PESHAWAR (Urdu : پشاور; Pashto : پېښور; Hindko : پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa . It also serves as the administrative centre and economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas . Situated in a broad valley near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass , close to the border with Afghanistan , Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 B.C.E. , making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest in South Asia . Peshawar is the largest city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. According to the last census, it is also the ninth-largest city of Pakistan.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Ancient
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Topography * 3.2 Climate * 3.3 Cityscape
* 4 Demographics
* 4.1 Population * 4.2 Language * 4.3 Religion * 4.4 Afghan refugees
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Industry * 5.2 Employment * 5.3 Constraints
* 6 Transportation
* 6.1 Road
* 6.1.1 Motorways
* 6.2 Rail * 6.3 Air * 6.4 Public transit * 6.5 Intercity bus
* 7 Administration
* 7.1 Civic Government * 7.2 Politics * 7.3 Municipal services
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Music * 8.2 Museums
* 9 Notable people * 10 Education * 11 Landmarks * 12 Sports * 13 International relations
* 14 References
* 14.1 Bibliography
* 15 External links
The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi noted that by the mid 10th century, the city had become known as _Parashāwar_. After the Ghaznavid invasion, the city's name was again noted to be _Parashāwar_ by Al-Biruni . The city began to be known as _Peshāwar_ by the era of Emperor Akbar , a name which is traditionally said to have been given by Akbar himself.
The new name is said to have been based upon the Persian for "frontier town," or more literally, "forward city," though transcription errors and linguistic shifts may also account for the city's new name. Akbar's bibliographer, Abu\'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak , lists the city's name by both its former name _Parashāwar_, transcribed in Persian as _پَرَشاوَر_, and _Peshāwar_ (_پشاور_).
Peshawar was founded as the ancient city of _Puruṣapura_, on the Gandhara Plains in the broad Valley of Peshawar . The city likely first existed as a small village in the 5th century BCE , within the cultural sphere of eastern ancient Persia. Puruṣapura was founded near the ancient Gandharan capital city of Pushkalavati , near present-day Charsadda .
In the winter of 327-26 BCE , Alexander the Great subdued the Valley of Peshawar during his invasion of ancient India , as well as the nearby Swat and Buner valleys. Following Alexander's conquest, the Valley of Peshawar came under suzerainty of Seleucus I Nicator , founder of the Seleucid Empire . A locally-made vase fragment that was found in Peshawar depicts a scene from Sophocles ' play _Antigone _.
The nearby Takht-i-Bahi monastery was established in 46 CE, and was once a major centre of Buddhist learning.
Following the Seleucid–Mauryan war , the region was ceded to the Mauryan Empire in 303 BCE. Around 300 BCE, the Greek diplomat and historian Megasthenes noted that Puruṣapura was the western terminus of a Mauryan road that connected the city to the empire's capital at _ Pataliputra _, near the city of Patna in the modern-day Indian state of Bihar .
As Mauryan power declined, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom based in modern Afghanistan declared its independence from the Seleucid Empire, and quickly seized Puruṣapura around 190 BCE. The city was then ruled by several _Iranic_ Parthian kingdoms. Puruṣapura was then captured by Gondophares , founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom . Gondophares established the nearby _ Takht-i-Bahi _ monastery in 46 CE.
In the first century of the Common era , came under control of Kujula Kadphises , founder of the Kushan Empire . The city was made the empire's winter capital. The Kushan's summer capital at _Kapisi_ (modern Bagram , Afghanistan ) was seen as the secondary capital of the empire, while Puruṣapura was considered to be the empire's primary capital. Ancient Peshawar's population was estimated to be 120,000, which would make it the seventh-most populous city in the world at the time.
Around 128 CE, Puruṣapura was made sole capital of the Kushan Empire under the rule of Kanishka . As a devout Buddhist, the emperor built the grand _ Kanishka Mahavihara _ monastery. After his death the magnificent KANISHKA STUPA was built in Puruṣapura to house Buddhist relics. The golden age of the Kushan empire in Puruṣapura ended in 232 CE with the death of the last great Kushan king, Vasudeva I .
Around 260 CE, the armies of the Sasanid Emperor Shapur I launched an attack against Puruṣapura, and severely damage Buddhist monuments and monasteries throughout the Valley of Peshawar. Shapur's campaign also resulted in damage to the Puruṣapura's monumental stupa and monastery. The Kushans were made subordinate to the Sasanids, and their power rapidly dwindled, as the Sasanids blocked lucrative trade routes westward out of Puruṣapura.
Kushan Emperor Kanishka III was able to temporarily reestablish control over the entire Valley of Peshawar after Shapur's invasion, but the city was then captured by the Central Asian Kidarite kingdom in the early 400s CE.
The White Huns devastated Puruṣapura in the 460s CE, and ravaged the entire region of Gandhara, destroying its numerous monasteries. The Kanishka stupa was rebuilt during the White Hun era with the construction of a tall wooden superstructure, built atop a stone base, and crowned with a 13-layer copper-gilded _chatra ._ In the 400s CE, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim _ Faxian _ visited the structure and described it as "the highest of all the towers" in the "terrestrial world" , which ancient travelers claimed was up to 560 feet (170 m) tall, though modern estimates suggest a height of 400 feet (120 m).
In 520 CE the Chinese monk Song Yun visited Gandhara and Puruṣapura during the White Hun era, and noted that it was in conflict with nearby _Kapisa_. The Chinese monk and traveler Xuanzang visited Puruṣapura around 630 CE, after _Kapisa_ victory, and expressed lament that the city and its great Buddhist monuments had decayed to ruin — although some monks studying Hinayana Buddhism continued to study at the monastery's ruins. Xuanzang estimated that only about 1,000 families continued in a small quarter among the ruins of the former grand capital.
Until the mid 7th century, the residents Puruṣapura are believed to have been primarily ancient-Indians, with a ruling elite of Central Asian Scythian descent, who were then displaced by the Hindu Shahis of Kabul.
Islam is believed to have been first introduced to the Buddhist and Zoroastrian inhabitants of Puruṣapura in the later 7th century.
As the first Pashtun tribe to settle the region, the Dilazak Pashtuns began settling in the Valley of Peshawar, and are believed to have settled regions up to the Indus River by the 11th century. The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi noted that by the mid 10th century, the city had become known as _Parashāwar_.
Main article: Battle of Peshawar (1001)
On November 28, 1001, Sabuktigin's son Mahmud Ghazni decisively defeated the army of Raja Jayapala , son of Anandpal, at the Battle of Peshawar , and established rule of the Ghaznavid Empire in the Peshawar region.
During the Ghaznavid era, Peshawar served as an important stop between the Afghan plateau, and the Ghaznavid garrison city of Lahore . During the 10th-12th century, Peshawar served as a headquarters for Hindu Nath Panthi Yogis, who in turn are believed to have extensively interacted with Muslim Sufi mystics.
