1 History 2 Interpretation 3 List of petroglyph sites
3.1.1 Algeria 3.1.2 Cameroon 3.1.3 Central African Republic 3.1.4 Chad 3.1.5 Republic of the Congo 3.1.6 Egypt 3.1.7 Ethiopia 3.1.8 Gabon 3.1.9 Libya 3.1.10 Morocco 3.1.11 Namibia 3.1.12 Niger 3.1.13 South Africa 3.1.14 Zambia
3.2.1 Armenia 3.2.2 Azerbaijan 3.2.3 China 3.2.4 Hong Kong 3.2.5 India 3.2.6 Iran 3.2.7 Israel 3.2.8 Japan 3.2.9 Jordan 3.2.10 Kazakhstan 3.2.11 Laos 3.2.12 South Korea 3.2.13 Kyrgyzstan 3.2.14 Macau 3.2.15 Malaysia 3.2.16 Mongolia 3.2.17 Pakistan 3.2.18 Philippines 3.2.19 Saudi Arabia 3.2.20 Taiwan 3.2.21 Vietnam
3.3.1 England 3.3.2 Finland 3.3.3 France 3.3.4 Ireland 3.3.5 Italy 3.3.6 Northern Ireland 3.3.7 Norway 3.3.8 Portugal 3.3.9 Scotland 3.3.10 Spain 3.3.11 Russia 3.3.12 Sweden 3.3.13 Turkey 3.3.14 Ukraine 3.3.15 Wales
3.4 Central and South America and the Caribbean
3.4.6 Costa Rica
3.4.7 Dominican Republic
3.4.12 Puerto Rico
Saint Kitts and Nevis 3.4.14 Suriname 3.4.15 Trinidad and Tobago 3.4.16 Venezuela
3.5 North America
3.5.1 Canada 3.5.2 Mexico 3.5.3 United States
4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links
Composite image of petroglyphs from
Scandinavia (Häljesta, Västmanland
Västmanland in Sweden). Nordic Bronze Age. The glyphs have been painted to make them more visible. A petroglyph of a caravan of bighorn sheep near Moab, Utah, United States; a common theme in glyphs from the desert Southwest and Great Basin Some petroglyphs might be as old as 40,000 years, and petroglyph sites in Australia are estimated to date back 27,000 years. Many petroglyphs are dated to approximately the Neolithic
Neolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, if not earlier, such as Kamyana Mohyla. Around 7,000 to 9,000 years ago, other precursors of writing systems, such as pictographs and ideograms, began to appear. Petroglyphs were still common though, and some cultures continued using them much longer, even until contact with Western culture
Western culture was made in the 19th and 20th centuries. Petroglyphs have been found in all parts of the globe except Antarctica, with highest concentrations in parts of Africa, Scandinavia, Siberia, southwestern North America, and Australia.
Many hypotheses explain the purpose of petroglyphs, depending on their
location, age, and subject matter. Some may be astronomical markers,
maps, and other forms of symbolic communication, including a form of
Petroglyph maps may show trails, symbols communicating time and distances traveled, as well as the local terrain in the form of rivers, landforms, and other geographic features. A petroglyph that represents a landform or the surrounding terrain is known as a geocontourglyph. They might also have been a by-product of other rituals: sites in India, for example, have been identified as musical instruments or "rock gongs". Some petroglyph images probably have deep cultural and religious significance for the societies that created them; in many cases this significance remains for their descendants. Many petroglyphs are thought to represent some kind of not-yet-fully understood symbolic or ritual language. Later glyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age in Scandinavia
Scandinavia seem to refer to some form of territorial boundary between tribes, in addition to possible religious meanings. Petroglyph
Petroglyph styles has local or regional "dialects" from similar or neighboring peoples. Siberian inscriptions loosely resemble an early form of runes, although no direct relationship has been established. They are not yet well understood. Petrogylphs from different continents show similarities. While people would be inspired by their direct surroundings, it is harder to explain the common styles. This could be mere coincidence, an indication that certain groups of people migrated widely from some initial common area, or indication of a common origin. In 1853, George Tate presented a paper to the Berwick Naturalists' Club, at which a John Collingwood Bruce
John Collingwood Bruce agreed that the carvings had "... a common origin, and indicate a symbolic meaning, representing some popular thought." In his cataloguing of Scottish rock art, Ronald Morris summarized 104 different theories on their interpretation. More controversial explanations of similarities are grounded in Jungian psychology
