republic
Republic
Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established in 2003.[364] The Pasig River
Pasig River
Ferry Service serves the major rivers in Metro Manila, including the Pasig River
Pasig River
and Marikina River
Marikina River
having numerous stops in Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig
Pasig
and Marikina.[365][366] Science and technology Main article: Science and technology in the Philippines

An IRRI researcher studying rice DNA
DNA
under ultraviolet light.

The Philippines
The Philippines
has pursued efforts to improve the field of science and technology. The Department of Science and Technology is the governing agency responsible for the development of coordination of science- and technology-related projects in the Philippines.[367] The National Scientist of the Philippines
National Scientist of the Philippines
award is given to individuals that have contributed to different field of science in the country. Notable Filipino scientists include Maria Orosa, a food technologist famous for her formulated food products like calamansi nip, soyalac and the banana ketchup,[368] Fe del Mundo, a pediatrician whose pioneering work in pediatrics as an active medical practice spanned 8 decades,[369] Paulo Campos, a physician who was dubbed as "The Father of Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines" for his contributions in the field of nuclear medicine,[370] Ramon Barba, an inventor and horticulturist known for his method to induce more flowers in mango trees.[371] Research organizations include the International Rice
Rice
Research Institute, an international independent research and training organization established in 1960 with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna,[372][373] focusing on the development of new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques to help farmers in the country improve their lives.[374] The Philippines
The Philippines
bought its first satellite in 1996.[375] In 2016, the Philippines
Philippines
first micro-satellite, Diwata-1 was launched aboard the US Cygnus spacecraft.[376] Communications Main articles: Telecommunications in the Philippines, Internet in the Philippines, and Social networking in the Philippines The Philippines
The Philippines
has a sophisticated cellular phone industry and a high concentration of users. Text messaging
Text messaging
is a popular form of communication and, in 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day. Over five million mobile phone users also use their phones as virtual wallets, making it a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks.[377][378][379] The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company commonly known as PLDT is the leading telecommunications provider. It is also the largest company in the country.[377][380] The National Telecommunications Commission is the agency responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country.[381] There are approximately 383 AM and 659 FM radio stations and 297 television and 873 cable television stations.[382] On March 29, 1994, the country went live on the Internet via a 64 kbit/s connection from a router serviced by PLDT to a Sprint router in California.[383] Estimates for Internet penetration in the Philippines
Philippines
vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people.[384][385] Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent Internet activities.[386] Tourism Main article: Tourism
Tourism
in the Philippines

Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.

The travel and tourism sector is a major contributor to the economy, contributing 7.1% to the Philippine GDP in 2013 [387] and providing 1,226,500 jobs or 3.2 percent of total employment.[388] 2,433,428 international visitors arrived from January to June 2014 up by 2.22% in the same period in 2013. South Korea, China, and Japan
Japan
accounted for 58.78% while the Americas
Americas
accounted for 19.28% and Europe 10.64%.[389] The Department of Tourism
Tourism
has responsibility for the management and promotion of the tourism sector. The country's rich biodiversity is one of the main tourist attractions with its beaches, mountains, rainforests, islands and diving spots among the most popular tourist destinations. As an archipelago consisting of about 7,500 islands, the Philippines
Philippines
has numerous beaches, caves and other rock formations. Boracay
Boracay
has glaring white sand beaches and was named as the best island in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012.[390] The Banaue Rice
Rice
Terraces in Ifugao, the historic town of Vigan
Vigan
in Ilocos Sur, the Chocolate
Chocolate
Hills in Bohol, Magellan's Cross in Cebu
Cebu
and the Tubbataha Reef
Tubbataha Reef
in Visayas
Visayas
are other highlights. The Philippines
The Philippines
is also one of the favorite retirement destinations for foreigners due to its warm climate all year round, beaches and low cost of living.[391] Water supply and sanitation Main article: Water supply and sanitation in the Philippines

Ambuklao Dam
Ambuklao Dam
in Bokod, Benguet.

Among the achievements of the government in the Philippines
Philippines
are a high access to an improved water source of 92% in 2010; the creation of financially sustainable water service providers ("Water Districts") in small and medium towns with the continuous long-term support of a national agency (the "Local Water Utilities Administration" LWUA); and the improvement of access, service quality and efficiency in Manila through two high-profle water concessions awarded in 1997.[392] The challenges include limited access to sanitation services, high pollution of water resources, often poor drinking water quality and poor service quality, a fragmentation of executive functions at the national level among numerous agencies, and a fragmentation of service provision at the local level into many small service providers.[392] In 2015 it was reported by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO
WHO
and UNICEF that 74% of the population had access to improved sanitation and that "good progress" had been made.[393] The access to improved sanitation was reported to be similar for the urban and rural population.[393] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of the Philippines, Filipinos, and Overseas Filipinos

Population density per province as of 2009[update] per square kilometer.

The population of the Philippines
Philippines
increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame.[394] The first official census in the Philippines
Philippines
was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.[395] It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. The 3.21% population growth rate between 1995 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005–2010 period, but remains a contentious issue.[396][397] The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old.[6] Life expectancy at birth is 71.94 years, 75.03 years for females and 68.99 years for males.[398] Poverty Incidence significantly dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012.[399] Since the liberalization of United States
United States
immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States
United States
having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. In 2007 there were an estimated[400][401] 12 million Filipinos
Filipinos
living overseas.[402] According to the official count the population of the Philippines
Philippines
hit 100 million at the time of midnight on July 27, 2014, making it the 12th country to reach this number.[403] The Philippine population will continue to increase throughout 2018 and is projected to reach around 107,190,081 by Dec. 31, 2018, based on projections made by the Commission on Population using the latest population census of 2015 (Philippine Statistics Authority). [404] Cities Main article: Cities of the Philippines Metro Manila
Manila
is the most populous of the 3 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines
Philippines
and the 11th most populous in the world. as of 2007[update], census data showed it had a population of 11,553,427, comprising 13% of the national population.[405] Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, and Rizal) of Greater Manila, the population is around 21 million.[405][406] Metro Manila's gross regional product was estimated as of 2009[update] to be ₱468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP.[407] In 2011 Manila
Manila
ranked as the 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in Southeast Asia.[408]

v t e

Largest cities in the Philippines PSA Census August 2015

Rank Name Region Pop. Rank Name Region Pop.

