Francesco Petrarca (Italian: [franˈtʃesko peˈtrarka]; July 20,
1304 – July 20, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch
(/ˈpiːtrɑːrk, ˈpɛ-/), was an Italian scholar and poet in
Renaissance Italy, who was one of the earliest humanists. His
rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the
Petrarch is often considered the founder of
Humanism. In the 16th century,
Pietro Bembo created the model for
Italian language based on Petrarch's works, as well as
those of Giovanni Boccaccio, and, to a lesser extent, Dante
Petrarch would be later endorsed as a model for Italian
style by the Accademia della Crusca.
Petrarch's sonnets were admired and imitated throughout Europe during
Renaissance and became a model for lyrical poetry. He is also
known for being the first to develop the concept of the "Dark
1.1 Youth and early career
1.2 Mount Ventoux
1.3 Later years
2.1 Laura and poetry
2.2 Sonnet 227
6 See also
9 English translations
10 Further reading
11 External links
Youth and early career
Petrarch was born in the Tuscan city of
Arezzo in 1304. He was the son
Ser Petracco and his wife Eletta Canigiani. His given name was
Francesco Petracco. The name was Latinized to Petrarca. Petrarch's
younger brother was born in
Incisa in Val d'Arno
Incisa in Val d'Arno in 1307.
Dante was a
friend of his father.
Petrarch spent his early childhood in the village of Incisa, near
Florence. He spent much of his early life at
Avignon and nearby
Carpentras, where his family moved to follow
Pope Clement V
Pope Clement V who moved
there in 1309 to begin the
Avignon Papacy. He studied law at the
University of Montpellier
University of Montpellier (1316–20) and Bologna (1320–23) with a
lifelong friend and schoolmate called Guido Sette. Because his father
was in the profession of law, he insisted that
Petrarch and his
brother study law also.
Petrarch however, was primarily interested in
Latin literature and considered these seven years wasted.
Additionally, he proclaimed that through legal manipulation his
guardians robbed him of his small property inheritance in Florence,
which only reinforced his dislike for the legal system. He protested,
"I couldn't face making a merchandise of my mind," as he viewed the
legal system as the art of selling justice.
Petrarch was a prolific letter writer and counted
Boccaccio among his
notable friends to whom he wrote often. After the death of their
Petrarch and his brother Gherardo went back to
1326, where he worked in numerous clerical offices. This work gave him
much time to devote to his writing. With his first large-scale work,
Africa, an epic in
Latin about the great Roman general Scipio
Petrarch emerged as a European celebrity. On April 8, 1341,
he became the second  poet laureate since antiquity and was crowned
by Roman Senatori Giordano Orsini and Orso dell'Anguillara on the holy
grounds of Rome's Capitol.
He traveled widely in Europe, served as an ambassador, and has been
called "the first tourist" because he traveled just for
pleasure, and the reason he climbed Mont Ventoux. During his
travels, he collected crumbling
Latin manuscripts and was a prime
mover in the recovery of knowledge from writers of Rome and Greece. He
encouraged and advised Leontius Pilatus's translation of
Homer from a
manuscript purchased by Boccaccio, although he was severely critical
of the result.
Petrarch had acquired a copy, which he did not entrust
to Leontius, but he knew no Greek; Homer,
Petrarch said, "was dumb
to him, while he was deaf to Homer". In 1345 he personally
discovered a collection of Cicero's letters not previously known to
have existed, the collection Epistulae ad Atticum.
Disdaining what he believed to be the ignorance of the centuries
preceding the era in which he lived,
Petrarch is credited or charged
with creating the concept of a historical "Dark Ages".
Main article: Ascent of Mont Ventoux
Summit of Mont Ventoux
Petrarch recounts that on April 26, 1336, with his brother and two
servants, he climbed to the top of
Mont Ventoux (1,912 meters
(6,273 ft), a feat which he undertook for recreation rather than
necessity. The exploit is described in a celebrated letter
addressed to his friend and confessor, the monk Dionigi di Borgo San
Sepolcro, composed some time after the fact. In it
Petrarch claimed to
have been inspired by Philip V of Macedon's ascent of Mount Haemo and
that an aged peasant had told him that nobody had ascended Ventoux
before or after himself, 50 years before, and warned him against
attempting to do so. The nineteenth-century Swiss historian Jacob
Burckhardt noted that
Jean Buridan had climbed the same mountain a few
years before, and ascents accomplished during the
Middle Ages have
been recorded, including that of Anno II, Archbishop of
Scholars note that Petrarch's letter to Dionigi displays a
strikingly "modern" attitude of aesthetic gratification in the
grandeur of the scenery and is still often cited in books and journals
devoted to the sport of mountaineering. In Petrarch, this attitude is
coupled with an aspiration for a virtuous
Christian life, and on
reaching the summit, he took from his pocket a volume by his beloved
mentor, Saint Augustine, that he always carried with him.
