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Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics

Range of penguins, all species (aqua)

Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds. They live almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, with only one species, the Galapagos penguin, found north of the equator. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have evolved into flippers. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid and other forms of sea life caught while swimming underwater. They spend about half of their lives on land and half in the oceans. Although almost all penguin species are native to the Southern Hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin live so far south. Several species are found in the temperate zone, and one species, the Galápagos penguin, lives near the equator. The largest living species is the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri):[1] on average, adults are about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) tall and weigh 35 kg (77 lb). The smallest penguin species is the little blue penguin ( Eudyptula
Eudyptula
minor), also known as the fairy penguin, which stands around 40 cm (16 in) tall and weighs 1 kg (2.2 lb). Among extant penguins, larger penguins inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are generally found in temperate or even tropical climates (see also Bergmann's rule). Some prehistoric species attained enormous sizes, becoming as tall or as heavy as an adult human. These were not restricted to Antarctic
Antarctic
regions; on the contrary, subantarctic regions harboured high diversity, and at least one giant penguin occurred in a region around 2,000 km south of the equator 35 mya, in a climate decidedly warmer than today.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Systematics and evolution

2.1 Living species and recent extinctions 2.2 Fossil
Fossil
genera 2.3 Taxonomy 2.4 Evolution

2.4.1 Basal fossils 2.4.2 Palaeeudyptines 2.4.3 Origin and systematics of modern penguins 2.4.4 Relationship to other bird orders

3 Anatomy
Anatomy
and physiology

3.1 Isabelline penguins

4 Distribution and habitat 5 Behaviour

5.1 Breeding

6 Penguins and humans

6.1 In popular culture

7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Etymology The word penguin first appears in the 16th century as a synonym for great auk.[2] When European explorers discovered what are today known as penguins in the Southern Hemisphere, they noticed their similar appearance to the great auk of the Northern Hemisphere, and named them after this bird, although they are not closely related.[3] The etymology of the word penguin is still debated. The English word is not apparently of French,[2] Breton[4] or Spanish[5] origin (the latter two are attributed to the French word pingouin "auk"), but first appears in English or Dutch.[2] Some dictionaries suggest a derivation from Welsh pen, "head" and gwyn, "white",[6] including the Oxford English Dictionary, the American Heritage Dictionary,[7] the Century Dictionary[7] and Merriam-Webster,[8] on the basis that the name was originally applied to the great auk, either because it was found on White Head Island (Welsh Pen Gwyn) in Newfoundland, or because it had white circles around its eyes (though the head was black). An alternative etymology links the word to Latin pinguis, which means "fat" or "oil".[9] Support for this etymology can be found in the alternative Germanic word for penguin, fettgans or "fat-goose", and the related Dutch word vetgans. Systematics and evolution Living species and recent extinctions

Adélie penguin
Adélie penguin
( Pygoscelis
Pygoscelis
adeliae) feeding young. Like its relatives, a neatly bi-coloured species with a head marking.

Magellanic penguins ( Spheniscus
Spheniscus
magellanicus). The closed neck collar denotes this species.

Closeup of southern rockhopper penguin ( Eudyptes
Eudyptes
chrysocome)

Two king penguins and one gentoo penguin walking on a beach on South Georgia, British overseas territory

The number of extant penguin species is debated. Depending on which authority is followed, penguin biodiversity varies between 17 and 20 living species, all in the subfamily Spheniscinae. Some sources consider the white-flippered penguin a separate Eudyptula
Eudyptula
species, while others treat it as a subspecies of the little penguin;[10][11] the actual situation seems to be more complicated.[12] Similarly, it is still unclear whether the royal penguin is merely a color morph of the macaroni penguin. The status of the rockhopper penguins is also unclear. Updated after Marples (1962),[13] Acosta Hospitaleche (2004),[14] and Ksepka et al. (2006).[15] Subfamily
Subfamily
Spheniscinae
Spheniscinae
– modern penguins

Aptenodytes
Aptenodytes
– great penguins

King penguin, Aptenodytes
Aptenodytes
patagonicus Emperor penguin, Aptenodytes
Aptenodytes
forsteri

Pygoscelis
Pygoscelis
– brush-tailed penguins

Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis
Pygoscelis
adeliae Chinstrap penguin, Pygoscelis
Pygoscelis
antarctica Gentoo penguin, Pygoscelis
Pygoscelis
papua

Eudyptula
Eudyptula
– little penguins

Little blue penguin, Eudyptula
Eudyptula
minor Australian little penguin, Eudyptula
Eudyptula
novaehollandiae White-flippered penguin, Eudyptula
Eudyptula
albosignata (provisional)

Spheniscus
Spheniscus
– banded penguins

Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus
Spheniscus
magellanicus Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus
Spheniscus
humboldti Galapagos penguin, Spheniscus
Spheniscus
mendiculus African penguin, Spheniscus
Spheniscus
demersus

Megadyptes

Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes
Megadyptes
antipodes †Waitaha penguin, Megadyptes
Megadyptes
waitaha (extinct)

