FRANCESCO PETRARCA (Italian pronunciation: ; July 20, 1304 – July
19, 1374), commonly anglicized as PETRARCH (/ˈpiːtrɑːrk,
ˈpɛtrɑːrk/ ), was an Italian scholar and poet in
, who was one of the earliest humanists . His rediscovery of
letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Renaissance
Petrarch is often considered the founder of Humanism . In the 16th
Pietro Bembo created the model for the modern Italian
language based on Petrarch's works, as well as those of Giovanni
Boccaccio , and, to a lesser extent,
Dante Alighieri .
be later endorsed as a model for Italian style by the Accademia della
Crusca . Petrarch's sonnets were admired and imitated throughout
Europe during the
Renaissance and became a model for lyrical poetry .
He is also known for being the first to develop the concept of the
"Dark Ages ." This standing back from his time was possible because
he straddled two worlds—the classical and his own modern day.
* 1 Biography
* 1.1 Youth and early career
* 1.2 Mount Ventoux
* 1.3 Later years
* 2 Works
* 2.1 Laura and poetry
* 2.2 Sonnet 227
* 4 Philosophy
* 5 Legacy
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 9 English translations
* 10 Further reading
* 11 External links
YOUTH AND EARLY CAREER
Petrarch was born in the Tuscan city of
Arezzo in 1304. He was the
Ser Petracco and his wife Eletta Canigiani. His given name was
Francesco Petracco. The name was Latinized to Petrarca. Petrarch's
younger brother was born in Incisa in Val d\'Arno in 1307.
Dante was a
friend of his father.
Petrarch spent his early childhood in the village of Incisa , near
Florence . He spent much of his early life at
Avignon and nearby
Carpentras , where his family moved to follow
Pope Clement V who moved
there in 1309 to begin the
Avignon Papacy . He studied law at the
University of Montpellier (1316–20) and Bologna (1320–23) with a
lifelong friend and schoolmate called Guido Sette. Because his father
was in the profession of law, he insisted that
Petrarch and his
brother study law also.
Petrarch however, was primarily interested in
Latin literature and considered these seven years wasted.
Additionally, he proclaimed that through legal manipulation his
guardians robbed him of his small property inheritance in Florence,
which only reinforced his dislike for the legal system. He protested,
"I couldn't face making a merchandise of my mind," as he viewed the
legal system as the art of selling justice.
Petrarch was a prolific letter writer and counted
Boccaccio among his
notable friends to whom he wrote often. After the death of their
Petrarch and his brother Gherardo went back to
1326, where he worked in numerous clerical offices. This work gave him
much time to devote to his writing. With his first large-scale work,
Africa , an epic in
Latin about the great Roman general Scipio
Petrarch emerged as a European celebrity. On April 8,
1341, he became the second poet laureate since antiquity and was
crowned by Roman Senatori Giordano Orsini and Orso dell'Anguillara on
the holy grounds of Rome\'s Capitol .
He traveled widely in Europe, served as an ambassador, and has been
called "the first tourist " because he traveled just for pleasure,
which was the basic reason he climbed
Mont Ventoux . During his
travels, he collected crumbling
Latin manuscripts and was a prime
mover in the recovery of knowledge from writers of Rome and Greece. He
encouraged and advised
Leontius Pilatus 's translation of
Homer from a
manuscript purchased by
Boccaccio , although he was severely critical
of the result.
Petrarch had acquired a copy, which he did not entrust
to Leontius, but he knew no Greek ;
Petrarch said, "was dumb
to him, while he was deaf to Homer". In 1345 he personally discovered
a collection of
Cicero 's letters not previously known to have
existed, the collection
Epistulae ad Atticum .
Disdaining what he believed to be the ignorance of the centuries
preceding the era in which he lived,
Petrarch is credited or charged
with creating the concept of a historical "Dark Ages ".
Main article: Ascent of
Mont Ventoux Summit of
Petrarch recounts that on April 26, 1336, with his brother and two
servants, he climbed to the top of
Mont Ventoux (1,912 meters (6,273
ft), a feat which he undertook for recreation rather than necessity.
The exploit is described in a celebrated letter addressed to his
friend and confessor, the monk
Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro ,
composed some time after the fact. In it
Petrarch claimed to have been
Philip V of Macedon 's ascent of Mount Haemo and that an
aged peasant had told him that nobody had ascended Ventoux before or
after himself, 50 years before, and warned him against attempting to
do so. The nineteenth-century Swiss historian
Jacob Burckhardt noted
Jean Buridan had climbed the same mountain a few years before,
and ascents accomplished during the
Middle Ages have been recorded,
including that of
Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne .
Scholars note that Petrarch's letter to Dionigi displays a
strikingly "modern" attitude of aesthetic gratification in the
grandeur of the scenery and is still often cited in books and journals
devoted to the sport of mountaineering . In Petrarch, this attitude is
coupled with an aspiration for a virtuous
Christian life, and on
reaching the summit, he took from his pocket a volume by his beloved
mentor, Saint Augustine, that he always carried with him.
For pleasure alone he climbed Mount Ventoux, which rises to more than
six thousand feet, beyond Vaucluse. It was no great feat, of course;
but he was the first recorded Alpinist of modern times, the first to
climb a mountain merely for the delight of looking from its top. (Or
almost the first; for in a high pasture he met an old shepherd, who
said that fifty years before he had attained the summit, and had got
nothing from it save toil and repentance and torn clothing.) Petrarch
was dazed and stirred by the view of the Alps, the mountains around
Lyons , the
Rhone , the Bay of
Marseilles . He took St. Augustine 's
Confessions from his pocket and reflected that his climb was merely an
allegory of aspiration towards a better life.
As the book fell open , Petrarch's eyes were immediately drawn to the
And men go about to wonder at the heights of the mountains, and the
mighty waves of the sea, and the wide sweep of rivers, and the circuit
of the ocean, and the revolution of the stars, but themselves they
Petrarch's response was to turn from the outer world of nature to the
inner world of "soul":
I closed the book, angry with myself that I should still be admiring
earthly things who might long ago have learned from even the pagan
philosophers that nothing is wonderful but the soul, which, when great
itself, finds nothing great outside itself. Then, in truth, I was
satisfied that I had seen enough of the mountain; I turned my inward
eye upon myself, and from that time not a syllable fell from my lips
until we reached the bottom again. e look about us for what is to be
found only within. How many times, think you, did I turn back that
day, to glance at the summit of the mountain which seemed scarcely a
cubit high compared with the range of human contemplation
James Hillman argues that this rediscovery of the inner world is the
real significance of the Ventoux event. The
Renaissance begins not
with the ascent of
Mont Ventoux but with the subsequent descent—the
"return to the valley of soul", as Hillman puts it. Arguing against
such a singular and hyperbolic periodization, Paul James suggests a
In the alternative argument that I want to make, these emotional
responses, marked by the changing senses of space and time in
Petrarch’s writing, suggest a person caught in unsettled tension
between two different but contemporaneous ontological formations: the
traditional and the modern.
Petrarch spent the later part of his life journeying through northern
Italy as an international scholar and poet-diplomat . His career in
the Church did not allow him to marry, but he is believed to have
fathered two children by a woman or women unknown to posterity. A son,
Giovanni, was born in 1337, and a daughter, Francesca, was born in
1343. Both he later legitimized. Petrarch's Arquà house near
Padua where he retired to spend his last years
Giovanni died of the plague in 1361. In the same year
named canon in
Monselice near Padua. Francesca married Francescuolo da
Brossano (who was later named executor of Petrarch's will ) that same
year. In 1362, shortly after the birth of a daughter, Eletta (the same
name as Petrarch's mother), they joined
Venice to flee the
plague then ravaging parts of Europe. A second grandchild, Francesco,
was born in 1366, but died before his second birthday. Francesca and
her family lived with
Venice for five years from 1362 to
Palazzo Molina ; although
Petrarch continued to travel in
those years. Between 1361 and 1369 the younger
Boccaccio paid the
Petrarch two visits. The first was in Venice, the second was in
Petrarch and his daughter Francesca (with her family)
moved to the small town of Arquà in the
Euganean Hills near
where he passed his remaining years in religious contemplation. He
died in his house in Arquà early on July 20, 1374 – his seventieth
birthday. The house hosts now a permanent exhibition of Petrarchian
works and curiosities; among others you find the famous tomb of
Petrarch's beloved cat who was embalmed. On the marble slab there is a
Latin inscription written by Antonio Quarenghi:
Etruscus gemino vates ardebat amore:
Maximus ignis ego; Laura secundus erat.
Quid rides? divinæ illam si gratia formæ,
Me dignam eximio fecit amante fides.
Si numeros geniumque sacris dedit illa libellis
Causa ego ne sævis muribus esca forent.
Arcebam sacro vivens a limine mures,
Ne domini exitio scripta diserta forent;
Incutio trepidis eadem defuncta pavorem,
Et viget exanimi in corpore prisca fides.
