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The Info List - Pe̍h-ōe-jī


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Southern Min

Amoy Taiwanese

Creator Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest Talmage

Time period

since the 1830s

Parent systems

Egyptian hieroglyphs

Proto-Sinaitic

Phoenician alphabet

Greek alphabet

Latin alphabet

Pe̍h-ōe-jī

Child systems

TLPA Taiwanese Romanization System

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
(pronounced [peʔ˩ ue˩ dzi˨] ( listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien. Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen
Xiamen
and Tainan, it uses a modified Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and some diacritics to represent the spoken language. After initial success in Fujian, POJ became most widespread in Taiwan
Taiwan
and, in the mid-20th century, there were over 100,000 people literate in POJ. A large amount of printed material, religious and secular, has been produced in the script, including Taiwan's first newspaper, the Taiwan
Taiwan
Church News. During Taiwan
Taiwan
under Japanese rule (1895–1945), the use of Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
was suppressed and it faced further countermeasures during the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
martial law period (1947–1987). In Fujian, use declined after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (1949) and in the early 21st century the system was not in general use there. Taiwanese Christians, non-native learners of Southern Min, and native-speaker enthusiasts in Taiwan
Taiwan
are among those that continue to use Pe̍h-ōe-jī. Full native computer support was developed in 2004, and users can now call on fonts, input methods, and extensive online dictionaries. Rival writing systems have evolved, and there is ongoing debate within the Taiwanese mother tongue movement as to which system should be used. Versions of pe̍h-ōe-jī have been devised for other Chinese varieties, including Hakka and Teochew Southern Min.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Early development 2.2 Maturity 2.3 After World War II

3 Current system

3.1 Tone markings 3.2 Hyphens 3.3 Audio examples 3.4 Regional differences

4 Texts 5 Computing 6 Han-Romanization mixed script 7 Adaptations for other Chinese varieties 8 Current status 9 References 10 External links

Name[edit]

Pe̍h-ōe-jī

Traditional Chinese 白話字

Simplified Chinese 白话字

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Pe̍h-ōe-jī

Literal meaning Vernacular writing

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Báihuà zì

Wu

Romanization Poe平 ho入 zî平

Gan

Romanization Pha̍k-oa-chhi

Hakka

Romanization Pha̍k-fa-sṳ

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization baahk wá jih

Jyutping baak6 wa2 zi6

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Pe̍h-ōe-jī

Tâi-lô Pe̍h-uē-jī

Bbánlám Pìngyīm Béhwêzzî

Teochew Peng'im Pêh-uē-jī

Hainanese
Hainanese
Romanization Bǽh-oe-tu

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Bàng-uâ-cê

The name pe̍h-ōe-jī (Chinese: 白話字; pinyin: Báihuà zì) means "vernacular writing", written characters representing everyday spoken language.[1] The name vernacular writing could be applied to many kinds of writing, romanized and character-based, but the term pe̍h-ōe-jī is commonly restricted to the Southern Min
Southern Min
romanization system developed by Presbyterian
Presbyterian
missionaries in the 19th century.[2] The missionaries who invented and refined the system used, instead of the name pe̍h-ōe-jī, various other terms, such as "Romanized Amoy Vernacular" and "Romanized Amoy Colloquial."[1] The origins of the system and its extensive use in the Christian
Christian
community have led to it being known by some modern writers as "Church Romanization" (教會羅馬字; Jiàohuì Luōmǎzì; Kàu-hōe Lô-má-jī) and is often abbreviated in POJ itself to Kàu-lô. (教羅; Jiàoluō)[3] There is some debate on whether "pe̍h-ōe-jī" or "Church Romanization" is the more appropriate name. Objections to "pe̍h-ōe-jī" are that it can refer to more than one system and that both literary and colloquial register Southern Min appear in the system and so describing it as "vernacular" writing might be inaccurate.[1] Objections to "Church Romanization" are that some non-Christians and some secular writing use it.[4] One commentator observes that POJ "today is largely disassociated from its former religious purposes."[5] The term "romanization" is also disliked by some, who see it as belittling the status of pe̍h-ōe-jī by identifying it as a supplementary phonetic system instead of a fully-fledged orthography.[4] Sources disagree on which of the two is more commonly used.[3][4] History[edit]

Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
inscription at a church in Tainan
Tainan
(Tâi-lâm) commemorating Thomas Barclay

The history of Peh-oe-ji has been heavily influenced by official attitudes towards the Southern Min
Southern Min
vernaculars and the Christian organizations that propagated it. Early documents point to the purpose of the creation of POJ as being pedagogical in nature, closely allied to educating Christian
Christian
converts.[6] Early development[edit] The first people to use a romanized script to write Southern Min
Southern Min
were Spanish missionaries in Manila
Manila
in the 16th century.[2] However, it was used mainly as a teaching aid for Spanish learners of Southern Min, and seems not to have had any influence on the development of pe̍h-ōe-jī.[7] In the early 19th century, China
China
was closed to Christian
Christian
missionaries, who instead proselytized to overseas Chinese communities in South East Asia.[8] The earliest origins of the system are found in a small vocabulary first printed in 1820 by Walter Henry Medhurst,[9][10] who went on to publish the Dictionary of the Hok-këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, According to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms in 1832.[9] This dictionary represents the first major reference work in POJ, although the romanization within was quite different from the modern system, and has been dubbed Early Church Romanization by one scholar of the subject.[3] Medhurst, who was stationed in Malacca, was influenced by Robert Morrison's romanization of Mandarin Chinese, but had to innovate in several areas to reflect major differences between Mandarin and Southern Min.[11] Several important developments occurred in Medhurst's work, especially the application of consistent tone markings (influenced by contemporary linguistic studies of Sanskrit, which was becoming of more mainstream interest to Western scholars).[12] Medhurst was convinced that accurate representation and reproduction of the tonal structure of Southern Min
Southern Min
was vital to comprehension:

Respecting these tones of the Chinese language, some difference of opinion has been obtained, and while some have considered them of first importance, others have paid them little or no intention. The author inclines decidedly to the former opinion; having found, from uniform experience, that without strict attention to tones, it is impossible for a person to make himself understood in Hok-këèn. — W. H. Medhurst[13]

Frontispiece of Doty's Anglo Chinese Manual of the Amoy Dialect (1853)

The system expounded by Medhurst influenced later dictionary compilers with regard to tonal notation and initials, but both his complicated vowel system and his emphasis on the literary register of Southern Min were dropped by later writers.[14][15] Following on from Medhurst's work, Samuel Wells Williams
Samuel Wells Williams
became the chief proponent of major changes in the orthography devised by Morrison and adapted by Medhurst. Through personal communication and letters and articles printed in The Chinese Repository a consensus was arrived at for the new version of POJ, although Williams' suggestions were largely not followed.[16] The first major work to represent this new orthography was Elihu Doty's Anglo-Chinese Manual with Romanized Colloquial in the Amoy Dialect,[16] published in 1853. The manual can therefore be regarded as the first presentation of a pre-modern POJ, a significant step onwards from Medhurst's orthography and different from today's system in only a few details.[17] From this point on various authors adjusted some of the consonants and vowels, but the system of tone marks from Doty's Manual survives intact in modern POJ.[18] John Van Nest Talmage has traditionally been regarded as the founder of POJ among the community which uses the orthography, although it now seems that he was an early promoter of the system, rather than its inventor.[10][16] In 1842 the Treaty of Nanking
Treaty of Nanking
was concluded, which included among its provisions the creation of treaty ports in which Christian missionaries would be free to preach.[6] Xiamen
Xiamen
(then known as Amoy) was one of these treaty ports, and British, Canadian and American missionaries moved in to start preaching to the local inhabitants. These missionaries, housed in the cantonment of Gulangyu, created reference works and religious tracts, including a bible translation.[6] Naturally, they based the pronunciation of their romanization on the speech of Xiamen, which became the de facto standard when they eventually moved into other areas of the Hokkien Sprachraum, most notably Taiwan.[19] The 1858 Treaty of Tianjin officially opened Taiwan
Taiwan
to western missionaries, and missionary societies were quick to send men to work in the field, usually after a sojourn in Xiamen
Xiamen
to acquire the rudiments of the language.[19] Maturity[edit]

