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Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
Corporation (also known simply as Paramount) is an American film studio based in Hollywood, California, that has been a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom
Viacom
since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world,[2] the second oldest in the United States, and the sole member of the "Big Six" film studios still located in the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor
Adolph Zukor
put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. These fortunate few would become the first "movie stars."[3] In 2014, Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
became the first major Hollywood
Hollywood
studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only.[4] The company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, Hollywood, California, United States.[5] Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).[6]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Famous Players
Famous Players
Film
Film
Company 1.2 Famous Players-Lasky

1.2.1 Publix, Balaban and Katz, Loew's
Loew's
competition and wonder theaters

1.3 1931–40: Receivership 1.4 1941–50: United States
United States
v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. 1.5 1951–66: Split and after

1.5.1 The DuMont Network

1.6 1966–70: Early Gulf+Western
Gulf+Western
era 1.7 1971–80: CIC formation and high-concept era 1.8 1980–94: Continual success 1.9 1989–94 Paramount Communications 1.10 1994–2005: Dolgen/Lansing and "old" Viacom
Viacom
era 1.11 2005–2006: Dissolution of the Viacom
Viacom
Entertainment
Entertainment
Group and Paramount 1.12 2006–present: Paramount today

1.12.1 CBS
CBS
Corporation/ Viacom
Viacom
split 1.12.2 DreamWorks
DreamWorks
purchased 1.12.3 History since 2006 1.12.4 Distribution deal with Netflix
Netflix
and possible CBS/Viacom re-merger

2 Investments

2.1 DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Pictures 2.2 CBS
CBS
library

3 Units

3.1 Divisions 3.2 Joint ventures 3.3 Former divisions, subsidiaries, and joint ventures 3.4 Other interests

4 Production deals 5 Logo 6 Studio tours 7 Film
Film
library

7.1 Highest-grossing films

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History Famous Players
Famous Players
Film
Film
Company Main article: Famous Players
Famous Players
Film
Film
Company Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film
Film
Company (1895) and Pathé
Pathé
(1896), followed by the Nordisk Film
Film
company (1906), and Universal Studios (1912).[2] It is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood
Hollywood
district of Los Angeles. Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players
Famous Players
Film
Film
Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, who had been an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed mainly to working-class immigrants.[7] With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman
Charles Frohman
he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time (leading to the slogan "Famous Players in Famous Plays"). By mid-1913, Famous Players
Famous Players
had completed five films, and Zukor was on his way to success. Its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth, which starred Sarah Bernhardt. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish, later known as Samuel Goldwyn. The Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with virtually no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man.

Paramount Pictures' first logo, based on a design by its founder William Wadsworth Hodkinson, used from 1917 to 1967.

Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players
Famous Players
released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah
Utah
theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms. Hodkinson and actor, director, producer Hobart Bosworth
Hobart Bosworth
had started production of a series of Jack London
Jack London
movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor; until this time, films were sold on a statewide or regional basis which had proved costly to film producers. Also, Famous Players and Lasky were privately owned while Paramount was a corporation. Famous Players-Lasky Main article: Famous Players-Lasky In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, and Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, and merged the three companies into one. The new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky
Famous Players-Lasky
Corporation, grew quickly, with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, and Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky
Famous Players-Lasky
and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business.[8]

Lasky's original studio (a.k.a. "The Barn") as it appeared in the mid 1920s. The Taft building, built in 1923, is visible in the background.

Because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, and Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions. It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years.[9] The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios (in Astoria, New York, now the Kaufman Astoria Studios, and Hollywood, California), and became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928 (selling it within a few years; this would not be the last time Paramount and CBS
CBS
crossed paths). In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations. They purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million.[10] In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years later, because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios
Fleischer Studios
in New York City. The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was also one of the first Hollywood
Hollywood
studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", and in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film; Maurice Chevalier starred and sung the most famous song from the film, "Louise". Publix, Balaban and Katz, Loew's
Loew's
competition and wonder theaters

Detail of Publix Theatre logo on what is now Indiana Repertory Theatre.