The _Khashi Khel_ Pashtuns, ancestors of modern-day Yusufzai and Gigyani Pashtuns, began settling rural regions around Peshawar in the late 1400s. The _Khashi Khel_ tribe pushed the Dilazak Pashtun tribes east of the Indus River following a battle in 1515 near the city of Mardan .
_ Bestowed by Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan Khan in 1630, the white-marble façade of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is one of Peshawar's most iconic sights._ _ The interior of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is elaborately frescoed with elegant and intricately detailed floral and geometric motifs._
Peshawar remained an important centre on trade routes between India and Central Asia. The Peshawar region was a cosmopolitan region in which goods, peoples, and ideas would pass along trade routes. Its importance as a trade centre is highlighted by the destruction of over one thousand camel-loads of merchandise following an accidental fire at Bala Hissar fort in 1586. Mughal rule in the area was tenuous, as Mughal suzerainty was only firmly exercised in the Peshawar valley, while the neighbouring valley of Swat was under Mughal rule only during the reign of Akbar .
In July 1526, Emperor Babur captured Peshawar from Daulat Khan Lodi . Babur is said to have renamed the city _Begram_, and rebuilt the city's fort. Babur used the city as a base for expeditions to nearby Kohat and Bannu .
Under the reign of Babur's son, Humayun , direct Mughal rule over the city was briefly challenged with the rise of the Pashtun king, Sher Shah Suri , who began construction of the famous Grand Trunk Road in the 16th century. Peshawar was an important trading centre on Sher Shah Suri's Grand Trunk Road.
Akbar renamed _Begram_ to _Peshawar_; perhaps derived from the Persian "_pīsh shehr_" (پیش شهر) - meaning "forward city", in reference to the city's frontier status. In 1586, Pashtuns rose against Mughal rule during the ROSHANIYYA REVOLT under the leadership of Pir Roshan , founder of the egalitarian Roshaniyyas , who shut down trade routes out of Peshawar, and laid siege to the city until 1587.
Emperor Aurangzeb 's Governor of Kabul, Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan Khan used Peshawar as his winter capital during the 17th century, and bestowed the city with its famous Mohabbat Khan Mosque in 1630.
Yusufzai tribes rose against Mughal rule during the YUSUFZAI REVOLT of 1667, and engaged in pitched-battles with Mughal battalions nearby Attock . Afridi tribes resisted Mughal rule during the AFRIDI REVOLT of the 1670s. The Afridis massacred a Mughal battalion in the nearby Khyber Pass in 1672 and shut the pass to lucrative trade routes. Mughal armies led by Emperor Aurangzeb himself regained control of the entire area in 1674.
Following Aurangzeb's death in 1707, his son Bahadur Shah I , former Governor of Peshawar and Kabul, was selected to be the Mughal Emperor. As Mughal power declined following the death of Emperor Aurangzeb, the empire's defenses were weakened.
_ Peshawar's Bala Hissar fort was once the royal residence of the Durrani kings._
On 18 November 1738, Peshawar was captured from the Mughal governor Nawab Nasir Khan by the Safavid armies during the Persian invasion of the Mughal Empire under Nader Shah . During the chaotic post-Mughal period, Peshawar in 1747 was taken by Ahmad Shah Durrani , founder of the Afghan Durrani Empire .
Under the reign of his son Timur Shah , the Mughal practice of using Kabul as a summer capital and Peshawar as a winter capital was reintroduced, with the practice maintained until the Sikh invasion. Peshawar's Bala Hissar Fort served as the residence of Durrani kings during their winter stay in Peshawar. Peshawar was attacked and briefly held by the Marathas , which conquered the city in the Battle of Peshawar in May 1758. A large force of Pashtuns under the Durrani then re-conquered Peshawar in early 1759. Peshawar was noted to be the main centre of trade between Bukhara and India by British explorer William Moorcroft during the late 1700s. Peshawar was at the centre of a productive agricultural region that provided much of north India's dried fruit.
Timur Shah's grandson, Mahmud Shah Durrani , became king, and quickly seized Peshawar from his half-brother, Shah Shujah Durrani . Shah Shujah was then himself proclaimed king in 1803, and recaptured Peshawar while Mahmud Shah was imprisoned at Bala Hissar fort until his eventual escape. In 1809, the British sent an emissary to the court of Shah Shujah in Peshawar, marking the first diplomatic meeting between the British and Afghans. His half-brother Mahmud Shah then allied himself with the _Barakzai_ Pashtuns, and captured Peshawar once again and reigned until 1818.
Ranjit Singh invaded Peshawar in 1818 and captured it from the Durranis. The Sikhs soon lost control, and so in 1823, Ranjit Singh returned to battle the armies of Azim Khan at Nowshera . Following the Sikh victory at the Battle of Nowshera , Ranjit Singh re-captured Peshawar. By 1830, Peshawar's economy was noted by Scottish explorer Alexander Burnes to have sharply declined, with Ranjit Singh's forces having destroyed the city's palace and agricultural fields.
Much of Peshawar's caravan trade from Kabul ceased on account of skirmishes between Afghan and Sikh forces, as well as a punitive tax levied on merchants by Ranjit Singh's forces. Singh's government also required Peshawar to forfeit much of its leftover agricultural output to the Sikhs as tribute, while agriculture was further decimated by a collapse of the dried fruit market in north India. Singh appointed Neapolitan mercenary Paolo Avitabile as administrator of Peshawar, who is remembered for having unleashed a reign of terror. His time in Peshawar is known as a time of "gallows and gibbets." The city's famous Mahabat Khan, built in 1630 in the Jeweler's Bazaar, was badly damaged and desecrated by the Sikh conquerors.
The Sikh Empire formally annexed Peshawar in 1834 following advances from the armies of Hari Singh Nalwa — bringing the city under direct control of the Sikh Empire's _ Lahore Durbar_. An 1835 attempt by Dost Muhammad Khan to re-occupy the city failed when his army refused to engage in combat with the Dal Khalsa . Sikh settlers from Punjab were settled in the city during Sikh rule. The city's only remaining Gurdwaras were built by Hari Singh Nalwa to accommodate the newly-settle Sikhs. The Sikhs also rebuilt the Bala Hissar fort during their occupation of the city.
_ The British-era Islamia College was built in an Indo-Saracenic Revival style._ _ Built for wealthy local merchants in a Central Asian architectural style, the Sethi Mohallah features several homes dating from the British-era._
Following the defeat of the Sikhs in the Second Anglo- Sikh War in 1849, territories in the Punjab were also captured by the British East India Company. The British for re-established stability in the wake of ruinous Sikh rule. During the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 , the 4,000 members of the native garrison were disarmed without bloodshed; the absence of brutality meant that Peshawar was not affected by the widespread devastation that was experienced throughout the rest of British India and local chieftains sided with the British after the incident.