Khó-sioh lín pún-kok ê jī chin oh, chió chió lâng khòaⁿ ē hiáu-tit. Só͘-í góan ū siat pa̍t-mih ê hoat-tō͘, ēng pe̍h-ōe-jī lâi ìn-chheh, hō͘ lín chèng-lâng khòaⁿ khah khòai bat... Lâng m̄-thang phah-sǹg in-ūi i bat Khóng-chú-jī só͘-í m̄-bián o̍h chit-hō ê jī; iā m̄-thang khòaⁿ-khin i, kóng sī gín-á só͘-tha̍k--ê. Because the characters in your country are so difficult only a few people are literate. Therefore we have striven to print books in pe̍h-ōe-jī to help you to read... don't think that if you know Chinese characters
Chinese characters
you needn't learn this script, nor should you regard it as a childish thing.

Thomas Barclay, Tâi-oân-hú-siâⁿ Kàu-hōe-pò, Issue 1

Quanzhou and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
are two major varieties of Southern Min, and in Xiamen
Xiamen
they combined to form something "not Quan, not Zhang" – i.e. not one or the other, but rather a fusion, which became known as Amoy Dialect or Amoy Chinese.[20] In Taiwan, with its mixture of migrants from both Quanzhou and Zhangzhou, the linguistic situation was similar; although the resulting blend in the southern city of Tainan differed from the Xiamen
Xiamen
blend, it was close enough that the missionaries could ignore the differences and import their system wholesale.[19] The fact that religious tracts, dictionaries, and teaching guides already existed in the Xiamen
Xiamen
tongue meant that the missionaries in Taiwan
Taiwan
could begin proselytizing immediately, without the intervening time needed to write those materials.[21] Missionary
Missionary
opinion was divided on whether POJ was desirable as an end in itself as a full-fledged orthography, or as a means to literacy in Chinese characters. William Campbell described POJ as a step on the road to reading and writing the characters, claiming that to promote it as an independent writing system would inflame nationalist passions in China, where characters were considered a sacred part of Chinese culture.[22] Taking the other side, Thomas Barclay believed that literacy in POJ should be a goal rather than a waypoint:

Soon after my arrival in Formosa I became firmly convinced of three things, and more than fifty years experience has strengthened my conviction. The first was that if you are to have a healthy, living Church it is necessary that all the members, men and women, read the Scriptures for themselves; second, that this end can never be attained by the use of the Chinese character; third, that it can be attained by the use of the alphabetic script, this Romanised Vernacular. — Thomas Barclay[23]

A great boon to the promotion of POJ in Taiwan
Taiwan
came in 1880 when James Laidlaw Maxwell, a medical missionary based in Tainan, donated a small printing press to the local church,[24] which Thomas Barclay learned how to operate in 1881 before founding the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church Press in 1884. Subsequently, the Taiwan
Taiwan
Prefectural City Church News, which first appeared in 1885 and was produced by Barclay's Presbyterian Church of Taiwan
Taiwan
Press,[24] became the first printed newspaper in Taiwan.[25] As other authors made their own alterations to the conventions laid down by Medhurst and Doty, pe̍h-ōe-jī evolved and eventually settled into its current form. Ernest Tipson's 1934 pocket dictionary was the first reference work to reflect this modern spelling.[26] Between Medhurst's dictionary of 1832 and the standardization of POJ in Tipson's time, there were a number of works published, which can be used to chart the change over time of pe̍h-ōe-jī:[27]

Evolution of pe̍h-ōe-jī, 1832–1934

Year Author pe̍h-ōe-jī spellings comparison Source

[tɕ] [ts] [ŋ] [ɪɛn]/[ɛn] [iat̚] [ɪk] [iŋ] [ɔ] [ʰ]

1832 Medhurst ch gn ëen ëet ek eng oe ’h [28]

1853 Doty ch ng ian iat iek ieng o͘ ’ [29]

1869 MacGowan ts ng ien iet ek eng o͘ h [30]

1873 Douglas ch ts ng ien iet ek eng ɵ͘ h [31]

1894 Van Nest Talmage ch ng ian iat ek eng o͘ h [32]

1911 Warnshuis & de Pree ch ng ian iat ek eng o͘ h [33]

1913 Campbell ch ts ng ian iat ek eng o͘ h [34]

1923 Barclay ch ts ng ian iet ek eng o͘ h [35]

1934 Tipson ch ng ian iat ek eng o͘ h [36]

Taiwanese kana
Taiwanese kana
used as ruby characters

Competition for POJ was introduced during the Japanese era in Taiwan (1895–1945) in the form of Taiwanese kana, a system designed as a teaching aid and pronunciation guide, rather than an independent orthography like POJ.[37] From the 1930s onwards, with the increasing militarization of Japan and the Kōminka movement encouraging Taiwanese people to "Japanize", there were a raft of measures taken against native languages, including Taiwanese.[38] While these moves resulted in a suppression of POJ, they were "a logical consequence of increasing the amount of education in Japanese, rather than an explicit attempt to ban a particular Taiwanese orthography in favor of Taiwanese kana".[39] The Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
beginning in 1937 brought stricter measures into force, and along with the outlawing of romanized Taiwanese, various publications were prohibited and Confucian-style shobō (Chinese: 書房; pinyin: shūfáng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: su-pâng) – private schools which taught Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
with literary Southern Min
Southern Min
pronunciation – were closed down in 1939.[40] The Japanese authorities came to perceive POJ as an obstacle to Japanization
Japanization
and also suspected that POJ was being used to hide "concealed codes and secret revolutionary messages".[41] In the climate of the ongoing war the government banned the Taiwan
Taiwan
Church News in 1942 as it was written in POJ.[42] After World War II[edit]

A decree (1955) banning Pe̍h-ōe-jī.

