The Info List - Petroglyph

A petroglyph is an image created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art. Outside North America, scholars often use terms such as "carving", "engraving", or other descriptions of the technique to refer to such images. Petroglyphs are found worldwide, and are often associated with prehistoric peoples. The word comes from the Greek prefix petro-, from πέτρα petra meaning "stone", and γλύφω glýphō meaning "carve", and was originally coined in French as pétroglyphe. Another form of petroglyph, normally found in literate cultures, a rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on "living rock" such as a cliff, rather than a detached piece of stone. While these relief carvings are a category of rock art, sometimes found in conjunction with rock-cut architecture,[1] they tend to be omitted in most works on rock art, which concentrate on engravings and paintings by prehistoric or nonliterate cultures. Some of these reliefs exploit the rock's natural properties to define an image. Rock reliefs have been made in many cultures, especially in the ancient Near East.[2] Rock reliefs are generally fairly large, as they need to be to make an impact in the open air. Most have figures that are larger than life-size. Stylistically, a culture's rock relief carvings relate to other types of sculpture from period concerned. Except for Hittite and Persian examples, they are generally discussed as part of the culture's sculptural practice.[3] The vertical relief is most common, but reliefs on essentially horizontal surfaces are also found. The term relief typically excludes relief carvings inside natural or human-made caves, that are common in India. Natural rock formations made into statues or other sculpture in the round, most famously at the Great Sphinx of Giza, are also usually excluded. Reliefs on large boulders left in their natural location, like the Hittite İmamkullu relief, are likely to be included, but smaller boulders described as stele or carved orthostats. The term petroglyph should not be confused with petrograph, which is an image drawn or painted on a rock face. Both types of image belong to the wider and more general category of rock art or parietal art. Petroforms, or patterns and shapes made by many large rocks and boulders over the ground, are also quite different. Inuksuit
are also not petroglyphs, they are human-made rock forms found only in the Arctic region.


1 History 2 Interpretation 3 List of petroglyph sites

3.1 Africa

3.1.1 Algeria 3.1.2 Cameroon 3.1.3  Central African Republic 3.1.4  Chad 3.1.5  Republic of the Congo 3.1.6  Egypt 3.1.7  Ethiopia 3.1.8  Gabon 3.1.9  Libya 3.1.10  Morocco 3.1.11  Namibia 3.1.12  Niger 3.1.13  South Africa 3.1.14  Zambia

3.2 Asia

3.2.1  Armenia 3.2.2  Azerbaijan 3.2.3  China 3.2.4  Hong Kong 3.2.5  India 3.2.6  Iran 3.2.7  Israel 3.2.8  Japan 3.2.9  Jordan 3.2.10  Kazakhstan 3.2.11  Laos 3.2.12  South Korea 3.2.13  Kyrgyzstan 3.2.14  Macau 3.2.15  Malaysia 3.2.16  Mongolia 3.2.17  Pakistan 3.2.18  Philippines 3.2.19  Saudi Arabia 3.2.20  Taiwan 3.2.21  Vietnam

3.3 Europe

3.3.1  England 3.3.2  Finland 3.3.3  France 3.3.4  Ireland 3.3.5  Italy 3.3.6 Northern Ireland 3.3.7  Norway 3.3.8  Portugal 3.3.9  Scotland 3.3.10  Spain 3.3.11  Russia 3.3.12  Sweden 3.3.13  Turkey 3.3.14  Ukraine 3.3.15  Wales

3.4 Central and South America and the Caribbean

3.4.1  Argentina 3.4.2  Aruba 3.4.3  Brazil 3.4.4  Chile 3.4.5  Colombia 3.4.6  Costa Rica 3.4.7  Dominican Republic 3.4.8  Grenada 3.4.9  Nicaragua 3.4.10  Paraguay 3.4.11  Peru 3.4.12  Puerto Rico 3.4.13   Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 3.4.14  Suriname 3.4.15  Trinidad and Tobago 3.4.16  Venezuela

3.5 North America

3.5.1  Canada 3.5.2  Mexico 3.5.3  United States

3.6 Oceania

3.6.1  Australia

4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History[edit] Composite image of petroglyphs from Scandinavia
(Häljesta, Västmanland
in Sweden). Nordic Bronze Age. The glyphs have been painted to make them more visible. A petroglyph of a caravan of bighorn sheep near Moab, Utah, United States; a common theme in glyphs from the desert Southwest and Great Basin Some petroglyphs might be as old as 40,000 years, and petroglyph sites in Australia are estimated to date back 27,000 years. Many petroglyphs are dated to approximately the Neolithic
and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, if not earlier, such as Kamyana Mohyla. Around 7,000 to 9,000 years ago, other precursors of writing systems, such as pictographs and ideograms, began to appear. Petroglyphs were still common though, and some cultures continued using them much longer, even until contact with Western culture
Western culture
was made in the 19th and 20th centuries. Petroglyphs have been found in all parts of the globe except Antarctica, with highest concentrations in parts of Africa, Scandinavia, Siberia, southwestern North America, and Australia.[citation needed]