Eudyptes
Eudyptes
– crested penguins

Fiordland penguin, Eudyptes
Eudyptes
pachyrynchus Snares penguin, Eudyptes
Eudyptes
robustus Erect-crested penguin, Eudyptes
Eudyptes
sclateri Western rockhopper penguin, Eudyptes
Eudyptes
chrysocome Eastern rockhopper penguin, Eudyptes
Eudyptes
filholi Northern rockhopper penguin, Eudyptes
Eudyptes
moseleyi Royal penguin, Eudyptes
Eudyptes
schlegeli (disputed) Macaroni penguin, Eudyptes
Eudyptes
chrysolophus †Chatham penguin, Eudyptes
Eudyptes
chathamensis (extinct)

Fossil
Fossil
genera

Phylogeny
Phylogeny
of Spheniscidae[16]

†Waimanu

†Kumimanu

†Delphinornis

†Marambiornis

†Mesetaornis

†Perudyptes

†Anthropornis

†Palaeeudyptes

†Icadyptes

†Pachydyptes

†Inkayacu

†Kairuku

†Paraptenodytes

Spheniscinae

Order Sphenisciformes[17]

Basal and unresolved taxa (all fossil)

Anthropodyptes (Middle Miocene) Arthrodytes (San Julian Late Eocene/ Early Oligocene
Early Oligocene
– Patagonia Early Miocene
Miocene
of Patagonia, Argentina) Aprosdokitos Hospitaleche, Reguero & Santillana 2017 Crossvallia (Cross Valley Late Paleocene
Paleocene
of Seymour Island, Antarctica) Ichthyopteryx Wiman 1905 Inguza (Late Pliocene) Kaiika Fordyce & Tomas 2011 (Maxwell's penguin) Korora (Late Oligocene
Oligocene
of S Canterbury, New Zealand) Nucleornis (Early Pliocene
Pliocene
of Duinfontain, South Africa) Orthopteryx Wiman 1905 Palaeoapterodytes (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene
Miocene
of Argentina) Pseudaptenodytes (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene) Tasidyptes Van Tets & O’Connor 1983 nomen dubium (Hunter Island penguins) Tereingaornis (Middle Pliocene
Pliocene
of New Zealand) Tonniornis (Late Eocene
Eocene
–? Early Oligocene
Early Oligocene
of Seymour Island, Antarctica) Wimanornis (Late Eocene
Eocene
–? Early Oligocene
Early Oligocene
of Seymour Island, Antarctica)

Spheniscidae

A reconstruction of the ancient penguin Icadyptes

Waimanu
Waimanu
Jones, Ando & Fordyce 2006 (Middle-Late Paleocene) Kumimanu
Kumimanu
Mayr, 2017 Delphinornis Wiman 1905 (Middle/Late Eocene? – Early Oligocene
Early Oligocene
of Seymour Island, Antarctica) Marambiornis Myrcha et al. 2002 (Late Eocene
Eocene
–? Early Oligocene
Early Oligocene
of Seymour Island, Antarctica) Mesetaornis Myrcha et al. 2002 (Late Eocene
Eocene
–? Early Oligocene
Early Oligocene
of Seymour Island, Antarctica) Perudyptes Clarke et al. 2007 (Middle Eocene
Eocene
of Atacama Desert, Peru) Anthropornis
Anthropornis
Wiman 1905 (Middle Eocene? – Early Oligocene
Early Oligocene
of Seymour Island, Antarctica) Palaeeudyptes
Palaeeudyptes
Huxley 1859 (Middle/Late Eocene
Eocene
– Late Oligocene) Icadyptes
Icadyptes
Clarke et al. 2007 (Late Eocene
Eocene
of Atacama Desert, Peru) Pachydyptes Oliver 1930 (Late Eocene) Inkayacu
Inkayacu
Clarke et al. 2010 (Late Eocene
Eocene
of South America) Kairuku
Kairuku
Ksepka et al. 2012 (Late Oligocene
Oligocene
of E South Island, New Zealand) Paraptenodytes
Paraptenodytes
Ameghino 1891 (Early – Late Miocene/Early Pliocene) Archaeospheniscus Marples 1952 (Middle/Late Eocene
Eocene
– Late Oligocene) Duntroonornis Marples 1953 (Late Oligocene
Oligocene
of Otago, New Zealand) Platydyptes Marples 1952 (Late Oligocene
Oligocene
of New Zealand)[18] Dege Simpson 1979 (Early Pliocene
Pliocene
of South Africa) – possibly Spheniscinae Marplesornis Simpson 1972 (Early Pliocene) Subfamily
Subfamily
Palaeospheniscinae
Palaeospheniscinae
(slender-footed penguins) (fossil)

Eretiscus Olson 1986 ( Patagonia
Patagonia
Early Miocene
Miocene
of Patagonia, Argentina) Palaeospheniscus
Palaeospheniscus
Moreno & Mercerat 1891 (Early? – Late Miocene/Early Pliocene) – includes Chubutodyptes

Subfamily
Subfamily
Spheniscinae

Spheniscidae gen. et sp. indet. CADIC P 21 (Leticia Middle Eocene
Eocene
of Punta Torcida, Argentina)[19] Spheniscidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene
Miocene
of Hakataramea, New Zealand)[20] Madrynornis (Puerto Madryn Late Miocene
Miocene
of Argentina)

