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Peshawar
Peshawar
(Pashto: پېښور‎  pronunciation (help·info); Urdu: پشاور‬‎  pronunciation (help·info); Hindko: پشور‎) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.[5] It also serves as the administrative centre and economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas.[6] Situated in a broad valley near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan, Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 BCE, making it the oldest city in Pakistan
Pakistan
and one of the oldest in South Asia.[7] Peshawar
Peshawar
was the capital of the ancient Kushan
Kushan
Empire, and was home to what may have been the tallest building in the ancient world, the Kanishka
Kanishka
stupa.[8] Peshawar
Peshawar
was then sacked by the White Huns, before the arrival of Muslim empires. The city was an important trading centre during the Mughal era before serving as the winter capital of the Afghan Durrani Empire from 1757 until the city was captured by the Sikhs in 1818, who were then followed by the British in 1849. The city of Peshawar
Peshawar
has a population of 1,970,042 according to the 2017 census, making it the largest city in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and the sixth-largest in Pakistan,[9] while Peshawar District
Peshawar District
has a population of 4,269,079.[10] The vast majority of the population are ethnic Pashtuns/Pathans and it serves as one of their main population centers (the largest outside Afghanistan).[11]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Ancient

2.1.1 Founding 2.1.2 Greek 2.1.3 Mauryan 2.1.4 Kushan 2.1.5 White Huns 2.1.6 Early Islamic

2.2 Medieval 2.3 Mughal 2.4 Persian 2.5 Durranis 2.6 Sikh 2.7 British Raj 2.8 Modern era

3 Geography

3.1 Topography 3.2 Climate 3.3 Cityscape

4 Demographics

4.1 Population 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion 4.4 Afghan refugees

5 Economy

5.1 Industry 5.2 Employment 5.3 Constraints

6 Transportation

6.1 Road

6.1.1 Motorways

6.2 Rail 6.3 Air 6.4 Public transit 6.5 Intercity bus

7 Administration

7.1 Civic government 7.2 Politics 7.3 Municipal services

8 Culture

8.1 Music 8.2 Museums

9 Notable people 10 Education 11 Landmarks 12 Sports 13 International relations 14 See also 15 References

15.1 Bibliography

16 External links

Etymology[edit] The current name "Peshawar" is derived from the former Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name of the place, Purushapura (IAST: Puruṣapura; "City of Men").[12][13] The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi
Al-Masudi
noted that by the mid 10th century, the city had become known as Parashāwar. After the Ghaznavid invasion, the name was again noted to be Parashāwar by Al-Biruni. The city began to be known as Peshāwar by the era of Emperor Akbar, a name that is traditionally said to have been given by Akbar himself.[14] The new name is said to have been based upon the Persian for "frontier town"[14] or, more literally, "forward city," though transcription errors and linguistic shifts may account for the city's new name. Akbar's bibliographer, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, lists the city's name by both its former name Parashāwar, transcribed in Persian as پَرَشاوَر,[15] and Peshāwar (پشاور).[16] History[edit] Main articles: History of Peshawar
History of Peshawar
and Timeline of Peshawar Ancient[edit] Founding[edit] Peshawar
Peshawar
was founded as the ancient city of Puruṣapura,[17] on the Gandhara
Gandhara
Plains in the broad Valley of Peshawar. The city likely first existed as a small village in the 5th century BCE,[18] within the cultural sphere of eastern ancient Persia.[18] Puruṣapura was founded near the ancient Gandharan capital city of Pushkalavati, near present-day Charsadda.[19][12] Greek[edit] In the winter of 327–26 BCE, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
subdued the Valley of Peshawar
Peshawar
during his invasion of ancient India,[20] as well as the nearby Swat and Buner valleys.[21] Following Alexander's conquest, the Valley of Peshawar came under suzerainty of Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Empire. A locally-made vase fragment that was found in Peshawar
Peshawar
depicts a scene from Sophocles' play Antigone.[22] Mauryan[edit]

The nearby Takht-i-Bahi
Takht-i-Bahi
monastery was established in 46 CE,[23] and was once a major centre of Buddhist learning.

Following the Seleucid–Mauryan war, the region was ceded to the Mauryan Empire
Mauryan Empire
in 303 BCE.[24] Around 300 BCE, the Greek diplomat and historian Megasthenes
Megasthenes
noted that ancient Peshawar
Peshawar
was the western terminus of a Mauryan road that connected the city to the empire's capital at Pataliputra,[25] near the city of Patna
Patna
in the modern-day Indian state of Bihar. As Mauryan power declined, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
based in modern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
declared its independence from the Seleucid Empire, and quickly seized ancient Peshawar
Peshawar
around 190 BCE.[24] The city was then ruled by several Iranic Parthian kingdoms. The city was then captured by Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. Gondophares established the nearby Takht-i-Bahi
Takht-i-Bahi
monastery in 46 CE.[23] Kushan[edit]

Perhaps the tallest building in the ancient world, Peshawar's Kanishka stupa once kept sacred Buddhist relics in the Kanishka
Kanishka
casket.