Jungian psychology and the views of Mircea Eliade. According to these theories it is possible that the similarity of petroglyphs (and other atavistic or archetypal symbols) from different cultures and continents is a result of the genetically inherited structure of the human brain. Other theories suggest that petroglyphs were carved by spiritual leaders, such as shamans, in an altered state of consciousness, perhaps induced by the use of natural hallucinogens. Many of the geometric patterns (known as form constants) which recur in petroglyphs and cave paintings have been shown by David Lewis-Williams to be hardwired into the human brain. They frequently occur in visual disturbances and hallucinations brought on by drugs, migraine, and other stimuli. Recent analysis of surveyed and GPS-logged petroglyphs around the world has identified commonalities indicating pre-historic (7,000–3,000 BCE) intense auroras, or natural light display in the sky, observable across the continents. The Rock Art Research Institute (RARI) of the University of the Witwatersrand studies present-day links between religion and rock art among the San people
San people of the Kalahari Desert. Though the San people's artworks are predominantly paintings, the beliefs behind them can perhaps be used as a basis for understanding other types of rock art, including petroglyphs. To quote from the RARI website:
Using knowledge of San beliefs, researchers have shown that the art
played a fundamental part in the religious lives of its painters. The
art captured things from the San's world behind the rock-face: the
other world inhabited by spirit creatures, to which dancers could
travel in animal form, and where people of ecstasy could draw power
and bring it back for healing, rain-making and capturing the
List of petroglyph sites
Central African Republic
Lengo and Bangassou in the south; Bwale in the west
Republic of the Congo
The Niari Valley, 250 km south west of Brazzaville
Wadi Hammamat in Qift, many carvings and inscriptions dating from before the earliest Egyptian Dynasties to the modern era, including the only painted petroglyph known from the Eastern Desert and drawings of Egyptian reed boats dated to 4000 BCE Inscription Rock in South Sinai, is a large rock with carvings and writings ranging from Nabatean to Latin, Ancient Greek and Crusder eras located a few miles from the Ain Hudra Oasis. A second rock sites approximately 1 km from the main rock near the Nabatean tombs of Nawamis with carvings of animals including Camels, Gazelles and others. The original archaeologists who investigated these in the 1800s have also left their names carved on this rock. Giraffe
Giraffe petroglyphs found in the region of Gebel el-Silsila. The rock faces have been used for extensive quarrying of materials for temple building especially during the period specified as the New Kingdom. The Giraffe
Giraffe depictions are located near a stela of the king Amenhotep IV. The images are not dated, but they are probably dated from the Predynastic periods. Ethiopia Tiya Gabon Ogooue River Valley Epona Elarmekora Kongo Boumba Lindili Kaya Kaya Libya Akakus Jebel Uweinat Morocco The Draa River
Draa River valley Lion Plate at Twyfelfontein
Twyfelfontein in Namibia
Namibia (2014) Namibia Twyfelfontein Niger Life-size giraffe carvings on Dabous Rock, Aïr Mountains South Africa Driekops Eiland near Kimberley ǀXam and ǂKhomani heartland in the Karoo, Northern Cape Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre
Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre near Kimberley, Northern Cape Keiskie near Calvinia, Northern Cape Zambia Nyambwezi Falls in the north-west province. Asia Armenia Petroglyphs at Ughtasar, Armenia Ughtasar Urtsadzor Aragats See also Armenian Eternity sign Azerbaijan Gobustan State Reserve China See also: Cliff inscriptions Helankou in Yinchuan Hua'an Engravings Kangjia shimenzi in Xinjiang Lianyungan Rock Engravings Petroglyphs in Zhuhai Yin Mountains in Inner Mongolia Hong Kong Eight sites in Hong Kong:
Tung Lung Island
Kau Sai Chau
Po Toi Island Cheung Chau Shek Pik
Shek Pik on Lantau Island Wong Chuk Hang
Wong Chuk Hang and Big Wave Bay on Hong Kong
Hong Kong Island Lung Ha Wan
Lung Ha Wan in Sai Kung India Petroglyphs in Ladakh, India Bhimbetka rock shelters, Raisen District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Kupgal petroglyphs
Kupgal petroglyphs on Dolerite Dyke, near Bellary, Karnataka, India. Kudopi, Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra, India. Hiwale, Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra, India. Barsu, Ratnagiri
Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra, India. Devihasol, Ratnagiri
Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra, India Edakkal Caves, Wayanad
Wayanad District, Kerala, India. Perumukkal, Tindivanam
Tindivanam District, Tamil Nadu, India. Kollur, Villupuram, Tamil Nadu. Unakoti
Unakoti near Kailashahar
Kailashahar in North Tripura
North Tripura District, Tripura, India. Usgalimal rock engravings, Kushavati river banks, in Goa Ladakh, NW Indian Himalaya. Recently petroglyphs were found at Kollur village in Tamil Nadu. A large dolmen with four petroglyphs that portray men with trident and a wheel with spokes has been found at Kollur near Triukoilur 35 km from Villupuram. The discovery was made by K.T. Gandhirajan. This is the second instance when a dolmen with petrographs has been found in Tamil Nadu, India. In October 2018, petroglyphs were discovered in the Ratnagiri
Ratnagiri and Rajapur areas in the Konkan
Konkan region of western Maharashtra. Those rock carvings which might date back to 10,000 BC, depict animals like hippopotamuses and rhinoceroses which aren't found in that region of India.
Rock art in Iran Map of petroglyphs and pictographs of Iran During recent years a large number of rock carvings has been identified in different parts of Iran. The vast majority depict the ibex. Rock drawings were found in December 2016 near Khomeyn, Iran, which may be the oldest drawings discovered, with one cluster possibly 40,000 years old. Accurate estimations were unavailable due to US sanctions. Petroglyphs are the most ancient works of art left by humankind that provide an opening to the past eras of life and help us to discover different aspects of prehistoric lives. Tools to create petroglyphs can be classified by the age and the historical era; they could be flint, thighbone of hunted quarries, or metallic tools. The oldest pictographs in Iran
Iran are seen in Yafteh cave in Lorestan that date back 40,000 and the oldest petroglyph discovered belongs to Timareh dating back to 40,800 years ago. Iran
Iran provides demonstrations of script formation from pictogram, ideogram, linear (2300 BC) or proto Elamite, geometric old Elamite script, Pahlevi script, Arabic script (906 years ago), Kufi script, and Farsi script back to at least 250 years ago. More than 50000 petroglyphs have been discovered, extended over all Iran's states.
Awashima shrine (
Kitakyūshū city) Fugoppe Cave, Hokkaido Hikoshima ( Shimonoseki
Shimonoseki city) Miyajima Temiya cave (Otaru city) Jordan Wadi Rum Wadi Faynan Kazakhstan Hunting scene in Koksu petroglyphs Koksu River, in Almaty
Almaty Province Chumysh River basin, Tamgaly
Tamgaly Tas on the Ili River Tamgaly
Tamgaly – a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site nearly of Almaty Laos Plain of Jars South Korea Bangudae Petroglyphs Kyrgyzstan Several sites in the Tien Shan
Tien Shan mountains: Cholpon-Ata, the Talas valley, Saimaluu Tash, and on the rock outcrop called Suleiman's Throne in Osh
Osh in the Fergana valley Macau Coloane Malaysia Lumuyu Petroglyphs Mongolia Petroglyphic Complexes of the Mongolian Altai, UNESCO World Heritage site, 2011 Pakistan Ancient Rock Carvings of Sindh Rock art
Rock art and petroglyphs in Northern Areas, Philippines Angono Petroglyphs
Angono Petroglyphs of Rizal, Philippines Saudi Arabia "Graffiti Rocks", about 110 km SW of Riyadh
Riyadh off the Mecca
Mecca highway Arwa, west of Riyadh al Jawf, near al Jawf Jubbah, Umm Samnan, north of Hail Janin Cave, south of Hail Yatib, south of Hail Milihiya, south of Hail Jebel al Lawz, north of Tabuk Wadi Damm, near Tabuk Wadi Abu Oud, near al Ula Shuwaymis, north of Madina Jebel al Manjour & Ratt, north of Madina Hanakiya, north of Madina Shimli Bir Hima, north of Najran Tathleeth, north of Najran Al-Magar, in Najd Taiwan The Wanshan Rock Carvings Archeological Site near Maolin District, Kaohsiung, were discovered between 1978 and 2002. Vietnam Rock engravings in Sapa, Sa Pa, Lào Cai Province Rock engravings in Namdan, Xín Mần District, Hà Giang Province
Rock carving on
Cheung Chau Island, Hong Kong. This 3000-year-old rock carving was reported by geologists in 1970
Cholpon-Ata in Kyrgyzstan
Tamgaly petroglyphs in Kazakhstan
Petroglyphs on a rock wall found in the Sierra Madre mountain range, Rizal, Philippines
Petroglyph found in Awashima shrine (Japan)
Carving "The Shoemaker", Brastad, Sweden
Petroglyph in Roque Bentayga, Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).