The Early Oligocene
Early Oligocene
genus Cruschedula was formerly thought to belong to Spheniscidae, however reexamination of the holotype in 1943 resulted in the genus being placed in Accipitridae.[21] Further examination in 1980 resulted in placement as Aves incertae sedis.[22] Taxonomy Some recent sources[15][19] apply the phylogenetic taxon Spheniscidae to what here is referred to as Spheniscinae. Furthermore, they restrict the phylogenetic taxon Sphenisciformes to flightless taxa, and establish the phylogenetic taxon Pansphenisciformes as equivalent to the Linnean taxon Sphenisciformes,[19] i.e., including any flying basal "proto-penguins" to be discovered eventually. Given that neither the relationships of the penguin subfamilies to each other nor the placement of the penguins in the avian phylogeny is presently resolved, this is confusing, so the established Linnean system is followed here. Evolution

Penguin
Penguin
tracks in the sand on Bruny Island, Tasmania

The evolutionary history of penguins is well-researched and represents a showcase of evolutionary biogeography; though as penguin bones of any one species vary much in size and few good specimens are known, the alpha taxonomy of many prehistoric forms still leaves much to be desired. Some seminal articles about penguin prehistory have been published since 2005;[15][20][23][24] the evolution of the living genera can be considered resolved by now. The basal penguins lived around the time of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event somewhere in the general area of (southern) New Zealand and Byrd Land, Antarctica.[15] Due to plate tectonics, these areas were at that time less than 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) apart rather than the 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) of today. The most recent common ancestor of penguins and their sister clade can be roughly dated to the Campanian– Maastrichtian
Maastrichtian
boundary, around 70–68 mya.[20][24][25] What can be said as certainly as possible in the absence of direct (i.e., fossil) evidence is that, by the end of the Cretaceous, the penguin lineage must have been evolutionarily well distinct, though much less so morphologically; it is fairly likely that they were not yet entirely flightless at that time, as flightless birds have generally low resilience to the breakdown of trophic webs that follows the initial phase of mass extinctions because of their below-average dispersal capabilities (see also Flightless cormorant).[citation needed] Basal fossils The oldest known fossil penguin species is Waimanu
Waimanu
manneringi, which lived in the early Paleocene
Paleocene
epoch of New Zealand, or about 62 mya.[24] While they were not as well-adapted to aquatic life as modern penguins, Waimanu
Waimanu
were generally loon-like birds but already flightless, with short wings adapted for deep diving.[24] They swam on the surface using mainly their feet, but the wings were – as opposed to most other diving birds (both living and extinct) already adapting to underwater locomotion.[26] Perudyptes from northern Peru
Peru
was dated to 42 mya. An unnamed fossil from Argentina
Argentina
proves that, by the Bartonian (Middle Eocene), some 39–38 mya,[27] primitive penguins had spread to South America
South America
and were in the process of expanding into Atlantic
Atlantic
waters.[19] Palaeeudyptines During the Late Eocene
Eocene
and the Early Oligocene
Early Oligocene
(40–30 mya), some lineages of gigantic penguins existed. Nordenskjoeld's giant penguin was the tallest, growing nearly 1.80 meters (5.9 feet) tall. The New Zealand giant penguin was probably the heaviest, weighing 80 kg or more. Both were found on New Zealand, the former also in the Antarctic
Antarctic
farther eastwards. Traditionally, most extinct species of penguins, giant or small, had been placed in the paraphyletic subfamily called Palaeeudyptinae. More recently, with new taxa being discovered and placed in the phylogeny if possible, it is becoming accepted that there were at least two major extinct lineages. One or two closely related ones occurred in Patagonia, and at least one other—which is or includes the paleeudyptines as recognized today – occurred on most Antarctic
Antarctic
and Subantarctic
Subantarctic
coasts. But size plasticity seems to have been great at this initial stage of penguin radiation: on Seymour Island, Antarctica, for example, around 10 known species of penguins ranging in size from medium to huge apparently coexisted some 35 mya during the Priabonian (Late Eocene).[28] It is not even known whether the gigantic palaeeudyptines constitute a monophyletic lineage, or whether gigantism was evolved independently in a much restricted Palaeeudyptinae
Palaeeudyptinae
and the Anthropornithinae – whether they were considered valid, or whether there was a wide size range present in the Palaeeudyptinae
Palaeeudyptinae
as delimited as usually done these days (i.e., including Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi).[15] The oldest well-described giant penguin, the 5-foot (1.5 m)-tall Icadyptes
Icadyptes
salasi, actually occurred as far north as northern Peru
Peru
about 36 mya. In any case, the gigantic penguins had disappeared by the end of the Paleogene, around 25 mya. Their decline and disappearance coincided with the spread of the Squalodontoidea and other primitive, fish-eating toothed whales, which certainly competed with them for food, and were ultimately more successful.[20] A new lineage, the Paraptenodytes, which includes smaller but decidedly stout-legged forms, had already arisen in southernmost South America
South America
by that time. The early Neogene
Neogene