For pleasure alone he climbed Mont Ventoux, which rises to more than
six thousand feet, beyond Vaucluse. It was no great feat, of course;
but he was the first recorded Alpinist of modern times, the first to
climb a mountain merely for the delight of looking from its top. (Or
almost the first; for in a high pasture he met an old shepherd, who
said that fifty years before he had attained the summit, and had got
nothing from it save toil and repentance and torn clothing.) Petrarch
was dazed and stirred by the view of the Alps, the mountains around
Lyons, the Rhone, the Bay of Marseilles. He took Augustine's
Confessions from his pocket and reflected that his climb was merely an
allegory of aspiration toward a better life.
As the book fell open, Petrarch's eyes were immediately drawn to the
And men go about to wonder at the heights of the mountains, and the
mighty waves of the sea, and the wide sweep of rivers, and the circuit
of the ocean, and the revolution of the stars, but themselves they
Petrarch's response was to turn from the outer world of nature to the
inner world of "soul":
I closed the book, angry with myself that I should still be admiring
earthly things who might long ago have learned from even the pagan
philosophers that nothing is wonderful but the soul, which, when great
itself, finds nothing great outside itself. Then, in truth, I was
satisfied that I had seen enough of the mountain; I turned my inward
eye upon myself, and from that time not a syllable fell from my lips
until we reached the bottom again. [...] [W]e look about us for what
is to be found only within. [...] How many times, think you, did I
turn back that day, to glance at the summit of the mountain which
seemed scarcely a cubit high compared with the range of human
James Hillman argues that this rediscovery of the inner world is the
real significance of the Ventoux event. The
Renaissance begins not
with the ascent of
Mont Ventoux but with the subsequent descent—the
"return [...] to the valley of soul", as Hillman puts it. Arguing
against such a singular and hyperbolic periodization, Paul James
suggests a different reading:
In the alternative argument that I want to make, these emotional
responses, marked by the changing senses of space and time in
Petrarch’s writing, suggest a person caught in unsettled tension
between two different but contemporaneous ontological formations: the
traditional and the modern.
Petrarch spent the later part of his life journeying through northern
Italy as an international scholar and poet-diplomat. His career in the
Church did not allow him to marry, but he is believed to have fathered
two children by a woman or women unknown to posterity. A son,
Giovanni, was born in 1337, and a daughter, Francesca, was born in
1343. Both he later legitimized.
Petrarch's Arquà house near
Padua where he retired to spend his last
Giovanni died of the plague in 1361. In the same year
named canon in
Monselice near Padua. Francesca married Francescuolo da
Brossano (who was later named executor of Petrarch's will) that same
year. In 1362, shortly after the birth of a daughter, Eletta (the same
name as Petrarch's mother), they joined
Venice to flee the
plague then ravaging parts of Europe. A second grandchild, Francesco,
was born in 1366, but died before his second birthday. Francesca and
her family lived with
Venice for five years from 1362 to
1367 at Palazzo Molina; although
Petrarch continued to travel in those
years. Between 1361 and 1369 the younger
Boccaccio paid the older
Petrarch two visits. The first was in Venice, the second was in Padua.
Petrarch and his daughter Francesca (with her family) moved
to the small town of Arquà in the
Euganean Hills near Padua, where he
passed his remaining years in religious contemplation. He died in his
house in Arquà early on July 20, 1374 – his seventieth birthday.
The house hosts now a permanent exhibition of Petrarchian works and
curiosities; among others you find the famous tomb of Petrarch's
beloved cat who was embalmed. On the marble slab there is a Latin
inscription written by Antonio Quarenghi:
Etruscus gemino vates ardebat amore:
Maximus ignis ego; Laura secundus erat.
Quid rides? divinæ illam si gratia formæ,
Me dignam eximio fecit amante fides.
Si numeros geniumque sacris dedit illa libellis
Causa ego ne sævis muribus esca forent.
Arcebam sacro vivens a limine mures,
Ne domini exitio scripta diserta forent;
Incutio trepidis eadem defuncta pavorem,
Et viget exanimi in corpore prisca fides.