Petroglyph at Dalgarven Mill, Ayrshire, Scotland.
Bronze Age petroglyphs depicting weapons, Castriño de Conxo, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia.
Labyrinth, Meis, Galicia.
Cup-and-ring mark, Louro, Muros, Galicia.
Deer and cup-and-ring motifs, Tourón, Ponte Caldelas, Galicia.
Petroglyphs in Zalavruga, Belomorsk, Karelia, Russia
England Boscawen-un, St Buryan Cup and ring marked rocks in: Northumberland, County Durham, Ilkley Moor, Yorkshire, Gardom's Edge, Derbyshire, Creswell Crags, Nottingham Finland Hauensuoli, Hanko, Finland France Vallée des Merveilles, Mercantour National Park, France
The sorcerer, Vallée des Merveilles, France
The tribe master, Vallée des Merveilles, France
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica – World Heritage Site, Italy (biggest European site, over 350,000) Bagnolo stele, Valcamonica, Italy Grotta del Genovese, Sicily, Italy Grotta dell'Addaura, Sicily, Italy Rock Engravings in Grosio (in Valtellina), Italy
Grosio - Rupe Magna
Grosio - Rupe Magna
Grosio - Rupe Magna
Northern Ireland Knockmany
Leftmost of three central stones, Knockmany Chambered Tomb, Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland
Central of three central stones, Knockmany Chambered Tomb, Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland
A stone on the right of the passage, Knockmany Chambered Tomb, Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland
Sess Kilgreen Chambered Tomb, Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland
Sess Kilgreen Chambered Tomb, Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland
See also: List of rock carvings in Norway
Rock carvings at Alta,
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site (1985) Rock carvings in Central Norway Rock carvings at Møllerstufossen Rock carvings at Tennes Portugal Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley, Portugal
Carvings of various zoomorphic creatures, including in particular, a horse
Paleolithic rock engravings breaking the natural rock formation
Various zoomorphic creatures, including in particular, a Bull
Museum of Ayrshire Country Life and Costume, North Ayrshire
Burghead Bull, Burghead Townhead, Galloway Ballochmyle cup and ring marks Spain Millenarian rock carvings, Laxe dos carballos at Campo Lameiro, this detail depicts a deer hit by several spears Petroglyphs from Galicia Russia Mammoth
Mammoth on the basalt stone in Sikachi-Alyan, Russia Petroglyph
Petroglyph Park near Petrozavodsk–Lake Onega, Russia Tomskaya Pisanitsa Kanozero Petroglyphs Sikachi-Alyan, Khabarovsk Krai Kapova cave, Bashkortostan Sweden Tanumshede (Bohuslän); World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site (1994) Himmelstalund
Himmelstalund (by Norrköping
Norrköping in Östergötland) Enköping
Enköping (Uppland) Southwest Skåne
Skåne (Götaland) Alvhem
Alvhem (Västra Götaland) Torhamn
Torhamn (Blekinge) Nämforsen (Ångermanland) Häljesta (Västmanland) Slagsta
Slagsta (Södermanland) Glösa
Glösa (Jämtland) The King's Grave
The King's Grave at Kivik Rock carvings at Norrfors, Umeå Släbro rock carvings in Nyköping
Nyköping (Södermanland) Turkey Kagizman, Kars Cunni Cave, Erzurum Esatli, Ordu Gevaruk Valley, Hakkâri Hakkari Trisin, Hakkâri Latmos / Beşparmak Güdül, Ankara Ukraine Kamyana Mohyla, Zaporizhia Oblast Stone stelae of the Ukraine Wales Garn Turne, Pembrokeshire Central and South America and the Caribbean Argentina Cueva de las Manos, Santa Cruz Talampaya National Park, La Rioja Lihué Calel National Park, La Pampa
Talampaya National Park, La Rioja Province, Argentina
Petroglyph on Tunduqueral hill at Uspallata, Argentina
Aruba Arikok National Park Quadiriki Caves Ayo and Casabari Rock Formations Brazil The oldest reliably dated rock art in the Americas is known as the "Horny Little Man." It is petroglyph depicting a stick figure with an oversized phallus and carved in Lapa do Santo, a cave in central-eastern Brazil and dates from 12,000 to 9,000 years ago.