Interpretation[edit] Many hypotheses explain the purpose of petroglyphs, depending on their location, age, and subject matter. Some may be astronomical markers, maps, and other forms of symbolic communication, including a form of proto-writing. Petroglyph
maps may show trails, symbols communicating time and distances traveled, as well as the local terrain in the form of rivers, landforms, and other geographic features. A petroglyph that represents a landform or the surrounding terrain is known as a geocontourglyph. They might also have been a by-product of other rituals: sites in India, for example, have been identified as musical instruments or "rock gongs".[4] Some petroglyph images probably have deep cultural and religious significance for the societies that created them; in many cases this significance remains for their descendants. Many petroglyphs are thought to represent some kind of not-yet-fully understood symbolic or ritual language. Later glyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age
in Scandinavia
seem to refer to some form of territorial boundary between tribes, in addition to possible religious meanings. Petroglyph
styles has local or regional "dialects" from similar or neighboring peoples. Siberian inscriptions loosely resemble an early form of runes, although no direct relationship has been established. They are not yet well understood. Petrogylphs from different continents show similarities. While people would be inspired by their direct surroundings, it is harder to explain the common styles. This could be mere coincidence, an indication that certain groups of people migrated widely from some initial common area, or indication of a common origin. In 1853, George Tate presented a paper to the Berwick Naturalists' Club, at which a John Collingwood Bruce
John Collingwood Bruce
agreed that the carvings had "... a common origin, and indicate a symbolic meaning, representing some popular thought."[5] In his cataloguing of Scottish rock art, Ronald Morris summarized 104 different theories on their interpretation.[6] More controversial explanations of similarities are grounded in Jungian psychology
Jungian psychology
and the views of Mircea Eliade. According to these theories it is possible that the similarity of petroglyphs (and other atavistic or archetypal symbols) from different cultures and continents is a result of the genetically inherited structure of the human brain. Other theories suggest that petroglyphs were carved by spiritual leaders, such as shamans, in an altered state of consciousness,[7] perhaps induced by the use of natural hallucinogens. Many of the geometric patterns (known as form constants) which recur in petroglyphs and cave paintings have been shown by David Lewis-Williams to be hardwired into the human brain. They frequently occur in visual disturbances and hallucinations brought on by drugs, migraine, and other stimuli. Recent analysis of surveyed and GPS-logged petroglyphs around the world has identified commonalities indicating pre-historic (7,000–3,000 BCE) intense auroras, or natural light display in the sky, observable across the continents.[8][9] The Rock Art Research Institute (RARI) of the University of the Witwatersrand studies present-day links between religion and rock art among the San people
San people
of the Kalahari Desert.[10] Though the San people's artworks are predominantly paintings, the beliefs behind them can perhaps be used as a basis for understanding other types of rock art, including petroglyphs. To quote from the RARI website:

Using knowledge of San beliefs, researchers have shown that the art played a fundamental part in the religious lives of its painters. The art captured things from the San's world behind the rock-face: the other world inhabited by spirit creatures, to which dancers could travel in animal form, and where people of ecstasy could draw power and bring it back for healing, rain-making and capturing the game.[11] List of petroglyph sites[edit] Africa[edit] Algeria[edit] Tassili n'Ajjer Cameroon[edit] Bidzar  Central African Republic[edit] Bambari, Lengo and Bangassou in the south; Bwale in the west Toulou Djebel Mela Koumbala  Chad[edit] Niola Doa  Republic of the Congo[edit] The Niari Valley, 250 km south west of Brazzaville  Egypt[edit] Wadi Hammamat
Wadi Hammamat
in Qift, many carvings and inscriptions dating from before the earliest Egyptian Dynasties to the modern era, including the only painted petroglyph known from the Eastern Desert and drawings of Egyptian reed boats dated to 4000 BCE Inscription Rock in South Sinai, is a large rock with carvings and writings ranging from Nabatean to Latin, Ancient Greek and Crusder eras located a few miles from the Ain Hudra Oasis. A second rock sites approximately 1 km from the main rock near the Nabatean tombs of Nawamis with carvings of animals including Camels, Gazelles and others. The original archaeologists who investigated these in the 1800s have also left their names carved on this rock. Giraffe
petroglyphs found in the region of Gebel el-Silsila. The rock faces have been used for extensive quarrying of materials for temple building especially during the period specified as the New Kingdom. The Giraffe
depictions are located near a stela of the king Amenhotep IV. The images are not dated, but they are probably dated from the Predynastic periods.  Ethiopia[edit] Tiya  Gabon[edit] Ogooue River Valley Epona Elarmekora Kongo Boumba Lindili Kaya Kaya  Libya[edit] Akakus Jebel Uweinat  Morocco[edit] The Draa River
Draa River
valley Lion Plate at Twyfelfontein
in Namibia
(2014)  Namibia[edit] Twyfelfontein  Niger[edit] Life-size giraffe carvings on Dabous Rock, Aïr Mountains  South Africa[edit] Driekops Eiland near Kimberley[12] ǀXam and ǂKhomani heartland in the Karoo, Northern Cape Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre
Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre
near Kimberley, Northern Cape Keiskie near Calvinia, Northern Cape  Zambia[edit] Nyambwezi Falls in the north-west province. Asia[edit]  Armenia[edit] Petroglyphs at Ughtasar, Armenia Ughtasar Urtsadzor Aragats[13] See also Armenian Eternity sign  Azerbaijan[edit] Gobustan State Reserve  China[edit] See also: Cliff inscriptions Helankou in Yinchuan[14] Hua'an Engravings Kangjia shimenzi in Xinjiang[14] Lianyungan Rock Engravings Petroglyphs in Zhuhai Yin Mountains in Inner Mongolia[14]  Hong Kong[edit] Eight sites in Hong Kong:

Tung Lung Island Kau Sai Chau Po Toi
Po Toi
Island Cheung Chau Shek Pik
Shek Pik
on Lantau Island Wong Chuk Hang
Wong Chuk Hang
and Big Wave Bay on Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Island Lung Ha Wan
Lung Ha Wan
in Sai Kung  India[edit] Petroglyphs in Ladakh, India Bhimbetka rock shelters, Raisen District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Kupgal petroglyphs
Kupgal petroglyphs
on Dolerite Dyke, near Bellary, Karnataka, India. Kudopi, Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra, India. Hiwale, Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra, India. Barsu, Ratnagiri
District, Maharashtra, India. Devihasol, Ratnagiri
District, Maharashtra, India Edakkal Caves, Wayanad
District, Kerala, India. Perumukkal, Tindivanam
District, Tamil Nadu, India. Kollur, Villupuram, Tamil Nadu. Unakoti
near Kailashahar
in North Tripura
North Tripura
District, Tripura, India. Usgalimal rock engravings, Kushavati river banks, in Goa[15] Ladakh, NW Indian Himalaya.[16] Recently petroglyphs were found at Kollur village in Tamil Nadu. A large dolmen with four petroglyphs that portray men with trident and a wheel with spokes has been found at Kollur near Triukoilur 35 km from Villupuram. The discovery was made by K.T. Gandhirajan. This is the second instance when a dolmen with petrographs has been found in Tamil Nadu, India.[17] In October 2018, petroglyphs were discovered in the Ratnagiri
and Rajapur areas in the Konkan
region of western Maharashtra. Those rock carvings which might date back to 10,000 BC, depict animals like hippopotamuses and rhinoceroses which aren't found in that region of India.[18]

 Iran[edit] Further information: Rock art
Rock art
in Iran Map of petroglyphs and pictographs of Iran During recent years a large number of rock carvings has been identified in different parts of Iran. The vast majority depict the ibex.[19][20] Rock drawings were found in December 2016 near Khomeyn, Iran, which may be the oldest drawings discovered, with one cluster possibly 40,000 years old. Accurate estimations were unavailable due to US sanctions.[21] Petroglyphs are the most ancient works of art left by humankind that provide an opening to the past eras of life and help us to discover different aspects of prehistoric lives. Tools to create petroglyphs can be classified by the age and the historical era; they could be flint, thighbone of hunted quarries, or metallic tools. The oldest pictographs in Iran
are seen in Yafteh cave in Lorestan that date back 40,000 and the oldest petroglyph discovered belongs to Timareh dating back to 40,800 years ago. Iran
provides demonstrations of script formation from pictogram, ideogram, linear (2300 BC) or proto Elamite, geometric old Elamite script, Pahlevi script, Arabic script (906 years ago), Kufi script, and Farsi script back to at least 250 years ago. More than 50000 petroglyphs have been discovered, extended over all Iran's states.[22]