Initially the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
government in Taiwan
Taiwan
had a liberal attitude towards "local dialects" (i.e. non-Mandarin varieties of Chinese). The National Languages Committee
National Languages Committee
produced booklets outlining versions of Bopomofo
Bopomofo
for writing the Taiwanese tongue, these being intended for newly arrived government officials from outside Taiwan
Taiwan
as well as local Taiwanese.[43] The first government action against native languages came in 1953, when the use of Taiwanese or Japanese for instruction was forbidden.[44] The next move to suppress the movement came in 1955, when the use of POJ for proselytizing was outlawed.[42] At that point in time there were 115,000 people literate in POJ in Taiwan, Fujian, and southeast Asia.[45] Two years later, missionaries were banned from using romanized bibles, and the use of "native languages" (i.e. Taiwanese Hakka, Hakka, and the non-Sinitic Formosan languages) in church work became illegal.[42] The ban on POJ bibles was overturned in 1959, but churches were "encouraged" to use character bibles instead.[42] Government activities against POJ intensified in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when several publications were banned or seized in an effort to prevent the spread of the romanization. In 1964 use of Taiwanese in schools or official settings was forbidden,[44] and transgression in schools punished with beatings, fines and humiliation.[46] The Taiwan Church News (printed in POJ) was banned in 1969, and only allowed to return a year later when the publishers agreed to print it in Chinese characters.[42][47] In 1974, the Government Information Office
Government Information Office
banned A Dictionary of Southern Min, with a government official saying: "We have no objection to the dictionary being used by foreigners. They could use it in mimeographed form. But we don't want it published as a book and sold publicly because of the Romanization it contains. Chinese should not be learning Chinese through Romanization."[48] Also in the 1970s, a POJ New Testament
New Testament
translation known as the "Red Cover Bible" (Âng-phoê Sèng-keng) was confiscated and banned by the Nationalist regime.[49] Official moves against native languages continued into the 1980s, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of the Interior decided in 1984 to forbid missionaries to use "local dialects" and romanizations in their work.[42] With the ending of martial law in 1987, the restrictions on "local languages" were quietly lifted,[50] resulting in growing interest in Taiwanese writing during the 1990s.[51] For the first time since the 1950s, Taiwanese language and literature was discussed and debated openly in newspapers and journals.[52] There was also support from the then opposition party, the Democratic Progressive Party, for writing in the language.[44] From a total of 26 documented orthographies for Taiwanese in 1987 (including defunct systems), there were a further 38 invented from 1987 to 1999, including 30 different romanizations, six adaptations of bopomofo and two hangul-like systems.[53] Some commentators believe that the Kuomintang, while steering clear of outright banning of the native language movements after the end of martial law, took a "divide and conquer" approach by promoting Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet (TLPA), an alternative to POJ,[54] which was at the time the choice of the majority inside the nativization movement.[55] Native language education has remained a fiercely debated topic in Taiwan
Taiwan
into the 21st century and is the subject of much political wrangling.[56][57] Current system[edit] See also: Comparison of Hokkien
Hokkien
writing systems and Written Hokkien The current system of pe̍h-ōe-jī has been stable since the 1930s, with a few minor exceptions (detailed below).[58] There is a fair degree of similarity with the Vietnamese alphabet, including the ⟨b/p/ph⟩ distinction and the use of ⟨ơ⟩ in Vietnamese compared with ⟨o͘⟩ in POJ.[59] POJ uses the following letters and combinations:[60]

Capital letters A B Ch Chh E G H I J K Kh L M N Ng O O͘ P Ph S T Th U

Lowercase letters a b ch chh e g h i j k kh l m n ⁿ ng o o͘ p ph s t th u

Chinese phonology traditionally divides syllables in Chinese into three parts; firstly the initial, a consonant or consonant blend which appears at the beginning of the syllable, secondly the final, consisting of a medial vowel (optional), a nucleus vowel, and an optional ending; and finally the tone, which is applied to the whole syllable.[61] In terms of the non-tonal (i.e. phonemic) features, the nucleus vowel is the only required part of a licit consonant in Chinese varieties.[61] Unlike Mandarin but like other southern varieties of Chinese, Taiwanese has final stop consonants with no audible release, a feature that has been preserved from Middle Chinese.[62] There is some debate as to whether these stops are a tonal feature or a phonemic one, with some authorities distinguishing between ⟨-h⟩ as a tonal feature, and ⟨-p⟩, ⟨-t⟩, and ⟨-k⟩ as phonemic features.[63] Southern Min
Southern Min
dialects also have an optional nasal property, which is written with a superscript ⟨ⁿ⟩ and usually identified as being part of the vowel.[64] A legitimate syllable in Hokkien
Hokkien
takes the form (initial) + (medial vowel) + nucleus + (stop) + tone, where items in parenthesis indicate optional components.[65] The initials are:[66]

Bilabial Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal

Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless

Nasal

m [m] ㄇ 毛 (mo͘ )

n [n] ㄋ 耐 (nāi)

ng [ŋ] ㄫ 雅 (ngá)

Stop Unaspirated p [p] ㄅ 邊 (pian) b [b] ㆠ 文 (bûn) t [t] ㄉ 地 (tē)

k [k] ㄍ 求 (kiû) g [g] ㆣ 語 (gí)

Aspirated ph [pʰ] ㄆ 波 (pho)

th [tʰ] ㄊ 他 (thaⁿ)

kh [kʰ] ㄎ 去 (khì)

Affricate Unaspirated

ch [ts] ㄗ 曾 (chan) j [dz] ㆡ 熱 (joa̍h) chi [tɕ] ㄐ 尖 (chiam) ji [dʑ] ㆢ 入 (ji̍p)

Aspirated

chh [tsʰ] ㄘ 出 (chhut)

chhi [tɕʰ] ㄑ 手 (chhiú)

Fricative

s [s] ㄙ 衫 (saⁿ)

si [ɕ] ㄒ 寫 (siá)

h [h] ㄏ 喜 (hí)

Lateral

l [l] ㄌ 柳 (liú)

Vowels:[67]

Monophthongs

Front Central Back

Simple Nasal Simple Simple Nasal

Close i [i] ㄧ 衣 (i) iⁿ [ĩ] ㆪ 圓 (îⁿ)

u [u] ㄨ 污 (u) uⁿ [ũ] ㆫ 張 (tiuⁿ)

Mid e [e] ㆤ 禮 (lé) eⁿ [ẽ] ㆥ 生 (seⁿ) o [ə] ㄜ 高 (ko) o͘ [ɔ] ㆦ 烏 (o͘ ) oⁿ [ɔ̃] ㆧ 翁 (oⁿ)

Open a [a] ㄚ 查 (cha) aⁿ [ã] ㆩ 衫 (saⁿ)

Diphthongs & Triphthongs

Diphthongs ai [aɪ] ㄞ au [aʊ] ㄠ ia [ɪa] ㄧㄚ io [ɪo] ㄧㄜ

iu [iu] ㄧㄨ oa [ua] ㄨㄚ oe [ue] ㄨㆤ ui [ui] ㄨㄧ

Triphthongs iau [ɪaʊ] ㄧㄠ oai [uai] ㄨㄞ

Coda endings:

Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal

Nasal consonant -m [m] ㆬ -n [n] ㄣ -ng [ŋ] ㆭ

Stop consonant -p [p̚] ㆴ -t [t̚] ㆵ -k [k̚] ㆶ -h [ʔ] ㆷ

Syllabic consonant

Bilabial Velar

Nasal m [m̩] ㆬ 姆 (ḿ) ng [ŋ̍] ㆭ 酸 (sng)

POJ has a limited amount of legitimate syllables, although sources disagree on some particular instances of these syllables. The following table contains all the licit spellings of POJ syllables, based on a number of sources:

Licit POJ syllables

∅ b ch chh g h j k kh l m n ng p ph s t th

a a ba cha chha ga ha

ka kha la ma na nga pa pha sa ta tha a

aⁿ aⁿ

chaⁿ chhaⁿ

haⁿ

kaⁿ khaⁿ

phaⁿ saⁿ taⁿ thaⁿ aⁿ

ah ah bah chah chhah

hah

kah khah lah

nah

pah phah sah tah thah ah

ahⁿ

hahⁿ

sahⁿ

ahⁿ

ai ai bai chai chhai gai hai

kai khai lai mai nai ngai pai phai sai tai thai ai

aiⁿ aiⁿ

chaiⁿ

haiⁿ

kaiⁿ khaiⁿ

phaiⁿ

taiⁿ

aiⁿ

ak ak bak chak chhak gak hak

kak khak lak

pak phak sak tak thak ak

am am

cham chham gam ham

kam kham lam

sam tam tham am

an an ban chan chhan gan han

kan khan lan

pan phan san tan than an

ang ang bang chang chhang gang hang

kang khang lang

pang phang sang tang thang ang

ap ap

chap chhap

hap

kap khap lap

sap tap thap ap

at at bat chat chhat

hat

kat khat lat

pat

sat tat that at

au au bau chau chhau gau hau

kau khau lau mau nau ngau pau phau sau tau thau au

auh

chhauh

kauh

lauh mauh nauh

phauh

tauh

auh

e e be che chhe ge he

ke khe le me ne nge pe phe se te the e

eⁿ eⁿ

cheⁿ chheⁿ

heⁿ

keⁿ kheⁿ

peⁿ pheⁿ seⁿ teⁿ theⁿ eⁿ

eh eh beh cheh chheh

heh

keh kheh leh meh neh ngeh peh

seh teh theh eh

ehⁿ

hehⁿ

khehⁿ

ehⁿ

ek ek bek chek chhek gek hek

kek

lek

pek phek sek tek thek ek

eng eng beng cheng chheng geng heng

keng kheng leng

peng pheng seng teng theng eng

i i bi chi chhi gi hi ji ki khi li mi ni

pi phi si ti thi i

iⁿ iⁿ

chiⁿ chhiⁿ

hiⁿ

kiⁿ khiⁿ

siⁿ tiⁿ thiⁿ iⁿ

ia ia

chia chhia gia hia jia kia khia

mia nia ngia

sia tia

ia

iaⁿ iaⁿ

chiaⁿ chhiaⁿ

hiaⁿ

kiaⁿ

piaⁿ

siaⁿ tiaⁿ thiaⁿ iaⁿ

iah iah

chiah chhiah giah hiah

kiah khiah liah

piah phiah siah tiah thiah iah

iahⁿ

hiahⁿ

iahⁿ

iak

chhiak

khiak

piak phiak siak tiak

iak

iam iam

chiam chhiam giam hiam jiam kiam khiam liam

siam tiam thiam iam

ian ian bian chian chhian gian hian jian kian khian lian

pian phian sian tian thian ian

iang iang

chiang chhiang giang hiang jiang

khiang liang

piang phiang siang

iang

iap iap

chiap chhiap giap hiap jiap kiap khiap liap

siap tiap thiap iap

iat iat biat chiat chhiat giat hiat jiat kiat khiat liat

piat phiat siat tiat thiat iat

iau iau biau chiau chhiau giau hiau jiau kiau khiau liau miau niau ngiau piau phiau siau tiau thiau iau

iauⁿ iauⁿ

iauⁿ

iauh

hiauh

khiauh

ngiauh

iauh

ih

bih chih chhih

khih

mih nih

pih phih sih tih thih ih

im im

chim chhim gim him jim kim khim lim

sim tim thim im

in in bin chin chhin gin hin jin kin khin lin

pin phin sin tin thin in

io io bio chio chhio gio hio jio kio khio lio

pio phio sio tio thio io

ioh ioh

chioh chhioh gioh hioh

kioh khioh lioh

sioh tioh

ioh

iok iok

chiok chhiok giok hiok jiok kiok khiok liok

siok tiok thiok iok

iong iong

chiong chhiong giong hiong jiong kiong khiong liong

siong tiong thiong iong

ip ip

chip chhip

hip jip kip khip lip

sip

ip

it it bit chit chhit

hit jit kit khit

pit phit sit tit

it

iu iu biu chiu chhiu giu hiu jiu kiu khiu liu

niu

piu

siu tiu thiu iu

iuⁿ iuⁿ

chiuⁿ chhiuⁿ

hiuⁿ

kiuⁿ khiuⁿ

siuⁿ tiuⁿ

iuⁿ

iuhⁿ iuhⁿ

hiuhⁿ

iuhⁿ

m m

hm

m

mh

hmh

mh

ng ng

chng chhng

hng

kng khng

mng nng

png

sng tng thng ng

ngh

chhngh

hngh

phngh sngh

ngh

o o bo cho chho go ho

ko kho lo

po pho so to tho o

oⁿ oⁿ

hoⁿ

koⁿ

oⁿ

o͘ o͘ bo͘ cho͘ chho͘ go͘ ho͘

ko͘ kho͘ lo͘ mo͘ no͘ ngo͘ po͘ pho͘ so͘ to͘ tho͘ o͘

oa oa boa choa chhoa goa hoa

koa khoa loa moa noa

poa phoa soa toa thoa oa

oaⁿ oaⁿ

chhoaⁿ

hoaⁿ

koaⁿ khoaⁿ

poaⁿ phoaⁿ soaⁿ toaⁿ thoaⁿ oaⁿ

oah oah boah choah chhoah

hoah joah koah khoah loah

poah phoah soah

thoah oah

oai oai

hoai

koai khoai

soai

oai

oaiⁿ oaiⁿ

choaiⁿ

hoaiⁿ

koaiⁿ

soaiⁿ

oaiⁿ

oan oan boan choan chhoan goan hoan

koan khoan loan

poan phoan soan toan thoan oan

oang oang

chhoang

oang

oat oat boat choat

goat hoat

koat khoat loat

poat phoat soat toat thoat oat

oe oe boe choe chhoe goe hoe joe koe khoe loe

poe phoe soe toe

oe

oeh oeh boeh

goeh hoeh

koeh khoeh

poeh phoeh soeh

oeh

oh oh

choh chhoh

hoh

koh

loh

poh phoh soh toh thoh oh

o͘h

mo͘h

o͘h

ohⁿ ohⁿ

hohⁿ

ohⁿ

ok ok bok chok chhok gok hok

kok khok lok

pok phok sok tok thok ok

om om

som tom

om

ong ong bong chong chhong gong hong

kong khong long

pong phong song tong thong ong

u u bu chu chhu gu hu ju ku khu lu

pu phu su tu thu u

uh uh

chuh chhuh

khuh

puh phuh

tuh thuh uh

ui ui bui chui chhui gui hui

kui khui lui mui

pui phui sui tui thui ui

un un bun chun chhun gun hun jun kun khun lun

pun phun sun tun thun un

ut ut but chut chhut

hut

kut khut lut

put phut sut tut thut ut

∅ b ch chh g h j k kh l m n ng p ph s t th

Sources: Campbell,[68] Embree,[69] Kì.[70]

Tone markings[edit]

No. Diacritic Chinese tone name Example  listen (help·info)