Quezon
Quezon
City

Manila 1 Quezon
Quezon
City National Capital Region 2,936,116 11 Parañaque National Capital Region 665,822

Davao City

Caloocan

2 Manila National Capital Region 1,780,148 12 Dasmariñas Calabarzon 659,019

3 Davao City Davao Region 1,632,991 13 Valenzuela National Capital Region 620,422

4 Caloocan National Capital Region 1,583,978 14 Bacoor Calabarzon 600,609

5 Cebu
Cebu
City Central Visayas 922,611 15 General Santos Soccsksargen 594,446

6 Zamboanga City Zamboanga Peninsula 861,799 16 Las Piñas National Capital Region 588,894

7 Taguig National Capital Region 804,915 17 Makati National Capital Region 582,602

8 Antipolo Calabarzon 776,386 18 San Jose del Monte Central Luzon 574,089

9 Pasig National Capital Region 755,300 19 Bacolod Western Visayas 561,875

10 Cagayan
Cagayan
de Oro Northern Mindanao 675,950 20 Muntinlupa National Capital Region 504,509

Ethnic groups Main article: Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
of the Philippines

Dominant ethnic groups by province.

According to the 2000 census, 28.1% of Filipinos
Filipinos
are Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Visayans/Bisaya (excluding Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray), 7.5% Hiligaynon, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, and 25.3% as "others",[6][409] which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro, the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the Ibanag, and the Ivatan.[410] There are also indigenous peoples like the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Bajau, and the tribes of Palawan.[411] Filipinos
Filipinos
generally belong to several Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people.[411] It is believed that thousands of years ago Austronesian-speaking Taiwanese aborigines
Taiwanese aborigines
migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan, bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing, eventually displacing the earlier Negrito
Negrito
groups of the islands.[412] Negritos, such as the Aeta and the Ati, are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.[413] Being at the crossroads of the West and East, the Philippines
Philippines
is also home to migrants from places as diverse as China, Spain, Mexico, United States, India, South Korea, and Japan. Two important non-indigenous minorities are the Chinese and the Spaniards. The Chinese, mostly descendants of immigrants from Fujian, China
China
after 1898, number 2 million, although there are an estimated 27 percent of Filipinos
Filipinos
who have partial Chinese ancestry,[414][415][416] stemming from precolonial and colonial Chinese migrants.[417] Intermarriage between the groups is evident in the major cities and urban areas.[418] At least one-third of the population of Luzon, as well as old settlements in the Visayas
Visayas
and Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
at Mindanao
Mindanao
(around 13.33% of the Philippine population), have partial Hispanic
Hispanic
ancestry (from varying points of origin and ranging from Latin America[419] to Spain).[420] Recent genetic studies confirm this partial European[421][422] and Latin-American ancestry.[423] Other important non-indigenous minorities include Indians, Britons, and Japanese people. The descendants of mixed-race couples are known as mestizos.[424][425] Languages Main article: Languages of the Philippines

Population by mother tongue (2010)

Language Speakers

Tagalog 24.44 % 24.44  

22,512,089

Cebuano 21.35 % 21.35  

19,665,453

Ilokano 8.77 % 8.77  

8,074,536

Hiligaynon 8.44 % 8.44  

7,773,655

Waray 3.97 % 3.97  

3,660,645

Other local languages/dialects 26.09 % 26.09  

24,027,005

Other foreign languages/dialects 0.09 % 0.09  

78,862

Not reported/not stated 0.01 % 0.01  

6,450

TOTAL 92,097,978

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[3]

Ethnologue
Ethnologue
lists 186 individual languages in the Philippines, 182 of which are living languages, while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Most native languages are part of the Philippine branch of the Malayo-Polynesian
Malayo-Polynesian
languages, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family.[411] The only language not classified as an Austronesian language is Chavacano
Chavacano
which is a creole language of Mexican-Spanish and is classified as a Romance language.[426] Filipino and English are the official languages of the country.[13] Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog, spoken mainly in Metro Manila
Manila
and other urban regions. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. In most towns, the local indigenous language is spoken. The Philippine constitution provides for the promotion of Spanish and Arabic
Arabic
on a voluntary and optional basis, although neither are used on as wide a scale as in the past.[13] Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use, but is experiencing a revival due to government promotion, while Arabic
Arabic
is mainly used in Islamic schools in Mindanao.[427] However, Spanish loanwords are still present today in many of the indigenous Philippine languages.[428] Nineteen regional languages act as auxiliary official languages used as mediums of instruction: Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray, and Yakan.[2] Other indigenous languages such as, Cuyonon, Ifugao, Itbayat, Kalinga, Kamayo, Kankanaey, Masbateño, Romblomanon, Malay, and several Visayan
Visayan
languages are prevalent in their respective provinces.[429] Languages not indigenous to the islands are also taught in select schools. Mandarin is used in Chinese schools catering to the Chinese Filipino community. Islamic schools in Mindanao
Mindanao
teach Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
in their curriculum.[430] French, German, Japanese, Korean, and Spanish are taught with the help of foreign linguistic institutions.[431] The Department of Education began teaching the Malay languages of Indonesian and Malaysian in 2013.[432] Religion Main article: Religion in the Philippines

