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The PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch, listen (help ·info )) are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and their descendants. The word "Dutch" does not refer to the Dutch people (Nederlanders) or their descendants, but to German people whose ethnonym in their own language is Deitsch (in dialectal German) or Deutsch (in standard German ). Most emigrated to the U.S. from Germany
Germany
or Switzerland
Switzerland
in the 17th and 18th century. Over time, the various dialects spoken by these immigrants fused into a unique dialect of German known as Pennsylvania German or Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
"Dutch". At one time, more than one-third of Pennsylvania's population spoke this language.

The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch maintained numerous religious affiliations, with the greatest number being Lutheran or German Reformed , but also with many Anabaptists
Anabaptists
, including Mennonites
Mennonites
and Amish
Amish
. The Anabaptist
Anabaptist
religions promoted a simple lifestyle, and their adherents were known as Plain people or Plain Dutch. This was in contrast to the Fancy Dutch , who tended to assimilate more easily into the American mainstream. Other religions were also represented by the late 1700s, in smaller numbers.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Geography * 3 Immigrants from the Palatinate of the Rhine
Palatinate of the Rhine
* 4 Emigration to the U.S. * 5 Migration to Canada
Canada
* 6 Religion * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Further information: Theodiscus

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German (Deitsch, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch, listen (help ·info ); usually called PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH) is a variety of West Central German spoken by the Amish
Amish
and Old Order Mennonites
Mennonites
in the United States and Canada, closely related to the Palatine dialects .

During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the use of "Dutch" in English referred to West Germanic speakers of continental Europe in general. From c. 1600 onward it was mainly restricted to the inhabitants of the Low Countries .

After the Second World War
Second World War
, use of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German virtually died out in favor of English , except among the more insular and tradition-bound Anabaptists, such as the Old Order Amish
Amish
and Old Order Mennonites
Mennonites
. A number of German cultural practices continue to this day, and German Americans
German Americans
remain the largest ancestry group claimed in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
by people in the census.

GEOGRAPHY

The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch live primarily in Southeastern and in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Country , a large area that includes South Central Pennsylvania, in the area stretching in an arc from Bethlehem and Allentown through Reading , Lebanon , and Lancaster to York and Chambersburg . Some Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch live in the historically Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch -speaking areas of Maryland
Maryland
, North Carolina
North Carolina
, and Virginia
Virginia
.

After the American Revolution, John Graves Simcoe
John Graves Simcoe
, Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, invited Americans, including Mennonites
Mennonites
and German Baptist Brethren, to settle in British North American territory and offered tracts of land to immigrant groups. This resulted in communities of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch speakers' emigrating to Canada, many to the area called the German Company Tract in the Township of Waterloo, which later became Waterloo County, Ontario
Waterloo County, Ontario
. Some still live in the area around Markham, Ontario
Markham, Ontario
and particularly in the northern areas of the current Waterloo Region . Some members of the two communities formed the Markham-Waterloo Mennonite
Mennonite
Conference . Today, the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch language is mostly spoken by Old Order Mennonites
Mennonites
.

IMMIGRANTS FROM THE PALATINATE OF THE RHINE

Many Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch were descendants of refugees who had left religious persecution in the Palatinate of the German Rhine . For example, some Amish
Amish
and Mennonites
Mennonites
came to the Palatinate and surrounding areas from the German-speaking part of Switzerland, where, as Anabaptists
Anabaptists
, they were persecuted, and so their stay in the Palatinate was of limited duration.

Most of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch have roots going much further back in the Palatinate. During the War of the Grand Alliance (1689–97), French troops pillaged the Palatinate, forcing many Germans
Germans
to flee. The War of the Palatinate (as it was called in Germany), also called the War of the League of Augsburg , began in 1688 as Louis XIV
Louis XIV
took claim of the Electorate of the Palatinate . French forces devastated all major cities of the region, including Cologne
Cologne
. By 1697 the war came to a close with the Treaty of Ryswick , now Rijswijk in the Netherlands, and the Palatinate remained free of French control. However, by 1702, the War of Spanish Succession
War of Spanish Succession
began, lasting until 1713. French expansionism forced many Palatines to flee as refugees.