The British laid out the vast Peshawar Cantonment to the west of the city in 1868, and made the city its frontier headquarters. Additionally, several projects were initiated in Peshawar, including linkage of the city by railway to the rest of British India and renovation of the Mohabbat Khan mosque that had been desecrated by the Sikhs. British suzerainty over regions west of Peshawar was cemented in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand , foreign secretary of the British Indian government, who collaboratively demarcated the border between British controlled territories in India and Afghanistan.
The British built Cunningham clock tower in celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria , and in 1906 built the Victoria Hall (now home of the Peshawar Museum ) in memory of Queen Victoria . The British introduced Western-style education ito Peshawar with the establishment of Edwardes College and Islamia College in 1901 and 1913, along with several schools run by the Anglican Church . For better administration of the region, Peshawar and the adjoining districts were separated from the Punjab Province in 1901, after which Peshawar became capital of the new province. _ Edwardes College was built during the British-era, and is now one of Peshawar's most prestigious educational institutions._
Peshawar emerged as a centre for both Hindko and Pashtun intellectuals during the British era. Hindko speakers, also referred to as _Khaarian_ ("city dwellers" in Pashto), were responsible for the dominant culture for most of the time that Peshawar was under British rule. Peshawar was also home to a non-violent resistance movement led by Ghaffar Khan , a disciple of Mohandas Gandhi . In April 1930, Khan led a large group of Khan's followers protested in Qissa Khawani Bazaar against discriminatory laws that had been enacted by the British rulers — hundreds were killed when British troops opened fire on the demonstrators .
In 1947, Peshawar became part of the newly created state of Pakistan , and emerged as a cultural centre in the country's northwest. The University of Peshawar was established in the city in 1950, and augmented by the amalgamation of nearby British-era institutions into the university. Until the mid-1950s, Peshawar was enclosed within a city wall and sixteen gates. From the 1960s until the late 1970s, Peshawar was a major stop on the famous Hippie trail .
During the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s, Peshawar served as a political centre for the CIA and the Inter-Services Intelligence -trained mujahideen groups based in the camps of Afghan refugees . It also served as the primary destination for large numbers of Afghan refugees. By 1980, 100,000 refugees a month were entering the province, with 25% of all refugees living in Peshawar district in 1981. The arrival of large numbers of Afghan refugees strained Peshawar's infrastructure, and drastically altered the city's demography.
Like much of northwest Pakistan, Peshawar has been severely affected by violent conflict between the extremist Taliban , moderates, liberals, and Pashtun nationalists. Local poets' shrines have been targeted by the Pakistani Taliban , a suicide bomb attack targeted the historic All Saints Church , and most notably the 2014 Peshawar school massacre in which Taliban militants killed 132 school children.
Peshawar suffered 111 acts of terror in 2010, which had declined to 18 in 2014, before the launch of Operation Zarb-e-Azb which has further reduced acts of violence throughout Pakistan. More civilians died in acts of violence in 2014 compared to 2010 – largely a result of the Peshawar school massacre.
_ The city serves as a gateway to the Khyber Pass , whose beginning is marked by the Khyber Gate._
Peshawar is located in the broad Valley of Peshawar, which is surrounded by mountain ranges on three sides, with the fourth opening to the Punjab plains. The city is located in the generally level base of the valley, known as the GANDHARA PLAINS.
Main article: Climate of Peshawar
Peshawar features a semi-arid climate , with very hot summers and mild winters. Winter in Peshawar starts in November and ends in late March, though it sometimes extends into mid-April, while the summer months are from mid-May to mid-September. The mean maximum summer temperature surpasses 40 °C (104 °F) during the hottest month, and the mean minimum temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). The mean minimum temperature during the coolest month is 4 °C (39 °F), while the maximum is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F).
Peshawar is not a monsoon region, unlike other parts of Pakistan; however, rainfall occurs in both winter and summer. Due to western disturbances, the winter rainfall shows a higher record between the months of February and April. The highest amount of winter rainfall, measuring 236 millimetres (9.3 in), was recorded in February 2007, while the highest summer rainfall of 402 millimetres (15.8 in) was recorded in July 2010; during this month, a record-breaking rainfall level of 274 millimetres (10.8 in) fell within a 24-hour period on 29 July 2010 — the previous record was 187 millimetres (7.4 in) of rain, recorded in April 2009. The average winter rainfall levels are higher than those of summer. Based on a 30-year record, the average annual precipitation level was recorded as 400 millimetres (16 in) and the highest annual rainfall level of 904.5 millimetres (35.61 in) was recorded in 2003. Wind speeds vary during the year, from 5 knots (5.8 mph; 9.3 km/h) in December to 24 knots (28 mph; 44 km/h) in June. The relative humidity varies from 46% in June to 76% in August. The highest temperature of 50 °C (122 °F) was recorded on 18 June 1995, while the lowest −3.9 °C (25.0 °F) occurred on 7 January 1970.
CLIMATE DATA FOR PESHAWAR (1961–1990)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 27.0 (80.6) 30.0 (86) 36.0 (96.8) 42.2 (108) 45.2 (113.4) 48.0 (118.4) 46.6 (115.9) 46.0 (114.8) 42.0 (107.6) 38.5 (101.3) 35.0 (95) 29.0 (84.2) 48 (118.4)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 18.3 (64.9) 19.5 (67.1) 23.7 (74.7) 30.0 (86) 35.9 (96.6) 40.4 (104.7) 37.7 (99.9) 35.7 (96.3) 35.0 (95) 31.2 (88.2) 25.6 (78.1) 20.1 (68.2) 29.4 (84.9)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 11.2 (52.2) 12.9 (55.2) 17.4 (63.3) 23.2 (73.8) 28.6 (83.5) 33.1 (91.6) 32.2 (90) 30.7 (87.3) 28.9 (84) 23.7 (74.7) 17.6 (63.7) 12.5 (54.5) 22.7 (72.9)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 4.0 (39.2) 6.3 (43.3) 11.2 (52.2) 16.4 (61.5) 21.3 (70.3) 25.7 (78.3) 26.6 (79.9) 25.7 (78.3) 22.7 (72.9) 16.1 (61) 7.6 (45.7) 4.9 (40.8) 15.9 (60.6)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) −3.9 (25) −1.0 (30.2) 1.7 (35.1) 6.7 (44.1) 11.7 (53.1) 13.3 (55.9) 18.0 (64.4) 19.4 (66.9) 12.0 (53.6) 8.3 (46.9) 1.1 (34) −1.3 (29.7) −3.9 (25)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 26.0 (1.024) 42.7 (1.681) 78.4 (3.087) 48.9 (1.925) 27.0 (1.063) 7.7 (0.303) 42.3 (1.665) 67.7 (2.665) 17.9 (0.705) 9.7 (0.382) 12.3 (0.484) 23.3 (0.917) 403.9 (15.901)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 195.5 189.5 194.5 231.3 297.1 299.5 273.8 263.2 257.3 266.1 234.8 184.4 2,887
Source #1: NOAA (1961-1990)
Source #2: PMD
_ Peshawar's Jeweler's Bazaar is adjacent to the Mohabbat Khan Mosque ._ _ A view of old Peshawar's famous Qissa Khawani Bazaar ._ _ Much of Peshawar's old city still features examples of traditional style architecture._ _ Some buildings in the old city feature carved wooden balconies._
Historically, the old city of Peshawar was a heavily guarded citadel that consisted of high walls. In the 21st century, only remnants of the walls remain, but the houses and havelis continue to be structures of significance. Most of the houses are constructed of unbaked bricks, with the incorporation of wooden structures for protection against earthquakes, with many composed of wooden doors and latticed wooden balconies. Numerous examples of the city's old architecture can still be seen in areas such as Sethi Mohallah . In the old city, located in inner-Peshawar, many historic monuments and bazaars exist in the 21st century, including the Mohabbat Khan Mosque, Kotla Mohsin Khan , Chowk Yadgar and the Qissa Khawani Bazaar . Due to the damage caused by rapid growth and development, the old walled city has been identified as an area that urgently requires restoration and protection. Author, Dr Raj Wali Shah Khattak, a former director of the Pushto Academy and a senior academic at the University of Peshawar , has written in his book, _An Intangible Heritage:_ The Walled City of Peshawar_:_
To protect the inheritance of the walled city of Peshawar, the establishment of a heritage centre should be a priority. The centre should have audio and visual documentation equipment so that every aspect of culture and life, be it folklore, music, types of instruments, stories, etc., can be recorded. Moreover, visual documentation of customs and traditions should include marriage functions, clothing, lifestyle, manners and habits. Research into the oral nature of life in the bazars and streets, both during the day and at night, should be carried out to preserve this historical record. Fairs, festivals and traditions, both secular and religious, should be included in this record.