Religion in the Philippines
Religion in the Philippines
(2010 census)

religion

percent

Catholic

80.58%

Protestant

10.80%

Muslim

5.57%

Other, irreligious or unanswered

3.05%

The Philippines
The Philippines
is an officially secular state, although Christianity is the dominant faith.[433] Census data from 2010 found that about 80.58% of the population professed Catholicism.[4] Around 37% regularly attend Mass and 29% identify as very religious.[434][435] Protestants are 10.8%[436][437] of the total population, mostly endorsing evangelical Protestant
Protestant
denominations that were introduced by American missionaries at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, they are heavily concentrated in Northern Luzon
Luzon
and Southern Mindanao.[438][439] The Philippine Independent Church
Philippine Independent Church
is a notable independent Catholic
Catholic
denomination.[440][441][442] Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo
is a notable Unitarian and Restorationist
Restorationist
denomination in the country and are mostly concentrated at Central Luzon.[443][444] Islam
Islam
is the second largest religion. The Muslim
Muslim
population of the Philippines
Philippines
was reported as 5.57% of the total population according to census returns in 2010,[4] although a 2012 report by the National Commission on Muslim
Muslim
Filipinos
Filipinos
estimates it at 11%.[445] The majority of Muslims live in the Bangsamoro region.[446][447][448][449] Most practice Sunni Islam
Islam
under the Shafi'i school.[450][451] An unknown number of Filipinos
Filipinos
are irreligious, but they may form as much as 20% of the population.[452][453][454] Catholicism's historic dominance is steadily declining, with about 9% of adherents considering leaving their church.[455] An estimated 2% of the total population practice Philippine traditional religions, whose practices and folk beliefs are often syncretized with Christianity
Christianity
and Islam.[444][456] Buddhism is practiced by around 2% of the population, and is concentrated among Filipinos
Filipinos
of Chinese descent.[444][450][456] The remaining population is divided between a number of religious groups, including Hindus, Jews, and Baha'is.[457] Health Main article: Health in the Philippines

The façade of the Bonifacio Global City
Bonifacio Global City
branch of St. Luke's Medical Center

There are an increasing number of private health providers and, as of 2009[update], 67.1% of healthcare came from private expenditures while 32.9% was from government. In 2013, total expenditures on the health sector was 3.8% of GDP, below the WHO
WHO
target of 5%.[458] Health expenditure represented about 6.1% of total government spending. Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was USD52.[459] The budget allocation for Healthcare in 2010 was ₱28 billion (about USD597 million) or ₱310 ($7) per person[460] but had an increase in budget in 2014 with a record high in the collection of taxes from the House Bill 5727 (commonly known as Sin tax
Sin tax
Bill).[461] There are an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses, 43,220 dentists, and 1 hospital bed per every 769 people.[459] Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. 70% of nursing graduates go overseas to work. The Philippines
The Philippines
is the biggest supplier of nurses for export.[462] In 2001 there were about 1,700 hospitals, of which about 40% were government-run and 60% private. Cardiovascular diseases
Cardiovascular diseases
account for more than 25% of all deaths. According to official estimates, 1,965 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported in 2003, of which 636 had developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Despite the increase of HIV/AIDS cases from 12,000 in 2005[463] to 17,450 as of April 2014 with 5,965 people who were under anti-retroviral therapy,[464] the country is still a low-HIV-prevalence country with less than 0.1% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive.[465] Education Main article: Education in the Philippines

The University of Santo Tomas, established in 1611, has the oldest extant university charter in Asia.

The Philippines
The Philippines
has a simple literacy rate of 95.6%, with 95.1% for males and 96.1% for females. The Philippines
The Philippines
had a functional literacy rate of 86.45%, with 84.2% for males and 88.7% for females in 2008.[466][467] Spending on education accounted for 16.11% in the national budget proposed for 2015.[468][469] The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, 607 of which are public and 1,573 private.[470] Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs.[221] A 6-year elementary and 4-year high school education is mandatory[471] with an additional two years being added in 2013.[472][473] Several government agencies are involved with education. The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers post-secondary, middle-level education training and development. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulates standards in higher education.[474] In 2004, madaris were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide, mainly in Muslim
Muslim
areas in Mindanao
Mindanao
under the auspices and program of the Department of Education.[475] Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State Universities and Colleges (SUC) or Local Colleges and Universities (LCU).[470] The University of the Philippines, a system of eight (8) constituent universities, is the national university system of the Philippines.[476] Culture Main articles: Festivals of the Philippines
Festivals of the Philippines
and Culture of the Philippines

A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.

Philippine culture is a combination of Eastern and Western cultures. The Philippines
The Philippines
exhibits aspects found in other Asian countries with a Malay[477] heritage, yet its culture also displays a significant number of Spanish and American influences. Traditional festivities known as barrio fiestas (district festivals) to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are common, these community celebrations are times for feasting, music, and dancing. The Ati-Atihan, Moriones and Sinulog
Sinulog
festivals are a couple of the most well-known. Some traditions, however, are changing or gradually being forgotten due to modernization. The Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has been lauded for preserving many of the various traditional folk dances found throughout the Philippines. They are famed for their iconic performances of Philippine dances such as the tinikling and singkil that both feature clashing bamboo poles.[478] One of the most visible Hispanic
Hispanic
legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldua, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Hispanic
Hispanic
nomenclature on the population.[479] The names of many streets, towns, and provinces are also in Spanish. The common use of the English language
English language
is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the ready acceptance and influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos' love of fast food and American film and music. Fast food
Fast food
outlets are found on many street corners. American global fast food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast food chains like Goldilocks and most notably Jollibee, the leading fast food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against their foreign rivals.[480][481] Architecture Main article: Architecture of the Philippines

Colonial houses in Vigan.