 Israel[edit] Kibbutz Ginosar Har Karkom Negev  Japan[edit] Awashima shrine ( Kitakyūshū
city)[23] Fugoppe Cave, Hokkaido[14] Hikoshima ( Shimonoseki
city)[23] Miyajima[23] Temiya cave (Otaru city)[24]  Jordan[edit] Wadi Rum Wadi Faynan  Kazakhstan[edit] Hunting scene in Koksu petroglyphs Koksu River, in Almaty
Province Chumysh River basin, Tamgaly
Tas on the Ili River Tamgaly
– a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
nearly of Almaty  Laos[edit] Plain of Jars  South Korea[edit] Bangudae Petroglyphs  Kyrgyzstan[edit] Several sites in the Tien Shan
Tien Shan
mountains: Cholpon-Ata, the Talas valley, Saimaluu Tash, and on the rock outcrop called Suleiman's Throne in Osh
in the Fergana valley  Macau[edit] Coloane  Malaysia[edit] Lumuyu Petroglyphs  Mongolia[edit] Petroglyphic Complexes of the Mongolian Altai, UNESCO World Heritage site, 2011[25][26]  Pakistan[edit] Ancient Rock Carvings of Sindh Rock art
Rock art
and petroglyphs in Northern Areas,  Philippines[edit] Angono Petroglyphs
Angono Petroglyphs
of Rizal, Philippines  Saudi Arabia[edit] "Graffiti Rocks", about 110 km SW of Riyadh
off the Mecca
highway Arwa, west of Riyadh al Jawf, near al Jawf Jubbah, Umm Samnan, north of Hail Janin Cave, south of Hail Yatib, south of Hail Milihiya, south of Hail Jebel al Lawz, north of Tabuk Wadi Damm, near Tabuk Wadi Abu Oud, near al Ula Shuwaymis, north of Madina Jebel al Manjour & Ratt, north of Madina Hanakiya, north of Madina Shimli Bir Hima, north of Najran Tathleeth, north of Najran Al-Magar, in Najd  Taiwan[edit] The Wanshan Rock Carvings Archeological Site near Maolin District, Kaohsiung, were discovered between 1978 and 2002.  Vietnam[edit] Rock engravings in Sapa, Sa Pa, Lào Cai Province Rock engravings in Namdan, Xín Mần District, Hà Giang Province

Rock carving on Cheung Chau
Cheung Chau
Island, Hong Kong. This 3000-year-old rock carving was reported by geologists in 1970

Petroglyphs at Cholpon-Ata
in Kyrgyzstan

petroglyphs in Kazakhstan

carvings at Ili River
Ili River
in Kazakhstan

Petroglyphs on a rock wall found in the Sierra Madre mountain range, Rizal, Philippines

found in Awashima shrine (Japan)


Carving "The Shoemaker", Brastad, Sweden

in Roque Bentayga, Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).

at Dalgarven Mill, Ayrshire, Scotland.

Bronze Age petroglyphs depicting weapons, Castriño de Conxo, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia.

Labyrinth, Meis, Galicia.

Cup-and-ring mark, Louro, Muros, Galicia.

Deer and cup-and-ring motifs, Tourón, Ponte Caldelas, Galicia.

Petroglyphs in Zalavruga, Belomorsk, Karelia, Russia

 England[edit] Boscawen-un, St Buryan Cup and ring marked rocks in: Northumberland, County Durham, Ilkley Moor, Yorkshire, Gardom's Edge, Derbyshire, Creswell Crags, Nottingham  Finland[edit] Hauensuoli, Hanko, Finland  France[edit] Vallée des Merveilles, Mercantour National Park, France

The sorcerer, Vallée des Merveilles, France

The tribe master, Vallée des Merveilles, France

 Ireland[edit] Newgrange Knowth Dowth Loughcrew Tara Clonfinlough Stone Boheh Stone  Italy[edit] Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
– World Heritage Site, Italy (biggest European site, over 350,000) Bagnolo stele, Valcamonica, Italy Grotta del Genovese, Sicily, Italy Grotta dell'Addaura, Sicily, Italy Rock Engravings in Grosio (in Valtellina), Italy

Grosio - Rupe Magna

Grosio - Rupe Magna

Grosio - Rupe Magna

Northern Ireland[edit] Knockmany

Leftmost of three central stones, Knockmany Chambered Tomb, Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland

Central of three central stones, Knockmany Chambered Tomb, Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland

A stone on the right of the passage, Knockmany Chambered Tomb, Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland

Sess Kilgreen

Sess Kilgreen Chambered Tomb, Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland

Sess Kilgreen Chambered Tomb, Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland

 Norway[edit] See also: List of rock carvings in Norway Rock carvings at Alta, World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
(1985) Rock carvings in Central Norway Rock carvings at Møllerstufossen Rock carvings at Tennes  Portugal[edit] Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley, Portugal

Carvings of various zoomorphic creatures, including in particular, a horse

Paleolithic rock engravings breaking the natural rock formation

Various zoomorphic creatures, including in particular, a Bull

 Scotland[edit] Museum of Ayrshire Country Life and Costume, North Ayrshire Burghead
Bull, Burghead Townhead, Galloway[27] Ballochmyle cup and ring marks  Spain[edit] Millenarian rock carvings, Laxe dos carballos at Campo Lameiro, this detail depicts a deer hit by several spears Petroglyphs from Galicia[28]  Russia[edit] Mammoth
on the basalt stone in Sikachi-Alyan, Russia Petroglyph
Park near Petrozavodsk–Lake Onega, Russia Tomskaya Pisanitsa Kanozero Petroglyphs Sikachi-Alyan, Khabarovsk Krai Kapova cave, Bashkortostan  Sweden[edit] Tanumshede (Bohuslän); World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
(1994) Himmelstalund
(by Norrköping
in Östergötland) Enköping
(Uppland) Southwest Skåne
(Götaland) Alvhem
(Västra Götaland) Torhamn
(Blekinge) Nämforsen (Ångermanland) Häljesta (Västmanland) Slagsta
(Södermanland) Glösa
(Jämtland) The King's Grave
The King's Grave
at Kivik Rock carvings at Norrfors, Umeå[29] Släbro rock carvings in Nyköping
(Södermanland)  Turkey[edit] Kagizman, Kars Cunni Cave, Erzurum Esatli, Ordu Gevaruk Valley, Hakkâri Hakkari Trisin, Hakkâri Latmos / Beşparmak Güdül, Ankara  Ukraine[edit] Kamyana Mohyla, Zaporizhia Oblast Stone stelae of the Ukraine  Wales[edit] Garn Turne, Pembrokeshire Central and South America and the Caribbean[edit]  Argentina[edit] Cueva de las Manos, Santa Cruz Talampaya National Park, La Rioja Lihué Calel National Park, La Pampa

Talampaya National Park, La Rioja Province, Argentina

on Tunduqueral hill at Uspallata, Argentina

 Aruba[edit] Arikok National Park Quadiriki Caves Ayo and Casabari Rock Formations  Brazil[edit] The oldest reliably dated rock art in the Americas is known as the "Horny Little Man." It is petroglyph depicting a stick figure with an oversized phallus and carved in Lapa do Santo, a cave in central-eastern Brazil and dates from 12,000 to 9,000 years ago.[30]

Serra da Capivara National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Piauí Vale do Catimbau National Park, Pernambuco Ingá Stone, Paraíba Costao do Santinho, Santa Catarina Lagoa Santa (Holy Lake), Minas Gerais Ivolandia, Goiás

Capivara National Park, Piauí, Brazil

Ivolandia, Goiás, Brazil

Costao do Santinho, SC, Brazil

 Chile[edit] Rincón las Chilcas, Combarbalá Easter Island petroglyphs

Numerous rocks boasting thousand-year-old carvings.[31]

Modern science and the spectre of ancient man coexist in this thought-provoking image of a petroglyph.[32]

Llamas at La Silla[33]

Petroglyphs at Orongo, Rapa Nui
Rapa Nui
(Easter Island). A Makemake at the base and two birdmen higher up

 Colombia[edit] El Abra, Cundinamarca Chiribiquete Natural National Park

El Abra
El Abra
archaeological site, Cundinamarca

in the Chiribiquete Natural National Park. (Possible equine)

in the Chiribiquete Natural National Park. Aboriginal

in the Chiribiquete Natural National Park. (Possible mammal).

Petroglyphs in the Chiribiquete Natural National Park.