Petrarch's will (dated April 4, 1370) leaves 50 florins to Boccaccio
"to buy a warm winter dressing gown"; various legacies (a horse, a
silver cup, a lute, a Madonna) to his brother and his friends; his
house in Vaucluse to its caretaker; for his soul, and for the poor;
and the bulk of his estate to his son-in-law, Francescuolo da
Brossano, who is to give half of it to "the person to whom, as he
knows, I wish it to go"; presumably his daughter, Francesca,
Brossano's wife. The will mentions neither the property in Arquà nor
Petrarch's library of notable manuscripts was already
promised to Venice, in exchange for the Palazzo Molina. This
arrangement was probably cancelled when he moved to Padua, the enemy
of Venice, in 1368. The library was seized by the lords of Padua, and
his books and manuscripts are now widely scattered over Europe.
Biblioteca Marciana traditionally claimed this
bequest as its founding, although it was in fact founded by Cardinal
Bessarion in 1468.
Original lyrics by Petrarch, found in 1985 in Erfurt
Virgil (title page) (c. 1336)
Illuminated manuscript by Simone Martini, 29 x 20 cm Biblioteca
The Triumph of Death, or The 3 Fates. Flemish tapestry (probably
Brussels, ca. 1510–1520). Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The
three Fates, Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos, who spin, draw out and cut
the thread of life, represent Death in this tapestry, as they triumph
over the fallen body of Chastity. This is the third subject in
Petrarch's poem "The Great Triumphs". First, Love triumphs; then Love
is overcome by Chastity, Chastity by Death, Death by Fame, Fame by
Time and Time by Eternity
Petrarch is best known for his Italian poetry, notably the Canzoniere
("Songbook") and the Trionfi ("Triumphs"). However,
Petrarch was an
Latin scholar and did most of his writing in this
Latin writings include scholarly works, introspective
essays, letters, and more poetry. Among them are Secretum Meum ("My
Secret Book"), an intensely personal, guilt-ridden imaginary dialogue
with Augustine of Hippo; De Viris Illustribus ("On Famous Men"), a
series of moral biographies; Rerum Memorandarum Libri, an incomplete
treatise on the cardinal virtues; De Otio Religiosorum ("On Religious
Leisure") and De Vita Solitaria ("On the Solitary Life"), which
praise the contemplative life; De Remediis Utriusque Fortunae
("Remedies for Fortune Fair and Foul"), a self-help book which
remained popular for hundreds of years;
Itinerarium ("Petrarch's Guide
to the Holy Land"); invectives against opponents such as doctors,
scholastics, and the French; the Carmen Bucolicum, a collection of 12
pastoral poems; and the unfinished epic Africa. He translated seven
psalms, a collection known as the Penitential Psalms.
Petrarch revived the work and letters of the ancient Roman Senator
Marcus Tullius Cicero
Petrarch also published many volumes of his letters, including a few
written to his long-dead friends from history such as
Virgil. Cicero, Virgil, and Seneca were his literary models. Most of
Latin writings are difficult to find today, but several of his
works are available in English translations. Several of his Latin
works are scheduled to appear in the Harvard University Press series I
Tatti. It is difficult to assign any precise dates to his writings
because he tended to revise them throughout his life.
Petrarch collected his letters into two major sets of books called
Epistolae familiares ("Letters on Familiar Matters") and Seniles
("Letters of Old Age"), both of which are available in English
translation. The plan for his letters was suggested to him by
knowledge of Cicero's letters. These were published "without names" to
protect the recipients, all of whom had close relationships to
Petrarch. The recipients of these letters included Philippe de
Cabassoles, bishop of Cavaillon; Ildebrandino Conti, bishop of Padua;
Cola di Rienzo, tribune of Rome; Francesco Nelli, priest of the Prior
of the Church of the Holy Apostles in Florence; and Niccolò di
Capoccia, a cardinal and priest of Saint Vitalis. His "Letter to
Posterity" (the last letter in Seniles) gives an autobiography and
a synopsis of his philosophy in life. It was originally written in
Latin and was completed in 1371 or 1372 - the first such autobiography
in a thousand years (since Saint Augustine).
While Petrarch's poetry was set to music frequently after his death,
especially by Italian madrigal composers of the
Renaissance in the
16th century, only one musical setting composed during Petrarch's
lifetime survives. This is Non al suo amante by Jacopo da Bologna,
written around 1350.