Petrarch's will (dated April 4, 1370) leaves 50 florins to Boccaccio
"to buy a warm winter dressing gown"; various legacies (a horse, a
silver cup, a lute, a Madonna ) to his brother and his friends; his
house in Vaucluse to its caretaker; for his soul , and for the poor;
and the bulk of his estate to his son-in-law, Francescuolo da
Brossano, who is to give half of it to "the person to whom, as he
knows, I wish it to go"; presumably his daughter, Francesca,
Brossano's wife. The will mentions neither the property in Arquà nor
his library; Petrarch\'s library of notable manuscripts was already
promised to Venice, in exchange for the Palazzo Molina. This
arrangement was probably cancelled when he moved to Padua, the enemy
of Venice, in 1368. The library was seized by the lords of
Padua , and
his books and manuscripts are now widely scattered over Europe.
Biblioteca Marciana traditionally claimed this
bequest as its founding, although it was in fact founded by Cardinal
Bessarion in 1468.
Original lyrics by Petrarch, found in 1985 in Erfurt
Virgil (title page) (c. 1336)
Illuminated manuscript by
Simone Martini , 29 x 20 cm Biblioteca
Ambrosiana, Milan. The Triumph of Death, or The 3 Fates.
Flemish tapestry (probably Brussels, ca. 1510–1520). Victoria and
Albert Museum, London. The three Fates, Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos,
who spin, draw out and cut the thread of life, represent Death in this
tapestry, as they triumph over the fallen body of Chastity. This is
the third subject in Petrarch's poem "The Great Triumphs". First, Love
triumphs; then Love is overcome by Chastity, Chastity by Death, Death
by Fame, Fame by Time and Time by Eternity
Petrarch is best known for his Italian poetry, notably the Canzoniere
("Songbook") and the Trionfi ("Triumphs"). However,
Petrarch was an
Latin scholar and did most of his writing in this
Latin writings include scholarly works, introspective
essays, letters, and more poetry. Among them are Secretum Meum ("My
Secret Book"), an intensely personal, guilt-ridden imaginary dialogue
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo ; De Viris Illustribus ("On Famous Men"), a
series of moral biographies; Rerum Memorandarum Libri, an incomplete
treatise on the cardinal virtues ; De Otio Religiosorum ("On Religious
Leisure") and De Vita Solitaria ("On the Solitary Life"), which
praise the contemplative life; De Remediis Utriusque Fortunae
("Remedies for Fortune Fair and Foul"), a self-help book which
remained popular for hundreds of years;
Itinerarium ("Petrarch's Guide
to the Holy Land"); invectives against opponents such as doctors,
scholastics, and the French ; the Carmen Bucolicum, a collection of 12
pastoral poems; and the unfinished epic Africa . He translated seven
psalms, a collection known as the
Penitential Psalms . Petrarch
revived the work and letters of the ancient Roman Senator Marcus
Petrarch also published many volumes of his letters, including a few
written to his long-dead friends from history such as
Virgil . Cicero, Virgil, and Seneca were his literary models. Most of
Latin writings are difficult to find today, but several of his
works are available in English translations. Several of his Latin
works are scheduled to appear in the Harvard University Press series I
Tatti. It is difficult to assign any precise dates to his writings
because he tended to revise them throughout his life.
Petrarch collected his letters into two major sets of books called
Epistolae familiares ("Letters on Familiar Matters") and Seniles
("Letters of Old Age"), both of which are available in English
translation. The plan for his letters was suggested to him by
Cicero 's letters. These were published "without names"
to protect the recipients, all of whom had close relationships to
Petrarch. The recipients of these letters included Philippe de
Cabassoles , bishop of Cavaillon ;
Ildebrandino Conti , bishop of
Cola di Rienzo
Cola di Rienzo , tribune of Rome;
Francesco Nelli , priest of
the Prior of the Church of the Holy Apostles in
Florence ; and
Niccolò di Capoccia , a cardinal and priest of Saint Vitalis . His
"Letter to Posterity" (the last letter in Seniles) gives an
autobiography and a synopsis of his philosophy in life. It was
originally written in
Latin and was completed in 1371 or 1372 - the
first such autobiography in a thousand years (since
Saint Augustine ).
While Petrarch's poetry was set to music frequently after his death,
especially by Italian madrigal composers of the
Renaissance in the
16th century, only one musical setting composed during Petrarch's
lifetime survives. This is Non al suo amante by
Jacopo da Bologna ,
written around 1350.