saw the emergence of yet another morphotype in the same area, the similarly sized but more gracile Palaeospheniscinae, as well as the radiation that gave rise to the penguin biodiversity of our time. Origin and systematics of modern penguins Modern penguins constitute two undisputed clades and another two more basal genera with more ambiguous relationships.[23] The origin of the Spheniscinae
Spheniscinae
lies probably in the latest Paleogene, and geographically it must have been much the same as the general area in which the order evolved: the oceans between the Australia- New Zealand
New Zealand
region and the Antarctic.[20] Presumably diverging from other penguins around 40 mya,[20] it seems that the Spheniscinae
Spheniscinae
were for quite some time limited to their ancestral area, as the well-researched deposits of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula and Patagonia
Patagonia
have not yielded Paleogene fossils of the subfamily. Also, the earliest spheniscine lineages are those with the most southern distribution. The genus Aptenodytes
Aptenodytes
appears to be the basalmost divergence among living penguins[15][29] they have bright yellow-orange neck, breast, and bill patches; incubate by placing their eggs on their feet, and when they hatch the chicks are almost naked. This genus has a distribution centered on the Antarctic
Antarctic
coasts and barely extends to some Subantarctic
Subantarctic
islands today. Pygoscelis
Pygoscelis
contains species with a fairly simple black-and-white head pattern; their distribution is intermediate, centered on Antarctic coasts but extending somewhat northwards from there. In external morphology, these apparently still resemble the common ancestor of the Spheniscinae, as Aptenodytes' autapomorphies are in most cases fairly pronounced adaptations related to that genus' extreme habitat conditions. As the former genus, Pygoscelis
Pygoscelis
seems to have diverged during the Bartonian,[30] but the range expansion and radiation that led to the present-day diversity probably did not occur until much later; around the Burdigalian stage of the Early Miocene, roughly 20–15 mya.[20] The genera Spheniscus
Spheniscus
and Eudyptula
Eudyptula
contain species with a mostly Subantarctic
Subantarctic
distribution centered on South America; some, however, range quite far northwards. They all lack carotenoid coloration, and the former genus has a conspicuous banded head pattern; they are unique among living penguins by nesting in burrows. This group probably radiated eastwards with the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circumpolar Current out of the ancestral range of modern penguins throughout the Chattian (Late Oligocene), starting approximately 28 mya.[20] While the two genera separated during this time, the present-day diversity is the result of a Pliocene
Pliocene
radiation, taking place some 4–2 mya.[20] The Megadyptes– Eudyptes
Eudyptes
clade occurs at similar latitudes (though not as far north as the Galapagos penguin), has its highest diversity in the New Zealand
New Zealand
region, and represents a westward dispersal. They are characterized by hairy yellow ornamental head feathers; their bills are at least partly red. These two genera diverged apparently in the Middle Miocene
Miocene
(Langhian, roughly 15–14 mya), but again, the living species of Eudyptes
Eudyptes
are the product of a later radiation, stretching from about the late Tortonian (Late Miocene, 8 mya) to the end of the Pliocene.[20] The geographical and temporal pattern or spheniscine evolution corresponds closely to two episodes of global cooling documented in the paleoclimatic record.[20] The emergence of the Subantarctic lineage at the end of the Bartonian corresponds with the onset of the slow period of cooling that eventually led to the ice ages some 35 million years later. With habitat on the Antarctic
Antarctic
coasts declining, by the Priabonian more hospitable conditions for most penguins existed in the Subantarctic
Subantarctic
regions rather than in Antarctica
Antarctica
itself.[31] Notably, the cold Antarctic
Antarctic
Circumpolar Current also started as a continuous circumpolar flow only around 30 mya, on the one hand forcing the Antarctic
Antarctic
cooling, and on the other facilitating the eastward expansion of Spheniscus
Spheniscus
to South America
South America
and eventually beyond.[20] Despite this, there is no fossil evidence to support the idea of a crown radiation from the Antarctic
Antarctic
continent in the Paleogene, although DNA study favors such a radiation.[31] Later, an interspersed period of slight warming was ended by the Middle Miocene
Miocene
Climate Transition, a sharp drop in global average temperature from 14–12 mya, and similar abrupt cooling events followed at 8 mya and 4 mya; by the end of the Tortonian, the Antarctic
Antarctic
ice sheet was already much like today in volume and extent. The emergence of most of today's Subantarctic
Subantarctic
penguin species almost certainly was caused by this sequence of Neogene
Neogene
climate shifts. Relationship to other bird orders Penguin
Penguin
ancestry beyond Waimanu
Waimanu
remains unknown and not well-resolved by molecular or morphological analyses. The latter tend to be confounded by the strong adaptive autapomorphies of the Sphenisciformes; a sometimes perceived fairly close relationship between penguins and grebes is almost certainly an error based on both groups' strong diving adaptations, which are homoplasies. On the other hand, different DNA sequence
DNA sequence
datasets do not agree in detail with each other either.

Humboldt penguins in an aquarium. The penguin is an accomplished swimmer, having flippers instead of wings.