The walled city was surrounded by several main gates that served as the main entry points into the city — in January 2012, an announcement was made that the government plans to address the damage that has left the gates largely non-existent over time, with all of the gates targeted for restoration.
The population of Peshawar district in 1998 was 2,026,851. No census has been conducted in Pakistan since then, though the 2017 census is expected to be complete by the middle of 2017. The city's annual growth rate is estimated at 3.29% per year, and the 2016 population of Peshawar district is estimated to be 3,405,414.
The primary native languages spoken in Peshawar are Pashto and Hindko , though English is used in the city's educational institutions, while Urdu is almost universally understood throughout the city, and was introduced as the language of Peshawar's courts in 1851. While Pashto is used as a language of instruction in the province's public schools, enrollment in Pashto-medium schools has decreased as parental influences have resulted in the popularity Urdu and English-medium schools.
The district of Peshawar is overwhelmingly Pashto-speaking, though the Hindko-speaking minority is concentrated in Peshawar's old city, where they predominate. Hindko speakers have historically inhabited Peshawar's old city, and their community is referred to as _Shehrī_, or "city dwelling." Hindko speakers in Peshawar increasingly assimilate elements of Pashto and Urdu into their speech. Pashto is widely understood by Hindko speakers, and was confined to Peshawar's suburbs and surrounding region. Peshawar's linguistic pattern differs from most South Asian cities, where the predominant language in those cities is the same language as in surrounding regions.
Peshawar is overwhelmingly Muslim, with Muslims making up 98.5% of the city's population in the 1998 census. Christians make up the second largest religious group with around 20,000 adherents, while over 7,000 members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community live in Peshawar. Hindus and Sikhs are also found in the city − though most of the city's Hindu and Sikh community migrated _en masse_ to India following the Partition of British India in 1947.
Though the city's Sikh population drastically declined after Partition, the Sikh community has been bolstered in Peshawar by the arrival of appximately 4,000 Sikh refugees from conflict in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas ; In 2008, the largest Sikh population in Pakistan was located in Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Sikhs in Peshawar self-identify as Pashtuns and speak Pashto as their mother tongue. There was a small, but, thriving Jewish community until the late 1940s. After the partition and the emergence of the State of Israel, Jews left for India and Israel.
Peshawar has hosted Afghan refugees since the start of the Afghan civil war in 1978, though the rate of migration drastically increased following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. By 1980, 100,000 refugees a month were entering the province, with 25% of all refugees living in Peshawar district in 1981. The arrival of large numbers of Afghan refugees strained Peshawar's infrastructure, and drastically altered the city's demography. During the 1988 national elections, an estimated 100,000 Afghans refugees were illegally registered to vote in Peshawar.
With the influx of Afghan refugees into Peshawar, the city became a hub for Afghan musicians and artists. Some Afghan refugees have established successful businesses in Peshawar, and play an important role in the city's economy.
In recent years, Peshawar district hosts up to 20% of all Afghan refugees in Pakistan. In 2005, Peshawar district was home to 611,501 Afghan refugees — who constituted 19.7% of the district's total population. Peshawar's immediate environs were home to large Afghan refugee camps, with Jalozai camp hosting up to 300,000 refugees in 2001 – making it the largest refugee camp in Asia at the time.
Afghan refugees began to be frequently accused of involvement with terrorist attacks that occurred during Pakistan's war against radical Islamists . By 2015 the Pakistani government adopted a policy to repatriate Afghan refugees, including many who had spent their entire life in Pakistan. The policy of repatriation was also encouraged by the government of Afghanistan, though many refugees had not registered themselves in Pakistan. Unregistered refugees returning to Afghanistan without their old Afghan identification documents now have no official status in Afghanistan either.
Peshawar's economic importance has historically been linked to its privileged position at the entrance to the Khyber Pass - the ancient travel route by which most trade between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent passed. Peshawar's economy also benefited from tourism in the mid-20th century, as the city formed a crucial part of the Hippie trail .
Peshawar's estimated monthly per capita income was ₨55,246 in 2015, compared to ₨117,924 in Islamabad , and ₨66,359 in Karachi . Peshawar's surrounding region is also relatively poor − Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's cities on average have an urban per capita income that is 20% less than Pakistan's national average for urban residents.
Peshawar was noted by the World Bank in 2014 to be at the helm of a nationwide movement to create an ecosystem for entrepreneurship, freelance jobs, and technology. The city has been host to the World Bank assisted Digital Youth Summit — an annual event to connect the city and province's youths to opportunities in the digital economy . The 2017 event hosted 100 speakers including several international speakers, and approximately 3,000 delegates in attendance.
Peshawar's INDUSTRIAL ESTATE on Jamrud Road is an industrial zone established in the 1960s on 868 acres. The industrial estate hosts furniture, marble industries, and food processing industries, though many of its plots remain underutilized. The HAYATABAD INDUSTRIAL ESTATE hosts 646 industrial units in Peshawar's western suburbs, though several of the units are no longer in use. As part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor , 4 special economic zones are to be established in the province, with roads, electricity, gas, water, and security to be provided by the government. The nearby HATTAR SEZ is envisioned to provide employment to 30,000 people, and is being developed at a cost of approximately $200 million with completion expected in 2017.