In the first century of the Common era, ancient Peshawar
Peshawar
came under control of Kujula Kadphises, founder of the Kushan
Kushan
Empire. The city was made the empire's winter capital.[26] The Kushan's summer capital at Kapisi (modern Bagram, Afghanistan[17]) was seen as the secondary capital of the empire,[26] while Puruṣapura was considered to be the empire's primary capital.[26] Ancient Peshawar's population was estimated to be 120,000, which would make it the seventh-most populous city in the world at the time.[27] Around 128 CE, ancient Peshawar
Peshawar
was made sole capital of the Kushan Empire under the rule of Kanishka.[18] As a devout Buddhist, the emperor built the grand Kanishka
Kanishka
Mahavihara
Mahavihara
monastery.[28] After his death the magnificent Kanishka stupa
Kanishka stupa
was built in Peshawar
Peshawar
to house Buddhist relics. The golden age of the Kushan
Kushan
empire in Peshawar
Peshawar
ended in 232 CE with the death of the last great Kushan
Kushan
king, Vasudeva I. Around 260 CE, the armies of the Sasanid Emperor Shapur I
Shapur I
launched an attack against Peshawar,[29] and severely damage Buddhist monuments and monasteries throughout the Valley of Peshawar.[18] Shapur's campaign also resulted in damage to the city's monumental stupa and monastery.[18] The Kushans were made subordinate to the Sasanids, and their power rapidly dwindled,[30] as the Sasanids blocked lucrative trade routes westward out of Puruṣapura.[18] Kushan
Kushan
Emperor Kanishka
Kanishka
III was able to temporarily reestablish control over the entire Valley of Peshawar after Shapur's invasion,[18] but the city was then captured by the Central Asian Kidarite kingdom in the early 400s CE.[31] White Huns[edit] The White Huns devastated ancient Peshawar
Peshawar
in the 460s CE,[32] and ravaged the entire region of Gandhara, destroying its numerous monasteries.[33] The Kanishka stupa
Kanishka stupa
was rebuilt during the White Hun era with the construction of a tall wooden superstructure, built atop a stone base,[26] and crowned with a 13-layer copper-gilded chatra.[26] In the 400s CE, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian visited the structure and described it as "the highest of all the towers" in the "terrestrial world",[26] which ancient travelers claimed was up to 560 feet (170 m) tall,[26] though modern estimates suggest a height of 400 feet (120 m).[26] In 520 CE the Chinese monk Song Yun
Song Yun
visited Gandhara
Gandhara
and ancient Peshawar
Peshawar
during the White Hun era, and noted that it was in conflict with nearby Kapisa.[34][35] The Chinese monk and traveler Xuanzang visited ancient Peshawar
Peshawar
around 630 CE,[36] after Kapisa victory, and expressed lament that the city and its great Buddhist monuments had decayed to ruin[37] — although some monks studying Hinayana Buddhism continued to study at the monastery's ruins.[38] Xuanzang
Xuanzang
estimated that only about 1,000 families continued in a small quarter among the ruins of the former grand capital.[33] Early Islamic[edit] Until the mid 7th century, the residents of ancient Peshawar
Peshawar
had a ruling elite of Central Asian Scythian
Scythian
descent,[34] who were then displaced by the Hindu
Hindu
Shahis of Kabul.[34] Islam is believed to have been first introduced to the Buddhist and Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
inhabitants of Puruṣapura in the later 7th century.[39] As the first Pashtun tribe to settle the region, the Dilazak Pashtuns began settling in the Valley of Peshawar,[40] and are believed to have settled regions up to the Indus River
Indus River
by the 11th century.[40] The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi
Al-Masudi
noted that by the mid 10th century, the city had become known as Parashāwar. In 986–87 CE, Peshawar's first encounter with Muslim armies occurred when Sabuktigin
Sabuktigin
invaded the area and fought the Hindu
Hindu
Shahis under their king, Anandpal.[14] Medieval[edit] Main article: Battle of Peshawar
Peshawar
(1001) On November 28, 1001, Sabuktigin's son Mahmud Ghazni
Mahmud Ghazni
decisively defeated the army of Raja Jayapala, son of Anandpal, at the Battle of Peshawar,[41] and established rule of the Ghaznavid Empire
Ghaznavid Empire
in the Peshawar
Peshawar
region. During the Ghaznavid era, Peshawar
Peshawar
served as an important stop between the Afghan plateau, and the Ghaznavid garrison city of Lahore.[14] During the 10th–12th century, Peshawar
Peshawar
served as a headquarters for Hindu
Hindu
Nath
Nath
Panthi Yogis,[17] who in turn are believed to have extensively interacted with Muslim Sufi mystics.[17] In 1179–80, Muhammad Ghori
Muhammad Ghori
captured Peshawar, though the city was then destroyed in the early 1200s at the hands of the Mongols.[14] Peshawar
Peshawar
was an important regional centre under the Lodi Empire. The Khashi Khel Pashtuns, ancestors of modern-day Yusufzai and Gigyani Pashtuns, began settling rural regions around Peshawar
Peshawar
in the late 1400s.[42] The Khashi Khel tribe pushed the Dilazak Pashtun tribes east of the Indus River
Indus River
following a battle in 1515 near the city of Mardan.[42] Mughal[edit]

Bestowed by Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan
Mardan
Khan in 1630, the white-marble façade of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque
Mohabbat Khan Mosque
is one of Peshawar's most iconic sights.

The interior of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque
Mohabbat Khan Mosque
is elaborately frescoed with elegant and intricately detailed floral and geometric motifs.

Peshawar
Peshawar
remained an important centre on trade routes between India and Central Asia. The Peshawar
Peshawar
region was a cosmopolitan region in which goods, peoples, and ideas would pass along trade routes.[43] Its importance as a trade centre is highlighted by the destruction of over one thousand camel-loads of merchandise following an accidental fire at Bala Hissar fort in 1586.[43] Mughal rule in the area was tenuous, as Mughal suzerainty was only firmly exercised in the Peshawar
Peshawar
valley, while the neighbouring valley of Swat was under Mughal rule only during the reign of Akbar.[44] In July 1526, Emperor Babur
Babur
captured Peshawar
Peshawar
from Daulat Khan Lodi.[45] Babur
Babur
is said to have renamed the city Begram, and rebuilt the city's fort.[46] Babur
Babur
used the city as a base for expeditions to nearby Kohat
Kohat
and Bannu.[14] Under the reign of Babur's son, Humayun, direct Mughal rule over the city was briefly challenged with the rise of the Pashtun king, Sher Shah Suri, who began construction of the famous Grand Trunk Road
Grand Trunk Road
in the 16th century. Peshawar
Peshawar
was an important trading centre on Sher Shah Suri's Grand Trunk Road.[25] Akbar
Akbar
renamed Begram to Peshawar;[14] perhaps derived from the Persian "pīsh shehr" (پیش شهر) – meaning "forward city", in reference to the city's frontier status. In 1586, Pashtuns
Pashtuns
rose against Mughal rule during the Roshaniyya Revolt under the leadership of Pir Roshan,[47] founder of the egalitarian Roshaniyyas, who shut down trade routes out of Peshawar, and laid siege to the city until 1587.[47] Peshawar
Peshawar
was bestowed with its own set of Shalimar Gardens during the reign of Shah Jahan,[48] which no longer exist.

Peshawar's Sunehri Mosque dates from the Mughal era.

Emperor Aurangzeb's Governor of Kabul, Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan Khan used Peshawar
Peshawar
as his winter capital during the 17th century, and bestowed the city with its famous Mohabbat Khan Mosque
Mohabbat Khan Mosque
in 1630.[14] Yusufzai tribes rose against Mughal rule during the Yusufzai Revolt of 1667,[43] and engaged in pitched-battles with Mughal battalions nearby Attock.[43] Afridi
Afridi
tribes resisted Mughal rule during the Afridi Revolt of the 1670s.[43] The Afridis massacred a Mughal battalion in the nearby Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
in 1672 and shut the pass to lucrative trade routes.[49] Mughal armies led by Emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
himself regained control of the entire area in 1674.[43] Following Aurangzeb's death in 1707, his son Bahadur Shah I, former Governor of Peshawar
Peshawar
and Kabul, was selected to be the Mughal Emperor. As Mughal power declined following the death of Emperor Aurangzeb, the empire's defenses were weakened.[50] Persian[edit] On 18 November 1738, Peshawar
Peshawar
was captured from the Mughal governor Nawab Nasir Khan by the Afsharid armies during the Persian invasion of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
under Nader Shah.[51][52] Durranis[edit]

Peshawar's Bala Hissar fort was once the royal residence of the Durrani Afghan kings.