Laura and poetry
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On April 6, 1327, after
Petrarch gave up his vocation as a priest,
the sight of a woman called "Laura" in the church of Sainte-Claire
Avignon awoke in him a lasting passion, celebrated in the Rime
sparse ("Scattered rhymes"). Later,
Renaissance poets who copied
Petrarch's style named this collection of 366 poems Il Canzoniere
("Song Book"). Laura may have been Laura de Noves, the wife of
Count Hugues de Sade (an ancestor of the Marquis de Sade). There is
little definite information in Petrarch's work concerning Laura,
except that she is lovely to look at, fair-haired, with a modest,
dignified bearing. Laura and
Petrarch had little or no personal
contact. According to his "Secretum", she refused him because she was
already married. He channeled his feelings into love poems that were
exclamatory rather than persuasive, and wrote prose that showed his
contempt for men who pursue women. Upon her death in 1348, the poet
found that his grief was as difficult to live with as was his former
despair. Later in his "Letter to Posterity",
Petrarch wrote: "In my
younger days I struggled constantly with an overwhelming but pure love
affair – my only one, and I would have struggled with it longer had
not premature death, bitter but salutary for me, extinguished the
cooling flames. I certainly wish I could say that I have always been
entirely free from desires of the flesh, but I would be lying if I
Laura de Noves
While it is possible she was an idealized or pseudonymous character
– particularly since the name "Laura" has a linguistic connection to
the poetic "laurels"
Petrarch coveted –
Petrarch himself always
denied it. His frequent use of l'aura is also remarkable: for example,
the line "Erano i capei d'oro a l'aura sparsi" may both mean "her hair
was all over Laura's body", and "the wind ("l'aura") blew through her
hair". There is psychological realism in the description of Laura,
Petrarch draws heavily on conventionalised descriptions of
love and lovers from troubadour songs and other literature of courtly
love. Her presence causes him unspeakable joy, but his unrequited love
creates unendurable desires, inner conflicts between the ardent lover
and the mystic Christian, making it impossible to reconcile the two.
Petrarch's quest for love leads to hopelessness and irreconcilable
anguish, as he expresses in the series of paradoxes in Rima 134 "Pace
non trovo, et non ò da far guerra;/e temo, et spero; et ardo, et son
un ghiaccio": "I find no peace, and yet I make no war:/and fear, and
hope: and burn, and I am ice".
Laura is unreachable – the few physical descriptions of her are
vague, almost impalpable as the love he pines for, and such is perhaps
the power of his verse, which lives off the melodies it evokes against
the fading, diaphanous image that is no more consistent than a ghost.
Francesco De Sanctis remarks much the same thing in his Storia della
letteratura italiana, and contemporary critics agree on the powerful
music of his verse. Perhaps the poet was inspired by a famous singer
he met in
Veneto around the 1350s. Gianfranco Contini, in a famous
essay on Petrarch's language ("Preliminari sulla lingua del Petrarca".
Petrarca, Canzoniere. Turin, Einaudi, 1964) has spoken of linguistic
Petrarch never rises above the "bel pié" (her
lovely foot): Laura is too holy to be painted; she is an awe-inspiring
goddess. Sensuality and passion are suggested rather by the rhythm and
music that shape the vague contours of the lady.
English translation by A. S. Kline
Aura che quelle chiome bionde et crespe
cercondi et movi, et se’ mossa da loro,
soavemente, et spargi quel dolce oro,
et poi ’l raccogli, e ’n bei nodi il rincrespe,
tu stai nelli occhi ond’amorose vespe
mi pungon sí, che ’nfin qua il sento et ploro,
et vacillando cerco il mio tesoro,
come animal che spesso adombre e ’ncespe:
ch’or me ’l par ritrovar, et or m’accorgo
ch’i’ ne son lunge, or mi sollievo or caggio,
ch’or quel ch’i’ bramo, or quel ch’è vero scorgo.
Aër felice, col bel vivo raggio
rimanti; et tu corrente et chiaro gorgo,
ché non poss’io cangiar teco vïaggio?
Breeze, blowing that blonde curling hair,
stirring it, and being softly stirred in turn,
scattering that sweet gold about, then
gathering it, in a lovely knot of curls again,
you linger around bright eyes whose loving sting
pierces me so, till I feel it and weep,
and I wander searching for my treasure,
like a creature that often shies and kicks:
now I seem to find her, now I realise
she’s far away, now I’m comforted, now despair,
now longing for her, now truly seeing her.
Happy air, remain here with your
living rays: and you, clear running stream,
why can’t I exchange my path for yours?
Dante Alighieri, detail from a
Luca Signorelli fresco in the chapel of
San Brizio, Duomo, Orvieto.
Petrarch is a world apart from
Dante and his Divina Commedia. In spite
of the metaphysical subject, the Commedia is deeply rooted in the
cultural and social milieu of turn-of-the-century Florence: Dante's
rise to power (1300) and exile (1302), his political passions call for
a "violent" use of language, where he uses all the registers, from low
and trivial to sublime and philosophical.