LAURA AND POETRY
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On April 6, 1327, after
Petrarch gave up his vocation as a priest,
the sight of a woman called "Laura" in the church of Sainte-Claire
Avignon awoke in him a lasting passion, celebrated in the Rime
sparse ("Scattered rhymes"). Later,
Renaissance poets who copied
Petrarch's style named this collection of 366 poems Il Canzoniere
("Song Book"). Laura may have been
Laura de Noves , the wife of Count
Hugues de Sade (an ancestor of the
Marquis de Sade ). There is little
definite information in Petrarch's work concerning Laura, except that
she is lovely to look at, fair-haired, with a modest, dignified
bearing. Laura and
Petrarch had little or no personal contact.
According to his "Secretum", she refused him because she was already
married. He channeled his feelings into love poems that were
exclamatory rather than persuasive, and wrote prose that showed his
contempt for men who pursue women. Upon her death in 1348, the poet
found that his grief was as difficult to live with as was his former
despair. Later in his "Letter to Posterity",
Petrarch wrote: "In my
younger days I struggled constantly with an overwhelming but pure love
affair – my only one, and I would have struggled with it longer had
not premature death, bitter but salutary for me, extinguished the
cooling flames. I certainly wish I could say that I have always been
entirely free from desires of the flesh, but I would be lying if I
Laura de Noves
While it is possible she was an idealized or pseudonymous character
– particularly since the name "Laura" has a linguistic connection to
the poetic "laurels"
Petrarch coveted –
Petrarch himself always
denied it. His frequent use of l'aura is also remarkable: for example,
the line "Erano i capei d'oro a l'aura sparsi" may both mean "her hair
was all over Laura's body", and "the wind ("l'aura") blew through her
hair". There is psychological realism in the description of Laura,
Petrarch draws heavily on conventionalised descriptions of
love and lovers from troubadour songs and other literature of courtly
love . Her presence causes him unspeakable joy, but his unrequited
love creates unendurable desires, inner conflicts between the ardent
lover and the mystic
Christian , making it impossible to reconcile the
two. Petrarch's quest for love leads to hopelessness and
irreconcilable anguish, as he expresses in the series of paradoxes in
Rima 134 "Pace non trovo, et non ò da far guerra;/e temo, et spero;
et ardo, et son un ghiaccio": "I find no peace, and yet I make no
war:/and fear, and hope: and burn, and I am ice".
Laura is unreachable – the few physical descriptions of her are
vague, almost impalpable as the love he pines for, and such is perhaps
the power of his verse, which lives off the melodies it evokes against
the fading, diaphanous image that is no more consistent than a ghost.
Francesco De Sanctis remarks much the same thing in his Storia della
letteratura italiana, and contemporary critics agree on the powerful
music of his verse. Perhaps the poet was inspired by a famous singer
he met in
Veneto around the 1350s. Gianfranco Contini, in a famous
essay on Petrarch's language ("Preliminari sulla lingua del Petrarca".
Petrarca, Canzoniere. Turin, Einaudi, 1964) has spoken of linguistic
Petrarch never rises above the "bel pié" (her
lovely foot): Laura is too holy to be painted; she is an awe-inspiring
goddess. Sensuality and passion are suggested rather by the rhythm and
music that shape the vague contours of the lady.
ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY A. S. KLINE
Aura che quelle chiome bionde et crespe
cercondi et movi, et se’ mossa da loro,
soavemente, et spargi quel dolce oro,
et poi ’l raccogli, e ’n bei nodi il rincrespe,
tu stai nelli occhi ond’amorose vespe
mi pungon sí, che ’nfin qua il sento et ploro,
et vacillando cerco il mio thesoro,
come animal che spesso adombre e ’ncespe:
ch’or me ’l par ritrovar, et or m’accorgo
ch’i’ ne son lunge, or mi sollievo or caggio,
ch’or quel ch’i’ bramo, or quel ch’è vero scorgo.
Aër felice, col bel vivo raggio
rimanti; et tu corrente et chiaro gorgo,
ché non poss’io cangiar teco vïaggio?
Breeze, blowing that blonde curling hair,
stirring it, and being softly stirred in turn,
scattering that sweet gold about, then
gathering it, in a lovely knot of curls again,
you linger around bright eyes whose loving sting
pierces me so, till I feel it and weep,
and I wander searching for my treasure,
like a creature that often shies and kicks:
now I seem to find her, now I realise
she’s far away, now I’m comforted, now despair,
now longing for her, now truly seeing her.
Happy air, remain here with your
living rays: and you, clear running stream,
why can’t I exchange my path for yours?