As a result of large numbers of displaced persons in the city, only 12% of Peshawar's residents are employed in the formalized economy in 2012. Approximately 41% of residents in 2012 were employed in personal services, while 55% of Afghan refugees in the city in 2012 were daily wage earners. By 2016, Pakistan adopted a policy to repatriate Afghan refugees.
Wages for unskilled workers in Peshawar grew on average 9.1% per year between 2002 and 2008. Following the outbreak of widespread Islamist violence in 2007, wages rose only 1.5% between 2008 and 2014. Real wages dropped for some skilled craftsmen during the period between 2008 and 2014.
Peshawar's economy has been negatively impacted by political instability since 1979 resulting from the War in Afghanistan and subsequent strain on Peshawar's infrastructure from the influx of refugees. The poor security environment resulting from Islamist violence also impacted the city's economy. With the launch of Operation Zarb-e-Azb in 2014, the country's security environment has drastically improved.
The metropolitan economy suffers from poor infrastructure. The city's economy has also been adversely impacted by shortages of electricity and natural gas. The $54 billion China Pakistan Economic Corridor will generate over 10,000 MW by 2018 – greater than the current electricity deficit of approximately 4,500 MW. Peshawar will also be linked to ports in Karachi by uninterrupted motorway access, while passenger and freight railway tracks will be upgraded between Peshawar and Karachi.
Poor transportation is estimated to cause a loss of 4-6% of the Pakistani GDP . Peshawar for decades has suffered from chaotic, mismanaged, and inadequate public transportation. The provincial government, which started construction of the new TransPeshawar system, noted that poor public transportation also has been detrimental to the city's economy.
_ New flyovers , such as this one near the suburb of Hayatabad , have been constructed in recent years to improve traffic flow._
Peshawar's east-west growth axis is centred on the historic Grand Trunk Road that connects Peshawar to Islamabad and Lahore . The road is roughly paralleled by the M-1 Motorway between Peshawar and Islamabad, while the M-2 Motorway provides an alternate route to Lahore from Islamabad. The Grand Trunk Road also provides access to the Afghan border via the Khyber Pass , with onwards connections to Kabul and Central Asia via the Salang Pass .
Peshawar is to be completely encircled by the Peshawar Ring Road in order to divert traffic away from the city's congested centre. The road is currently under construction, with some portions open to traffic.
The Indus Highway provides access to points south of Peshawar, with a terminus in the southern port city of Karachi via Dera Ismail Khan and northern Sindh . The 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) Kohat Tunnel south of Peshawar provides access to the city of Kohat along the Indus Highway.
Peshawar is connected to Islamabad and Rawalpindi by the 155 kilometre long M-1 Motorway . The motorway also links Peshawar to major cities in the province, such as Charsadda and Mardan . The M-1 motorway continues onwards to Lahore as part of the M-2 motorway .
The Hazara Motorway is also under construction as part of CPEC, and will provide control-access motorway travel all the way to Mansehra via the M-1 and Hazara Motorways.
Peshawar Cantonment railway station serves as the terminus for Pakistan's 1,687 kilometres (1,048 mi)-long Main Line-1 railway that connects the city to the port city of Karachi and passes through the Peshawar City railway station . The Peshawar to Karachi route is served by the _ Awam Express _, _ Khushhal Khan Khattak Express _, and the _Khyber Mail _ services.
The entire Main Line-1 railway track between Karachi and Peshawar is to be overhauled at a cost of $3.65 billion for the first phase of the project, with completion by 2021. Upgrading of the railway line will permit train travel at speeds of 160 kilometres per hour, versus the average 60 to 105 km per hour speed currently possible on existing track.
Peshawar was also once the terminus of the _Khyber Train Safari _, a tourist-oriented train that provided rail access to Landi Kotal . The service was discontinued as the security situation west of Peshawar deteriorated with the beginning of the region's Taliban insurgency.
Peshawar is served by the Bacha Khan International Airport , located in the Peshawar Cantonment . The airport served 1,255,303 passengers between 2014 and 2015, the vast majority of whom were international travelers. The airport offers direct flights throughout Pakistan, as well as to Bahrain , Malaysia , Qatar , Saudi Arabia , and the United Arab Emirates .
TransPeshawar , a bus rapid transit system, is currently under construction with assistance from the Asian Development Bank . The line will stretch from Chamkani in the east, to Hayatabad in the west to replace Peshawar's current chaotic, dilapidated, and inadequate transportation system. The system will have 31 stations and will be mostly at grade, with four kilometres of elevated sections. The system will also contain 3.5 kilometres of underpasses. The TransPeshawar system will be complemented by a feeder system, with an additional 100 stations along those feeder lines, all of which will be new construction. _ One of Peshawar's privately-run intercity bus terminals._
Peshawar is well-served by private buses (locally referred to as "_Flying Coaches_") and vans that offer frequent connections to throughout Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, as well as all major cities of Pakistan. The city's Daewoo Express bus terminal is located along the G.T. Road adjacent to the departure points for several other transportation companies.
Peshawar has historically served as the political centre of the region, and is currently the capital city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The city and province have been historically regarded to be strongholds of the Awami National Party – a secular left-wing and moderate-nationalist party. The Pakistan Peoples Party had also enjoyed considerable support in the province due to its socialist agenda .
Despite being a centre for leftist politics in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar is still generally known throughout Pakistan for its social conservatism. Sunni Muslims in the city are regarded to be socially conservative, while the city's Shia population is considered to be more socially liberal.
A plurality of voters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, of which Peshawar is the capital, elected one of Pakistan's only religiously-based provincial governments during the period of military dictatorship of Pervez Musharraf . A ground-swell of anti-American sentiment after the 2001 United States invasion of Afghanistan contributed to the Islamist coalition's victory.
The Islamists introduced a range of social restrictions following the election of the Islamist Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal coalition in 2002, though Islamic Shariah law was never fully enacted. Restrictions on public musical performances were introduced, as well as a ban prohibiting music to be played in any public places, including on public transportation – which lead to the creation of a thriving underground music scene in Peshawar. In 2005, the coalition successfully passed the "Prohibition of Use of Women in Photograph Bill, 2005," leading to the removal of all public advertisements in Peshawar that featured women.
The religious coalition was swept out of power by the secular and leftist Awami National Party in elections after the fall of Musharraf in 2008, leading to the removal of the MMA's socially conservative laws. 62% of eligible voters voted in the election. The Awami National Party was targeted by Taliban militants, with hundreds of its members having been assassinated by the Pakistani Taliban .
86% of Peshawar's households have access to municipal piped water as of 2015, though 39% of Peshawar's households purchase water from private companies in 2015.