 Costa Rica[edit] Rincon de la Vieja, Guanacaste  Dominican Republic[edit] Cueva de las Maravillas, San Pedro de Macorís Las Caritas, near Lake Enriquillo Los Tres Ojos, Santo Domingo  Grenada[edit] Mt. Rich Petroglyphs  Nicaragua[edit] El Ceibo Petroglyphs,[34] Ometepe, Rivas Ometepe
Petroglyphs,[34] Ometepe, Rivas  Paraguay[edit] Fertility symbols, called "Ita Letra" by the local Panambi'y people, in a natural shelter in Amambay, Paraguay Amambay
Department  Peru[edit] Cumbe Mayo, Cajamarca Petroglyphs of Pusharo, Manú National Park, Madre de Dios region Petroglyphs of Quiaca, Puno Region Petroglyphs of Jinkiori, Cusco Region  Puerto Rico[edit] La Piedra Escrita (The Written Rock), Jayuya Caguana Indian Park, Utuado Tibes Indian Park, Ponce La Cueva del Indio (Indians Cave), Arecibo   Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis[edit] Carib Petroglyphs, Wingfield Manor Estate, Saint Kitts  Suriname[edit] Corantijn Basin  Trinidad and Tobago[edit] Caurita The only known Amerindian petroglyph in Trinidad  Venezuela[edit] Caicara del Orinoco, Bolívar North America[edit]

Petroglyphs on a Bishop Tuff tableland, eastern California

Southern Utah

Southern Utah


Arches National Park

Animal print carvings outside of Barnesville, Ohio


Columbia River Gorge, Washington

Upside-down man in Western Colorado

Rochester Rock Art Panel
Rochester Rock Art Panel
in the San Rafael Swell
San Rafael Swell
in Utah

Web-like petroglyph on the White Tank Mountain Regional Park
White Tank Mountain Regional Park
Waterfall Trail, Arizona

Chipping petroglyph on the White Tank Mountain Regional Park
White Tank Mountain Regional Park
Waterfall Trail, Arizona

Sample of petroglyphs at Painted Rock near Gila Bend, Arizona
off Interstate 8.

Puye Cliff Dwellings, New Mexico

ThunderBird Rock Carved Petroglyph
in West Central Wisconsin

Sky Rock Petroglyphs, Bishop, California.

Sky Rock Petroglyphs, Bishop, California.

 Canada[edit] Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia Petroglyph
Provincial Park, Nanaimo, British Columbia[35] Petroglyphs Provincial Park, north of Peterborough, Ontario Agnes Lake, Quetico Provincial Park, Ontario Sproat Lake Provincial Park, near Port Alberni, British Columbia Stuart Lake, British Columbia St. Victor Provincial Park, Saskatchewan Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park, east of Milk River, Alberta Gabriola Island, British Columbia[36] East Sooke Regional Park, British Columbia Ancient Echoes Interpretive Centre, Herschel Saskatchewan  Mexico[edit] Near Parras, Coahuila Boca de Potrerillos, Mina, Nuevo León Chiquihuitillos, Mina, Nuevo León Cuenca del Río Victoria, near Xichú, Guanajuato Coahuiltecan
Cueva Ahumada, Nuevo León La Proveedora, Caborca, Sonora Samalayuca, Juarez, Chihuahua Las Labradas, near Mazatlán, Sinaloa  United States[edit] Petroglyph
on western coast of Hawaii Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Modern Hopi have interpreted the petroglyphs at Mesa Verde National Park's Petroglyph
Point as depictions of the Eagle, Mountain Sheep, Parrot, Horned Toad, and Mountain Lion clans, and the Ancestral Puebloans who inhabited the mesa Arches National Park, Utah Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico Barnesville Petroglyph, Ohio Bloomington Petroglyph
Park, Utah Capitol Reef National Park, Utah Columbia Hills State Park, Washington[37] Corn Springs, Colorado
Desert, California Coso Rock Art District, Coso Range, northern Mojave Desert, California[38] Death Valley National Park, California Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado
and Utah Dighton Rock, Massachusetts Dominguez Canyon Wilderness, Colorado Fremont Indian State Park
Fremont Indian State Park
Utah Grand Traverse Bay Michigan Great Basin National Park
Great Basin National Park
Nevada Grimes Point, Nevada[39] Independence Slab, Ohio Inscription Rock (Kelleys Island, Ohio), Ohio Jeffers Petroglyphs, Minnesota Judaculla Rock, North Carolina Kanopolis State Park, Kansas Lava Beds National Monument, Tule Lake, California Legend Rock
Legend Rock
Site, Thermopolis, Wyoming Lemonweir Glyphs, Wisconsin Leo Petroglyph, Leo, Ohio[40] Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument, Utah Olympic National Park, Washington Paintlick Mountain, Tazewell, Virginia[41] Petit Jean State Park, Arkansas Petrified Forest National Park
Petrified Forest National Park
Arizona Petroglyph
National Monument, New Mexico[42] Picture Canyon, Flagstaff, Arizona Puye Cliff Dwellings, New Mexico Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, Nevada Rochester Rock Art Panel, Utah Ring Mountain, Marin County, California Saint John, U.S. Virgin Islands Sanilac Petroglyphs Historic State Park, Michigan Sedona, Arizona Seminole Canyon, Texas Sloan Canyon National Conservation Area, Nevada South Mountain Park, Arizona The Cove Palisades State Park, Oregon Three Rivers Petroglyphs, New Mexico[43] Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada Washington State Park, Washington County, Missouri West Virginia
glyphs White Mountain (Wyoming), Rock Springs, Wyoming White Tank Mountain Regional Park, Waddell, Arizona Winnemucca Lake, Nevada Writing Rock State Historical Site, North Dakota Monolyth at Caguas & El Yunque, Puerto Rico Track Rock, Georgia Forsyth Petroglyph
Originally discovered, locates and documented near Cumming, Georgia
Cumming, Georgia
in Forsyth County but has been relocated to the campus of the University of Georgia
University of Georgia
in Athens, Georgia Oceania[edit]  Australia[edit] Arnhem Land
Arnhem Land
/ Kakadu National Park, Northern Australia Murujuga, Western Australia
Western Australia
– world heritage assessed Sydney Rock Engravings, New South Wales

Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, New South Wales

Part of a 20-metre-long petroglyph at Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, New South Wales

Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, New South Wales

Mutawintji National Park, New South Wales

Burrup Peninsula, Western Australia

See also[edit] Geoglyph History of communication List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Megalithic art Pecked curvilinear nucleated Petrosomatoglyph Runestone
and image stone Water glyphs References[edit]

^ Harmanşah (2014), 5–6.

^ Harmanşah (2014), 5–6; Canepa, 53.

^ See: Rawson and Sickman & Soper

^ Ancient Indians made 'rock music'. BBC News (2004-03-19). Retrieved on 2013-02-12.

^ J. Collingwood Bruce (1868; cited in Beckensall, S., Northumberland's Prehistoric Rock Carvings: A Mystery Explained. Pendulum Publications, Rothbury, Northumberland. 1983:19)

^ Morris, Ronald (1979) The Prehistoric Rock Art of Galloway
and The Isle of Man, Blandford Press, .mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em ISBN 978-0-7137-0974-2.

^ [See: D. Lewis-Williams, A Cosmos in Stone: Interpreting Religion and Society through Rock Art (Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press, 2002).]

^ Peratt, A.L. (2003). "Characteristics for the occurrence of a high-current, Z-pinch aurora as recorded in antiquity". IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science. 31 (6): 1192. doi:10.1109/TPS.2003.820956.

^ Peratt, Anthony L.; McGovern, John; Qoyawayma, Alfred H.; Van Der Sluijs, Marinus Anthony; Peratt, Mathias G. (2007). "Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current Z-Pinch Aurora
as Recorded in Antiquity Part II: Directionality and Source". IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science. 35 (4): 778. doi:10.1109/TPS.2007.902630.

^ Rockart.wits.ac.za Retrieved on 2013-02-12.

^ "Rock Art Research Institute (RARI)". University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Retrieved 9 September 2017.

^ Parkington, J. Morris, D. & Rusch, N. 2008. Karoo
rock engravings. Clanwilliam: Krakadouw Trust; Morris, D. & Beaumont, P. 2004. Archaeology in the Northern Cape: some key sites. Kimberley: McGregor Museum.

^ Khechoyan, Anna. "The Rock Art of the Mt. Aragats
System | Anna Khechoyan". Academia.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-18.

^ a b c d O'Sullivan, Rebecca (2018). "East Asia: Rock Art". Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology (2 ed.). Springer. pp. 1–11. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_3131-1.

^ Kamat, Nandkumar. "Petroglyphs on the banks of Kushvati". Prehistoric Goan Shamanism. the Navhind times. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011.

^ Petroglyphs of Ladakh: The Withering Monuments. tibetheritagefund.org

^ Dolmen
with petroglyphs found near Villupuram. Beta.thehindu.com (2009-09-19). Retrieved on 2013-02-12.

^ " Prehistoric art
Prehistoric art
hints at lost Indian civilisation". BBC. 1 October 2018.

^ " Iran
Petroglyphs – سنگ نگاره های ایران Iran Petroglyphs". iranrockart.com. Archived from the original on 2014-07-19.