Dante Alighieri, detail from a
Luca Signorelli fresco in the
chapel of San Brizio , Duomo, Orvieto.
Petrarch is a world apart from
Dante and his
Divina Commedia . In
spite of the metaphysical subject, the Commedia is deeply rooted in
the cultural and social milieu of turn-of-the-century
Dante's rise to power (1300) and exile (1302), his political passions
call for a "violent" use of language, where he uses all the registers,
from low and trivial to sublime and philosophical.
Boccaccio that he had never read the Commedia, remarks Contini,
wondering whether this was true or
Petrarch wanted to distance himself
from Dante. Dante's language evolves as he grows old, from the courtly
love of his early stilnovistic Rime and
Vita nuova to the Convivio and
Divina Commedia, where Beatrice is sanctified as the goddess of
philosophy – the philosophy announced by the Donna Gentile at the
death of Beatrice.
In contrast, Petrarch's thought and style are relatively uniform
throughout his life – he spent much of it revising the songs and
sonnets of the
Canzoniere rather than moving to new subjects or
poetry. Here, poetry alone provides a consolation for personal grief,
much less philosophy or politics (as in Dante), for
within himself (sensuality versus mysticism , profane versus Christian
literature), not against anything outside of himself. The strong moral
and political convictions which had inspired
Dante belong to the
Middle Ages and the libertarian spirit of the commune ; Petrarch's
moral dilemmas, his refusal to take a stand in politics, his reclusive
life point to a different direction, or time. The free commune, the
place that had made
Dante an eminent politician and scholar, was being
dismantled: the signoria was taking its place. Humanism and its spirit
of empirical inquiry, however, were making progress – but the papacy
(especially after Avignon) and the empire (Henry VII , the last hope
of the white Guelphs , died near Siena in 1313) had lost much of their
Petrarch polished and perfected the sonnet form inherited from
Giacomo da Lentini and which
Dante widely used in his
Vita nuova to
popularise the new courtly love of the
Dolce Stil Novo . The tercet
benefits from Dante's terza rima (compare the Divina Commedia), the
quatrains prefer the ABBA-ABBA to the ABAB-ABAB scheme of the
Sicilians . The imperfect rhymes of u with closed o and i with closed
e (inherited from Guittone's mistaken rendering of Sicilian verse )
are excluded, but the rhyme of open and closed o is kept. Finally,
Petrarch's enjambment creates longer semantic units by connecting one
line to the following. The vast majority (317) of Petrarch's 366 poems
collected in the
Canzoniere (dedicated to Laura) were sonnets, and the
Petrarchan sonnet still bears his name.
Petrarch Statue of
Petrarch on the Uffizi Palace, in
Petrarch is traditionally called the father of Humanism and
considered by many to be the "father of the
Renaissance ." In his
work Secretum meum he points out that secular achievements did not
necessarily preclude an authentic relationship with
God . Petrarch
argued instead that
God had given humans their vast intellectual and
creative potential to be used to their fullest. He inspired humanist
philosophy which led to the intellectual flowering of the Renaissance.
He believed in the immense moral and practical value of the study of
ancient history and literature – that is, the study of human thought
Petrarch was a devout Catholic and did not see a conflict
between realizing humanity's potential and having religious faith .
A highly introspective man, he shaped the nascent humanist movement a
great deal because many of the internal conflicts and musings
expressed in his writings were seized upon by
philosophers and argued continually for the next 200 years. For
Petrarch struggled with the proper relation between the
active and contemplative life, and tended to emphasize the importance
of solitude and study. In a clear disagreement with Dante, in 1346
Petrarch argued in his
De vita solitaria that
Pope Celestine V 's
refusal of the papacy in 1294 was as a virtuous example of solitary
life. Later the politician and thinker
Leonardo Bruni argued for the
active life, or "civic humanism ". As a result, a number of political,
military, and religious leaders during the
Renaissance were inculcated
with the notion that their pursuit of personal fulfillment should be
grounded in classical example and philosophical contemplation.
Petrarch's tomb at
Petrarch's influence is evident in the works of Serafino Ciminelli
from Aquila (1466-1500) and in the works of
Marin Držić (1508-1567)
The Romantic composer
Franz Liszt set three of Petrarch's Sonnets
(47, 104, and 123) to music for voice, Tre sonetti del Petrarca, which
he later would transcribe for solo piano for inclusion in the suite
Années de Pèlerinage . Liszt also set a poem by Victor Hugo, " O
quand je dors" in which
Petrarch and Laura are invoked as the epitome
of erotic love.