Spanish architecture
Spanish architecture
has left an imprint in the Philippines
Philippines
in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II.[57] Some examples remain, mainly among the country's churches, government buildings, and universities. Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the San Agustín Church in Manila, Paoay Church
Paoay Church
in Ilocos Norte, Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Ilocos Sur, and Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo.[482] Vigan
Vigan
in Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
is also known for the many Hispanic-style houses and buildings preserved there.[483] The American occupation in 1898 introduced a new breed of architectural structures in the Philippines. This led to the construction of government buildings and Art Deco
Art Deco
theaters. During the American period, some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs and master plans by Daniel Burnham
Daniel Burnham
was done on the portions of the city of Manila. Part of the Burnham's plan was the construction of government buildings that resembled Greek or Neoclassical architecture.[484] In Iloilo, a lot of the colonial edifices constructed during the American occupation in the country can still be seen. Commercial buildings, houses and churches in that era are abundant in the city and especially in Calle Real.[485] However, certain areas of the country like Batanes
Batanes
have slight differences as both Spanish and Filipino ways of architecture assimilated differently due to the climate. Limestones and coral were used as building materials.[486] Idjangs
Idjangs
or Ivatan castles were the primary shelter of the people prior to the Spanish conquest of the whole Philippines.[487] Music Main articles: Music of the Philippines
Music of the Philippines
and Original Pilipino Music

Percussion instruments that make up the Philippine kulintang ensemble, an example of pre- Hispanic
Hispanic
musical tradition

Philippine music has evolved rapidly due to the different influences stemming from colonialism under other countries. Before the Spanish conquest of the islands, most music was reminiscent of, or heavily influenced by, nature. Some examples of this tribal music is Koyu No Tebulul of the T'boli and Ambo Hato of the Ifugao. This genre is often accompanied by gong music and one well known instrument is the Kulintang. During the Spanish era Rondalya
Rondalya
music, where traditional string orchestra mandolin type instruments were used, was widespread. In the Philippines, Rondalya
Rondalya
refers to any group of stringed instruments that are played using a plectrum or pick. Filipino instruments are made from indigenous Philippine wood; plectrums, or picks, are made from tortoise-shell. Other stringed instruments composing the standard Filipino rondalla are the 14-string bandurria found only in the Philippines, the laúd, the octavina, the Twelve-string guitar, the Ukulele, the bajo de uñas or double bass, the Guitarrón mexicano, and other Filipino-made instruments modeled and developed after the guitar. Harana and Kundiman are prevalent during this time wherein these songs are often used in courtship rituals.[488] Marcelo Adonay (organist), Simplicio Solis (organist), Diego C. Perez (pianist), Jose Conseco (pianist) and Doña Dolores Paterno (composer) were some of the recognized musicians in this era. Nowadays, American pop culture has a heavy hold on the Filipinos
Filipinos
that evolved from the Spanish times when the American occupation happened. Along with Korean pop, these two are dominating the recent music scene in media.[489][490] However, the revival of Spanish-influence folk music has been possible thanks to the different choir groups coming in and going out of the country, such as the Philippine Madrigal Singers.[491] Dance Main article: Philippine dance

Tinikling
Tinikling
dancers.

Just like the evolution of Philippine music, dance as well has been in constant change. Prior to colonial rule, the Philippines
Philippines
has a wide array of ethnic dances from different tribal groups. This is due mainly to the fact that Philippines
Philippines
is an archipelago thus the different varieties of dance developed. Both Luzon
Luzon
and Visayas, at first, were more akin to tribal movements until the Spanish came. Mindanao
Mindanao
represents more of an array of Muslim
Muslim
inspired dances and Spanish influence was minimal in the region of Zamboanga. Universal dances in the Philippines
Philippines
are found at societal functions such as rituals, mimicry, life cycle and parties. During the Spanish era, most dances are accompanied by Rondalya
Rondalya
music usually with 14-string bandurrias that the Filipinos
Filipinos
invented or by other type of stringed instruments that locally evolved in to the culture as well. One famous dance that is well known is called the Tinikling, where a band of Rondalya
Rondalya
musicians play along with the percussive beat of the two bamboo poles. It usually starts with men and women acting a scene about "How rural townsfolk mingle". The dancers then graze thru the clashing of the bamboo poles held on opposite sides. The end displays the paired bamboo poles crossing each other. The Muslim
Muslim
version of this where bamboo poles are also used is called the Singkil.[492] Nowadays, in the Modern and Post-Modern time periods, dances vary from the delicate ballet up to the more street-oriented styles of breakdancing to name a few.[493] Visual art Main article: Art of the Philippines

The Spoliarium
Spoliarium
(1884) by Juan Luna.

Pottery and weaving are among the very first art forms showcasing Filipino artistic design and are evident from cave dwellings all over the country. Among these are mostly anthropomorphic earthenware jars dating from c. 5 BC to 225 AD. Weaving was mostly done by women, using fibers from abaca, pineapple, cotton, and bark to make clothes, rugs and hats. Baskets were mostly utilized to carry grain and other foods.[494][495] Early Philippine sculpture is characterized by frontal nudity. One of the earliest forms are the bulols by the Ifugao
Ifugao
people which serve as an assurance for bountiful harvests. The original function of these sculptures are related to the ceremonies and beliefs of the tribes who created them. Arab
Arab
and Russian missionaries also brought beveled type of carvings in the form of Okkil. The beginnings of this sculpture type started with the Islamization of Sulu. The Spanish colonization of the country did not hinder Filipinos
Filipinos
creating sculptures for objects of adoration. During this time, sculptures of deities and saints were used to teach Filipinos
Filipinos
Christian doctrines. During the American colonialism, worshippers of faith were not discouraged to sculpt in order to adorn churches. Filipinos' first exposure to painting happened when Spain
Spain
conquered the Philippines
Philippines
and these were used as religious propaganda often displayed in churches. However, as education progressed and wealth increased, more and more artists started to shift from the traditional religious motifs to a more secular pattern of imagery.[496] Paintings of early modernist painters such as Damián Domingo
Damián Domingo
often still had a religious association but the art of Juan Luna
Juan Luna
and Félix Hidalgo showed a trend towards political statement. The first Philippine national artist Fernando Amorsolo
Fernando Amorsolo
used post-modernism to produce paintings that illustrated aspects of Philippine culture, while other artists such as Fernando Zóbel used both realistic and abstract techniques. In the modern period, the integration of architecture in the Art Deco style happened. Many of these examples can be seen in statues all over the country especially in public parks and spaces.[497] Values Further information: Filipino values As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos
Filipinos
is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity), and commercial relationships.[498] Filipino values
Filipino values
are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group.[499] The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and "Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'.[499] Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.[500] Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.[501] Cuisine Main article: Filipino cuisine

Left-to-right: Lumpia, Adobo, Halo-halo
Halo-halo
and Sisig.