42% of Peshawar households are connected to municipal sewerage as of 2015.
After the 2002 Islamist government implemented restrictions on public musical performances, a thriving underground music scene took root in Peshawar. After the start of Pakistan's Taliban insurgency in 2007-2008, militants began targeting members of Peshawar's cultural establishment. By 2007, Taliban militants began a widespread campaign of bombings against music and video shops across the Peshawar region, leading to the closure of many others. In 2009, Pashto musical artist Aiyman Udas was assassinated by Taliban militants on the city's outskirts. In June 2012, a Pashto singer, Ghazala Javed, and her father were killed in Peshawar, after they had fled rural Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for the relative security of Peshawar.
Musicians began to return to the city by 2016, with a security environment greatly improved following the Operation Zarb-e-Azb in 2014 to eradicate militancy in the country. The provincial government of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf in 2016 announced a monthly income of $300 to 500 musicians in order to help support their work, as well as a $5 million fund to "revive the rich cultural heritage of the province."
The Peshawar Museum was founded in 1907 in memory of Queen Victoria . The building features an amalgamation of British, South Asian, Hindu, Buddhist and Mughal Islamic architectural styles. The museum's collection has almost 14,000 items, and is well known for its collection of Greco-Buddhist art . The museum's ancient collection features pieces from the Gandharan , Kushan , Parthian , and Indo- Scythian periods.
Main article: List of people from Peshawar
Numerous educational institutes — schools, colleges and universities — are located in Peshawar. 21.6% of children between the ages of 5 and 9 were not enrolled in any school in 2013, while 16.6% of children in the 10 to 14 age range were out of school.
The University of Peshawar (UOP) was established in October 1950 by the first Prime Minister of Pakistan . Edwardes College , founded in 1900 by Herbert Edwardes, is the oldest college in the province.
The following is a list of some of the public and private universities in Peshawar:
* Abasyn University (Abasyn University, Peshawar) * Agricultural University (Peshawar) * CECOS University of IT and Emerging Sciences * City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar * Frontier Women University * Gandhara University * IMSciences (Institute of Management Sciences) * Iqra National University, Peshawar (Formerly Peshawar Campus of Iqra University Karachi) * Islamia College University * Khyber Medical University * National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences , Peshawar Campus (NU-FAST) * Preston University * Qurtuba University ( Qurtuba University of Science "> * _ Makassar , Indonesia * Sana\'a , Yemen (since 24 August 2011)
* Pakistan portal
* ^ " Peshawar gets new deputy commissioner". _Dawn_. Dawn Media Group. 1 March 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017. * ^ "District admin observes ‘World No Tobacco Day’". _Pakistan Today_. Retrieved 1 June 2017. * ^ http://www.demographia.com/db-worldua.pdf * ^ "SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN ANNUAL REVIEW 2014-15" (PDF). SOCIAL POLICY AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRE. 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2017. * ^ "NWFP Introduction". Government of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2007. * ^ "Administrative System". Government of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Retrieved 12 December 2007. * ^ Peshawar: Oldest continuously inhabited City in South Asia. DAWN.com. Retrieved 17 October 2014. * ^ "Population size and growth of major cities" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics . 1998. * ^ _Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland_. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. 1834. pp. 114–. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ hastings, captain e. g. g. (1878). _report of the regular settlement of the peshawar district of the punjab_. Oxford University. Retrieved 29 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). _Historic Cities of the Islamic World_. BRILL. ISBN 9789004153882 . Retrieved 24 March 2017. * ^ _Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, Volume 2, Issue 1 - Volume 3, Issue 2_. Research Society of Pakistan. 1965. * ^ "Journal of Central Asia". _Journal of Central Asia_. Centre for the Study of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Quaid-i-Azam University,. 19. 1996. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Chandra, Moti. _Trade And Trade Routes In Ancient India_. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 9788170170556 . Retrieved 24 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Samad, Rafi U. (2011). _The Grandeur of Gandhara: The Ancient Buddhist Civilization of the Swat, Peshawar, Kabul and Indus Valleys_. Algora Publishing. ISBN 9780875868592 . * ^ "NWFP in search of a name". _pakhtunkhwa.com_. Retrieved 24 January 2016. * ^ _Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland_. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. 1834. pp. 114–. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ Fuller, J.F.C. (2004). _The Generalship Of Alexander The Great_. Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780306813306 . * ^ Luniya, Bhanwarlal Nathuram (1978). _Life and Culture in Ancient India: From the Earliest Times to 1000 AD_. Lakshmi Narain Agarwal. LCCN 78907043 . * ^ Tarn, William Woodthorpe (2010). _The Greeks in Bactria and India_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108009416 . Retrieved 28 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ A. D. H. Bivar, "The History of Eastern Iran", in Ehsan Yarshater (ed.), _The Cambridge History of Iran,_ Vol.3 (1), _The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods,_ London, Cambridge University Press, 1983, p.197. * ^ _A_ _B_ Schmidt, Karl J. (2015). _An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History_. Routledge. ISBN 9781317476818 . Retrieved 28 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Elisseeff, Vadime (1998). _The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce_. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781571812223 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Le, Huu Phuoc (2010). _Buddhist Architecture_. Grafikol. ISBN 9780984404308 . Retrieved 24 March 2017.