Avignon in 1991,
Elliott Carter completed
his solo flute piece Scrivo in Vento which is in part inspired by and
structured by Petrarch's Sonnet 212, Beato in sogno. It was premiered
on Petrarch's 687th birthday.
In November 2003, it was announced that pathological anatomists would
be exhuming Petrarch's body from his casket in
Arquà Petrarca , in
order to verify 19th-century reports that he had stood 1.83 meters
(about six feet), which would have been tall for his period. The team
from the University of
Padua also hoped to reconstruct his cranium in
order to generate a computerized image of his features to coincide
with his 700th birthday. The tomb had been opened previously in 1873
by Professor Giovanni Canestrini, also of
Padua University. When the
tomb was opened, the skull was discovered in fragments and a
revealed that the skull was not Petrarch's, prompting calls for the
return of Petrarch's skull.
The researchers are fairly certain that the body in the tomb is
Petrarch's due to the fact that the skeleton bears evidence of
injuries mentioned by
Petrarch in his writings, including a kick from
a donkey when he was 42.
* Literature portal
* ^ This designation appears, for instance, in a recent review of
Carol Quillen's Rereading the Renaissance.
* ^ In the Prose della volgar lingua, Bembo proposes
Boccaccio as models of Italian style, while expressing reservations
about emulating Dante's usage.
* ^ A B
Renaissance or Prenaissance, Journal of the History of
Ideas, Vol. 4, No. 1. (Jan. 1943), pp. 69–74; Theodore E. Mommsen,
"Petrarch's Conception of the 'Dark Ages'" Speculum 17.2 (April 1942:
JSTOR link to a collection of several letters in the same
* ^ James, Paul (2014). "Emotional Ambivalence across Times and
Spaces: Mapping Petrarch\'s Intersecting Worlds". Exemplaria. 26 (1):
* ^ A B
J.H. Plumb , The Italian Renaissance, 1961; Chapter XI by
Morris Bishop "Petrarch", pp. 161–175; New York, American Heritage
Publishing , ISBN 0-618-12738-0
* ^ after "Albertino Mussato" who was the first to be so crowned
according to Robert Weiss, The
Renaissance Discovery of Classical
Antiquity (Oxford, 1973)
* ^ Plumb, p. 164
* ^ Pietrangeli (1981), p. 32
* ^ Kirkham, Victoria (2009). Petrarch: A Critical Guide to the
Complete Works. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 9.
* ^ NSA Family Encyclopedia, Petrarch, Francesco, Volume 11, page
240, Standard Education Corp. 1992
* ^ Bishop, Morris
Petrarch and his World, p. 92; Indiana
University Press 1963, ISBN 0-8046-1730-9
* ^ A B Plumb, J.H. (1965).
Renaissance Profiles (PDF). Harper &
Row. p. 4. ISBN 9780061311628 .
* ^ Vittore Branca, Boccaccio; The Man and His Works, tr. Richard
Ep. Fam. 18.2 §9
* ^ Nicolson, Marjorie Hope ; Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory:
The Development of the Aesthetics of the Infinite (1997), p. 49; ISBN
* ^ Burckhardt, Jacob. The Civilisation of the Period of the
Italy (1860). Translated by S. G. C. Middlemore. Swan
Sonnenschein (1904), pp. 301–302.
Lynn Thorndike ,
Renaissance or Prenaissance, Journal of the
History of Ideas, Vol. 4, No. 1. (Jan. 1943), pp. 69–74.
to a collection of several letters in the same issue.
* ^ Such as
J. H. Plumb , in his book The Italian Renaissance,
* ^ A B C Familiares 4.1 translated by Morris Bishop, quoted in
* ^ JSTOR:
Petrarch at the Peak of Fame
* ^ McLaughlin, Edward Tompkins; Studies in Medieval Life and
Literature, p. 6, New York: G.P. Putnam\'s Sons , 1894
* ^ Hillman, James (1977). Revisioning Psychology .
Harper & Row .
p. 197. ISBN 0-06-090563-8 .
* ^ James, Paul (Spring 2014). "Emotional Ambivalence across Times
and Spaces: Mapping Petrarch\'s Intersecting Worlds". Exemplaria. 26
(1): 82. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
* ^ Plumb, p. 165
* ^ The last lay of Petrarch\'s cat, Notes and Queries, Vol. V,
Number 121, February 21, 1852, Author: Various, Editor: George Bell
* ^ Bishop, pp. 360, 366. Francesca and the quotes from there;
Bishop adds that the dressing-gown was a piece of tact: "fifty florins
would have bought twenty dressing-gowns".
* ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition, Libraries" §Italy.
* ^ Francesco Petrarch, On Religious Leisure (De otio religioso),
edited & translated by Susan S. Schearer, introduction by Ronald G.
Witt (New York: Italica Press, 2002).
* ^ Sturm-Maddox, Sara (2010). Petrarch\'s Laurels. Pennsylvania
State UP. p. 153. ISBN 9780271040745 .
* ^ "I Tatti
Renaissance Library/Forthcoming and Published
Volumes". Hup.harvard.edu. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
* ^ Letters on Familiar Matters (Rerum familiarium libri),
translated by Aldo S. Bernardo, 3 vols.' and Letters of Old Age (Rerum
senilium libri), translated by Aldo S. Bernardo, Saul Levin & Reta A.
Bernardo, 2 vols.
* ^ Petrarch\'s Letter to Posterity (1909 English translation, with
James Harvey Robinson )
* ^ Wilkins Ernest H (1964). "On the Evolution of Petrarch's Letter
to Posterity". Speculum. 39 (2): 304–308. doi :10.2307/2852733 .
* ^ Plumb, p. 173
* ^ April 6, 1327 is often thought to be
Good Friday based on poems
3 and 211 of Petrarch's Il
Canzoniere , but in fact that date fell on
Monday in 1327. The apparent explanation is that
Petrarch was not
referring to the variable date of
Good Friday but to the date fixed by
the death of Christ in absolute time, which at the time was thought to
be April 6 (Mark Musa, Petrarch's Canzoniere, Indiana University
Press, 1996, p. 522).
* ^ Anna Chiappinelli, "La Dolce Musica Nova di Francesco Landini"
Sidereus Nuncius, 2007, pp. 55-91
* ^ http://www.insulaeuropea.eu/pulsoni/il_metodo_di_lavoro.pdf
* ^ http://petrarch.uoregon.edu/
* ^ http://www.webexhibits.org/poetry/home_movements.html
* ^ See for example
Rudolf Pfeiffer , History of Classical
Scholarship 1300-1850, Oxford University Press, 1976, p. 1; Gilbert
Highet, The Classical Tradition, Oxford University Press, 1949, p.
Famous First Facts International,
H. W. Wilson Company , New
York 2000, ISBN 0-8242-0958-3 , page 303, item 4567.
* ^ Petrarca, Francesco (1879). De vita Solitaria (in Italian).
Bologna: Gaetano Romagnoli.
* ^ "Skuola.net, Il Rinascimento" (in Italian). Skuola.net.
Retrieved 11 September 2015.
* ^ Encyclopedia of the Renaissance: Class-Furió Ceriol, Volume 2,
page 106, Paul F. Grendler,
Renaissance Society of America, Scribner's
published in association with the
Renaissance Society of America,
1999. ISBN 978-0-684-80509-2
* ^ Mailman, Joshua B. (2009) "Imagined Drama of Competitive
Opposition in Carter\'s Scrivo in Vento (with Notes on Narrative,
Symmetry, Quantitative Flux and Heraclitus)" Music Analysis v.28, 2-3.
* ^ Spencer, Patricia (2008) "Regarding Scrivo in Vento: A
Conversation with Elliott Carter" Flutest Quarterly summer.
* ^ Caramelli D, Lalueza-Fox C, Capelli C, et al. (November 2007).
"Genetic analysis of the skeletal remains attributed to Francesco
Petrarch". Forensic Sci. Int. 173 (1): 36–40. PMID 17320326 . doi
* ^ UPF.edu
* Bartlett, Kenneth R. (1992). The Civilization of the Italian
Renaissance; a Source Book. Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company. ISBN
* Bishop, Morris (1961). "Petrarch." In
J. H. Plumb (Ed.),
Renaissance Profiles, pp. 1–17. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN
* Hanawalt, A. Barbara. "The Middle Ages:An Illustrated History" pp.
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press New York 1998
* James, Paul (2014). "Emotional Ambivalence across Times and
Spaces: Mapping Petrarch’s Intersecting Worlds". Exemplaria. 26 (1):
* Kallendorf, Craig. "The Historical Petrarch," The American
Historical Review, Vol 101, No. 1 (Feb. 1996): 130-141.
* Francesco Petrarch, Letters on Familiar Matters (Rerum familiarium
libri), translated by Aldo S. Bernardo (New York: Italica Press,
2005). Volume 1, Books 1-8; Volume 2, Books 9-16; Volume 3, Books
* Francesco Petrarch, Letters of Old Age (Rerum senilium libri),
translated by Aldo S. Bernardo, Saul Levin Volume 2, Books 10-18.