In 1747, Peshawar
Peshawar
was taken by Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Afghan Durrani Empire.[53] Under the reign of his son Timur Shah, the Mughal practice of using Kabul
Kabul
as a summer capital and Peshawar
Peshawar
as a winter capital was reintroduced,[14][54] with the practice maintained until the Sikh
Sikh
invasion.[55] Peshawar's Bala Hissar Fort served as the residence of Afghan kings during their winter stay in Peshawar. Peshawar
Peshawar
was attacked and briefly held by the Marathas, which conquered the city in the Battle of Peshawar
Peshawar
in May 1758. A large force of Pashtuns
Pashtuns
under the Durrani then re-conquered Peshawar
Peshawar
in early 1759.[56] Peshawar
Peshawar
was noted to be the main centre of trade between Bukhara
Bukhara
and India
India
by British explorer William Moorcroft during the late 1700s.[57] Peshawar
Peshawar
was at the centre of a productive agricultural region that provided much of north India's dried fruit.[57] Timur Shah's grandson, Mahmud Shah Durrani, became king, and quickly seized Peshawar
Peshawar
from his half-brother, Shah Shujah Durrani.[58] Shah Shujah was then himself proclaimed king in 1803, and recaptured Peshawar
Peshawar
while Mahmud Shah was imprisoned at Bala Hissar fort until his eventual escape.[58] In 1809, the British sent an emissary to the court of Shah Shujah in Peshawar, marking the first diplomatic meeting between the British and Afghans.[58] His half-brother Mahmud Shah then allied himself with the Barakzai Pashtuns, and captured Peshawar
Peshawar
once again and reigned until 1818.[58] Sikh[edit] Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
invaded Peshawar
Peshawar
in 1818 and captured it from the Durranis.[59] The Sikhs soon lost control, and so in 1823, Ranjit Singh returned to battle the armies of Azim Khan at Nowshera.[59] Following the Sikh
Sikh
victory at the Battle of Nowshera, Ranjit Singh re-captured Peshawar.[59] By 1830, Peshawar's economy was noted by Scottish explorer Alexander Burnes
Alexander Burnes
to have sharply declined,[57] with Ranjit Singh's forces having destroyed the city's palace and agricultural fields.[57] Much of Peshawar's caravan trade from Kabul
Kabul
ceased on account of skirmishes between Afghan and Sikh
Sikh
forces,[57] as well as a punitive tax levied on merchants by Ranjit Singh's forces.[57] Singh's government also required Peshawar
Peshawar
to forfeit much of its leftover agricultural output to the Sikhs as tribute,[57] while agriculture was further decimated by a collapse of the dried fruit market in north India.[57] Singh appointed Neapolitan mercenary Paolo Avitabile
Paolo Avitabile
as administrator of Peshawar, who is remembered for having unleashed a reign of terror. His time in Peshawar
Peshawar
is known as a time of "gallows and gibbets." The city's famous Mahabat Khan, built in 1630 in the Jeweler's Bazaar, was badly damaged and desecrated by the Sikh conquerors.[60] The Sikh
Sikh
Empire formally annexed Peshawar
Peshawar
in 1834 following advances from the armies of Hari Singh Nalwa[59] — bringing the city under direct control of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire's Lahore
Lahore
Durbar.[59] An 1835 attempt by Dost Muhammad Khan to re-occupy the city failed when his army refused to engage in combat with the Dal Khalsa.[59] Sikh
Sikh
settlers from Punjab were settled in the city during Sikh
Sikh
rule. The city's only remaining Gurdwaras were built by Hari Singh Nalwa
Hari Singh Nalwa
to accommodate the newly-settle Sikhs.[61] The Sikhs also rebuilt the Bala Hissar fort during their occupation of the city.[58] British Raj[edit]

The British-era Islamia College was built in an Indo-Saracenic Revival style.

Built for wealthy local merchants in a Central Asian architectural style, the Sethi Mohallah
Sethi Mohallah
features several homes dating from the British era.

Following the defeat of the Sikhs in the Second Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
War in 1849, territories in the Punjab were also captured by the British East India
India
Company. The British for re-established stability in the wake of ruinous Sikh
Sikh
rule.[57] During the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the 4,000 members of the native garrison were disarmed without bloodshed;[62] the absence of brutality meant that Peshawar
Peshawar
was not affected by the widespread devastation that was experienced throughout the rest of British India
India
and local chieftains sided with the British after the incident.[63] The British laid out the vast Peshawar Cantonment to the west of the city in 1868, and made the city its frontier headquarters.[56] Additionally, several projects were initiated in Peshawar, including linkage of the city by railway to the rest of British India
India
and renovation of the Mohabbat Khan mosque that had been desecrated by the Sikhs.[60] British suzerainty over regions west of Peshawar
Peshawar
was cemented in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand, foreign secretary of the British Indian government, who collaboratively demarcated the border between British controlled territories in India
India
and Afghanistan. The British built Cunningham clock tower
Cunningham clock tower
in celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, and in 1906 built the Victoria Hall (now home of the Peshawar
Peshawar
Museum) in memory of Queen Victoria.[60] The British introduced Western-style education ito Peshawar
Peshawar
with the establishment of Edwardes College
Edwardes College
and Islamia College in 1901 and 1913, along with several schools run by the Anglican Church.[60] For better administration of the region, Peshawar
Peshawar
and the adjoining districts were separated from the Punjab Province in 1901,[64] after which Peshawar
Peshawar
became capital of the new province.[14]

Edwardes College
Edwardes College
was built during the British-era, and is now one of Peshawar's most prestigious educational institutions.

Peshawar
Peshawar
emerged as a centre for both Hindko
Hindko
and Pashtun intellectuals during the British era. Hindko
Hindko
speakers, also referred to as Khaarian ("city dwellers" in Pashto), were responsible for the dominant culture for most of the time that Peshawar
Peshawar
was under British rule.[65] Peshawar
Peshawar
was also home to a non-violent resistance movement led by Ghaffar Khan, a disciple of Mahatma Gandhi. In April 1930, Khan led a large group of Khan's followers protested in Qissa Khawani Bazaar against discriminatory laws that had been enacted by the British rulers — hundreds were killed when British troops opened fire on the demonstrators.[66] Modern era[edit] In 1947, Peshawar
Peshawar
became part of the newly created state of Pakistan, and emerged as a cultural centre in the country's northwest. The University of Peshawar
University of Peshawar
was established in the city in 1950, and augmented by the amalgamation of nearby British-era institutions into the university.[67] Until the mid-1950s, Peshawar
Peshawar
was enclosed within a city wall and sixteen gates. In the 1960s, Peshawar
Peshawar
was a base for a CIA
CIA
operation to spy on the Soviet Union, with the 1960 U-2 incident resulting aircraft an aircraft flown from Peshawar
Peshawar
was shot down by the Soviets. From the 1960s until the late 1970s, Peshawar
Peshawar
was a major stop on the famous Hippie trail.[68] During the Soviet war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the 1980s, Peshawar
Peshawar
served as a political centre for the CIA
CIA
and the Inter-Services Intelligence-trained mujahideen groups based in the camps of Afghan refugees. It also served as the primary destination for large numbers of Afghan refugees. By 1980, 100,000 refugees a month were entering the province,[69] with 25% of all refugees living in Peshawar
Peshawar
district in 1981.[69] The arrival of large numbers of Afghan refugees
Afghan refugees
strained Peshawar's infrastructure,[70] and drastically altered the city's demography.[70] Like much of northwest Pakistan, Peshawar
Peshawar
has been severely affected by violence from the attacks of the extremist Taliban. Local poets' shrines have been targeted by the Pakistani Taliban,[71] a suicide bomb attack targeted the historic All Saints Church, and most notably the 2014 Peshawar school massacre
2014 Peshawar school massacre
in which Taliban
Taliban
militants killed 132 school children. Peshawar
Peshawar
suffered 111 acts of terror in 2010,[72] which had declined to 18 in 2014,[72] before the launch of Operation Zarb-e-Azb
Operation Zarb-e-Azb
which has further reduced acts of violence throughout Pakistan. More civilians died in acts of violence in 2014 compared to 2010 – largely a result of the Peshawar
Peshawar
school massacre. Geography[edit]

The city serves as a gateway to the Khyber Pass, whose beginning is marked by the Khyber Gate.