Serra da Capivara National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Piauí Vale do Catimbau National Park, Pernambuco Ingá Stone, Paraíba Costao do Santinho, Santa Catarina Lagoa Santa (Holy Lake), Minas Gerais Ivolandia, Goiás
Capivara National Park, Piauí, Brazil
Ivolandia, Goiás, Brazil
Costao do Santinho, SC, Brazil
Chile Rincón las Chilcas, Combarbalá Easter Island petroglyphs
Numerous rocks boasting thousand-year-old carvings.
Modern science and the spectre of ancient man coexist in this thought-provoking image of a petroglyph.
Llamas at La Silla
Petroglyphs at Orongo,
Rapa Nui (Easter Island). A Makemake at the base and two birdmen higher up
Colombia El Abra, Cundinamarca Chiribiquete Natural National Park
El Abra archaeological site, Cundinamarca
Petroglyph in the Chiribiquete Natural National Park. (Possible equine)
Petroglyph in the Chiribiquete Natural National Park. Aboriginal
Petroglyph in the Chiribiquete Natural National Park. (Possible mammal).
Petroglyphs in the Chiribiquete Natural National Park.
Rincon de la Vieja, Guanacaste
Cueva de las Maravillas, San Pedro de Macorís
Las Caritas, near Lake Enriquillo
Los Tres Ojos, Santo Domingo
Mt. Rich Petroglyphs
El Ceibo Petroglyphs, Ometepe, Rivas
Ometepe Petroglyphs, Ometepe, Rivas Paraguay Fertility symbols, called "Ita Letra" by the local Panambi'y people, in a natural shelter in Amambay, Paraguay Amambay
Amambay Department Peru Cumbe Mayo, Cajamarca Petroglyphs of Pusharo, Manú National Park, Madre de Dios region Petroglyphs of Quiaca, Puno Region Petroglyphs of Jinkiori, Cusco Region Puerto Rico La Piedra Escrita (The Written Rock), Jayuya Caguana Indian Park, Utuado Tibes Indian Park, Ponce La Cueva del Indio (Indians Cave), Arecibo Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts and Nevis Carib Petroglyphs, Wingfield Manor Estate, Saint Kitts Suriname Corantijn Basin Trinidad and Tobago Caurita The only known Amerindian petroglyph in Trinidad Venezuela Caicara del Orinoco, Bolívar North America
Petroglyphs on a Bishop Tuff tableland, eastern California
Arches National Park
Animal print carvings outside of Barnesville, Ohio
Columbia River Gorge, Washington
Upside-down man in Western Colorado
Web-like petroglyph on the
White Tank Mountain Regional Park
White Tank Mountain Regional Park Waterfall Trail, Arizona
Chipping petroglyph on the
White Tank Mountain Regional Park
White Tank Mountain Regional Park Waterfall Trail, Arizona
Sample of petroglyphs at Painted Rock near Gila Bend,
Arizona off Interstate 8.
Puye Cliff Dwellings, New Mexico
ThunderBird Rock Carved
Petroglyph in West Central Wisconsin
Sky Rock Petroglyphs, Bishop, California.
Sky Rock Petroglyphs, Bishop, California.
Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia
Petroglyph Provincial Park, Nanaimo, British Columbia Petroglyphs Provincial Park, north of Peterborough, Ontario Agnes Lake, Quetico Provincial Park, Ontario Sproat Lake Provincial Park, near Port Alberni, British Columbia Stuart Lake, British Columbia St. Victor Provincial Park, Saskatchewan Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park, east of Milk River, Alberta Gabriola Island, British Columbia East Sooke Regional Park, British Columbia Ancient Echoes Interpretive Centre, Herschel Saskatchewan Mexico Near Parras, Coahuila Boca de Potrerillos, Mina, Nuevo León Chiquihuitillos, Mina, Nuevo León Cuenca del Río Victoria, near Xichú, Guanajuato Coahuiltecan
Coahuiltecan Cueva Ahumada, Nuevo León La Proveedora, Caborca, Sonora Samalayuca, Juarez, Chihuahua Las Labradas, near Mazatlán, Sinaloa United States Petroglyph
Petroglyph on western coast of Hawaii Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Modern Hopi have interpreted the petroglyphs at Mesa Verde National Park's Petroglyph
Petroglyph Point as depictions of the Eagle, Mountain Sheep, Parrot, Horned Toad, and Mountain Lion clans, and the Ancestral Puebloans who inhabited the mesa Arches National Park, Utah Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico Barnesville Petroglyph, Ohio Bloomington Petroglyph
Petroglyph Park, Utah Capitol Reef National Park, Utah Columbia Hills State Park, Washington Corn Springs, Colorado
Colorado Desert, California Coso Rock Art District, Coso Range, northern Mojave Desert, California Death Valley National Park, California Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado
Colorado and Utah Dighton Rock, Massachusetts Dominguez Canyon Wilderness, Colorado Fremont Indian State Park
Fremont Indian State Park Utah Grand Traverse Bay Michigan Great Basin National Park
Great Basin National Park Nevada Grimes Point, Nevada Independence Slab, Ohio Inscription Rock (Kelleys Island, Ohio), Ohio Jeffers Petroglyphs, Minnesota Judaculla Rock, North Carolina Kanopolis State Park, Kansas Lava Beds National Monument, Tule Lake, California Legend Rock
Legend Rock Petroglyph
Petroglyph Site, Thermopolis, Wyoming Lemonweir Glyphs, Wisconsin Leo Petroglyph, Leo, Ohio Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument, Utah Olympic National Park, Washington Paintlick Mountain, Tazewell, Virginia Petit Jean State Park, Arkansas Petrified Forest National Park
Petrified Forest National Park Arizona Petroglyph
Petroglyph National Monument, New Mexico Picture Canyon, Flagstaff, Arizona Puye Cliff Dwellings, New Mexico Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, Nevada Rochester Rock Art Panel, Utah Ring Mountain, Marin County, California Saint John, U.S. Virgin Islands Sanilac Petroglyphs Historic State Park, Michigan Sedona, Arizona Seminole Canyon, Texas Sloan Canyon National Conservation Area, Nevada South Mountain Park, Arizona The Cove Palisades State Park, Oregon Three Rivers Petroglyphs, New Mexico Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada Washington State Park, Washington County, Missouri West Virginia
Virginia glyphs White Mountain (Wyoming), Rock Springs, Wyoming White Tank Mountain Regional Park, Waddell, Arizona Winnemucca Lake, Nevada Writing Rock State Historical Site, North Dakota Monolyth at Caguas & El Yunque, Puerto Rico Track Rock, Georgia Forsyth Petroglyph
Petroglyph Originally discovered, locates and documented near Cumming, Georgia
Cumming, Georgia in Forsyth County but has been relocated to the campus of the University of Georgia
University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia Oceania Australia Arnhem Land
Arnhem Land / Kakadu National Park, Northern Australia Murujuga, Western Australia
Western Australia – world heritage assessed Sydney Rock Engravings, New South Wales
Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, New South Wales
Part of a 20-metre-long petroglyph at Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, New South Wales
Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, New South Wales
Mutawintji National Park, New South Wales
Burrup Peninsula, Western Australia
History of communication
Stone Age art Megalithic art Pecked curvilinear nucleated Petrosomatoglyph Runestone
Runestone and image stone Water glyphs References
^ Harmanşah (2014), 5–6.
^ Harmanşah (2014), 5–6; Canepa, 53.
^ See: Rawson and Sickman & Soper
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^ Rockart.wits.ac.za Retrieved on 2013-02-12.
^ "Rock Art Research Institute (RARI)". University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
^ Parkington, J. Morris, D. & Rusch, N. 2008.