What seems clear is that penguins belong to a clade of Neoaves
Neoaves
(living birds except paleognaths and fowl) that comprises what is sometimes called "higher waterbirds" to distinguish them from the more ancient waterfowl. This group contains such birds as storks, rails, and the seabirds, with the possible exception of the Charadriiformes.[32] Inside this group, penguin relationships are far less clear. Depending on the analysis and dataset, a close relationship to Ciconiiformes[24] or to Procellariiformes[20] has been suggested. Some think the penguin-like plotopterids (usually considered relatives of anhingas and cormorants) may actually be a sister group of the penguins, and that penguins may have ultimately shared a common ancestor with the Pelecaniformes
Pelecaniformes
and consequently would have to be included in that order, or that the plotopterids were not as close to other pelecaniforms as generally assumed, which would necessitate splitting the traditional Pelecaniformes
Pelecaniformes
in three.[33] A 2014 analysis of whole genomes of 48 representative bird species has concluded that penguins are the sister group of Procellariiformes,[34] from which they diverged about 60 million years ago (95% CI, 56.8-62.7).[35] The distantly related puffins, which live in the North Pacific and North Atlantic, developed similar characteristics to survive in the Arctic and sub-Arctic environments. Like the penguins, puffins have a white chest, black back and short stubby wings providing excellent swimming ability in icy water. But, unlike penguins, puffins can fly, as flightless birds would not survive alongside land-based predators such as polar bears and foxes; there are no such predators in the Antarctic. Their similarities indicate that similar environments, although at great distances, can result in similar evolutionary developments, i.e. convergent evolution.[citation needed] Anatomy
Anatomy
and physiology

Orcas swim by an iceberg with Adélie penguins in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Drygalski ice tongue
Drygalski ice tongue
is visible in the background.

Taxidermized penguin skin

Penguins are superbly adapted to aquatic life. Their vestigial wings have become flippers, useless for flight in the air. In the water, however, penguins are astonishingly agile. Penguins' swimming looks very similar to bird's flight in the air.[36] Within the smooth plumage a layer of air is preserved, ensuring buoyancy. The air layer also helps insulate the birds in cold waters. On land, penguins use their tails and wings to maintain balance for their upright stance. All penguins are countershaded for camouflage – that is, they have black backs and wings with white fronts.[37] A predator looking up from below (such as an orca or a leopard seal) has difficulty distinguishing between a white penguin belly and the reflective water surface. The dark plumage on their backs camouflages them from above. Diving penguins reach 6 to 12 km/h (3.7 to 7.5 mph), though there are reports of velocities of 27 km/h (17 mph) (which are more realistic in the case of startled flight).[citation needed] The small penguins do not usually dive deep; they catch their prey near the surface in dives that normally last only one or two minutes. Larger penguins can dive deep in case of need. Dives of the large emperor penguin have been recorded reaching a depth of 565 m (1,854 ft) for up to 22 minutes. Penguins either waddle on their feet or slide on their bellies across the snow while using their feet to propel and steer themselves, a movement called "tobogganing", which conserves energy while moving quickly. They also jump with both feet together if they want to move more quickly or cross steep or rocky terrain. Penguins have an average sense of hearing for birds;[38] this is used by parents and chicks to locate one another in crowded colonies.[39] Their eyes are adapted for underwater vision, and are their primary means of locating prey and avoiding predators; in air it has been suggested that they are nearsighted, although research has not supported this hypothesis.[40]

Gentoo penguin
Gentoo penguin
swimming underwater at Nagasaki Penguin
Penguin
Aquarium.

Penguins have a thick layer of insulating feathers that keeps them warm in water (heat loss in water is much greater than in air). The emperor penguin has the largest body mass of all penguins, which further reduces relative surface area and heat loss. They also are able to control blood flow to their extremities, reducing the amount of blood that gets cold, but still keeping the extremities from freezing. In the extreme cold of the Antarctic
Antarctic
winter, the females are at sea fishing for food leaving the males to brave the weather by themselves. They often huddle together to keep warm and rotate positions to make sure that each penguin gets a turn in the center of the heat pack. Calculations of the heat loss and retention ability of marine endotherms [41] suggest that most extant penguins are too small to survive in such cold environments.[42] In 2007, Thomas and Fordyce wrote about the "heterothermic loophole" that penguins utilize in order to survive in Antarctica.[43] All extant penguins, even those that live in warmer climates, have a counter-current heat exchanger called the humeral plexus. The flippers of penguins have at least three branches of the axillary artery, which allows cold blood to be heated by blood that has already been warmed and limits heat loss from the flippers. This system allows penguins to efficiently use their body heat and explains why such small animals can survive in the extreme cold.[44] They can drink salt water because their supraorbital gland filters excess salt from the bloodstream.[45][46][47] The salt is excreted in a concentrated fluid from the nasal passages. The great auk of the Northern Hemisphere, now extinct, was superficially similar to penguins, and the word penguin was originally used for that bird, centuries ago. They are only distantly related to the penguins, but are an example of convergent evolution.[48] Isabelline penguins

Isabelline Adélie penguin
Adélie penguin
on Gourdin Island.