EMIGRATION TO THE U.S.

Some of the emigration of Germans
Germans
to America from the Rhine area was caused by the devastation of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the wars between the German principalities and France. Members this group founded Borough of Germantown , in northwest Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, in 1683. They settled on land that William Penn
William Penn
had sold to them. Germantown included not only Mennonites
Mennonites
but also Quakers.

The Mennonites
Mennonites
of this group were organized by Francis Daniel Pastorius, an agent for a land purchasing company based in Frankfurt am Main . None of the Frankfurt Company ever came to Pennsylvania except Pastorius himself, but 13 Krefeld
Krefeld
German (Dutch -speaking) Mennonite
Mennonite
families arrived on October 6, 1683, in Philadelphia. They were joined by eight more Dutch-speaking families from Hamburg-Altona in 1700 and five German-speaking families from the Palatinate in 1707.

In 1723, some 33 Palatine families, dissatisfied under Governor Hunter's rule, migrated from Schoharie, New York , along the Susquehanna River
Susquehanna River
to Tulpehocken , Berks County , Pennsylvania, where other Palatines had settled. They became farmers and used intensive German farming techniques that proved highly productive. Pictures from Old-Germantown. Shown here is the first log cabin of Pastorius about 1683, Pastorius' later house about 1715, print shop and house of Saurs about 1735, and the market square about 1820.

Another wave of settlers from Germany, which would eventually coalesce to form a large part of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch, arrived between 1727 and 1775; some 65,000 Germans
Germans
landed in Philadelphia in that era and others landed at other ports. Another wave from Germany arrived 1749-1754. Not all were Mennonites; some were Quakers, for example. The majority originated in what is today southwestern Germany
Germany
, i.e., Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
and Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
; other prominent groups were Alsatians , Dutch, French Huguenots (French Protestants), Moravians from Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
and Germans
Germans
from Switzerland
Switzerland
.

The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch composed nearly half the population of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and generally supported the Patriot cause in the American Revolution . Henry Miller, an immigrant from Germany
Germany
of Swiss ancestry, published an early German translation of the Declaration of Independence (1776) in his newspaper Philadelphische Staatsbote. Miller often wrote about Swiss history and myth, such as the William Tell legend, to provide a context for patriot support in the conflict with Britain.

Frederick Muhlenberg
Frederick Muhlenberg
(1750–1801), a Lutheran pastor, became a major patriot and politician, rising to be elected as Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives.

MIGRATION TO CANADA

From 1800 to the 1830s, some Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Mennonites
Mennonites
in Upstate New York and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
moved north to Canada
Canada
, primarily to the area that would become Cambridge, Ontario
Cambridge, Ontario
, Kitchener, Ontario / Waterloo, Ontario
Waterloo, Ontario
and St. Jacobs, Ontario
St. Jacobs, Ontario
/ Elmira, Ontario /Listowel, Ontario in Waterloo County, Ontario
Waterloo County, Ontario
. Settlement started in 1800 by Joseph Schoerg and Samuel Betzner, Jr. (brothers-in-law), Mennonites
Mennonites
, from Franklin County, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
. Other settlers followed mostly from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
typically by Conestoga wagons . Many of the pioneers arriving from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
after November 1803 bought land in a 60,000 acre section established by a group of Mennonites
Mennonites
from Lancaster County Pennsylvania, called the German Company Lands. Many of the Mennonite
Mennonite
Germans
Germans
from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
arrived in Waterloo County in Conestoga wagons.

A fewer number of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch settled in what would become the Greater Toronto Area in areas that would later be called Altona, Ontario , Pickering, Ontario and especially Markham Village, Ontario and Stouffville, Ontario
Stouffville, Ontario
. William Berczy , a German entrepreneur and artist, had settled in upstate New York and in May 1794, he was able to obtain 64,000 acres in Markham Township, near the current city of Toronto, Ontario
Toronto, Ontario
. Berczy arrived with approximately 190 German families from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and settled here. Others later moved to other locations in the general area, including a hamlet they founded, German Mills, Ontario , named for its grist mill; that community is now called Thornhill, Ontario
Thornhill, Ontario
), in the township that is now part of York Region
York Region
.