* Francesco Petrarch, My Secret Book, (Secretum), translated by
Nicholas Mann. Harvard University Press.
* Francesco Petrarch, On Religious Leisure (De otio religioso),
edited 3rd, revised, edition by Ronald G. Musto (New York; Italica
* Francesco Petrarch, Selected Letters, vol. 1 and 2, translated by
Elaine Fantham. Harvard University Press.
* Bernardo, Aldo (1983). "Petrarch." In Dictionary of the Middle
Ages , volume 9.
* Hollway-Calthrop, Henry. (1907). Petrarch: His Life and Times,
Google Books .
* Kohl, Benjamin G. (1978). "Francesco Petrarch: Introduction; How a
Ruler Ought to Govern His State," in The Earthly Republic: Italian
Humanists on Government and Society, ed. Benjamin G. Kohl and Ronald
G. Witt, 25-78. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN
* Mailman, Joshua B. (2009) "Imagined Drama of Competitive
Opposition in Carter\'s Scrivo in Vento (with Notes on Narrative,
Symmetry, Quantitative Flux and Heraclitus)" Music Analysis v.28, 2-3.
* Nauert, Charles G. (2006). Humanism and the Culture of Renaissance
Europe: Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN
* Rawski, Conrad H. (1991). Petrarch's Remedies for Fortune Fair and
Foul A Modern English Translation of De remediis utriusque Fortune,
with a Commentary. ISBN 0-253-34849-8
* Robinson, James Harvey (1898). Petrarch, the First Modern Scholar
and Man of Letters Harvard University
* Kirkham, Victoria and Armando Maggi. (2009). Petrarch: A Critical
Guide to the Complete Works. University of Chicago Press. ISBN
* A. Lee,
Petrarch and St. Augustine: Classical Scholarship,
Christian Theology and the Origins of the
Renaissance in Italy, Brill,
Leiden, 2012, ISBN 9789004224032
* N. Mann, Petrarca – Ediz. ital. a cura di G. Alessio e L. Carlo
Rossi – Premessa di G. Velli, LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano,
1993, ISBN 88-7916-021-4
* Il «Canzoniere» di Francesco Petrarca. La Critica Contemporanea,
G. Barbarisi e C. Berra (edd.), LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano,
1992, ISBN 88-7916-005-2
* G. Baldassari, Unum in locum. Strategie macrotestuali nel Petrarca
politico, LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano, 2006, ISBN 88-7916-309-4
* Francesco Petrarca, Rerum vulgarium Fragmenta. Edizione critica di
Giuseppe Savoca, Olschki, Firenze, 2008, ISBN 978-88-222-5744-4
* Plumb, J. H., The Italian Renaissance, Houghton Mifflin, 2001,
* Giuseppe Savoca, Il
Canzoniere di Petrarca. Tra codicologia ed
ecdotica, Olschki, Firenze, 2008, ISBN 978-88-222-5805-2
* Roberta Antognini, Il progetto autobiografico delle "Familiares"
di Petrarca, LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano, 2008, ISBN
* Paul Geyer und Kerstin Thorwarth (hg), Petrarca und die
Herausbildung des modernen Subjekts (Göttingen, Vandenhoeck
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* Works by Francesco Petrarca at
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LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
* Timeline of life of Petrarch
* Poems From The Canzoniere, translated by Tony Kline.
Petrarch at The Online Library of Liberty
* De remediis utriusque fortunae, Cremonae, B. de Misintis ac
Caesaris Parmensis, 1492. (Vicifons )
* Free scores of works by
Petrarch in the Choral Public Domain
Petrarch and Laura Multi-lingual site including translated works
in the public domain and biography, pictures, music.
Petrarch - the poet who lost his head April 2004 article in The
Guardian regarding the exhumation of Petrarch's remains
Petrarch Open Book – A working database-driven hypertext
in and around Francis Petrarch’s Rerum Vulgarium Fragmenta
* Historia Griseldis From the Rare Book and
Division at the
Library of Congress
Library of Congress
* Francesco Petrarch, De viris illustribus, digitized French codex,
Canzoniere (Rerum vulgarium fragmenta)
* De viris illustribus
De remediis utriusque fortunae
De vita solitaria
* De otio religiosorum
* Rerum memorandarum libri
* Ascent of
Liber sine nomine
* Letter to Posterity