1 none 陰平 (yinping) dark level kha foot; leg

2 acute 上聲 (shangsheng) rising chúi water

3 grave 陰去 (yinqu) dark departing kàu arrive

4 none 陰入 (yinru) dark entering bah meat

5 circumflex 陽平 (yangping) light level ông king

7 macron 陽去 (yangqu) light departing tiōng heavy

8 vertical line above 陽入 (yangru) light entering jo̍ah hot

The five tone markings used in pe̍h-ōe-jī, representing tones 2, 3, 5, 7, and 8

In standard Amoy or Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien
there are seven distinct tones, which by convention are numbered 1–8, with number 6 omitted (tone 6 used to be a distinct tone, but has long since merged with tone 2).[71] Tones 1 and 4 are both represented without a diacritic, and can be distinguished from each other by the syllable ending, which is a vowel, ⟨-n⟩, ⟨-m⟩, or ⟨-ng⟩ for tone 1, and ⟨-h⟩, ⟨-k⟩, ⟨-p⟩, and ⟨-t⟩ for tone 4. Southern Min
Southern Min
dialects undergo considerable tone sandhi, i.e. changes to the tone depending on the position of the syllable in any given sentence or utterance.[65] However, like pinyin for Mandarin Chinese, POJ always marks the citation tone (i.e. the original, pre-sandhi tone) rather than the tone which is actually spoken.[72] This means that when reading aloud the reader must adjust the tone markings on the page to account for sandhi. Some textbooks for learners of Southern Min
Southern Min
mark both the citation tone and the sandhi tone to assist the learner.[73] There is some debate as to the correct placement of tone marks in the case of diphthongs and triphthongs, particularly those which include ⟨oa⟩ and ⟨oe⟩.[74] Most modern writers follow six rules:[75]

If the syllable has one vowel, that vowel should be tone-marked; viz. ⟨tī⟩, ⟨láng⟩, ⟨chhu̍t⟩ If a diphthong contains ⟨i⟩ or ⟨u⟩, the tone mark goes above the other vowel; viz. ⟨ia̍h⟩, ⟨kiò⟩, ⟨táu⟩ If a diphthong includes both ⟨i⟩ and ⟨u⟩, mark the ⟨u⟩; viz. ⟨iû⟩, ⟨ùi⟩ If the final is made up of three or more letters, mark the second vowel (except when rules 2 and 3 apply); viz. ⟨goán⟩, ⟨oāi⟩, ⟨khiáu⟩ If ⟨o⟩ occurs with ⟨a⟩ or ⟨e⟩, mark the ⟨o⟩; viz. ⟨òa⟩, ⟨thóe⟩ If the syllable has no vowel, mark the nasal consonant; viz. ⟨m̄⟩, ⟨ǹg⟩, ⟨mn̂g⟩

Hyphens[edit] A single hyphen is used to indicate a compound. What constitutes a compound is controversial, with some authors equating it to a "word" in English, and others not willing to limit it to the English concept of a word.[74] Examples from POJ include ⟨sì-cha̍p⟩ "forty", ⟨bé-hì-thôan⟩ "circus", and ⟨hôe-ho̍k⟩ "recover (from illness)". The rule-based sandhi behaviour of tones in compounds has not yet been clearly defined by linguists.[76] A double hyphen ⟨--⟩ is used when POJ is deployed as an orthography (rather than as a transcription system) to indicate that the following syllable should be pronounced in the neutral tone.[77] It also marks to the reader that the preceding syllable does not undergo tone sandhi, as it would were the following syllable non-neutral. Morphemes following a double hyphen are often (but not always) grammatical function words.[78] Audio examples[edit]

POJ Translation Audio File

Sian-siⁿ kóng, ha̍k-seng tiām-tiām thiaⁿ. A teacher/master speaks, students quietly listen.  listen (help·info)

Kin-á-jit hit-ê cha-bó͘ gín-á lâi góan tau khòaⁿ góa. Today that girl came to my house to see me.  listen (help·info)

Thài-khong pêng-iú, lín-hó. Lín chia̍h-pá--bē? Ū-êng, to̍h lâi gún chia chē--ô͘! Space friends, how are you? Have you eaten yet? When you have the time, come on over to eat. Listen (from NASA
NASA
Voyager Golden Record)

Regional differences[edit] In addition to the standard syllables detailed above, there are several regional variations of Hokkien
Hokkien
speech which can be represented with non-standard or semi-standard spellings. In the Zhangzhou dialect, spoken in Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
and parts of Taiwan
Taiwan
close to it, particularly the northeastern coast around Yilan City, the final ⟨ng⟩ is replaced with ⟨uiⁿ⟩, for example in "egg" ⟨nuiⁿ⟩ and "cooked rice" ⟨puiⁿ⟩.[79] The /ε/ vowel is written as <ε> or <e͘> (with a dot above right, by analogy with <o͘>). Texts[edit]

Goân-khí-thâu Siōng-tè chhòng-chō thiⁿ kap tōe. Tōe sī khang-khang hūn-tūn; chhim-ian ê bin-chiūⁿ o͘-àm; Siōng-tè ê Sîn ūn-tōng tī chúi-bīn. Siōng-tè kóng, Tio̍h ū kng, chiū ū kng. Siōng-tè khòaⁿ kng, sī hó; Siōng-tè chiong kng àm pun-khui. Siōng-tè kiò hit ê kng chòe Ji̍t, kiò àm chòe Mî. Ū ê-hng ū chá-khí sī thâu chi̍t-ji̍t.

Genesis 1:1–5[80]

Due to POJ's origins in the church, much of the material in the script is religious in nature, including several Bible translations, books of hymns, and guides to morality. The Tainan
Tainan
Church Press, established in 1884, has been printing POJ materials ever since, with periods of quiet when POJ was suppressed in the early 1940s and from around 1955 to 1987. In the period to 1955, over 2.3 million volumes of POJ books were printed,[81] and one study in 2002 catalogued 840 different POJ texts in existence.[82] Besides a Southern Min
Southern Min
version of in the orthography,[83] there are teaching materials, religious texts, and books about linguistics, medicine and geography.

Lán ê Kiù-chú Iâ-so͘ Ki-tok ê Sin-iok (1873 translation of the New Testament) Lāi-goā-kho Khàn-hō͘-ha̍k, by George Gushue-Taylor, 1917 Chinese–English dictionary of the vernacular or spoken language of Amoy, by Carstairs Douglas, 1873 Lear Ông, translation of King Lear
King Lear
by Tē Hūi-hun

Computing[edit] POJ was initially not well supported by word-processing applications due to the special diacritics needed to write it. Support has now improved and there are now sufficient resources to both enter and display POJ correctly. Several input methods exist to enter Unicode-compliant POJ, including OpenVanilla ( OS X
OS X
and Microsoft Windows), the cross-platform Tai-lo Input Method released by the Taiwanese Ministry of Education, and the Firefox
Firefox
add-on Transliterator, which allows in-browser POJ input.[84] When POJ was first used in word-processing applications it was not fully supported by the Unicode
Unicode
standard, thus necessitating work-arounds. One employed was encoding the necessary characters in the "Private Use" section of Unicode, but this required both the writer and the reader to have the correct custom font installed.[85] Another solution was to replace troublesome characters with near equivalents, for example substituting ⟨ä⟩ for ⟨ā⟩ or using a standard ⟨o⟩ followed by an interpunct to represent ⟨o͘⟩.[85] With the introduction into Unicode
Unicode
4.1.0 of the combining character COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT (U+0358) in 2004, all the necessary characters were present to write regular POJ without the need for workarounds.[86][87] However, even after the addition of these characters, there are still relatively few fonts which are able to properly render the script, including the combining characters. Some of those which can are Charis SIL, DejaVu, Doulos SIL, Linux Libertine, and Taigi Unicode.[85] Han-Romanization mixed script[edit]