Topography[edit]

Peshawar
Peshawar
sits at the eastern end of the Khyber Pass, which has been used as a trade route since the Kushan
Kushan
era approximately 2000 years ago.

Peshawar
Peshawar
is located in the broad Valley of Peshawar, which is surrounded by mountain ranges on three sides, with the fourth opening to the Punjab plains. The city is located in the generally level base of the valley, known as the Gandhara
Gandhara
Plains.[17] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Peshawar With an influence from the local steppe climate, Peshawar
Peshawar
features a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh), with hot summers and cool winters. Winter in Peshawar
Peshawar
starts in November and ends in late March, though it sometimes extends into mid-April, while the summer months are from mid-May to mid-September. The mean maximum summer temperature surpasses 40 °C (104 °F) during the hottest month, and the mean minimum temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). The mean minimum temperature during the coolest month is 4 °C (39 °F), while the maximum is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F). Peshawar
Peshawar
is not a monsoon region, unlike other parts of Pakistan; however, rainfall occurs in both winter and summer. Due to western disturbances, the winter rainfall shows a higher record between the months of February and April. The highest amount of winter rainfall, measuring 236 millimetres (9.3 in), was recorded in February 2007,[73] while the highest summer rainfall of 402 millimetres (15.8 in) was recorded in July 2010;[74] during this month, a record-breaking rainfall level of 274 millimetres (10.8 in) fell within a 24-hour period on 29 July 2010[74] — the previous record was 187 millimetres (7.4 in) of rain, recorded in April 2009.[73] The average winter rainfall levels are higher than those of summer. Based on a 30-year record, the average annual precipitation level was recorded as 400 millimetres (16 in) and the highest annual rainfall level of 904.5 millimetres (35.61 in) was recorded in 2003.[73] Wind speeds vary during the year, from 5 knots (5.8 mph; 9.3 km/h) in December to 24 knots (28 mph; 44 km/h) in June. The relative humidity varies from 46% in June to 76% in August. The highest temperature of 50 °C (122 °F) was recorded on 18 June 1995,[73] while the lowest −3.9 °C (25.0 °F) occurred on 7 January 1970.[73]

Climate data for Peshawar
Peshawar
(1961–1990)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 27.0 (80.6) 30.0 (86) 36.0 (96.8) 42.2 (108) 45.2 (113.4) 48.0 (118.4) 46.6 (115.9) 46.0 (114.8) 42.0 (107.6) 38.5 (101.3) 35.0 (95) 29.0 (84.2) 48 (118.4)

Average high °C (°F) 18.3 (64.9) 19.5 (67.1) 23.7 (74.7) 30.0 (86) 35.9 (96.6) 40.4 (104.7) 37.7 (99.9) 35.7 (96.3) 35.0 (95) 31.2 (88.2) 25.6 (78.1) 20.1 (68.2) 29.4 (84.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 11.2 (52.2) 12.9 (55.2) 17.4 (63.3) 23.2 (73.8) 28.6 (83.5) 33.1 (91.6) 32.2 (90) 30.7 (87.3) 28.9 (84) 23.7 (74.7) 17.6 (63.7) 12.5 (54.5) 22.7 (72.9)

Average low °C (°F) 4.0 (39.2) 6.3 (43.3) 11.2 (52.2) 16.4 (61.5) 21.3 (70.3) 25.7 (78.3) 26.6 (79.9) 25.7 (78.3) 22.7 (72.9) 16.1 (61) 7.6 (45.7) 4.9 (40.8) 15.9 (60.6)

Record low °C (°F) −3.9 (25) −1.0 (30.2) 1.7 (35.1) 6.7 (44.1) 11.7 (53.1) 13.3 (55.9) 18.0 (64.4) 19.4 (66.9) 12.0 (53.6) 8.3 (46.9) 1.1 (34) −1.3 (29.7) −3.9 (25)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 26.0 (1.024) 42.7 (1.681) 78.4 (3.087) 48.9 (1.925) 27.0 (1.063) 7.7 (0.303) 42.3 (1.665) 67.7 (2.665) 17.9 (0.705) 9.7 (0.382) 12.3 (0.484) 23.3 (0.917) 403.9 (15.901)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 195.5 189.5 194.5 231.3 297.1 299.5 273.8 263.2 257.3 266.1 234.8 184.4 2,887

Source #1: NOAA (1961-1990) [75]

Source #2: PMD[76]

Cityscape[edit]

Peshawar's Jeweler's Bazaar is adjacent to the Mohabbat Khan Mosque.

A view of old Peshawar's famous Qissa Khawani Bazaar.

Much of Peshawar's old city still features examples of traditional style architecture.

Some buildings in the old city feature carved wooden balconies.

Historically, the old city of Peshawar
Peshawar
was a heavily guarded citadel that consisted of high walls. In the 21st century, only remnants of the walls remain, but the houses and havelis continue to be structures of significance. Most of the houses are constructed of unbaked bricks, with the incorporation of wooden structures for protection against earthquakes, with many composed of wooden doors and latticed wooden balconies. Numerous examples of the city's old architecture can still be seen in areas such as Sethi Mohallah. In the old city, located in inner-Peshawar, many historic monuments and bazaars exist in the 21st century, including the Mohabbat Khan Mosque, Kotla Mohsin Khan, Chowk Yadgar and the Qissa Khawani Bazaar. Due to the damage caused by rapid growth and development, the old walled city has been identified as an area that urgently requires restoration and protection. The walled city was surrounded by several main gates that served as the main entry points into the city — in January 2012, an announcement was made that the government plans to address the damage that has left the gates largely non-existent over time, with all of the gates targeted for restoration.[77] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1941 173,000 —    

1951 152,000 −12.1%

1961 218,000 +43.4%

1972 273,000 +25.2%

1981 566,000 +107.3%

1998 982,816 +73.6%

2017 1,970,042 +100.4%

Source: [78][79]