RELIGION

The immigrants of the 1600s and 1700s who were known as the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch included Mennonites, Swiss Brethren (also called Mennonites
Mennonites
by the locals) and Amish
Amish
but also German Pietists such as German Baptist Brethren and those who belonged to German Lutheran or German Reformed Church congregations. Other settlers of that era were of the Moravian Church
Moravian Church
while a few were Seventh Day Baptists or members of the Dunkard Brethren . Calvanist Palatines and several other religions to a lesser extent were also represented.

Over 60% of the immigrants who arrived in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
from Germany or Switzerland
Switzerland
in the 1700s and 1800s were Lutherans and they maintained good relations with those of the German Reformed Church. The two groups founded Franklin College (now Franklin border:solid #aaa 1px">

* United States portal * Germany
Germany
portal * Philadelphia portal

* Amish
Amish
* List of Amish
Amish
and their descendants * Mennonite
Mennonite
* Schwenkfeldian * Old German Baptist Brethren
Old German Baptist Brethren
* Pennsylvania German language * Hex sign * Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Country * Hiwwe wie Driwwe newspaper * Michael Werner (publisher) * Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch cuisine * German American * Helen Reimensnyder Martin , author * Anna Balmer Myers , author * John Schmid , singer * Fraktur ( Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German folk art) * Kurrent
Kurrent
handwriting * Dwight Schrute
Dwight Schrute
, fictional character on The Office

PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN EDITION of , the free encyclopedia