Petrarch confessed to
Boccaccio that he had never read the Commedia, remarks Contini,
wondering whether this was true or
Petrarch wanted to distance himself
from Dante. Dante's language evolves as he grows old, from the courtly
love of his early stilnovistic Rime and
Vita nuova to the Convivio and
Divina Commedia, where Beatrice is sanctified as the goddess of
philosophy – the philosophy announced by the Donna Gentile at the
death of Beatrice.
In contrast, Petrarch's thought and style are relatively uniform
throughout his life – he spent much of it revising the songs and
sonnets of the
Canzoniere rather than moving to new subjects or
poetry. Here, poetry alone provides a consolation for personal grief,
much less philosophy or politics (as in Dante), for
within himself (sensuality versus mysticism, profane versus Christian
literature), not against anything outside of himself. The strong moral
and political convictions which had inspired
Dante belong to the
Middle Ages and the libertarian spirit of the commune; Petrarch's
moral dilemmas, his refusal to take a stand in politics, his reclusive
life point to a different direction, or time. The free commune, the
place that had made
Dante an eminent politician and scholar, was being
dismantled: the signoria was taking its place. Humanism and its spirit
of empirical inquiry, however, were making progress – but the papacy
(especially after Avignon) and the empire (Henry VII, the last hope of
the white Guelphs, died near Siena in 1313) had lost much of their
Petrarch polished and perfected the sonnet form inherited from Giacomo
da Lentini and which
Dante widely used in his
Vita nuova to popularise
the new courtly love of the Dolce Stil Novo. The tercet benefits from
Dante's terza rima (compare the Divina Commedia), the quatrains prefer
the ABBA-ABBA to the ABAB-ABAB scheme of the Sicilians. The imperfect
rhymes of u with closed o and i with closed e (inherited from
Guittone's mistaken rendering of Sicilian verse) are excluded, but the
rhyme of open and closed o is kept. Finally, Petrarch's enjambment
creates longer semantic units by connecting one line to the following.
The vast majority (317) of Petrarch's 366 poems collected in the
Canzoniere (dedicated to Laura) were sonnets, and the Petrarchan
sonnet still bears his name.
Petrarch on the Uffizi Palace, in Florence
Petrarch is traditionally called the father of Humanism and considered
by many to be the "father of the Renaissance." In his work
Secretum meum he points out that secular achievements did not
necessarily preclude an authentic relationship with God. Petrarch
argued instead that
God had given humans their vast intellectual and
creative potential to be used to their fullest. He inspired
humanist philosophy which led to the intellectual flowering of the
Renaissance. He believed in the immense moral and practical value of
the study of ancient history and literature – that is, the study of
human thought and action.
Petrarch was a devout Catholic and did not
see a conflict between realizing humanity's potential and having
A highly introspective man, he shaped the nascent humanist movement a
great deal because many of the internal conflicts and musings
expressed in his writings were seized upon by
philosophers and argued continually for the next 200 years. For
Petrarch struggled with the proper relation between the
active and contemplative life, and tended to emphasize the importance
of solitude and study. In a clear disagreement with Dante, in 1346
Petrarch argued in his
De vita solitaria
De vita solitaria that Pope Celestine V's
refusal of the papacy in 1294 was as a virtuous example of solitary
life. Later the politician and thinker
Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444)
argued for the active life, or "civic humanism". As a result, a number
of political, military, and religious leaders during the Renaissance
were inculcated with the notion that their pursuit of personal
fulfillment should be grounded in classical example and philosophical
Petrarch's tomb at Arquà Petrarca
Petrarch's influence is evident in the works of Serafino Ciminelli
from Aquila (1466-1500) and in the works of
Marin Držić (1508-1567)
The Romantic composer
Franz Liszt set three of Petrarch's Sonnets (47,
104, and 123) to music for voice, Tre sonetti del Petrarca, which he
later would transcribe for solo piano for inclusion in the suite
Années de Pèlerinage. Liszt also set a poem by Victor Hugo, " O
quand je dors" in which
Petrarch and Laura are invoked as the epitome
of erotic love.
Avignon in 1991,
Elliott Carter completed
his solo flute piece Scrivo in Vento which is in part inspired by and
structured by Petrarch's Sonnet 212, Beato in sogno. It was
premiered on Petrarch's 687th birthday.