Population[edit] The population of Peshawar
Peshawar
district in 1998 was 2,026,851.[80] The city's annual growth rate is estimated at 3.29% per year,[81] and the 2016 population of Peshawar
Peshawar
district is estimated to be 3,405,414.[82] With a population of 1,970,042 according to the 2017 census, Peshawar is the sixth-largest city of Pakistan.[9] Language[edit] The primary native languages spoken in Peshawar
Peshawar
are Pashto
Pashto
and Hindko,[83] though English is used in the city's educational institutions,[84] while Urdu is understood throughout the city.[84] Pashto
Pashto
is used as a language of instruction in the province's public schools. The district of Peshawar
Peshawar
is overwhelmingly Pashto-speaking, though the Hindko-speaking minority is concentrated in Peshawar's old city,[85] Hindko
Hindko
speakers in Peshawar
Peshawar
increasingly assimilate elements of Pashto and Urdu into their speech.[86] Religion[edit] Peshawar
Peshawar
is overwhelmingly Muslim, with Muslims making up 98.5% of the city's population in the 1998 census.[87] Christians make up the second largest religious group with around 20,000 adherents, while over 7,000 members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
live in Peshawar.[87] Hindus and Sikhs are also found in the city − though most of the city's Hindu
Hindu
and Sikh
Sikh
community migrated en masse to India following the Partition of British India
India
in 1947. Though the city's Sikh
Sikh
population drastically declined after Partition, the Sikh
Sikh
community has been bolstered in Peshawar
Peshawar
by the arrival of appximately 4,000 Sikh
Sikh
refugees from conflict in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas;[88] In 2008, the largest Sikh population in Pakistan
Pakistan
was located in Peshawar.[89] Sikhs in Peshawar self-identify as Pashtuns
Pashtuns
and speak Pashto
Pashto
as their mother tongue.[90] There was a small, but, thriving Jewish community until the late 1940s. After the partition and the emergence of the State of Israel, Jews left for Israel.[91] Afghan refugees[edit] Peshawar
Peshawar
has hosted Afghan refugees
Afghan refugees
since the start of the Afghan civil war in 1978, though the rate of migration drastically increased following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1979. By 1980, 100,000 refugees a month were entering the province,[69] with 25% of all refugees living in Peshawar
Peshawar
district in 1981.[69] The arrival of large numbers of Afghan refugees
Afghan refugees
strained Peshawar's infrastructure,[70] and drastically altered the city's demography.[70] During the 1988 national elections, an estimated 100,000 Afghans refugees were illegally registered to vote in Peshawar.[92] With the influx of Afghan refugees
Afghan refugees
into Peshawar, the city became a hub for Afghan musicians and artists.[93] Some Afghan refugees
Afghan refugees
have established successful businesses in Peshawar, and play an important role in the city's economy.[94] In recent years, Peshawar
Peshawar
district hosts up to 20% of all Afghan refugees in Pakistan.[69] In 2005, Peshawar
Peshawar
district was home to 611,501 Afghan refugees
Afghan refugees
— who constituted 19.7% of the district's total population.[69] Peshawar's immediate environs were home to large Afghan refugee camps, with Jalozai
Jalozai
camp hosting up to 300,000 refugees in 2001[95] – making it the largest refugee camp in Asia at the time.[95] Afghan refugees
Afghan refugees
began to be frequently accused of involvement with terrorist attacks that occurred during Pakistan's war against radical Islamists.[96] By 2015 the Pakistani government adopted a policy to repatriate Afghan refugees, including many who had spent their entire life in Pakistan.[96] The policy of repatriation was also encouraged by the government of Afghanistan,[97] though many refugees had not registered themselves in Pakistan. Unregistered refugees returning to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
without their old Afghan identification documents now have no official status in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
either.[97] Economy[edit] Peshawar's economic importance has historically been linked to its privileged position at the entrance to the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
– the ancient travel route by which most trade between Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Indian Subcontinent passed. Peshawar's economy also benefited from tourism in the mid-20th century, as the city formed a crucial part of the Hippie trail.

Phase 3 Chowk, Hayatabad.

Peshawar's estimated monthly per capita income was ₨55,246 in 2015,[72] compared to ₨117,924 in Islamabad,[72] and ₨66,359 in Karachi.[72] Peshawar's surrounding region is also relatively poor − Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's cities on average have an urban per capita income that is 20% less than Pakistan's national average for urban residents.[72] Peshawar
Peshawar
was noted by the World Bank
World Bank
in 2014 to be at the helm of a nationwide movement to create an ecosystem for entrepreneurship, freelance jobs, and technology.[98] The city has been host to the World Bank
World Bank
assisted Digital Youth Summit — an annual event to connect the city and province's youths to opportunities in the digital economy. The 2017 event hosted 100 speakers including several international speakers, and approximately 3,000 delegates in attendance.[99] Industry[edit] Peshawar's Industrial Estate on Jamrud Road is an industrial zone established in the 1960s on 868 acres. The industrial estate hosts furniture, marble industries, and food processing industries, though many of its plots remain underutilized.[100] The Hayatabad
Hayatabad
Industrial Estate hosts 646 industrial units in Peshawar's western suburbs, though several of the units are no longer in use.[101] As part of the China
China
Pakistan
Pakistan
Economic Corridor, 4 special economic zones are to be established in the province, with roads, electricity, gas, water, and security to be provided by the government.[101] The nearby Hattar SEZ is envisioned to provide employment to 30,000 people,[101] and is being developed at a cost of approximately $200 million with completion expected in 2017.[101] Employment[edit] As a result of large numbers of displaced persons in the city, only 12% of Peshawar's residents were employed in the formalized economy in 2012.[94] Approximately 41% of residents in 2012 were employed in personal services,[94] while 55% of Afghan refugees
Afghan refugees
in the city in 2012 were daily wage earners.[94] By 2016, Pakistan
Pakistan
adopted a policy to repatriate Afghan refugees. Wages for unskilled workers in Peshawar
Peshawar
grew on average 9.1% per year between 2002 and 2008.[72] Following the outbreak of widespread Islamist violence in 2007, wages rose only 1.5% between 2008 and 2014.[72] Real wages dropped for some skilled craftsmen during the period between 2008 and 2014.[72] Constraints[edit] Peshawar's economy has been negatively impacted by political instability since 1979 resulting from the War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and subsequent strain on Peshawar's infrastructure from the influx of refugees.[94] The poor security environment resulting from Islamist violence also impacted the city's economy. With the launch of Operation Zarb-e-Azb
Operation Zarb-e-Azb
in 2014, the country's security environment has drastically improved.[102] The metropolitan economy suffers from poor infrastructure. The city's economy has also been adversely impacted by shortages of electricity and natural gas.[103] The $54 billion China
China
Pakistan
Pakistan
Economic Corridor will generate over 10,000 MW by 2018[104] – greater than the current electricity deficit of approximately 4,500 MW.[105] Peshawar
Peshawar
will also be linked to ports in Karachi
Karachi
by uninterrupted motorway access, while passenger and freight railway tracks will be upgraded between Peshawar and Karachi. Poor transportation is estimated to cause a loss of 4–6% of the Pakistani GDP.[106] Peshawar
Peshawar
for decades has suffered from chaotic, mismanaged, and inadequate public transportation. The provincial government, which started construction of the new TransPeshawar system, noted that poor public transportation also has been detrimental to the city's economy.[107] Transportation[edit] Road[edit]

New flyovers, such as this one near the suburb of Hayatabad, have been constructed in recent years to improve traffic flow.

Peshawar's east-west growth axis is centred on the historic Grand Trunk Road that connects Peshawar
Peshawar
to Islamabad
Islamabad
and Lahore. The road is roughly paralleled by the M-1 Motorway between Peshawar
Peshawar
and Islamabad, while the M-2 Motorway provides an alternate route to Lahore
Lahore
from Islamabad. The Grand Trunk Road
Grand Trunk Road
also provides access to the Afghan border via the Khyber Pass, with onwards connections to Kabul
Kabul
and Central Asia
Central Asia
via the Salang Pass. Peshawar
Peshawar
is to be completely encircled by the Peshawar Ring Road in order to divert traffic away from the city's congested centre. The road is currently under construction, with some portions open to traffic. The Karakoram Highway
Karakoram Highway
provides access between the Peshawar
Peshawar
region and western China, and an alternate route to Central Asia
Central Asia
via Kashgar
Kashgar
in the Chinese region of Xinjiang. The Indus Highway
Indus Highway
provides access to points south of Peshawar, with a terminus in the southern port city of Karachi
Karachi
via Dera Ismail Khan
Dera Ismail Khan
and northern Sindh. The 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) Kohat
Kohat
Tunnel south of Peshawar
Peshawar
provides access to the city of Kohat
Kohat
along the Indus Highway. Motorways[edit]

A decorated truck on the M-1 Motorway that connects Peshawar
Peshawar
to Islamabad
Islamabad
and Rawalpindi.