REFERENCES

* ^ https://journals.psu.edu/phj/article/download/25670/25439 * ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. * ^ www.etymonline.com (English) and Etymologisch Woordenboek van het Nederlands (Dutch) entries "Dutch" and "Diets". * ^ Fogleman, Aaron Spencer (1996). Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717-1775. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0812215489 . The term "Dutch," often considered a corruption of "Deutsch", which means German, was actually not a corruption at all. It was a legitimate, well-known term used by the English in the early modern period to describe the people who lived along the Rhine. The "Low Dutch" came from the area of the present Netherlands, while the "High Dutch" came from the area of the middle and upper Rhine. * ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-31. * ^ "Lancaster, PA Dutch Country: Attractions, Amish, Events". LancasterPA.com. * ^ Lancaster, Discover. "PA Amish
Amish
Lifestyle - How the community of Amish
Amish
in PA live today". Discover Lancaster. * ^ Steven M. Nolt. Foreigners in their own land: Pennsylvania Germans
Germans
in the early republic. p. 13. * ^ "Biography – SIMCOE, JOHN GRAVES – Volume V (1801-1820) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography". * ^ "Ontario\'s Mennonite
Mennonite
Heritage". Wampumkeeper.com. Retrieved 2013-05-10. * ^ "Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario History - To Confederation". kitchener.foundlocally.com. * ^ A B "History of Markham, Ontario, Canada". www.guidingstar.ca. * ^ A B https://books.google.ca/books?id=d5Pz7TRQllwC&pg=PA164&dq=german+mennonites+toronto+markham+berczy&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjJ04Ktxc_TAhUj6oMKHb48AzYQ6AEIKzAB#v=onepage&q=german%20mennonites%20toronto%20markham%20berczy">(PDF). Waterloo Historical Society 1930 Annual Meeting. Waterloo Historical Society. 1930. Retrieved 13 March 2017. * ^ A B "Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario History - To Confederation". * ^ https://books.google.ca/books?id=foWFkpWFgTcC&pg=PA20&dq=Old+order+mennonites+still+speak+Pennsylvania+dutch+german&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwik1Ljyx8_TAhXsx4MKHfjfBvAQ6AEIRDAF#v=onepage&q=Old%20order%20mennonites%20still%20speak%20Pennsylvania%20dutch%20german&f=false, page 20) * ^ http://www.mhso.org/sites/default/files/publications/Ontmennohistory15-2.pdf * ^ "Chapter Two - The History Of The German Immigration To America - The Brobst Chronicles". homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com. * ^ Newman, George F., Newman, Dieter E. (2003) The Aebi-Eby Families of Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and North America, 1550-1850. Pennsylvania: NMN Enterprises * ^ Roeber 1988 * ^ A B "First German-Americans". Retrieved 2006-10-05 * ^ "Historic Germantown - Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia". philadelphiaencyclopedia.org. * ^ Germantown Mennonite
Mennonite
Settlement (Pennsylvania, USA) at the Global Anabaptist
Anabaptist
Mennonite
Mennonite
Encyclopedia Online * ^ Farley Grubb, "German Immigration to Pennsylvania, 1709 to 1820," Journal of Interdisciplinary History Vol. 20, No. 3 (Winter, 1990), pp. 417-436 in JSTOR * ^ A B http://hsp.org/sites/default/files/legacy_files/migrated/germanstudentreading.pdf * ^ webmaster@swissmennonite.org. "The Palatinate". www.swissmennonite.org. * ^ Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Cooking: Traditional Dutch Dishes. Gettysburg, PA: Dutchcraft Company. * ^ John B. Stoudt "The German Press in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and the American Revolution." Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Magazine of History and Biography 59 (1938): 74-90 online * ^ A. G.. Roeber, "Henry Miller's Staatsbote: A Revolutionary Journalist's Use of the Swiss Past," Yearbook of German-American Studies, 1990, Vol. 25, pp 57-76 * ^ "York County (Ontario, Canada) - GAMEO". gameo.org. * ^ "What is Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch?". 24 May 2014. * ^ "The Germans
Germans
Come to North America". www.anabaptists.org. * ^ A B Shea, John G. (27 December 2012). "Making Authentic Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Furniture: With Measured Drawings". Courier Corporation – via Google Books. * ^ https://books.google.ca/books?id=VJZBAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA171&lpg=PA171&dq=Seventh+Day+Baptists+pennsylvania+dutch&source=bl&ots=OdCN2uoezY&sig=vjppsptpUid0PkevrQhkrhBdSik&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjz2oiT1s_TAhUC7SYKHSzzBhsQ6AEIVjAJ#v=onepage&q=Seventh%20Day%20Baptists%20pennsylvania%20dutch&f=false, page 171-172 * ^ https://books.google.ca/books?id=lAXPBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA130&dq=moravians+pennsylvania+dutch&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjQ2fbf1s_TAhVBYyYKHR3xAkgQ6AEILTAB#v=onepage&q=calvinist&f=false, page 3 * ^ https://journals.psu.edu/phj/article/download/25670/25439 * ^ https://books.google.ca/books?id=lAXPBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA130&dq=moravians+pennsylvania+dutch&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjQ2fbf1s_TAhVBYyYKHR3xAkgQ6AEILTAB#v=onepage&q=moravians%20pennsylvania%20dutch&f=false, page 129-130 * ^ Leonard R. Riforgiato, Missionary of moderation: Henry Melchior Muhlenberg and the Lutheran Church in America (1980) * ^ Samuel R. Zeiser, "Moravians and Lutherans: Getting beyond the Zinzendorf-Muhlenberg Impasse," Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society, 1994, Vol. 28, pp 15-29 * ^ https://books.google.ca/books?id=lAXPBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA130&dq=moravians+pennsylvania+dutch&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjQ2fbf1s_TAhVBYyYKHR3xAkgQ6AEILTAB#v=onepage&q=calvinist 2011) 250 studies their houses, churches, barns, outbuildings, commercial buildings, and landscapes * Nolt, Steven, Foreigners in Their Own Land: Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Germans in the Early American Republic, Penn State U. Press, 2002 ISBN 0-271-02199-3 * Roeber, A. G. Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America (1998) * Roeber, A. G. "In German Ways? Problems and Potentials of Eighteenth-Century German Social and Emigration History," William & Mary Quarterly, Oct 1987, Vol. 44 Issue 4, pp 750–774 in JSTOR

EXTERNAL LINKS

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