* ^ Rosenberg, Matt; Tertius Chandler (2012). "Top 10 Cities of the Year 100". _Education > Geography (sourced from Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census by Tertius Chandler. 1987, St. David's University Press)_. About.com. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ Wink, Andre (2002). _Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7Th-11th Centuries_. Brill. ISBN 9780391041738 . * ^ Puri, Baij Nath (1987). _ Buddhism in Central Asia_. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 9788120803725 . * ^ Wink, Andre (2002). _Al-Hind: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, 11th-13th centuries_. BRILL. ISBN 9780391041745 . * ^ Ahmad, Hasan Dani (1999). _History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750_. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 9788120815407 . Retrieved 29 March 2017. * ^ Saletore, Bhasker Anand (1960). _India's Diplomatic Relations with the East_. Popular Book Depot. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wriggins, Sally (2008). _The Silk Road Journey With Xuanzang_. Basic Books. ISBN 9780786725441 . Retrieved 29 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Cotton, James (1908). _Imperial Gazetteer of India:Gazetteers of British India, 1833-1962 Volume 20 of Imperial Gazetteer of India_. Clarendon. * ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan (1995). _Peshawar: Historic City of the Frontier_. Sang-e-Meel Publications. * ^ Zhang, Guiyong (1978). _Chinese History: Middle ages_. China Academy. Retrieved 24 March 2017. * ^ Heirman, Ann; Bumbacher, Stephan Peter (2007). _The Spread of Buddhism_. BRILL. ISBN 9789047420064 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ It is speculated that Islam first entered the North West of modern Pakistan, sometime around 670-680 AD, at least 40 years or so before the invasion of Sindh by Muhammad ibn Qasim. See Prof AH Dani, monograph on 'Early Islam in NWFP' in Journal of Central Asia, University of Peshawar, Vol 12, No 24, 1999, pp 11-24; and AQ Mohmand _Early Buddhist Conversions to Islam on the North-West Frontier_ in Nation daily, 21st June 1988, np * ^ _A_ _B_ "Taareekh-e-Hazara" (Urdu) by Dr. Sher Bahadur Khan Panni_first edition_1969 p 295-313,"Taareekh-e-Wadi-e-Chhachh and Aqwaam-e-Chhachh" (Urdu) by Manzoor Awan p 175-182, " Afghanistan and its inhabitants" translation of Muhammad Hayat Khan's book by Henry B Priestley_1874 (reproduced by Sang-e-Meel Publications_Pakistan_1981 p-55/56, p- 197/198, “Da Pasto Qabeelo Shajre o Mene" (Pashto) by Muhammad Umar Rond Miakhel_2001 p 346-347 * ^ Bosworth, C.E. (1963). _The Ghaznavids 994–1040_. Edinburgh University Press. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Kingdom of Afghanistan - A Historical Sketch" by G.P.Tate (1911), Reproduced by 'Indus Publications' (1973) Page 12 (Foot Note) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Richards, John F. (1995). _The Mughal Empire_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521566032 . Retrieved 24 March 2017. * ^ Akbar Nama, trans. H. Beveridge, vol. 3, p. 715 quoted in Dani, Peshawar. p. 102. Whereas according to Nizam ai-Din Ahmad it was "on the " that Akbar sent Zain Khan Kukah "with a well equipped army against the Afghans of Sawad (Swat) and Bajaur, for the extirpation of those turbulent tubes," Khwajah Nizam al-Din Ahmad, The Tabaqat-i-Akbari: (A History of India from the early Musalman Invasions to the thirty-eight year of the reign of Akbar), vol. 2, trans, Brajendra Nath De. rev. and ed, Baini Prashad, low Price Publications, Delhi, 1992, p, 607. * ^ Henry Miers, Elliot (2013) . _The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108055871 . * ^ Aykroyd, Clarissa (2005). _Pakistan_. Mason Crest Publishers. ISBN 9781590848395 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _The Cambridge History of India, Volume 3_. CUP Archive,. 1928. * ^ Ahmad, Hasan Dani (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 9788120815407 . Retrieved 29 March 2017 * ^ Richards, John F. (1996), "Imperial expansion under Aurangzeb 1658–1869. Testing the limits of the empire: the Northwest.", _The Mughal Empire_, New Cambridge history of India: The Mughals and their contemporaries, 5 (illustrated, reprint ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 170–171, ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2 * ^ Wynbrandt, James (2009). _A Brief History of Pakistan_. Infobase. ISBN 9780816061846 . * ^ Sharma, S.R. _ Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material, Volume 3_. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. ISBN 9788171568192 . Retrieved 24 March 2017. * ^ Nadiem, Ihsan H. (2007). _Peshawar: heritage, history, monuments_. Sang-e-Meel. ISBN 9789693519716 . * ^ "A Concise History of Afghanistan in 25 Volumes, Volume 14". Retrieved 29 December 2014. * ^ Hanifi, Shah (11 February 2011). _Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier_. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-7777-3 . Retrieved 13 December 2012. Timur Shah transferred the Durrani capital from Qandahar during the period of 1775 and 1776. Kabul and Peshawar then shared time as the dual capital cities of Durrani, the former during the summer and the latter during the winter season. * ^ Caroe, Olaf (1957) The Pathans. * ^ _A_ _B_ Schofield, Victoria, "Afghan Frontier: Feuding and Fighting in Central Asia", London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks (2003), page 47 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Hopkins, B. (2008). _The Making of Modern Afghanistan_. Springer. ISBN 9780230228764 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Dani, Ahmad Hasan (2003). _History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast : from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century_. UNESCO. ISBN 9789231038761 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Rai, Jyoti; Singh, Patwant (2008). _Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh_. Peter Owen Publishers. ISBN 9780720613711 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Javed, Asghar (1999–2004). "History of Peshawar". _National Fund for Cultural Heritage_. National Fund for Cultural Heritage. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ Qaiser, Iqbal (2012). "Gurudwara Bhai Joga Singh at Peshawar". _All About Sikhs – your Gateway to Sikhism_. Gateway to Sikhism. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ Pike, John (2000–2012). " Peshawar Cantonment". _GlobalSecurity.org_. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ Charles Allen , _Soldier Sahibs_, p.276 * ^ Changes in the Socio-economic Structures in Rural North-West Pakistan By Mohammad Asif Khan The North-West Frontier Province was separated from Punjab Province in 1901, * ^ The Frontier Town of Peshawar. A Brief History by Sayed Amjad Hussain. * ^ APP (24 April 2008). "PESHAWAR: Qissa Khwani martyrs remembered". _DAWN The Internet Edition_. DAWN Media Group. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan (1995). _Peshawar: Historic City of the Frontier_. Sang-e-Meel Publications,. Retrieved 14 June 2017. * ^ "The Lonely Planet Journey: The Hippie Trail". The Independent. 5 Nov 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (January 2006). "AFGHANS IN PESHAWAR Migration, Settlements and Social Networks" (PDF). _Collective for Social Science Research_. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees . Retrieved 5 April 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ HAIDER, MURTAZA (20 June 2012). "Of refugees, cities and cultures". Dawn. Retrieved 5 April 2017. * ^ Felix, Qaiser (3 June 2009). "Sufi shrine bombed, in push to "Talibanize" Pakistan". _AsiaNews.it_. AsiaNews CF. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ "SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN ANNUAL REVIEW 2014-15" (PDF). SOCIAL POLICY AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRE. 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ " Peshawar Climate Data". _PakMet_. Climate Data Processing Centre (CDPC), Pakistan Meteorological Department, Karachi. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link ) * ^ _A_ _B_ "RAINFALL STATEMENT JULY-2010". _PakMet_. Climate data Processing Centre (CDPC), Pakistan Meteorological Department, Karachi. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link ) * ^ " Peshawar Climate Normals 1961-1990" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved January 16, 2013. * ^ "Extremes of Peshawar". Pakistan Meteorological Department . Retrieved February 2, 2015. * ^ Marwat, Fazal-ur-Rahim; Khattak, Raj Wali Shah (23 June 2005). "Whispering Heritage: Reviewed by Dr. Fazal-ur-Rahim Marwat". _Khyber.org_. Khyber Gateway. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ Manzoor Ali (29 January 2012). "Restoring heritage: Kabuli Gate being rebuilt in old city". _The Express Tribune_. The Express Tribune News Network. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ " Peshawar District Demographics". Govt of KPK. Retrieved 4 April 2017. * ^ "About Peshawar: Demographics". _epeshawar.com_. epeshawar.com. 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ "Development Statistics of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa" (PDF). Bureau of Statistics Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. p. 159. Retrieved 4 April 2017. * ^ Shackle, Christopher (1980). " Hindko in Kohat and Peshawar". _Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies_. 43 (3): 496–97. ISSN 0041-977X . doi :10.1017/S0041977X00137401 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Mills, Margaret Ann (1994). _Gender, Genre, and Power in South Asian Expressive Traditions_. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 307. ISBN 9788120811782 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Schiffman, Harold (Dec 9, 2011). _Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and Its Neighbors: The Changing Politics of Language Choice_. BRILL. ISBN 9789004201453 . * ^ Cohen, Stephen (Sep 21, 2004). _The Idea of Pakistan_. Brookings Institution Press. p. 202. ISBN 9780815797616 . Retrieved 5 April 2017. * ^ Bashir, Elena; Hock, Hans Henrich (May 24, 2016). _The Languages and Linguistics of South Asia: A Comprehensive Guide_. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. ISBN 9783110423303 . Retrieved 5 April 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _ Peshawar District: Socio-political Profile_. Pattan Development Organization. 2006. * ^ Zulqernain, M (10 February 2012). "Historic Gurdwara in Peshawar to Reopen for Worship". _Outlook India.com_. The Outlook Group. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ Abouzeid, Rania (22 November 2010). "Pakistan: The Embattled Sikhs in Taliban Territory". _Time World_. Time Inc. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2014. * ^ Jewish ghosts in Pakistan * ^ Lorch, Donatella (16 November 1988). " Pakistan Restricts Afghan. Refugees". _The New York Times_. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ Amir, Intikhab (24 December 2001). "PESHAWAR: Refugee musicians keep Afghan music alive". _DAWN The Internet Edition_. DAWN Group of Newspapers. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Fragile economy of Peshawar and policy failure". The Tribune. July 20, 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Fearing and fleeing in Pakistan". Al Jazeera. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Pakistan wants millions of Afghan refugees gone. It\'s a humanitarian crisis waiting to happen.". Public Radio International. Reuters. 30 March 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Constable, Pamela (19 March 2017). "c ‘There is nothing here but dust’: What Afghan deportees face after years as refugees in Pakistan". Washington Post. Retrieved 5 April 2017. * ^ "Putting Peshawar at the Helm of Digital Change: Youth, Technology, and Innovation". World Bank. May 23, 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2017. * ^ "Digital Youth Summit". Retrieved 7 April 2017. * ^ IBP, Inc. (Jun 1, 2015). _Pakistan: Doing Business and Investing in Pakistan: Strategic, Practical Information, Regulations, Contacts_. Lulu. ISBN 9781514527474 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "CPEC-inspired economic zones". Dawn. December 28, 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2017. * ^ "‘Violence-related fatalities in Balochistan, Punjab increased in 2016’". Dawn. 4 January 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017. * ^ "Pakistan\'s Peshawar hopes for economic boost". Al Jazeera. January 4, 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2017. * ^ "Parliamentary body on CPEC expresses concern over coal import". _Daily Time_. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2015. * ^ "Electricity shortfall increases to 4,500 MW". Dunya News. 29 June 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2015. * ^ "Transport policy: need of the day". Dawn. 13 February 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017. “Inefficiencies in the performance of the transport sector costs Pakistan’s economy 4-6pc of GDP”, said Werner E. Liepach, ADB Country Director. * ^ " Peshawar Mass Transit Project Brief" (PDF). Urban Policy Unit. Retrieved 7 April 2017. * ^ "PURCHASE OF POWER: PAYMENTS TO CHINESE COMPANIES TO BE FACILITATED THROUGH REVOLVING FUND". Business Recorder. Retrieved 6 December 2015. * ^ " Pakistan to get Chinese funds for upgrading rail links, building pipeline". Hindustan Times. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016. The project is planned to be completed in two phases in five years by 2021. The first phase will be completed by December 2017 and the second by 2021. * ^ "Karachi- Peshawar railway line being upgraded under CPEC". _Daily Times_. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Statistical Information of CAA Pakistan CAA Pakistan , updated on 14 March 2016 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ " Peshawar Sustainable Bus Rapid Transit Corridor Project" (PDF). Asian Development Bank. February 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017. * ^ " Peshawar Sustainable Bus Rapid Transit Corridor Project" (PDF). Asian Development Bank. February 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
* ^ " Daewoo Express - Peshawar". _Daewoo Express_. Retrieved 13 January 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sheikh, Yasir (5 November 2012). "Areas of political influence in Pakistan: right-wing vs left-wing". _rugpundits.com_. Karachi, Sindh: Rug Pandits, Yasir. Retrieved 29 May 2015. * ^ Sheikh, Yasir (9 February 2013). "Political spectrum of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) – Part I: ANP, PPP & MMA". _rugpundits.com_. Islamabad: Rug Pandits, Yasir Sheikh. Retrieved 29 May 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Rakodi, Carole, ed. (Apr 4, 2016). _Religion, Religious Organisations and Development: Scrutinising Religious Perceptions and Organisations_. Routledge. ISBN 9781134912476 . Retrieved 6 April 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Robinson, Simon (February 29, 2008). "Religion\'s Defeat in Pakistan\'s Election". Time. Retrieved 6 April 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Tirmizi, Maria; Rizwan-ul-Haq (24 June 2007). "Peshawar underground: It\'s difficult to be a rock star in the land the epitomises conservatism, yet something shocking is happening. There is a rock scene waiting to burst out of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Rahim Shah was just the beginning, Sajid and Zeeshan were proof that originality can spring out of unlikely places and there are others who are making their riffs and ragas heard... slowly, but surely.". _The News on Sunday Instep_. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ Clarke, Michael E.; Misra, Ashutosh (Mar 1, 2013). _Pakistan\'s Stability Paradox: Domestic, Regional and International Dimensions_. Routledge. ISBN 9781136639340 . Retrieved 6 April 2017. * ^ "PESHAWAR: Advertisers forced to deface billboards". Dawn. May 3, 2006. Retrieved 6 April 2017. * ^ "Musicians in Pakistan\'s northwest long for better times". Reuters. March 15, 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2017. * ^ "\'Pakistan\'s liberal Pashtuns are losing the battle\'". Deutsche Welle. December 24, 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2017. * ^ " Pakistan "Taliban" bombs shops in morality bid". Reuters. 13 June 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2017. * ^ Rumi, Raza; Manzoor Ali (30 June 2012). "The Music Doesn’t Stop in Peshawar". _The Indian Express: Journalism of Courage_. Retrieved 13 December 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Music returns to Pakistan\'s Peshawar". Al Jazeera. May 26, 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2017. * ^ Babur Nama Page 141 published by Penguin * ^ Ahmad, Riaz. "The sacred four: The decline of