Peshawar
Peshawar
is connected to Islamabad
Islamabad
and Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
by the 155 kilometre long M-1 Motorway. The motorway also links Peshawar
Peshawar
to major cities in the province, such as Charsadda
Charsadda
and Mardan. The M-1 motorway continues onwards to Lahore
Lahore
as part of the M-2 motorway. Pakistan's motorway network links Peshawar
Peshawar
to Faisalabad
Faisalabad
by the M-4 Motorway, while a new motorway network to Karachi
Karachi
is being built as part of the China
China
Pakistan
Pakistan
Economic Corridor. The Hazara Motorway is also under construction as part of CPEC, and will provide control-access motorway travel all the way to Mansehra via the M-1 and Hazara Motorways. Rail[edit] Peshawar Cantonment railway station serves as the terminus for Pakistan's 1,687 kilometres (1,048 mi)-long Main Line-1 railway that connects the city to the port city of Karachi
Karachi
and passes through the Peshawar
Peshawar
City railway station. The Peshawar
Peshawar
to Karachi
Karachi
route is served by the Awam Express, Khushhal Khan Khattak Express, and the Khyber Mail services. The entire Main Line-1 railway track between Karachi
Karachi
and Peshawar
Peshawar
is to be overhauled at a cost of $3.65 billion for the first phase of the project,[108] with completion by 2021.[109] Upgrading of the railway line will permit train travel at speeds of 160 kilometres per hour, versus the average 60 to 105 km per hour speed currently possible on existing track.[110] Peshawar
Peshawar
was also once the terminus of the Khyber Train Safari, a tourist-oriented train that provided rail access to Landi Kotal. The service was discontinued as the security situation west of Peshawar deteriorated with the beginning of the region's Taliban
Taliban
insurgency. Air[edit]

Peshawar International Airport
Peshawar International Airport
offers direct flights throughout Pakistan, as well as to Bahrain, Malaysia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

Peshawar
Peshawar
is served by the Bacha Khan
Bacha Khan
International Airport, located in the Peshawar
Peshawar
Cantonment. The airport served 1,255,303 passengers between 2014 and 2015,[111] the vast majority of whom were international travelers.[111] The airport offers direct flights throughout Pakistan, as well as to Bahrain, Malaysia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Public transit[edit] TransPeshawar, a bus rapid transit system, is currently under construction with assistance from the Asian Development Bank. The line will stretch from Chamkani in the east, to Hayatabad
Hayatabad
in the west to replace Peshawar's current chaotic, dilapidated, and inadequate transportation system. The system will have 31 stations and will be mostly at grade, with four kilometres of elevated sections.[112] The system will also contain 3.5 kilometres of underpasses.[112] The TransPeshawar
TransPeshawar
system will be complemented by a feeder system, with an additional 100 stations along those feeder lines,[113] all of which will be new construction.[112]

One of Peshawar's privately run intercity bus terminals.

Intercity bus[edit] Peshawar
Peshawar
is well-served by private buses (locally referred to as "flying coaches") and vans that offer frequent connections to throughout Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, as well as all major cities of Pakistan. The city's Daewoo Express
Daewoo Express
bus terminal is located along the G.T. Road adjacent to the departure points for several other transportation companies.[114] Administration[edit] Civic government[edit]

KPK Assembly

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2017)

Politics[edit] Peshawar
Peshawar
has historically served as the political centre of the region, and is currently the capital city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The city and province have been historically regarded to be strongholds of the Awami National Party
Awami National Party
– a secular left-wing and moderate-nationalist party.[115][116] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Peoples Party had also enjoyed considerable support in the province due to its socialist agenda.[115] Despite being a centre for leftist politics in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar
Peshawar
is still generally known throughout Pakistan
Pakistan
for its social conservatism.[117] Sunni Muslims in the city are regarded to be socially conservative,[117] while the city's Shia population is considered to be more socially liberal.[117] A plurality of voters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
province, of which Peshawar
Peshawar
is the capital, elected one of Pakistan's only religiously-based provincial governments during the period of military dictatorship of Pervez Musharraf. A ground-swell of anti-American sentiment after the 2001 United States invasion of Afghanistan contributed to the Islamist coalition's victory.[118] The Islamists introduced a range of social restrictions following the election of the Islamist Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal
coalition in 2002, though Islamic Shariah
Shariah
law was never fully enacted.[118] Restrictions on public musical performances were introduced, as well as a ban prohibiting music to be played in any public places, including on public transportation – which lead to the creation of a thriving underground music scene in Peshawar.[119] In 2005, the coalition successfully passed the "Prohibition of Use of Women in Photograph Bill, 2005,"[120] leading to the removal of all public advertisements in Peshawar
Peshawar
that featured women.[121] The religious coalition was swept out of power by the secular and leftist Awami National Party
Awami National Party
in elections after the fall of Musharraf in 2008,[118] leading to the removal of the MMA's socially conservative laws.[122] 62% of eligible voters voted in the election.[72] The Awami National Party
Awami National Party
was targeted by Taliban militants, with hundreds of its members having been assassinated by the Pakistani Taliban.[123] In 2013, the centre-right Pakistan
Pakistan
Tehreek-e-Insaf was elected to power in the province on an anti-corruption platform. Peshawar
Peshawar
city recorded a voter turnout of 80% for the 2013 elections.[72] Municipal services[edit] 86% of Peshawar's households have access to municipal piped water as of 2015,[72] though 39% of Peshawar's households purchase water from private companies in 2015.[72] 42% of Peshawar
Peshawar
households are connected to municipal sewerage as of 2015.[72] Culture[edit] Music[edit] After the 2002 Islamist government implemented restrictions on public musical performances, a thriving underground music scene took root in Peshawar.[119] After the start of Pakistan's Taliban
Taliban
insurgency in 2007–2008, militants began targeting members of Peshawar's cultural establishment. By 2007, Taliban
Taliban
militants began a widespread campaign of bombings against music and video shops across the Peshawar
Peshawar
region, leading to the closure of many others.[124] In 2009, Pashto
Pashto
musical artist Ayman Udas was assassinated by Taliban
Taliban
militants on the city's outskirts. In June 2012, a Pashto
Pashto
singer, Ghazala Javed, and her father were killed in Peshawar, after they had fled rural Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for the relative security of Peshawar.[125] Musicians began to return to the city by 2016,[126] with a security environment greatly improved following the Operation Zarb-e-Azb
Operation Zarb-e-Azb
in 2014 to eradicate militancy in the country. The provincial government in 2016 announced a monthly income of $300 to 500 musicians in order to help support their work,[126] as well as a $5 million fund to "revive the rich cultural heritage of the province."[126] Museums[edit]

The Peshawar Museum
Peshawar Museum
is known for its collection of Greco-Buddhist art.