Karoo rock engravings. Clanwilliam: Krakadouw Trust; Morris, D. & Beaumont, P. 2004. Archaeology in the Northern Cape: some key sites. Kimberley: McGregor Museum.
^ Khechoyan, Anna. "The Rock Art of the Mt.
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^ a b c d O'Sullivan, Rebecca (2018). "East Asia: Rock Art". Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology (2 ed.). Springer. pp. 1–11. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_3131-1.
^ Kamat, Nandkumar. "Petroglyphs on the banks of Kushvati". Prehistoric Goan Shamanism. the Navhind times. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
^ Petroglyphs of Ladakh: The Withering Monuments. tibetheritagefund.org
Dolmen with petroglyphs found near Villupuram. Beta.thehindu.com (2009-09-19). Retrieved on 2013-02-12.
Prehistoric art hints at lost Indian civilisation". BBC. 1 October 2018.
Iran Petroglyphs – سنگ نگاره های ایران Iran Petroglyphs". iranrockart.com. Archived from the original on 2014-07-19.
^ Foundation, Bradshaw. "Middle East Rock Art Archive –
Iran Rock Art Gallery". bradshawfoundation.com.
^ "Archaeologist uncovers 'the world's oldest drawings'". independent.co.uk. 12 December 2016.
Iran Petroglyphs, Universal Common language (book); Iran Petrogylphs, Ideogram
Ideogram Symbols (book); Rock Museums Rock Arts (Iran Petroglyphs) (book); For more information : http://iranrockart.com ; http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/middle_east/iran_rock_art/index.php ; https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/world-oldest-rock-drawings-archaeologist-iran-khomeyn-mohammed-naserifard-a7470321.html ; http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/deciphering-irans-ancient-rock-art-.aspx?pageID=238&nID=107184&NewsCatID=375 ; http://theiranproject.com/blog/tag/dr-mohammed-naserifard/
^ a b c Nobuhiro, Yoshida (1994) The Handbook For Petrograph Fieldwork, Chou Art Publishing, ISBN 4-88639-699-2, p. 57
^ Nobuhiro, Yoshida (1994) The Handbook For
Petrograph Fieldwork, Chou Art Publishing, ISBN 4-88639-699-2, p. 54
^ Petroglyphic Complexes of the Mongolian Altai – UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Whc.unesco.org (2011-06-28). Retrieved on 2013-02-12.
^ Fitzhugh, William W. and Kortum, Richard (2012) Rock Art and Archaeology: Investigating Ritual Landscape in the Mongolian Altai. Field Report 2011. The Arctic Studies Center, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
^ "British Rock Art Blog | A Forum about Prehistoric Rock Art in the British Islands". Rockartuk.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
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^ Choi, Charles. "Call this ancient rock carving 'little horny man'." Science on MSNBC. 22 Feb 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
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^ "The Ascent of Man". Retrieved 28 December 2015.
^ "Llamas at La Silla". ESO Picture of the Week. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
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Ometepe Island Info – El Ceibo". ometepeislandinfo.com. Retrieved 2017-03-05.
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^ Keyser, James D. (July 1992). Indian Rock Art of the Columbia Plateau. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-97160-5.
^ Moore, Donald W.
Petroglyph Canyon Tours. Desertusa.com. Retrieved on 2013-02-12.
^ Grimes Point National Recreation Trail,
Nevada BLM Archaeological Site. Americantrails.org (2012-01-13). Retrieved on 2013-02-12.
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Petroglyph National Monument
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Harmanşah, Ömür (ed) (2014), Of Rocks and Water: An Archaeology of
Place, 2014, Oxbow Books, ISBN 1-78297-674-4, 9781782976745
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(2nd edn), British Museum Press, ISBN 978-0-7141-2446-9
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Architecture of China, Pelican History of Art, 3rd ed 1971, Penguin
(now Yale History of Art), LOC 70-125675
Beckensall, Stan and Laurie, Tim, Prehistoric Rock Art of County
Durham, Swaledale and Wensleydale,
County Durham Books, 1998 ISBN 1-897585-45-4 Beckensall, Stan, Prehistoric Rock Art in Northumberland, Tempus Publishing, 2001 ISBN 0-7524-1945-5 External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Petroglyphs.
Rock Art Studies: A Bibliographic Database Bancroft Library's citations to rock art literature.
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