Filipino cuisine
Filipino cuisine
has evolved over several centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian
Malayo-Polynesian
origins to become a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic, Chinese, American, and other Asian influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, such as the paellas and cocidos created for fiestas.[481][502] Popular dishes include lechón, adobo, sinigang, kare-kare, tapa, crispy pata, pancit, lumpia, and halo-halo. Some common local ingredients used in cooking are calamansi, coconuts, saba (a kind of short wide plantain), mangoes, ube, milkfish, and fish sauce. Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors, but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors.[481][502] Unlike many of their Asian counterparts, Filipinos
Filipinos
do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Filipino cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork.[503] The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan (using the washed right hand for bringing food to the mouth)[504] was previously more often seen in the less urbanized areas.[505] However, due to the various Filipino restaurants that introduced Filipino food to people of other nationalities as well as to Filipino urbanites, kamayan fast became popular. This recent trend also sometimes incorporates the "Boodle Fight" concept (as popularized and coined by the Philippine Army), wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates on top of which rice portions and Filipino viands are placed all together for a filial, friendly and/or communal kamayan feasting.[506] Literature Main articles: Philippine literature, Philippine mythology, and Deities of Philippine mythology

José Rizal
José Rizal
is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
through his literary works.

Philippine mythology
Philippine mythology
has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. While each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell, Hindu and Spanish influences can nonetheless be detected in many cases. Philippine mythology
Philippine mythology
mostly consists of creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures, such as the aswang, the manananggal, the diwata/engkanto, and nature. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are Maria Makiling, Lam-Ang, and the Sarimanok.[507] Philippine literature
Philippine literature
comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created from the 17th to 19th century. Adarna, for example, is a famous epic about an eponymous magical bird allegedly written by José de la Cruz or "Huseng Sisiw".[508] Francisco Balagtas, the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura, is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Filipino language. José Rizal
José Rizal
wrote the novels Noli Me Tángere (Touch Me Not) and El Filibusterismo
El Filibusterismo
(The Filibustering, also known as The Reign of Greed). He is considered a national hero.[509] His depiction of the injustices of Spanish rule, and his death by firing squad, inspired other Filipino revolutionaries to seek independence.[510] Several Filipino writers were awarded National Artist of the Philippines
Philippines
such as N. V. M. Gonzalez, Amado V. Hernandez, Francisco Arcellana, Nick Joaquín, F. Sionil José
F. Sionil José
and many more. Media Main articles: Television in the Philippines, Radio in the Philippines, and Philippine drama Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English. Other Philippine languages, including various Visayan
Visayan
languages are also used, especially in radio due to its ability to reach remote rural locations that might otherwise not be serviced by other kinds of media. The dominant television networks ABS-CBN, GMA and TV5 also have extensive radio presence.[511] The entertainment industry is vibrant and feeds broadsheets and tabloids with an unending supply of details about celebrities and sensationalist daily scandals. Drama and fantasy shows are anticipated as are Latin telenovelas, Asianovelas, and anime. Daytime television is dominated by game shows, variety shows, and talk shows such as Eat Bulaga and It's Showtime.[512] Philippine cinema
Philippine cinema
has a long history and is popular domestically, but has faced increasing competition from American, Asian and European films. Critically acclaimed directors and actors include Lino Brocka and Nora Aunor
Nora Aunor
for films like Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag (Manila: In the Claws of Light) and Himala (Miracle).[513][514][515][516] In recent years it has become common to see celebrities flitting between television and movies and then moving into politics provoking concerns.[517] Cinema Main article: Cinema of the Philippines

Brillante Mendoza
Brillante Mendoza
is a prominent Filipino film director.

Salón de Pertierra was the first introduced moving picture on January 1, 1897 in the Philippines. All films were all in Spanish since Philippine cinema
Philippine cinema
was first introduced during the final years of the Spanish era of the country. Antonio Ramos
Antonio Ramos
was the first known movie producer. He used the Lumiere Cinematograph when he filmed Panorama de Manila
Manila
( Manila
Manila
landscape), Fiesta de Quiapo (Quiapo Fiesta), Puente de España (Bridge of Spain), and Escenas Callejeras (Street scenes). Meanwhile, Jose Nepomuceno was dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Cinema".[518] Dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Cinema", his work marked the start of cinema as an art form in the Philippines.[519] His first film produced was entitled Dalagang Bukid
Dalagang Bukid
(Country Maiden) in 1919. Film showing resumed in 1900 during the American period. Walgrah, a British entrepreneur, opened the Cine Walgrah at No. 60 Calle Santa Rosa in Intramuros. It was also during this time that a movie market was formally created in the country along with the arrival of silent movies. These silent films were always accompanied by gramophone, a piano, a quartet, or a 200-man choir. During the Japanese occupation, filmmaking was put on hold. Nonetheless, it was continued on 1930s up until 1945 replacing the Hollywood market with Japanese films but met with little success. Postwar 1940s and the 1950s were known as the first golden age of Philippine cinema
Philippine cinema
with the resurgence of mostly Visayan
Visayan
films through Lapu-Lapu
Lapu-Lapu
Pictures. During the 1960s, James Bond
James Bond
movies, bomba (soft porn) pictures and an era of musical films, produced mostly by Sampaguita Pictures, dominated the cinema. The second golden age occurred from 1970s to early 1980s. It was during this era that filmmakers ceased to produce pictures in black and white. A rise in Hollywood films dominated theater sales during the late 1980s until the 2000s.[520] The dawn of this era saw a dramatic decline of the mainstream Philippine movie industry.[521] In the year 2009, however, presence of box-office films in the Philippine Box Office has surged. The mid 2010s also saw broader commercial success of films produced by independent studios.[522][523] Sports Main article: Sports in the Philippines

A PBA game at the Smart Araneta Coliseum.