Perhaps one in 50,000 penguins (of most species) are born with brown rather than black plumage. These are called isabelline penguins. Isabellinism is different from albinism. Isabelline penguins tend to live shorter lives than normal penguins, as they are not well-camouflaged against the deep, and are often passed over as mates. Distribution and habitat See also: List of Sphenisciformes by population Although almost all penguin species are native to the Southern Hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin actually live so far south. Several species live in the temperate zone;[49] one, the Galápagos penguin, lives as far north as the Galápagos Islands, but this is only made possible by the cold, rich waters of the Antarctic Humboldt Current
Humboldt Current
that flows around these islands.[50] Several authors have suggested that penguins are a good example of Bergmann's Rule[51][52] where larger bodied populations live at higher latitudes than smaller bodied populations. There is some disagreement about this, and several other authors have noted that there are fossil penguin species that contradict this hypothesis and that ocean currents and upwellings are likely to have had a greater effect on species diversity than latitude alone.[53][54] Major populations of penguins are found in Angola, Antarctica, Argentina, Australia, Chile, Namibia, New Zealand, and South Africa.[55][56] Behaviour

Play media

Chinstrap penguins in Antarctica.

Breeding

Gentoo watching over a sleeping chick at Brown Bluff

Penguins for the most part breed in large colonies, the exceptions being the yellow-eyed and Fiordland species; these colonies may range in size from as few as a 100 pairs for gentoo penguins, to several hundred thousand in the case of king, macaroni and chinstrap penguins.[57] Living in colonies results in a high level of social interaction between birds, which has led to a large repertoire of visual as well as vocal displays in all penguin species.[58] Agonistic displays are those intended to confront or drive off, or alternately appease and avoid conflict with, other individuals.[58] Penguins form monogamous pairs for a breeding season, though the rate the same pair recouples varies drastically. Most penguins lay two eggs in a clutch, although the two largest species, the emperor and the king penguins, lay only one.[59] With the exception of the emperor penguin, where the male does it all, all penguins share the incubation duties.[60] These incubation shifts can last days and even weeks as one member of the pair feeds at sea. Penguins generally only lay one brood; the exception is the little penguin, which can raise two or three broods in a season.[61] Penguin
Penguin
eggs are smaller than any other bird species when compared proportionally to the weight of the parent birds; at 52 g (2 oz), the little penguin egg is 4.7% of its mothers' weight, and the 450 g (1 lb) emperor penguin egg is 2.3%.[59] The relatively thick shell forms between 10 and 16% of the weight of a penguin egg, presumably to reduce the effects of dehydration and to minimize the risk of breakage in an adverse nesting environment.[62] The yolk, too, is large, and comprises 22–31% of the egg. Some yolk often remains when a chick is born, and is thought to help sustain the chick if the parents are delayed in returning with food.[63] When mothers lose a chick, they sometimes attempt to "steal" another mother's chick, usually unsuccessfully as other females in the vicinity assist the defending mother in keeping her chick.[citation needed] In some species, such as emperor penguins, young penguins assemble in large groups called crèches. Penguins and humans

A cook on the Endurance preparing a penguin for consumption

A penguin encounters a human during Antarctic
Antarctic
summer.

Penguins seem to have no special fear of humans, and have approached groups of explorers without hesitation. This is probably because penguins have no land predators in Antarctica
Antarctica
or the nearby offshore islands. Dogs preyed upon penguins while they were allowed in Antarctica
Antarctica
during the age of early human exploration as sled dogs, but dogs are now banned from Antarctica.[64] Instead, adult penguins are at risk at sea from predators such as sharks, the orca, and the leopard seal. Typically, penguins do not approach closer than about 3 meters (9.8 feet) at which point they become nervous. This is also the distance that Antarctic
Antarctic
tourists are instructed to maintain between themselves and penguins: tourists are instructed not to approach closer than 3 meters, but need not withdraw if the penguins come closer. In June 2011, a penguin came ashore on New Zealand's Peka Peka Beach, 3200 km off course on its journey to Antarctica.[65] Nicknamed Happy Feet, after the movie of the same name, it was suffering from heat exhaustion and had to undergo a number of operations to remove objects like driftwood and sand from its stomach.[66] Happy Feet
Happy Feet
was a media sensation, with extensive coverage on TV and the web, including a live stream that had thousands of views[67] and a visit from English actor Stephen Fry.[68] Once he had recovered, Happy Feet
Happy Feet
was released back into the water south of New Zealand.[69] In popular culture Main article: Cultural depictions of penguins