In November 2003, it was announced that pathological anatomists would
be exhuming Petrarch's body from his casket in Arquà Petrarca, in
order to verify 19th-century reports that he had stood 1.83 meters
(about six feet), which would have been tall for his period. The team
from the University of
Padua also hoped to reconstruct his cranium in
order to generate a computerized image of his features to coincide
with his 700th birthday. The tomb had been opened previously in 1873
by Professor Giovanni Canestrini, also of
Padua University. When the
tomb was opened, the skull was discovered in fragments and a
revealed that the skull was not Petrarch's, prompting calls for
the return of Petrarch's skull.
The researchers are fairly certain that the body in the tomb is
Petrarch's due to the fact that the skeleton bears evidence of
injuries mentioned by
Petrarch in his writings, including a kick from
a donkey when he was 42.
^ This designation appears, for instance, in a recent review of Carol
Quillen's Rereading the Renaissance.
^ In the Prose della volgar lingua, Bembo proposes
Boccaccio as models of Italian style, while expressing reservations
about emulating Dante's usage.
^ a b
Renaissance or Prenaissance, Journal of the History of Ideas,
Vol. 4, No. 1. (Jan. 1943), pp. 69–74; Theodore E. Mommsen,
"Petrarch's Conception of the 'Dark Ages'" Speculum 17.2 (April 1942:
JSTOR link to a collection of several letters in the same
^ a b J.H. Plumb, The Italian Renaissance, 1961; Chapter XI by Morris
Bishop "Petrarch", pp. 161–175; New York, American Heritage
Publishing, ISBN 0-618-12738-0
^ after "Albertino Mussato" who was the first to be so crowned
according to Robert Weiss, The
Renaissance Discovery of Classical
Antiquity (Oxford, 1973)
^ Plumb, p. 164
^ Pietrangeli (1981), p. 32
^ Kirkham, Victoria (2009). Petrarch: A Critical Guide to the Complete
Works. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 9.
^ NSA Family Encyclopedia, Petrarch, Francesco, Volume 11, page 240,
Standard Education Corp. 1992
^ Bishop, Morris
Petrarch and his World, p. 92; Indiana University
Press 1963, ISBN 0-8046-1730-9
^ Plumb, J.H. (1965).
Renaissance Profiles (PDF). Harper & Row.
p. 4. ISBN 9780061311628.
^ Vittore Branca, Boccaccio; The Man and His Works, tr. Richard
Ep. Fam. 18.2 §9
^ Nicolson, Marjorie Hope; Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory: The
Development of the Aesthetics of the Infinite (1997), p. 49;
^ Burckhardt, Jacob. The Civilisation of the Period of the Renaissance
Italy (1860). Translated by S. G. C. Middlemore. Swan Sonnenschein
(1904), pp. 301–302.
^ Lynn Thorndike,
Renaissance or Prenaissance, Journal of the History
of Ideas, Vol. 4, No. 1. (Jan. 1943), pp. 69–74.
JSTOR link to a
collection of several letters in the same issue.
^ Such as J. H. Plumb, in his book The Italian Renaissance,
^ a b c Familiares 4.1 translated by Morris Bishop, quoted in Plumb.
Petrarch at the Peak of Fame
^ McLaughlin, Edward Tompkins; Studies in Medieval Life and
Literature, p. 6, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1894
^ Plumb, J. H. (1961). The Horizon Book of the Renaissance. New York:
American Heritage. p. 26.
^ Hillman, James (1977). Revisioning Psychology. Harper & Row.
p. 197. ISBN 0-06-090563-8.
^ James, Paul (Spring 2014). "Emotional Ambivalence across Times and
Spaces: Mapping Petrarch's Intersecting Worlds". Exemplaria. 26 (1):
82. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
^ Plumb, p. 165
^ The last lay of Petrarch's cat, Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number
121, February 21, 1852, Author: Various, Editor: George Bell
^ Bishop, pp. 360, 366. Francesca and the quotes from
there;[clarification needed] Bishop adds that the dressing-gown was a
piece of tact: "fifty florins would have bought twenty
^ Tedder, Henry Richard; Brown, James Duff (1911). "Libraries §
Italy.". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.).
Cambridge University Press. p. 573.
^ Francesco Petrarch, On Religious Leisure (De otio religioso), edited
& translated by Susan S. Schearer, introduction by Ronald G. Witt
(New York: Italica Press, 2002).
^ Sturm-Maddox, Sara (2010). Petrarch's Laurels. Pennsylvania State
UP. p. 153. ISBN 9780271040745.
^ "I Tatti
Renaissance Library/Forthcoming and Published Volumes".
Hup.harvard.edu. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
^ Letters on Familiar Matters (Rerum familiarium libri), translated by
Aldo S. Bernardo, 3 vols.' and Letters of Old Age (Rerum senilium
libri), translated by Aldo S. Bernardo, Saul Levin & Reta A.