Various sports and pastimes are popular in the Philippines
Philippines
including basketball, boxing, volleyball, football (soccer), American football, both codes of Rugby football, badminton, karate, taekwondo, billiards, ten-pin bowling, chess, and sipa. Motocross, cycling, and mountaineering are also becoming popular. Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines.[524][525] In 2010, Manny Pacquiao was named "Fighter of the Decade" for the 2000s (decade) by the Boxing Writers Association of America (BWAA), World Boxing
Boxing
Council (WBC), and World Boxing
Boxing
Organization (WBO).[526] The national martial art and sport of the country is Arnis, Eskrima
Eskrima
or Kali in some regions[527] The Philippines
The Philippines
has participated in the Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
since 1924 and was the first country in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
to compete and win a medal.[528] The country had competed in every Summer Olympic Games since then, except when they participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics.[529] The Philippines
The Philippines
is also the first tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
debuting in the 1972 edition.[530] Games

Sabong
Sabong
or Cock Derby

Traditional Philippine games such as luksung baka, patintero, piko, and tumbang preso are still played primarily as children's games among the youth.[531][532] Sungka
Sungka
is a traditional native Philippine board game. Card games
Card games
are popular during festivities, with some, including pusoy and tong-its, being used as a form of illegal gambling. Mahjong is played in some Philippine communities. Sabong
Sabong
or cockfighting is another popular entertainment especially among Filipino men, and existed prior to the arrival of the Spanish. Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's chronicler, first documented this pastime in the kingdom of Taytay.[533][534] The yo-yo, a popular toy in the Philippines, was introduced in its modern form by Pedro Flores with its name coming from the Ilocano language.[535] See also

List of sovereign state leaders in the Philippines Outline of the Philippines Culture of the Philippines

Philippines
Philippines
portal Asia
Asia
portal

Notes

^ In the recognized regional languages of the Philippines:

Aklan: Republika it Pilipinas Bikol: Republika kan Filipinas Cebuano: Republika sa Pilipinas Chavacano: República de Filipinas Hiligaynon: Republika sang Filipinas Ibanag: Republika nat Filipinas Ilokano: Republika ti Filipinas Ivatan: Republika nu Filipinas Kapampangan: Republika ning Filipinas Kinaray-a: Republika kang Pilipinas Maranao: Republika san Pilipinas Pangasinan: Republika na Filipinas Sambal: Republika nin Pilipinas Surigaonon: Republika nan Pilipinas Tausug: Republika sin Pilipinas Waray: Republika han Pilipinas

In the recognized optional languages of the Philippines:

Spanish: República de Filipinas Arabic: جمهورية الفلبين‎, translit. Jumhuriat al-Falabin

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Postcolonial era (1946–1986)

Third Republic
Republic
(1946–65) Marcos dictatorship (1965–86)

Contemporary history (1986–present)

By topic

Archaeology Demographic Discoveries Economic history Inventions Military

Geography

Bays Biosphere reserves Climate Earthquakes Ecoregions Environmental issues Extreme points Island groups

islands

Lakes Landmarks Mountains National parks Protected areas Ramsar sites Rivers Volcanoes Wildlife World Heritage Sites

Politics

Government

Executive

President

Executive Office

Cabinet Civil service National Police

Legislature

Congress

Senate

Senate President President pro tem

House of Representatives

Speaker

Judiciary

Supreme Court Judiciary Court of Appeals

Law

Constitution Philippine legal codes Human rights

Intelligence

National Bureau of Investigation National Counter-Terrorism Action Group National Intelligence Coordinating Agency Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency

Uniformed

Armed Forces of the Philippines

Philippine Air Force Philippine Army Philippine Navy Philippine Marine Corps

Philippine Coast Guard

Administrative divisions Elections Foreign relations Political parties

Economy

Agriculture Business process outsourcing Central Bank Energy Fiscal policy National debt Labor Peso Stock Exchange Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Transportation Science and technology Water and Sanitation

Society

Corruption Crime Demographics Education Ethnic groups Health Income inequality Languages Poverty Provinces by HDI Refugees Religion Women

Culture

Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Cultural Properties Dance Fashion and clothing Festivals Historical Markers Literature Media Music Mythology Public holidays Psychology Sexuality Sports Traditional games Value system

Symbols

Anthem Coat of arms Arnis Flag Name Narra Philippine eagle Sampaguita

Book Category Philippines
Philippines
portal

Philippines
Philippines
topics

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  Administrative divisions of the Philippines

Capital

Manila
Manila
(National Capital Region)

Island groups

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Regions

Administrative

I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa
Mimaropa
– Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region

Autonomous

Autonomous Region in Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao

Provinces

Abra Agusan del Norte Agusan del Sur Aklan Albay Antique Apayao Aurora Basilan Bataan Batanes Batangas Benguet Biliran Bohol Bukidnon Bulacan Cagayan Camarines Norte Camarines Sur Camiguin Capiz Catanduanes Cavite Cebu Compostela Valley Cotabato Davao del Norte Davao del Sur Davao Occidental Davao Oriental Dinagat Islands Eastern Samar Guimaras Ifugao Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur Iloilo Isabela Kalinga La Union Laguna Lanao del Norte Lanao del Sur Leyte Maguindanao Marinduque Masbate Misamis Occidental Misamis Oriental Mountain Province Negros Occidental Negros Oriental Northern Samar Nueva Ecija Nueva Vizcaya Occidental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro Palawan Pampanga Pangasinan Quezon Quirino Rizal Romblon Samar Sarangani Siquijor Sorsogon South Cotabato Southern Leyte Sultan
Sultan
Kudarat Sulu Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur Tarlac Tawi-Tawi Zambales Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga Sibugay

Cities

List of cities in the Philippines

Municipalities

List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines

Barangays

Lists of barangays by province Poblacion

Other subdivisions

Puroks Sitios List of primary LGUs Legislative districts Metropolitan areas

Historical

Former provinces Formally proposed provinces Negros Island Region Southern Tagalog

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National symbols of the Philippines

Official

Arnis Coat of arms Filipino language Flag "Lupang Hinirang" "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa" Narra Philippine eagle Philippine pearl Sampaguita