Tux
Tux
the Linux kernel
Linux kernel
mascot

Penguins are popularly loved around the world, primarily for their unusually upright, waddling gait, impressive swimming ability and (compared to other birds) lack of fear of humans. Their striking black-and-white plumage is often likened to a white tie suit. Mistakenly, some artists and writers have penguins based at the North Pole. This is incorrect, as there are no wild penguins in the Northern Hemisphere. The cartoon series Chilly Willy helped perpetuate this myth, as the title penguin would interact with northern-hemisphere species, such as polar bears and walruses. Penguins have been the subject of many books and films, such as Happy Feet, Surf's Up and The Penguins of Madagascar, all CGI films; March of the Penguins, a documentary based on the migration process of the emperor penguin; and a parody titled Farce of the Penguins. Mr. Popper's Penguins is a children's book written by Richard and Florence Atwater; it was named a Newbery Honor Book
Newbery Honor Book
in 1939. Penguins have also found their way into a number of cartoons and television dramas; perhaps the most notable of these is Pingu, created by Silvio Mazzola in 1986 and covering more than 100 short episodes. At the end of 2009, Entertainment Weekly
Entertainment Weekly
put it on its end-of-the-decade, "best-of" list, saying, "Whether they were walking (March of the Penguins), dancing (Happy Feet), or hanging ten (Surf's Up), these oddly adorable birds took flight at the box office all decade long."[70] A video game called Pengo was released by Sega
Sega
in 1982. Set in Antarctica, the player controls a penguin character who must navigate mazes of ice-cubes. The player is rewarded with cut-scenes of animated penguins marching, dancing, saluting and playing peekaboo. Several remakes and enhanced editions have followed, most recently in 2012. Several pro, minor, college and high school sport teams have named themselves after the species, with the Pittsburgh Penguins
Pittsburgh Penguins
team in the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
and the Youngstown State Penguins
Youngstown State Penguins
being the most recognizable. The tendency of penguins to form large groups feeds the stereotype that they all look exactly alike, a popular notion exploited by cartoonists such as Gary Larson. Penguins featured regularly in the cartoons of UK cartoonist Steve Bell in his strip in The Guardian
The Guardian
newspaper, particularly during and following the Falklands War, and the well-known Opus the Penguin, from the cartoons of Berkeley Breathed, is also described as hailing from the Falklands. Opus was a comical, "existentialist" penguin character in the cartoons Bloom County, Outland and Opus. He was also the star in the Christmas show A Wish for Wings That Work. In the mid-2000s, penguins became one of the most publicized species of animals that form lasting homosexual couples. A children's book, And Tango Makes Three, was written about one such penguin family in the New York Zoo. References

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Antarctic
penguin genomes reveal insights into their evolutionary history and molecular changes related to the Antarctic
Antarctic
environment". GigaScience. 3: 27. doi:10.1186/2047-217X-3-27. PMC 4322438 . PMID 25671092.  ^ " Penguin
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swimming under water, Galapagos". Youtube.com. April 14, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2013.  ^ Buskey, Theresa. "The Antarctic
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Polar Region". In Alan Christopherson, M.S. The Polar Regions. LIFEPAC. 804 N. 2nd Ave. E., Rock Rapids, IA: Alpha Omegan Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58095-156-2.  ^ Wever, E. G.; Herman, P. N.; Simmons, J. A.; Hertzler, D. R. (1969). "Hearing in the blackfooted penguin, Spheniscus
Spheniscus
demersus, as represented by the cochlear potentials". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 63 (3): 676–80. doi:10.1073/pnas.63.3.676. JSTOR 59401. PMC 223504 . PMID 5259756.  ^ Jouventin, P; Aubin, T; Lengagne, T (1999). "Finding a parent in a king penguin colony: The acoustic system of individual recognition". Animal
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Behaviour. 57 (6): 1175–1183. doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1086. PMID 10373249.  ^ Sivak, J; Howland, H. C.; McGill-Harelstad, P (1987). "Vision of the Humboldt penguin
Humboldt penguin
( Spheniscus
Spheniscus
humboldti) in air and water". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 229 (1257): 467–72. doi:10.1098/rspb.1987.0005. JSTOR 36191. PMID 2881308.  ^ Downhower, J.F.; Blumer, L.S. (1988). "Calculating just how small a whale can be". Nature. 335 (6192): 675–675. doi:10.1038/335675b0.  ^ Williams, T.D. (1995). The penguins: Spheniscidae. New York: Oxford University Press.  ^ Thomas, D.B.; Fordyce, R.E. (2007). "The heterothermic loophole exploited by penguins". Australian Journal of Zoology. 55: 317–321. doi:10.1071/zo07053.  ^ Thomas, D.B.; Fordyce, R.E. (2012). "Biological plasticity in penguin heat-retention structures". Anatomical Record. 295: 249–256. doi:10.1002/ar.21538.  ^ " Animal
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Fact Sheets". Archived from the original on July 20, 2006. Retrieved July 21, 2006.  ^ "Humboldt Penguin: Saint Louis Zoo". Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved July 21, 2006.  ^ van der Merwe, H.J. "African Penguins and Penguins of the World". iafrica.com. Retrieved July 21, 2006.  ^ Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds Archived May 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. by Marcel Van Tuinen, Dave Brian Butvill, John A. W. Kirsch and S. Blair Hedges. ^ Askew, Nick (24 June 2009). "List of Penguin
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Bibliography

Williams; Tony D. (1995). The Penguins – Spheniscidae. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854667-X. 

External links

Library resources about Penguin

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Sphenisciformes

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Two new fossil penguin species found in Peru. news.nationalgeographic.com Information about penguins at pinguins.info Integrated Taxonomic Information System Penguin
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Penguin
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Bird
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Penguin
World Penguins in Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand
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Information "Lessons in a Land of Wind and Ice" from National Wildlife Magazine 1/15/2010 Live 24/7 camera inside a penguin habitat

v t e

Penguins (order: Sphenisciformes · family: Spheniscidae · subfamily: Spheniscinae)

Genus

Species

Aptenodytes
Aptenodytes
(great penguins)

King penguin Emperor penguin

Pygoscelis
Pygoscelis
(brush-tailed penguins)

Adelie penguin Chinstrap penguin Gentoo penguin

Eudyptula
Eudyptula
(little penguins)