翻 tńg 工,我 koh hap i tī Hotel ê 餐廳食西式 ê chái 起,我講 beh tò 去稅厝 ê 所在,i beh 送我去,我 kā 拒絕,mā 無 beh hō͘ i 知我 ê 地址、電話番,講若有緣就會 koh 再相會。I 講人海茫茫,我若無 tī hit 間跳舞、唱歌,i beh 去 toh 位 chhōe--我?「就是 án-ni m̄-chiah 講是緣」,我嘴是 án-ni 應,心肝內知影 kap i 自細漢到這時 ê 牽連、綿纏無 hiah 簡單就煞。

Sample mixed orthography text[88]

One of the most popular modern ways of writing Taiwanese is by using a mixed orthography[89] called Hàn-lô[90] (simplified Chinese: 汉罗; traditional Chinese: 漢羅; pinyin: Hàn-Luó; literally Chinese-Roman), and sometimes Han-Romanization mixed script, a style not unlike written Japanese or (historically) Korean.[91] In fact, the term Hàn-lô does not describe one specific system, but covers any kind of writing in Southern Min
Southern Min
which features both Chinese characters and romanization.[89] That romanization is usually POJ, although recently some texts have begun appearing with Taiwanese Romanization System (Tâi-lô) spellings too. The problem with using only Chinese characters to write Southern Min
Southern Min
is that there are many morphemes (estimated to be around 15 percent of running text)[92] which are not definitively associated with a particular character. Various strategies have been developed to deal with the issue, including creating new characters, allocating Chinese characters
Chinese characters
used in written Mandarin with similar meanings (but dissimilar etymology) to represent the missing characters, or using romanization for the "missing 15%".[93] There are two rationales for using mixed orthography writing, with two different aims. The first is to allow native speakers (almost all of whom can already write Chinese characters) to make use of their knowledge of characters, while replacing the missing 15% with romanization.[89] The second is to wean character literates off using them gradually, to be replaced eventually by fully romanized text.[94] Examples of modern texts in Hàn-lô include religious, pedagogical, scholarly, and literary works, such as:

Chang Yu-hong. Principles of POJ. [95] Babuja A. Sidaia. A-Chhûn. [96]

Adaptations for other Chinese varieties[edit] POJ has been adapted for several other varieties of Chinese, with varying degrees of success. For Hakka, missionaries and others have produced a Bible translation, hymn book, textbooks, and dictionaries.[97] Materials produced in the orthography, called Pha̍k-fa-sṳ, include:

Hak-ngi Sṳn-kin, Sin-yuk lau Sṳ-phien: Hien-thoi Thoi-van Hak-ngi Yit-pun (Hakka Bible, New Testament
New Testament
and Psalms: Today's Taiwan
Taiwan
Hakka Version). Bible Society. 1993.  Phang Tet-siu (1994). Thai-ka Loi Hok Hak-fa (Everybody Learn Hakka). Taipei: Southern Materials Center. ISBN 957-638-017-0.  Phang Tet-siu (1996). Hak-ka-fa Fat-yim Sṳ-tien (Hakka Pronunciation Dictionary). Taipei: Southern Materials Center. ISBN 957-638-359-5.  Hak-ka Sṳn-sṳ (Hakka Hymns). Tainan: PCT Press. 1999. ISBN 957-8349-75-0. 

A modified version of POJ has also been created for Teochew.[98] Current status[edit]

Some books which use pe̍h-ōe-jī, including textbooks, dictionaries, a bible, poetry, and academic works

Most native Southern Min
Southern Min
speakers in Taiwan
Taiwan
are unfamiliar with POJ or any other writing system,[99] commonly asserting that "Taiwanese has no writing",[100] or, if they are made aware of POJ, considering romanization as the "low" form of writing, in contrast with the "high" form (Chinese characters).[101] For those who are introduced to POJ alongside Han-lo and completely Chinese character-based systems, a clear preference has been shown for all-character systems, with all-romanization systems at the bottom of the preference list, likely because of the preexisting familiarity of readers with Chinese characters.[102] POJ remains the Taiwanese orthography "with the richest inventory of written work, including dictionaries, textbooks, literature [...] and other publications in many areas".[103] A 1999 estimate put the number of literate POJ users at around 100,000,[104] and secular organizations have been formed to promote the use of romanization among Taiwanese speakers.[105] Outside Taiwan, POJ is rarely used. For example, in Fujian, Xiamen University uses a romanization known as Bbánlám pìngyīm, based on Pinyin. In other areas where Hokkien
Hokkien
is spoken, such as Singapore, the Speak Mandarin Campaign
Speak Mandarin Campaign
is underway to actively discourage people from speaking Hokkien
Hokkien
or other non-Mandarin varieties in favour of switching to Mandarin instead.[106] In 2006, Taiwan's Ministry of Education chose an official romanization for use in teaching Southern Min
Southern Min
in the state school system.[107] POJ was one of the candidate systems, along with Daighi tongiong pingim, but a compromise system, the Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
or Tâi-Lô, was chosen in the end.[108] Tâi-Lô retains most of the orthographic standards of POJ, including the tone marks, while changing the troublesome ⟨o͘⟩ character for ⟨oo⟩, swapping ⟨ts⟩ for ⟨ch⟩, and replacing ⟨o⟩ in diphthongs with ⟨u⟩.[109] Supporters of Taiwanese writing are in general deeply suspicious of government involvement, given the history of official suppression of native languages,[5] making it unclear whether Tâi-Lô or POJ will become the dominant system in the future. References[edit]

Chinese romanization

Mandarin

Standard Chinese

Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
(ISO standard) EFEO Gwoyeu Romatzyh

Spelling conventions

Latinxua Sin Wenz Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II Postal romanization Tongyong Pinyin Wade–Giles Yale romanization Lessing-Othmer Legge romanization Simplified Wade Comparison chart

Sichuanese

Sichuanese Pinyin Scuanxua Ladinxua Xin Wenz

Wu

Wenzhounese

Wenzhounese romanization

Yue

Cantonese

Jyutping Yale romanization Guangdong Romanization Hong Kong Government Macau Government Meyer–Wempe Sidney Lau S. L. Wong (phonetic symbols) S. L. Wong (romanization) Cantonese
Cantonese
Pinyin Standard Romanization Barnett–Chao Comparison chart

Southern Min

Taiwanese, Amoy and related

Pe̍h-ōe-jī Modern Literal Taiwanese Phofsit Daibuun Bbánlám pìngyīm Daighi tongiong pingim TLPA Tâi-lô Comparison chart