Bernardo, 2 vols.
^ Petrarch's Letter to Posterity (1909 English translation, with
notes, by James Harvey Robinson)
^ Wilkins Ernest H (1964). "On the Evolution of Petrarch's Letter to
Posterity". Speculum. 39 (2): 304–308. doi:10.2307/2852733.
^ Plumb, p. 173
^ April 6, 1327 is often thought to be
Good Friday based on poems 3
and 211 of Petrarch's Il Canzoniere, but in fact that date fell on
Monday in 1327. The apparent explanation is that
Petrarch was not
referring to the variable date of
Good Friday but to the date fixed by
the death of Christ in absolute time, which at the time was thought to
be April 6 (Mark Musa, Petrarch's Canzoniere, Indiana University
Press, 1996, p. 522).
Petrarch (2004-03-04). "Petrarch". Petrarch. Retrieved
^ Anna Chiappinelli, "La Dolce Musica Nova di Francesco Landini"
Sidereus Nuncius, 2007, pp. 55-91  Archived February 2, 2011, at
the Wayback Machine.
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November
12, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
^ See for example Rudolf Pfeiffer, History of Classical Scholarship
1300-1850, Oxford University Press, 1976, p. 1; Gilbert Highet, The
Classical Tradition, Oxford University Press, 1949, p. 81-88.
Famous First Facts International, H. W. Wilson Company, New York
2000, ISBN 0-8242-0958-3, page 303, item 4567.
^ Petrarca, Francesco (1879). De vita Solitaria (in Italian). Bologna:
^ "Skuola.net, Il Rinascimento" (in Italian). Skuola.net. Retrieved 11
^ Encyclopedia of the Renaissance: Class-Furió Ceriol, Volume 2, page
106, Paul F. Grendler,
Renaissance Society of America, Scribner's
published in association with the
Renaissance Society of America,
1999. ISBN 978-0-684-80509-2
^ Mailman, Joshua B. (2009). "An Imagined Drama of Competitive
Opposition in Carter's Scrivo in Vento, with Notes on Narrative,
Symmetry, Quantitative Flux and Heraclitus". Music Analysis. 28:
^ Spencer, Patricia (2008) "Regarding Scrivo in Vento: A Conversation
with Elliott Carter" Flutest Quarterly summer.
^ Caramelli D, Lalueza-Fox C, Capelli C, et al. (November 2007).
"Genetic analysis of the skeletal remains attributed to Francesco
Petrarch". Forensic Sci. Int. 173 (1): 36–40.
doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.01.020. PMID 17320326.
Bartlett, Kenneth R. (1992). The Civilization of the Italian
Renaissance; a Source Book. Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company.
Bishop, Morris (1961). "Petrarch." In
J. H. Plumb (Ed.), Renaissance
Profiles, pp. 1–17. New York: Harper & Row.
ISBN 0-06-131162-6 .
Hanawalt, A. Barbara. The Middle Ages:An Illustrated History
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press New York 1998
James, Paul (2014). "Emotional Ambivalence across Times and Spaces:
Mapping Petrarch's Intersecting Worlds". Exemplaria. 26 (1): 81–104.
Kallendorf, Craig. "The Historical Petrarch," The American Historical
Review, Vol 101, No. 1 (Feb. 1996): 130-141.
Francesco Petrarch, Letters on Familiar Matters (Rerum familiarium
libri), translated by Aldo S. Bernardo (New York: Italica Press,
2005). Volume 1, Books 1-8; Volume 2, Books 9-16; Volume 3, Books
Francesco Petrarch, Letters of Old Age (Rerum senilium libri),
translated by Aldo S. Bernardo, Saul Levin & Reta A. Bernardo (New
York: Italica Press, 2005). Volume 1, Books 1-9; Volume 2, Books
Francesco Petrarch, My Secret Book, (Secretum), translated by Nicholas
Mann. Harvard University Press.
Francesco Petrarch, On Religious Leisure (De otio religioso), edited
& translated by Susan S. Schearer, introduction by Ronald G. Witt
(New York: Italica Press, 2002).
Francesco Petrarch, The Revolution of Cola di Rienzo, translated from
Latin and edited by Mario E. Cosenza; 3rd, revised, edition by Ronald
G. Musto (New York; Italica Press, 1996).
Francesco Petrarch, Selected Letters, vol. 1 and 2, translated by
Elaine Fantham. Harvard University Press.
Bernardo, Aldo (1983). "Petrarch." In Dictionary of the Middle Ages,
Celenza, Christopher S. (2017). Petrarch: Everywhere a Wanderer.