Unofficial

Adobo Anahaw Bakya Balangay Barong and Baro't saya "Bayan Ko" Carabao Cariñosa Jeepney Juan de la Cruz Lechon Malacañang Palace Mango Manila Milkfish National Seal Nipa hut Tinikling Sinigang Sipa Waling-waling

National heroes

Emilio Aguinaldo Melchora Aquino Andrés Bonifacio Marcelo H. del Pilar Sultan
Sultan
Dipatuan Kudarat Juan Luna Apolinario Mabini José Rizal Gabriela Silang

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National personifications

Argentina Effigies of Argentina Armenia Mother Armenia Australia Boxing
Boxing
kangaroo Little Boy from Manly Bangladesh Mother Bengal Belgium Leo Belgicus Brazil Efígie da República Cambodia Preah Thong and Neang Neak Canada Johnny Canuck China Yanhuang Czech Republic Čechie Czech Vašek Švejk Denmark Holger Danske Finland Finnish Maiden France Marianne Georgia Kartvlis Deda Germany Deutscher Michel Germania Greece Hellas Hungary Lady of Hungaria Iceland Lady of the Mountain India Bharat Mata Indonesia Ibu Pertiwi Ireland Ériu Hibernia Kathleen Ni Houlihan Israel Srulik Italy Italia turrita Japan Amaterasu Kenya Wanjiku Korea Dangun Ungnyeo Malta Melita Montenegro Fairy of Lovćen Netherlands Dutch Maiden New Zealand Zealandia Norway Ola Nordmann Philippines Juan dela Cruz Maria Clara Poland Polonia Portugal Efígie da República Zé Povinho Russia Mother Russia Serbia Mother Serbia Kosovo Maiden Spain Hispania Sweden Mother Svea Switzerland Helvetia Ukraine Cossack Mamay United Kingdom Britannia John Bull Dame Wales United States Brother Jonathan Columbia Lady Liberty Uncle Sam Billy Yank

Northern states

Johnny Reb

Southern states

Other symbols of Liberty

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Spanish Empire

Timeline

Catholic
Catholic
Monarchs Habsburgs Golden Age Encomiendas New Laws
New Laws
in favour of the indigenous Expulsion of the Moriscos Ottoman–Habsburg wars French Wars of Religion Eighty Years' War Portuguese Restoration War Piracy in the Caribbean Bourbons Napoleonic invasion Independence of Spanish continental Americas Liberal constitution Carlist Wars Spanish–American War German–Spanish Treaty (1899) Spanish Civil War Independence of Morocco
Morocco
(Western Sahara conflict)

Territories

Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia Milan Union with Holy Roman Empire Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France Franche-Comté Union with Portugal Philippines East Pacific (Guam, Mariana, Caroline, Palau, Marshall, Micronesia, Moluccas) Northern Taiwan Tidore Florida New Spain
Spain
(Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) Spanish Louisiana (Central United States) Coastal Alaska Haiti Belize Jamaica Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela, Western Guyana New Granada (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) Peru
Peru
(Peru, Acre) Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands) Chile Equatorial Guinea North Africa (Oran, Tunis, Béjaïa, Peñón of Algiers, Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco, Ifni
Ifni
and Cape Juby)

Administration

Archivo de Indias Council of the Indies Cabildo Trial of residence Laws of the Indies Royal Decree of Graces School of Salamanca Exequatur Papal bull

Administrative subdivisions

Viceroyalties

New Spain New Granada Perú Río de la Plata

Audiencias

Bogotá Buenos Aires Caracas Charcas Concepción Cusco Guadalajara Guatemala Lima Manila Mexico Panamá Quito Santiago Santo Domingo

Captaincies General

Chile Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Venezuela Yucatán Provincias Internas

Governorates

Castilla de Oro Cuba Luisiana New Andalusia (1501–1513) New Andalusia New Castile New Navarre New Toledo Paraguay Río de la Plata

Economy

Currencies

Dollar Real Maravedí Escudo Columnario

Trade

Manila
Manila
galleon Spanish treasure fleet Casa de Contratación Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas Barcelona Trading Company Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

Military

Armies

Tercio Army of Flanders Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia Indian auxiliaries Spanish Armada Legión

Strategists

Duke of Alba Antonio de Leyva Martín de Goiti Alfonso d'Avalos García de Toledo Osorio Duke of Savoy Álvaro de Bazán the Elder John of Austria Charles Bonaventure de Longueval Pedro de Zubiaur Ambrosio Spinola Bernardo de Gálvez

Sailors

Christopher Columbus Pinzón brothers Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Juan de la Cosa Juan Ponce de León Miguel López de Legazpi Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Sebastián de Ocampo Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Alonso de Ojeda Vasco Núñez de Balboa Alonso de Salazar Andrés de Urdaneta Antonio de Ulloa Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Columbus Alonso de Ercilla Nicolás de Ovando Juan de Ayala Sebastián Vizcaíno Juan Fernández Felipe González de Ahedo

Conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Hernán Pérez de Quesada Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Pedro de Valdivia Gaspar de Portolà Pere Fages i Beleta Joan Orpí Pedro de Alvarado Martín de Ursúa Diego de Almagro Pánfilo de Narváez Diego de Mazariegos Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera Pere d'Alberní i Teixidor

Battles

Old World

Won

Bicocca Landriano Pavia Tunis Mühlberg St. Quentin Gravelines Malta Lepanto Antwerp Azores Mons Gembloux Ostend English Armada Cape Celidonia White Mountain Breda Nördlingen Valenciennes Ceuta Bitonto Bailén Vitoria Tetouan Alhucemas

Lost

Capo d'Orso Preveza Siege of Castelnuovo Algiers Ceresole Djerba Tunis Spanish Armada Leiden Rocroi Downs Montes Claros Passaro Trafalgar Somosierra Annual

New World

Won

Tenochtitlan Cajamarca Cusco Bogotá savanna Reynogüelén Penco Guadalupe Island San Juan Cartagena de Indias Cuerno Verde Pensacola

Lost

La Noche Triste Tucapel Chacabuco Carabobo Ayacucho Guam Santiago de Cuba Manila
Manila
Bay Asomante