Teochew

Peng'im

Eastern Min

Fuzhou dialect

Foochow Romanized

Northern Min

Jian'ou dialect

Kienning Colloquial Romanized

Pu-Xian Min

Putian dialect

Hinghwa Romanized

Hainanese

Haikou dialect

Hainan Romanized

Wenchang dialect

Hainanhua Pinyin
Pinyin
Fang'an

Hakka

Meixian dialect

Kejiahua Pinyin
Pinyin
Fang'an Hagfa Pinyim

Sixian dialect

Pha̍k-fa-sṳ TLPA

Gan

Chang-Du dialect

Pha̍k-oa-chhi

See also

Other transliterations

General Chinese Cyrillization Xiao'erjing 'Phags-pa script Bopomofo Taiwanese kana Taiwanese Phonetic Symbols Mongolian transliteration of Chinese characters Manchu transliteration Transcription into Chinese

By place

Romanization in Hong Kong Romanization in Singapore Romanization in Taiwan

v t e

Notes

^ a b c Klöter (2005), p. 90. ^ a b Klöter (2002), p. 1. ^ a b c Klöter (2005), p. 89. ^ a b c Chang (2001), p. 13. ^ a b Klöter (2005), p. 248. ^ a b c Klöter (2005), p. 92. ^ Klöter (2002), p. 2. ^ Heylen (2001), p. 139. ^ a b Heylen (2001), p. 142. ^ a b Chang (2001), p. 14. ^ Heylen (2001), p. 144. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 109. ^ Medhurst (1832), p. viii. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 110. ^ Heylen (2001), p. 145. ^ a b c Heylen (2001), p. 149. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 111. ^ Klöter (2005), pp. 111, 116. ^ a b c Klöter (2005), p. 93. ^ Ang (1992), p. 2. ^ Heylen (2001), p. 160. ^ Klöter (2002), p. 13. ^ Quoted in Band (1936), p. 67 ^ a b "Our Story". Taiwan
Taiwan
Church News. Archived from the original on 2009-03-01. Retrieved 2009-04-30.  ^ Copper (2007), p. 240. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 114. ^ Adapted from Klöter (2005), pp. 113–6 ^ Medhurst (1832). ^ Doty (1853). ^ MacGowan (1869). ^ Douglas (1873). ^ Van Nest Talmage (1894). ^ Warnshuis & de Pree (1911). ^ Campbell (1913). ^ Barclay (1923). ^ Tipson (1934). ^ Klöter (2005), p. 136. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 153. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 154. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 135. ^ Lin (1999), p. 21. ^ a b c d e f Chang (2001), p. 18. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 231. ^ a b c Lin (1999), p. 1. ^ Tiuⁿ (2004), p. 7. ^ Sandel (2003), p. 533. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 217. ^ "Guide to Dialect Barred in Taiwan: Dictionary Tried to Render Local Chinese Sounds". New York Times. September 15, 1974. sec. GN, p. 15. Retrieved 18 December 2014. ; quoted in Lin (1999), p. 22 ^ Iûⁿ (2009), p. 24. ^ Sandel (2003), p. 530. ^ Wu (2007), p. 1. ^ Wu (2007), p. 9. ^ Chiung (2005), p. 275. ^ Chang (2001), p. 19. ^ Chiung (2005), p. 273. ^ Loa Iok-sin (2009-02-28). "Activists demand Hoklo exams". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2010-03-31.  ^ "Premier's comments over language status draws anger". China
China
Post. 2003-09-25. Retrieved 2010-03-31.  ^ Klöter (2005), p. 98. ^ Chang (2001), p. 15. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 99. ^ a b Chung (1996), p. 78. ^ Norman (1998), p. 237. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 14. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 15. ^ a b Ramsey (1987), p. 109. ^ Chang (2001), p. 30. ^ Chang (2001), p. 33. ^ Campbell (1913), pp. 1–4: Entries under the initial ts have been tallied under the modern spelling of ch. ^ Embree (1973). ^ Kì (2008), pp. 4–25. ^ Maryknoll (1984), pp. 5–7. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 100. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 101. ^ a b Klöter (2005), p. 102. ^ Chang (2001), pp. 86–88. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 103. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 103–104. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 104. ^ Chang (2001), p. 134. ^ Barclay et al. (1933), p. 1. ^ Tiuⁿ (2004), p. 6. ^ Tiuⁿ (2004), p. 8. ^ Iûⁿ (2009), p. 23. ^ Iûⁿ (2009), p. 29. ^ a b c Iûⁿ (2009), p. 20. ^ Iûⁿ (2009), p. 11. ^ "Combining Diacritical Marks" (PDF). unicode.org. p. 34. Retrieved 2010-07-29.  ^ Sidaia (1998), p. 264. ^ a b c Klöter (2005), p. 225. ^ Ota (2005), p. 21. ^ Iûⁿ (2009), p. 10. ^ Lin (1999), p. 7. ^ Lin (1999), pp. 9–11. ^ Klöter (2005), p. 230. ^ Chang (2001). ^ Sidaia (1998). ^ Wu & Chen (2004). ^ 潮州字典-韵母表 (in Chinese). Hailufeng. Retrieved 2010-03-10.  ^ Ota (2005), p. 20. ^ Baran (2004), p. 35–5. ^ Chiung (2005), p. 300. ^ Chiung (2005), p. 301. ^ Chiung (2005), p. 272. ^ Lin (1999), p. 17. ^ Chiung (2007), p. 474. ^ Wong-Anan, Nopporn (2009-09-16). "Eyeing China, Singapore
Singapore
sees Mandarin as its future". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-10-31.  ^ Tseng (2009), p. 2. ^ 閩南語鄉土教學確定採台灣閩南語羅馬字拼音 ( Southern Min
Southern Min
native language teaching to use Taiwan
Taiwan
Southern Min Romanization) (in Chinese), Central News Agency  ^ Tseng (2009), pp. 2–5.