Little penguin
Little penguin
(or little blue penguin) White-flippered penguin
White-flippered penguin
(or northern little penguin)

Spheniscus
Spheniscus
(banded penguins)

Magellanic penguin Humboldt penguin Galapagos penguin African penguin

Megadyptes

Yellow-eyed penguin Waitaha penguin
Waitaha penguin
(extinct)

Eudyptes
Eudyptes
(crested penguins)

Fiordland penguin Snares penguin Erect-crested penguin Southern rockhopper penguin Northern rockhopper penguin Royal penguin Macaroni penguin Chatham Islands penguin (extinct)

v t e

Birds (class: Aves)

Anatomy

Bird
Bird
anatomy Flight Eggs Feathers Plumage Beak Vision Dactyly Preen gland

Behaviour

Singing Intelligence Migration Sexual selection Lek mating Seabird
Seabird
breeding Incubation Brood parasites Nesting Hybrids

Evolution

Origin of birds Origin of flight Evolution
Evolution
of birds Darwin's finches Seabirds

Fossil
Fossil
birds

Archaeopteryx Omnivoropterygiformes Confuciusornithiformes Enantiornithes Chaoyangiiformes Patagopterygiformes Ambiortiformes Songlingornithiformes Apsaraviformes Gansuiformes Ichthyornithiformes Hesperornithes Lithornithiformes Dinornithiformes Aepyornithiformes Gastornithiformes

Human interaction

Ringing Ornithology Bird
Bird
collections Birdwatching Bird
Bird
feeding Conservation Aviculture Waterfowl
Waterfowl
hunting Cockfighting Pigeon racing Falconry Pheasantry Egg
Egg
collecting Ornithomancy

Lists

Families and orders Genera Glossary of bird terms List by population Lists by region Recently extinct birds Late Quaternary prehistoric birds Notable birds

Individuals Fictional

Neornithes

Palaeognathae

Struthioniformes (ostriches) Rheiformes (rheas) Tinamiformes (tinamous) Apterygiformes (kiwis) Casuariiformes
Casuariiformes
(emus and cassowaries)

Neognathae

Galloanserae (fowls)

Anseriformes (waterfowls)

Anatidae (ducks)

Anatinae Anserinae

swans true geese

Aythyinae Dendrocygninae Merginae Oxyurinae Plectropterinae Stictonettinae Tadorninae Thalassorninae

Anhimidae

Anhima Chauna

Anseranatidae

Anatalavis Anseranas

Galliformes (landfowls- gamebirds)

Cracidae

Cracinae Oreophasinae Penelopinae

Megapodidae

Aepypodius Alectura Eulipoa Leipoa Macrocephalon Megapodius Talegalla

Numididae

Acryllium Agelastes Guttera Numida

Odontophoridae

Callipepla Colinus Cyrtonyx Dactylortyx Dendrortyx Odontophorus Oreortyx Philortyx Rhynchortyx

Phasianidae

Meleagridinae Perdicinae Phasianinae
Phasianinae
(pheasants and relatives) Tetraoninae

Neoaves

Columbea

Columbimorphae

Columbiformes
Columbiformes
(doves and pigeons) Mesitornithiformes (mesites) Pteroclidiformes (sandgrouses)

Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos) Podicipediformes (grebes)

Passerea

Otidimorphae

Cuculiformes (cuckoos) Musophagiformes (turacos) Otidiformes (bustards)

Strisores

Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgiformes
(nightjars and relatives) Steatornithiformes Podargiformes Apodiformes
Apodiformes
(swifts and hummingbirds)

Opisthocomiformes

Opisthocomiformes
Opisthocomiformes
(hoatzin)

Cursorimorphae

Charadriiformes
Charadriiformes
(gulls and relatives) Gruiformes
Gruiformes
(cranes and relatives)

Phaethontimorphae

Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds) Eurypygiformes
Eurypygiformes
(kagu and sunbittern)

Aequornithes

Gaviiformes (loons or divers) Sphenisciformes (penguins) Procellariiformes
Procellariiformes
(albatrosses and petrels) Ciconiiformes
Ciconiiformes
(storks) Suliformes
Suliformes
(cormorants and relatives) Pelecaniformes
Pelecaniformes
(pelicans and relatives)

Australaves

Cariamiformes
Cariamiformes
(seriemas and relatives) Falconiformes (falcons and relatives) Psittaciformes (parrots) Passeriformes (perching birds)

Afroaves

Cathartiformes
Cathartiformes
(New World vultures and condors) Accipitriformes
Accipitriformes
(eagles and hawks) Strigiformes (owls) Coliiformes (mousebirds) Trogoniformes (trogons and quetzals) Leptosomatiformes (cuckoo roller) Bucerotiformes
Bucerotiformes
(hornbills and hoopoes) Coraciiformes
Coraciiformes
(kingfishers and rollers) Piciformes
Piciformes
(woodpeckers and relatives)

Category Portal Outline

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q9147 ADW: Spheniscidae EoL: 7986 EPPO: 1ZPHNF Fossilworks: 39710 GBIF: 5284 ITIS: 174443 NCBI: 9231 WoRMS: 196034

Authority control

GND: 4174708-2 NDL: 0056

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