Spanish colonizations

Canary Islands Aztec Maya

Chiapas Yucatán Guatemala Petén

El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Chibchan Nations Colombia Peru Chile

Other civil topics

Spanish missions in the Americas Architecture Mesoamerican codices Cusco painting tradition Indochristian painting in New Spain Quito painting tradition Colonial universities in Latin America Colonial universities in the Philippines General Archive of the Indies Colonial Spanish Horse Castas Old inquisition Slavery in Spanish Empire British and American slaves granted their freedom by Spain

 Geographic locale

Lat. and Long. 14°35′N 121°0′E / 14.583°N 121.000°E / 14.583; 121.000 (Manila)

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Countries and dependencies of Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Palestine Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri
Sri
Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand East Timor
East Timor
(Timor-Leste) Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab
Arab
Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Taiwan

Dependencies and special administrative regions

Australia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands

China

Hong Kong Macau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia British Indian Ocean Territory

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Countries and other territories in Southeast Asia

Sovereign states

Brunei Cambodia East Timor Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

Dependent territories or Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Subdivisions

Paracel Islands
Paracel Islands
(controlled by China) Pratas Islands
Pratas Islands
(controlled by Taiwan) Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
(disputed among and controlled by various claimants) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(India)

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Countries of the Malay Archipelago

Brunei East Timor Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Papua New Guinea

International membership

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Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Politics

Charter Customs union Date of Establishment Organisations Secretariat Treaty of Amity and Cooperation Visa policies

Symbols

Anthem Emblem Flag Hymn

Membership

Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

Observer and Candidate for Member

Papua New Guinea East Timor

Events

Summits

ASEAN
ASEAN
Summit East Asia
Asia
Summit

Other

ASEAN
ASEAN
Plus Three Asian Monetary Unit ASEAN
ASEAN
Regional Forum Asia–Europe Meeting Chiang Mai Initiative Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

Competitions

SEA Games ASEAN
ASEAN
University Games ASEAN
ASEAN
School Games ASEAN
ASEAN
Para Games ASEAN
ASEAN
Football Championship ASEAN
ASEAN
Armies Rifle Meet

Related

ASEAN
ASEAN
Football Federation ASEAN
ASEAN
Free Trade Area ASEAN– China
China
Free Trade Area ASEAN– India
India
Free Trade Area Common Time Economy

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Major non- NATO
NATO
allies of the United States

 Afghanistan  Argentina  Australia  Bahrain  Egypt  Israel  Japan  Jordan  Kuwait  Morocco  New Zealand  Pakistan  Philippines  South Korea   Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto)  Thailand  Tunisia

Potential countries

 Georgia  Moldova  Oman  Qatar  Saudi Arabia  Ukraine  United Arab
Arab
Emirates

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East Asia
Asia
Summit (EAS)

First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth Eleventh Twelfth

 Australia  Brunei  Cambodia  China  India  Indonesia  Japan  Laos  Malaysia  Myanmar  New Zealand  Philippines  Russia  Singapore  South Korea  Thailand  United States  Vietnam

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Non-Aligned Movement

Members

List of members of Non-Aligned Movement India
India
and the Non-Aligned Movement Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the Non-Aligned Movement Egypt
Egypt
and the Non-Aligned Movement

Structure

Organizations

NAM News Network

Principles

Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence

Summits

Bandung Conference Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement

Founders

Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia) Sukarno (Indonesia) Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(India) Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
(Ghana) Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)

People

Houari Boumediene Fidel Castro Nelson Mandela Mohamed Morsi Nicolás Maduro

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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC)

Nations

 Australia  Brunei  Canada  Chile  China  Hong Kong¹  Indonesia  Japan  South Korea  Malaysia  Mexico  New Zealand  Papua New Guinea  Peru  Philippines  Russia  Singapore  Chinese Taipei²  Thailand  United States  Vietnam

Summits

1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Other

APEC Business Travel Card APEC blue APEC Climate
Climate
Center APEC Youth Science Festival

1. A special administrative region of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China"; 2. Officially the Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Chinese Taipei"

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World Trade Organization

System

Accession and membership Appellate Body Dispute Settlement Body International Trade Centre Chronology of key events

Issues

Criticism Doha Development Round Singapore
Singapore
issues Quota Elimination Peace Clause

Agreements

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Technical Barriers to Trade Trade Related Investment Measures Trade in Services Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Government Procurement Information Technology Marrakech Agreement Doha Declaration Bali Package

Ministerial Conferences

1st (1996) 2nd (1998) 3rd (1999) 4th (2001) 5th (2003) 6th (2005) 7th (2009) 8th (2011) 9th (2013) 10th (2015)

People

Roberto Azevêdo
Roberto Azevêdo
(Director-General) Pascal Lamy Supachai Panitchpakdi Alejandro Jara Rufus Yerxa

Members

Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo Republic
Republic
of the Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Gabon The Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong1 Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Macau1 Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar Russia Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri
Sri
Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab
Arab
Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Special
Special
administrative regions of the People's Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.

Languages

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English-speaking world

Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region

Further links

Articles

English-speaking world History of the English language British Empire English in the Commonwealth of Nations Anglosphere

Lists

List of countries by English-speaking population List of countries where English is an official language

 

Countries and territories where English is the national language or the native language of the majority

Africa

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Americas

Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Dominica Falkland Islands Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Saba Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Europe

Guernsey Ireland Isle of Man Jersey United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia New Zealand Norfolk Island Pitcairn Islands

 

Countries and territories where English is an official language, but not the majority first language

Africa

Botswana Cameroon The Gambia Ghana Kenya Lesotho Liberia Malawi Mauritius Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Sierra Leone Somaliland South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Americas

Puerto Rico

Asia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Special
Special
Administrative Region India Pakistan Philippines Singapore

Europe

Gibraltar Malta

Oceania

American Samoa Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies shown in italics.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 147665514 LCCN: n79058386 ISNI: 0000 0001 2180 0793 GND: 4045771-0 SUDOC: 026614421 BNF: cb11882802q (data) HDS: 3424 NDL: 00563

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