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Taiwan
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Embree, Bernard L. M. (1973). A Dictionary of Southern Min: based on current usage in Taiwan
Taiwan
and checked against the earlier works of Carstairs Douglas, Thomas Barclay, and Ernest Tipson. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Language Institute. OCLC 2491446.  Heylen, Ann (2001). "Romanizing Taiwanese: Codification and Standardization of Dictionaries in Southern Min
Southern Min
(1837–1923)". In Ku, Wei-ying; De Ridder, Koen. Authentic Chinese Christianity, Preludes to Its Development: Nineteenth & Twentieth Centuries. Leuven: Leuven University Press. ISBN 9789058671028.  Iûⁿ Ún-giân; Tiuⁿ Ha̍k-khiam (1999). "台灣福佬話非漢字拼音符號的回顧與分析 (Comparison and Analysis of non-Character Transcription Systems for Taiwanese Holo)" (in Chinese). Tainan: National Cheng Kung University. Archived from the original on November 16, 2007. Retrieved 2009-12-17.  Iûⁿ, Ún-giân (2009). Processing Techniques for Written Taiwanese – Tone Sandhi and POS Tagging (Doctoral dissertation). National Taiwan
Taiwan
University. OCLC 367595113.  Kì, Bō͘-hô (2008). 台語教會羅馬字講義 [Notes on Taiwanese Church Romanization]. Tainan: PCT Press. ISBN 9789866947346.  Klöter, Henning (2002). "The History of Peh-oe-ji". 2002台灣羅馬字教學KAP研究國際學術研討會論文集 (Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Taiwanese Romanization Research). Taipei: Taiwanese Romanization Association.  Klöter, Henning (2005). Written Taiwanese. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 9783447050937.  Lin, Alvin (1999). "Writing Taiwanese: The Development of Modern Written Taiwanese" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers (89). OCLC 41879041.  MacGowan, John (1869). A Manual of the Amoy Colloquial. Hong Kong: de Souza & Co. OCLC 23927767.  Maryknoll Fathers (1984). Taiwanese: Book 1. Taichung: Maryknoll. OCLC 44137703.  Medhurst, Walter Henry (1832). Dictionary of the Hok-këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, According to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms. Macau: East India Press. OCLC 5314739.  Norman, Jerry (1998). Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521296536.  Ong Iok-tek (2002). Taiwanyu Yanjiu Juan (in Chinese). Taipei: Avanguard Publishing. ISBN 957-801-354-X.  Ota, Katsuhiro J. (2005). An investigation of written Taiwanese (PDF) (Master's). University of Hawai'i at Manoa. OCLC 435500061.  Ramsey, S. Robert (1987). The Languages of China. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691014685.  Sandel, Todd L. (2003). "Linguistic capital in Taiwan: The KMT's Mandarin language policy and its perceived impact on language practices of bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi speakers". Language in Society. Cambridge University Press. 32 (4). doi:10.1017/S0047404503324030. JSTOR 4169285.  Sidaia, Babuja A. (1998). A-Chhûn : Babuja A.Sidaia e短篇小說集 (in Hàn-lô Taiwanese). Taipei: Taili. ISBN 9789579886161. OCLC 815099022. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) Tipson, Ernest (1934). A Pocket Dictionary of the Amoy Vernacular: English-Chinese. Singapore: Lithographers. OCLC 504142973.  Tiuⁿ, Ha̍k-khiam (2004). 白話字kap台語文的現代化 [Peh-oe-ji and the Modernization of Written Taiwanese]. 2004 International Conference on Taiwanese Romanization (in Han-lo Taiwanese). 1. OCLC 77082548. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) Tseng, Rui-cheng (2009). Taiwan
Taiwan
Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin
Pinyin
Fang'an Shiyong Shouce [Practical Manual for the Taiwan
Taiwan
Southern Min Romanization System] (PDF) (in Chinese). ROC Ministry of Education. ISBN 9789860166378.  Van Nest Talmage, John (1894). New Dictionary in the Amoy Dialect. OCLC 41548900.  Warnshuis, A. Livingston; de Pree, H.P. (1911). Lessons in the Amoy Vernacular. Xiamen: Chui-keng-tông Press. OCLC 29903392.  Wu, Chang-neng (2007). The Taigi Literature Debates and Related Developments (1987–1996) (Master's). Taipei: National Chengchi University. OCLC 642745725.  Wu, Guo-sheng; Chen, Yi-hsin (2004). 客家語羅馬字文獻的版本研究 [Books Written in Hakka Romanization]. 2004 International Conference on Taiwanese Romanization (in Chinese). 2. OCLC 77082548. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
at Wikimedia Commons

General

"Tai-gu Bang".  – Google group
Google group
for Taiwanese language enthusiasts – uses POJ and Chinese characters. " Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Unicode
Unicode
Correspondence Table" (PDF). Tailingua. 2009.  – information on Unicode
Unicode
encodings for POJ text "Taiwanese Romanization Association".  – group dedicated to the promotion of Taiwanese and Hakka romanization

Input methods

"Open Vanilla".  – open source input method for both Windows and Mac OS X. "Taigi-Hakka IME".  – Windows-based input method for both Hokkien
Hokkien
and Hakka variants. "Tai-lo Input Method" (in Chinese).  – cross-platform input method released by Taiwan's Ministry of Education. "Transliterator".  – extension for the Firefox
Firefox
browser which allows POJ input in-browser.

POJ-compliant fonts

"Charis SIL". SIL International.  – serif font in regular, bold, italic, and bold italic. "DejaVu". Archived from the original on 2009-12-13.  – available in serif, sans-serif, and monospace. "Doulos SIL". SIL International.  – Times New Roman-style serif. "Gentium". SIL International.  – open source serif. "Linux Libertine".  – GPL
GPL
and OPL-licensed serif. " Linux Libertine
Linux Libertine
G".  – GPL
GPL
and OPL-licensed serif. "Taigi Unicode".  – serif font specifically designed for POJ.

Texts and dictionaries

Min Nan Chinese edition of, the free encyclopedia

"Taiwanese bibliography". Archived from the original on 2006-08-18.  – list of books in Taiwanese, including those written in POJ. "Memory of Written Taiwanese". Archived from the original on 2009-11-29.  – collection of Taiwanese texts in various orthographies, including many in POJ. "Tai-Hoa Dictionary".  – dictionary which includes POJ, Taiwanese in Chinese characters, and Mandarin characters. Some English definitions also available. Exhibits: Taiwanese Romanization Peh-oe-ji  – sample images of various older POJ texts. Chinese Character to Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Online Transliterator  - Transliterates Southern Min
Southern Min
Characters and Mandarin Characters to POJ.

v t e

Min Chinese

Languages

Eastern Min

Southern subgroup

Fuzhou dialect Minhou dialect Lianjiang dialect Fuqing dialect Changle dialect Gutian dialect Pingtan dialect Luoyuan dialect Yongtai dialect Youxi dialect Ningde dialect Weili dialect Matsu dialect

Northern subgroup

Xiapu dialect Fu'an dialect Zherong dialect Fuding dialect Shouning dialect Zhouning dialect

Mango dialect

Taishun Manjiang Cangnan Manhua

Southern Min

Datian Min Hokkien Teochew Zhenan Min Zhongshan Min ... (Detail)

Pu-Xian Min (Hinghwa)

Putian dialect Xianyou dialect

Northern Min

Jian'ou dialect Jianyang dialect Chong'an dialect Songxi dialect Zhenghe dialect

Shao-Jiang Min

Shaowu dialect Jiangle dialect Guangze dialect Shunchang dialect

Central Min

Sanming dialect Shaxian dialect Yong'an dialect

Leizhou Min

Leizhou Min

Hainanese

Fucheng subgroup

Haikou dialect Ding'an dialect Chengmai dialect Tunchang dialect

Wenchang subgroup

Wenchang dialect Qionghai dialect

Wanning subgroup

Wanning dialect Lingshui dialect

Yaxian subgroup

Yaxian dialect

Changgan subgroup

Changjiang dialect

Writing system

Logographic

Chinese characters

Alphabetic

Pe̍h-ōe-jī Pêh-uē-jī Hainan Romanized Foochow Romanized Fu'an Romanized Hinghwa Romanized Kienning Colloquial Romanized Taiwanese Romanization System Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet Daighi tongiong pingim Bbánlám pìngyīm Teochew Transliteration Scheme Hainanese
Hainanese
Transliteration Scheme Fuzhou dialect
Fuzhou dialect
Transliteration Scheme Jian'ou dialect
Jian'ou dialect
Transliteration Scheme

Mixed

Hàn-lô

Research

Proto-languages

Proto-Min

Rime dictionaries

Qi Lin Bayin Anqiang Bayin Qiyin Zihui Bayin Dingjue Paizhang Zhiyin Dujiangshu Shiwuyin Huiyin Miaowu Zengbu Huiyin Chaosheng Shiwuyin Jimu Zhiyin Chaoyu Shiwuyin Jianzhou Bayin

China
China
portal Taiwan
Taiwan
portal Singapore
Singapore
port

.