The Peshawar Museum
Peshawar Museum
was founded in 1907 in memory of Queen Victoria. The building features an amalgamation of British, South Asian, Hindu, Buddhist and Mughal Islamic architectural styles. The museum's collection has almost 14,000 items, and is well known for its collection of Greco-Buddhist art. The museum's ancient collection features pieces from the Gandharan, Kushan, Parthian, and Indo- Scythian
Scythian
periods. Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Peshawar Education[edit]

Islamia College University

Iqra National University

FAST Peshawar
Peshawar
Campus

Main articles: List of universities in Peshawar
List of universities in Peshawar
and List of educational institutions in Peshawar Numerous educational institutes — schools, colleges and universities — are located in Peshawar. 21.6% of children between the ages of 5 and 9 were not enrolled in any school in 2013,[72] while 16.6% of children in the 10 to 14 age range were out of school.[72] Currently, Peshawar
Peshawar
has universities for all major disciplines ranging from Humanities, General Sciences, Sciences, Engineering, Medical, Agriculture
Agriculture
and Management Sciences. The first public sector university, University of Peshawar[127] (UOP) was established in October 1950 by the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. University of Engineering
Engineering
and Technology, Peshawar[128] was established in 1980 while Agriculture
Agriculture
University Peshawar[129] started working in 1981. The first private sector university CECOS University of IT and Emerging Sciences[130] was established in 1986. Institute of Management Sciences started functioning in 1995, which become degree awarding institution in 2005.[131] There are currently 9 Medical colleges in Peshawar, 2 in public sector while 7 in private sector.[132] The first Medical College, Khyber Medical College,[133] was established in 1954 as part of University of Peshawar. The first Medical University, Khyber Medical University[134][133] while a women only Medical college, Khyber Girls Medical College were established in 2007. At the start of 21st century, a host of new private sector universities started working in Peshawar. Qurtuba University,[135] Sarhad University of Science
Science
and IT,[136] Fast University, Peshawar Campus[137] and City University of Science
Science
and IT[138] were established in 2001 while Gandhara
Gandhara
University[139] was inaugurated in 2002 and Abasyn University[140] in 2007. Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University,[141][142] the first women university of Peshawar, started working in 2009 while private sector IQRA National University[143] was established in 2012. Apart from good range of universities, Peshawar
Peshawar
has host of high quality further education (Post School) educational institutes. The most renowned are, Edwardes College
Edwardes College
founded in 1900 by Herbert Edwardes, is the oldest college in the province and Islamia College Peshawar, which was established in 1913. Islamia College became university and named as Islamia College University
Islamia College University
in 2008.[144] The following is a list of some of the public and private universities in Peshawar:

Abasyn University
Abasyn University
(Abasyn University, Peshawar) Agricultural University (Peshawar) CECOS University of IT and Emerging Sciences City University of Science
Science
and Information Technology, Peshawar Frontier Women University Gandhara
Gandhara
University IMSciences
IMSciences
(Institute of Management Sciences) Iqra National University, Peshawar
Iqra National University, Peshawar
(formerly Peshawar
Peshawar
Campus of Iqra University Karachi) Islamia College University Khyber Medical University National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Peshawar
Peshawar
Campus (NU-FAST) Preston University Qurtuba University ( Qurtuba University of Science
Science
& Information Technology) Sarhad University of Science
Science
and Information Technology University of Engineering
Engineering
and Technology, Peshawar University of Peshawar

Landmarks[edit] The following is a list of other significant landmarks in the city that still exist in the 21st century:

General

Governor's House Peshawar
Peshawar
Garrison Club – situated on Sir Syed Road near the Mall Kotla Mohsin Khan – the residence of Mazullah Khan, 17th century Pashtu poet Qissa Khwani Bazaar Kapoor Haveli
Kapoor Haveli
Residence of Prithviraj Kapoor
Prithviraj Kapoor
– famous Bollywood actor

Forts

Bala Hisar Fort

Colonial monuments

Chowk Yadgar
Chowk Yadgar
(formerly the "Hastings Memorial") Cunningham clock tower
Cunningham clock tower
– built in 1900 and called "Ghanta Ghar"

Buddhist

Gorkhatri
Gorkhatri
– an ancient site of Buddha's alms or begging bowl, and the headquarters of Syed Ahmad Shaheed, Governor Avitabile Pashto
Pashto
Academy – the site of an ancient Buddhist university Shahji ki Dheri – the site of the famous Kanishka
Kanishka
stupa

Hindu

Panch Tirath – an ancient Hindu
Hindu
site with five sacred ponds Gorkhatri
Gorkhatri
– sacred site for Hindu
Hindu
yogis[145] Guru Gorkhnath
Gorkhnath
temple Aasamai temple – near Lady Reading Hospital (LRH)[146]

Sikh

Sikh
Sikh
Gurudwara at Jogan Shah

Parks

Army Stadium Wazir Bagh – laid in 1802, by Fatteh Khan, Prime Minister of Shah Mahmud Khan Ali Mardan
Mardan
Khan Gardens (also known as Khalid bin Waleed Park) – formerly named "Company Bagh" Shahi Bagh
Shahi Bagh
– a small portion constitutes the site of Arbab Niaz Stadium Jinnah Park - A park on GT Road opposite Balahisar fort Tatara Park
Tatara Park
- A Park located in Hayatabad Bagh e Naran - A large park in Hayatabad. A portion of the park also has a Zoo.

Mosques

Mohabbat Khan Mosque Qasim Ali Khan Mosque

Museums

Peshawar
Peshawar
Museum

Zoo

Peshawar
Peshawar
Zoo

Sports[edit]

Peshawar
Peshawar
Gymkhana Cricket Ground

There are hosts of sporting facilities in Peshawar. The most renowned are Arbab Niaz Stadium,[147] which is the International cricket ground of Peshawar
Peshawar
and Qayyum Stadium,[148] which is the multi sports facilities located in Peshawar
Peshawar
cantonment. Cricket is the most popular sports in Peshawar[149] with Arbab Niaz Stadium as the main ground coupled with Cricket Academy. There is also small cricket ground, Peshawar
Peshawar
Gymkhana ground,[150] which is located adjacent to Arbab Niaz Stadium, a popular club cricket ground. The oldest international cricket ground in Peshawar
Peshawar
however is Peshawar Club Ground, which hosted the first ever test match between Pakistan and India
India
in 1955.[151] Peshawar's domestic cricket team is Peshawar Panthers, while Peshawar Zalmi
Peshawar Zalmi
represents the city in the Pakistan Super League.[152] In 1975, the first sports complex, Qayyum Stadium was built in Peshawar[148] while Hayatabad
Hayatabad
Sports Complex was built in early 1990s.[153] Both Qayyum Stadium and Hayatabad
Hayatabad
Sports Complexes are multiple sports complexes with facilities for all major indoor and outdoor sports such as Football,[154] Field Hockey ground,[155] Squash, Swimming, Gymnasium, Board Games section, Wrestling, Boxing and Badminton. The major events that are hosted in Qayyum Stadium are Barcelona Olympics Qualifier Football
Football
Match between Pakistan
Pakistan
vs Qatar in 1991[154] and National Games 2010.[156] Hockey and squash are also popular in Peshawar. International relations[edit] Peshawar
Peshawar
is twinned with:

Ürümqi, China[citation needed] Makassar, Indonesia[157] Sana'a, Yemen
Yemen
(since 24 August 2011)[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Kushan
Kushan
Empire Kanishka Bacha Khan Khudai Khidmatgar

Pakistan
Pakistan
portal

References[edit]

^ " Peshawar
Peshawar
gets new deputy commissioner". Dawn. Dawn Media Group. 1 March 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017.  ^ "District admin observes 'World No Tobacco Day'". Pakistan
Pakistan
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and the Expansion of Islam 7Th-11th Centuries. Brill. ISBN 9780391041738.  ^ Puri, Baij Nath
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Academy. Retrieved 24 March 2017.  ^ Heirman, Ann; Bumbacher, Stephan Peter (2007). The Spread of Buddhism. BRILL. ISBN 9789047420064.  ^ It is speculated that Islam first entered the North West of modern Pakistan, sometime around 670–680 AD, at least 40 years or so before the invasion of Sindh
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by Muhammad ibn Qasim. See Prof AH Dani, monograph on 'Early Islam in NWFP' in Journal of Central Asia, University of Peshawar, Vol 12, No 24, 1999, pp 11–24; and AQ Mohmand Early Buddhist Conversions to Islam on the North-West Frontier in Nation daily, 21st June 1988, np ^ a b "Taareekh-e-Hazara" (Urdu) by Dr. Sher Bahadur Khan Panni_first edition_1969 p 295-313,"Taareekh-e-Wadi-e-Chhachh and Aqwaam-e-Chhachh" (Urdu) by Manzoor Awan p 175-182, " Afghanistan
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Nama, trans. H. Beveridge, vol. 3, p. 715 quoted in Dani, Peshawar. p. 102. Whereas according to Nizam ai-Din Ahmad it was "on the [next day]" that Akbar
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sent Zain Khan Kukah "with a well equipped army against the Afghans of Sawad (Swat) and Bajaur, for the extirpation of those turbulent tubes," Khwajah Nizam al-Din Ahmad, The Tabaqat-i-Akbari: (A History of India
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Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Peshawar

Ahmad, Aisha and Boase, Roger. 2003. "Pashtun Tales from the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier: From the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier." Saqi Books (1 March 2003). ISBN 0-86356-438-0. Beal, Samuel. 1884. "Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang." 2 vols. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969. Beal, Samuel. 1911. "The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang by the Shaman Hwui Li, with an Introduction containing an account of the Works of I-Tsing". Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. 1911. Reprint: Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. 1973. Dani, Ahmad Hasan. 1985. "Peshawar: Historic city of the Frontier" Sang-e-Meel Publications (1995). ISBN 969-35-0554-9. Dobbins, K. Walton. 1971. "The Stūpa and Vihāra of Kanishka
Kanishka
I". The Asiatic Society of Bengal Monograph Series, Vol. XVIII. Calcutta. Elphinstone, Mountstuart. 1815. "An account of the Kingdom of Caubul and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India; comprising a view of the Afghaun nation." Akadem. Druck- u. Verlagsanst (1969). Foucher, M. A. 1901. "Notes sur la geographie ancienne du Gandhâra (commentaire à un chaptaire de Hiuen-Tsang)." BEFEO No. 4, Oct. 1901, pp. 322–369. Hargreaves, H. (1910–11): "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī"; Archaeological Survey of India, 1910–11, pp. 25–32. Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." 2nd Draft Edition. Hill, John E. 2004. "The Peoples of the West from the Weilue" 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. Hopkirk, Peter. 1984. "The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia" Kodansha Globe; Reprint edition. ISBN 1-56836-022-3. Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. "Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825", Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971. Reeves, Richard. 1985. "Passage to Peshawar: Pakistan: Between the Hindu
Hindu
Kush and the Arabian Sea." Holiday House September 1985. ISBN 0-671-60539-9. Imran, Imran Rashid. 2006. "Baghaat-i-Peshawar." Sarhad Conservation Network. July 2006. Imran, Imran Rashid. 2012. " Peshawar
Peshawar
– Faseel-e-Shehr aur Darwazay." Sarhad Conservation Network. March 2012.

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Circular Railway Peshawar
Peshawar
Ring Road Peshawar- Islamabad
Islamabad
Motorway Peshawar-Torkham Expressway

Economy and culture

Afghan refugees American Market Peshawari chappal Peshawari pagri Naswar Qissa Khawani Bazaar

Sports

Arbab Niaz Stadium Peshawar
Peshawar
Panthers Peshawar
Peshawar
Golf Club Peshawar
Peshawar
Zalmi Qayyum Stadium Hayatabad
Hayatabad
Sports Complex

Other topics

List of Universities in Peshawar List of people from Peshawar List of cities in Pakistan List of educational institutions in Peshawar

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Neighbourhoods of Peshawar

Administrations: Peshawar Division and Peshawar
Peshawar
District

Cities

Peshawar
Peshawar
(capital)

Tehsils

Peshawar
Peshawar
Town I Peshawar
Peshawar
Town II Peshawar
Peshawar
Town III Peshawar
Peshawar
Town IV

Towns & councils

Adezai Amb Badaber Bela Baramad Khel Chaghar Matti Chamkani Choughalpura Danish Abad Faqirabad Gor Khuttree Gulbahar Hashtnagri Hayatabad Landi Yarghajo Mathra Mattani Mohabat Khel Mohalla Jam-e-shifa Nasir Bagh Naguman Nishterabad Pushkalavati Passani Putwar Bala Seri Bahlol Sethi Mohallah Sethi Town Shamshato Refugee Camp Surizai Bala Urmar

Website: Peshawar District
Peshawar District
at NRB

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Capitals in Pakistan

Federal/national

Islamabad

Former (federal/national)

Karachi

Provincial

Karachi
Karachi
(Sindh) Lahore
Lahore
(Punjab) Peshawar
Peshawar
(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) Quetta
Quetta
(Balochistan)

Territorial

Gilgit
Gilgit
(Gilgit–Baltistan) Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
(Azad Kashmir) Parachinar
Parachinar
(FATA)

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Major cities in Pakistan

Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory

Islamabad*

Punjab

Attock Bahawalpur Burewala Chakwal Chiniot Faisalabad Gujar Khan Gujranwala Gujrat Jhang Jhelum Kasur Kharian Lahore** Mianwali Multan Murree Rahim Yar Khan Rawalpindi Sadiqabad Sahiwal Sargodha Sheikhupura Sialkot Taxila Toba Tek Singh

Sindh

Badin Hyderabad Jacobabad Karachi** Khairpur Larkana Mirpurkhas Nawabshah Sukkur Thatta

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
& FATA

Abbottabad Bannu Battagram Chitral Charsada D.I.Khan Haripur Kohat Mansehra Mardan Nowshera Peshawar** Swat Swabi Timergara Tank

Balochistan

Chaman Gwadar Khuzdar Quetta** Ziarat

Azad Kashmir

Bagh Bhimber Kotli Mirpur Muzaffarabad** Rawalakot

Gilgit–Baltistan

Gilgit Skardu

*Federal capital **Provincial/Te

.