^ Foundation, Bradshaw. "Middle East Rock Art Archive – Iran
Rock Art Gallery". bradshawfoundation.com.

^ "Archaeologist uncovers 'the world's oldest drawings'". independent.co.uk. 12 December 2016.

^ Iran
Petroglyphs, Universal Common language (book); Iran Petrogylphs, Ideogram
Symbols (book); Rock Museums Rock Arts (Iran Petroglyphs) (book); For more information : http://iranrockart.com ; http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/middle_east/iran_rock_art/index.php ; https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/world-oldest-rock-drawings-archaeologist-iran-khomeyn-mohammed-naserifard-a7470321.html ; http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/deciphering-irans-ancient-rock-art-.aspx?pageID=238&nID=107184&NewsCatID=375 ; http://theiranproject.com/blog/tag/dr-mohammed-naserifard/

^ a b c Nobuhiro, Yoshida (1994) The Handbook For Petrograph Fieldwork, Chou Art Publishing, ISBN 4-88639-699-2, p. 57

^ Nobuhiro, Yoshida (1994) The Handbook For Petrograph
Fieldwork, Chou Art Publishing, ISBN 4-88639-699-2, p. 54

^ Petroglyphic Complexes of the Mongolian Altai – UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Whc.unesco.org (2011-06-28). Retrieved on 2013-02-12.

^ Fitzhugh, William W. and Kortum, Richard (2012) Rock Art and Archaeology: Investigating Ritual Landscape in the Mongolian Altai. Field Report 2011. The Arctic Studies Center, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

^ "British Rock Art Blog | A Forum about Prehistoric Rock Art in the British Islands". Rockartuk.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18.

^ Photos. Celticland.com. (2007-08-13). Retrieved on 2013-02-12.

^ "Umeå, Norrfors". Europreart.net. Retrieved 2013-08-18.

^ Choi, Charles. "Call this ancient rock carving 'little horny man'." Science on MSNBC. 22 Feb 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.

^ "Settlers at La Silla". www.eso.org. Retrieved 6 June 2017.

^ "The Ascent of Man". Retrieved 28 December 2015.

^ "Llamas at La Silla". ESO Picture of the Week. Retrieved 29 April 2014.

^ a b " Ometepe
Island Info – El Ceibo". ometepeislandinfo.com. Retrieved 2017-03-05.

^ Petroglyph
Provincial Park, Nanaimo, Vancouver Island BC. Britishcolumbia.com. Retrieved on 2013-02-12.

^ " Petroglyph
Park - Gabriola Museum". gabriolamuseum.org. Retrieved 14 April 2018.

^ Keyser, James D. (July 1992). Indian Rock Art of the Columbia Plateau. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-97160-5.

^ Moore, Donald W. Petroglyph
Canyon Tours. Desertusa.com. Retrieved on 2013-02-12.

^ Grimes Point National Recreation Trail, Nevada
BLM Archaeological Site. Americantrails.org (2012-01-13). Retrieved on 2013-02-12.

^ Museums & Historic Sites Archived 2007-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ohiohistory.org. Retrieved on 2013-02-12.

^ "Paint Lick". Craborchardmuseum.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-26. Retrieved 2013-08-18.

^ " Petroglyph National Monument
Petroglyph National Monument
(U.S. National Park Service)". nps.gov.

^ Three Rivers Petroglyph
Site Archived 2007-06-18 at the Wayback Machine. Nm.blm.gov (2012-09-13). Retrieved on 2013-02-12.

Harmanşah, Ömür (ed) (2014), Of Rocks and Water: An Archaeology of Place, 2014, Oxbow Books, ISBN 1-78297-674-4, 9781782976745 Rawson, Jessica (ed). The British Museum Book of Chinese Art, 2007 (2nd edn), British Museum Press, ISBN 978-0-7141-2446-9 Sickman, Laurence, in: Sickman L. & Soper A., The Art and Architecture of China, Pelican History of Art, 3rd ed 1971, Penguin (now Yale History of Art), LOC 70-125675 Further reading[edit] Beckensall, Stan and Laurie, Tim, Prehistoric Rock Art of County Durham, Swaledale and Wensleydale, County Durham
County Durham
Books, 1998 ISBN 1-897585-45-4 Beckensall, Stan, Prehistoric Rock Art in Northumberland, Tempus Publishing, 2001 ISBN 0-7524-1945-5 External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Petroglyphs.

Rock Art Studies: A Bibliographic Database Bancroft Library's citations to rock art literature.

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