London: Reaktion. ISBN 9781780238388
Hennigfeld, Ursula (2008). Der ruinierte Körper. Petrarkistische
Sonette in transkultureller Perspektive. Würzburg, Königshausen
& Neumann, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8260-3768-9.
Hollway-Calthrop, Henry. (1907). Petrarch: His Life and Times,
Methuen. From Google Books.
Kohl, Benjamin G. (1978). "Francesco Petrarch: Introduction; How a
Ruler Ought to Govern His State," in The Earthly Republic: Italian
Humanists on Government and Society, ed. Benjamin G. Kohl and Ronald
G. Witt, 25-78. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Mailman, Joshua B. (2009) "Imagined Drama of Competitive Opposition in
Carter's Scrivo in Vento (with Notes on Narrative, Symmetry,
Quantitative Flux and Heraclitus)" Music Analysis v.28, 2-3.
Nauert, Charles G. (2006). Humanism and the Culture of Renaissance
Europe: Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rawski, Conrad H. (1991). Petrarch's Remedies for Fortune Fair and
Foul A Modern English Translation of De remediis utriusque Fortune,
with a Commentary. ISBN 0-253-34849-8
Robinson, James Harvey (1898). Petrarch, the First Modern Scholar and
Man of Letters Harvard University
Kirkham, Victoria and Armando Maggi. (2009). Petrarch: A Critical
Guide to the Complete Works. University of Chicago Press.
Petrarch and St. Augustine: Classical Scholarship, Christian
Theology and the Origins of the
Renaissance in Italy, Brill, Leiden,
2012, ISBN 9789004224032
N. Mann, Petrarca [Ediz. orig.
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (1984)] –
Ediz. ital. a cura di G. Alessio e L. Carlo Rossi – Premessa di G.
Velli, LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano, 1993,
Il «Canzoniere» di Francesco Petrarca. La Critica Contemporanea, G.
Barbarisi e C. Berra (edd.), LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano, 1992,
G. Baldassari, Unum in locum. Strategie macrotestuali nel Petrarca
politico, LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano, 2006,
Francesco Petrarca, Rerum vulgarium Fragmenta. Edizione critica di
Giuseppe Savoca, Olschki, Firenze, 2008, ISBN 978-88-222-5744-4
Plumb, J. H., The Italian Renaissance, Houghton Mifflin, 2001,
Giuseppe Savoca, Il
Canzoniere di Petrarca. Tra codicologia ed
ecdotica, Olschki, Firenze, 2008, ISBN 978-88-222-5805-2
Roberta Antognini, Il progetto autobiografico delle "Familiares" di
Petrarca, LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano, 2008,
Paul Geyer und Kerstin Thorwarth (hg), Petrarca und die Herausbildung
des modernen Subjekts (Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2009)
(Gründungsmythen Europas in Literatur, Musik und Kunst, 2).
Find more aboutPetrarchat's sister projects
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Petrarch and his Cat Muse
Canzoniere (different edition) and other works
Petrarch from the Catholic Encyclopedia
Excerpts from his works and letters
Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch) (1304-1374)
Works by Francesco Petrarca at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about Francesco Petrarca at Internet Archive
Works by or about
Petrarch at Internet Archive
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Timeline of life of Petrarch
Poems From The Canzoniere, translated by Tony Kline.
Petrarch at The Online Library of Liberty
De remediis utriusque fortunae, Cremonae, B. de Misintis ac Caesaris
Parmensis, 1492. (Vicifons)
Free scores of works by
Petrarch in the Choral Public Domain Library
Petrarch and Laura Multi-lingual site including translated works in
the public domain and biography, pictures, music.
Petrarch - the poet who lost his head April 2004 article in The
Guardian regarding the exhumation of Petrarch's remains
Petrarch Open Book – A working database-driven hypertext in
and around Francis Petrarch’s Rerum Vulgarium Fragmenta (Canzoniere)
Historia Griseldis From the Rare Book and
Special Collections Division
at the Library of Congress
Francesco Petrarch, De viris illustribus, digitized French codex, at
Canzoniere (Rerum vulgarium fragmenta)
De viris illustribus
De remediis utriusque fortunae
De vita solitaria
De otio religiosorum
Rerum memorandarum libri
"Ascent of Mont Ventoux"
Liber sine nomine
Letter to Posterity
Philippe de Cabassoles
Laura de Noves
Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro
Francescuolo da Brossano
Robert, King of Naples
Petrarch's and Shakespeare's sonnets
Influence of Italian humanism on Chaucer
ISNI: 0000 0001 2128 7790
BNF: cb11919436b (data)