By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban (who would eventually become Paramount's president in 1936), his brother A. J. Balaban
A. J. Balaban
(who would eventually supervise all stage production nationwide and produce talkie shorts), and their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City
New York City
from the thirty-five-story Paramount Theatre Building on Times Square). Balaban and Katz had developed the Wonder Theater concept, first publicized around 1918 in Chicago. The Chicago Theater was created as a very ornate theater and advertised as a "wonder theater." When Publix acquired Balaban, they embarked on a project to expand the wonder theaters, and starting building in New York in 1927. While Balaban and Public were dominant in Chicago, Loew's
Loew's
was the big player in New York, and did not want the Publix theaters to overshadow theirs. The two companies brokered a non-competition deal for New York and Chicago, and Loew's
Loew's
took over the New York area projects, developing five wonder theaters. Publix continued Balaban's wonder theater development in its home area.[11] 1931–40: Receivership Eventually, Zukor shed most of his early partners; the Frohman brothers, Hodkinson and Goldwyn were out by 1917 while Lasky hung on until 1932, when, blamed for the near-collapse of Paramount in the Depression years, he too was tossed out. Zukor's over-expansion and use of overvalued Paramount stock for purchases led the company into receivership in 1933. A bank-mandated reorganization team, led by John Hertz and Otto Kahn
Otto Kahn
kept the company intact, and, miraculously, Zukor was kept on. In 1935, Paramount-Publix went bankrupt. In June 1935 John E. Otterson[12] and in 1936 Barney Balaban became president, and Zukor was bumped up to chairman of the board. In this role, Zukor reorganized the company as Paramount Pictures, Inc. and was able to successfully bring the studio out of bankruptcy. As always, Paramount films continued to emphasize stars; in the 1920s there were Swanson, Valentino, and Clara Bow. By the 1930s, talkies brought in a range of powerful new draws: Miriam Hopkins, Marlene Dietrich, Mae West, W.C. Fields, Jeanette MacDonald, Claudette Colbert, the Marx Brothers
Marx Brothers
(whose first two films were shot at Paramount's Astoria, New York, studio), Dorothy Lamour, Carole Lombard, Bing Crosby, band leader Shep Fields, famous Argentine tango singer Carlos Gardel, and Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
among them.[13] In this period Paramount can truly be described as a movie factory, turning out sixty to seventy pictures a year. Such were the benefits of having a huge theater chain to fill, and of block booking to persuade other chains to go along. In 1933, Mae West
Mae West
would also add greatly to Paramount's success with her suggestive movies She Done Him Wrong
She Done Him Wrong
and I'm No Angel.[14][15] However, the sex appeal West gave in these movies would also lead to the enforcement of the Production Code, as the newly formed organization the Catholic Legion of Decency threatened a boycott if it was not enforced.[16] Paramount cartoons produced by Fleischer Studios
Fleischer Studios
continued to be successful, with characters such as Betty Boop
Betty Boop
and Popeye
Popeye
the Sailor becoming widely successful. One Fleischer series, Screen Songs, featured live-action music stars under contract to Paramount hosting sing-alongs of popular songs. The animation studio would rebound with Popeye, and in 1935, polls showed that Popeye
Popeye
was even more popular than Mickey Mouse.[17] After an unsuccessful expansion into feature films, as well as the fact that Max and Dave Fleischer were no longer speaking to one another, Fleischer Studios
Fleischer Studios
was acquired by Paramount, which renamed the operation Famous Studios. That incarnation of the animation studio continued cartoon production until 1967, but has been historically dismissed as having largely failed to maintain the artistic acclaim the Fleischer brothers achieved under their management.[18]

The original Paramount logo seen on its 1930s films and Popeye
Popeye
shorts.

1941–50: United States
United States
v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. In 1940, Paramount agreed to a government-instituted consent decree: block booking and "pre-selling" (the practice of collecting up-front money for films not yet in production) would end. Immediately, Paramount cut back on production, from 71 films to a more modest 19 annually in the war years.[19] Still, with more new stars like Bob Hope, Alan Ladd, Veronica Lake, Paulette Goddard, and Betty Hutton, and with war-time attendance at astronomical numbers, Paramount and the other integrated studio-theatre combines made more money than ever. At this, the Federal Trade Commission
Federal Trade Commission
and the Justice Department decided to reopen their case against the five integrated studios. Paramount also had a monopoly over Detroit
Detroit
movie theaters through subsidiary company United Detroit
Detroit
Theaters as well.[20] This led to the Supreme Court decision United States
United States
v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. (1948) holding that movie studios could not also own movie theater chains. This decision broke up Adolph Zukor's creation and effectively brought an end to the classic Hollywood
Hollywood
studio system. 1951–66: Split and after With the separation of production and exhibition forced by the U.S. Supreme Court, Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
Inc. was split in two.[21] Paramount Pictures Corporation was formed to be the production distribution company, with the 1,500-screen theater chain handed to the new United Paramount Theaters on December 31, 1949. Leonard Goldenson, who had headed the chain since 1938, remained as the new company's president. The Balaban and Katz theatre division was spun off with UPT; its trademark eventually became the property of the Balaban and Katz Historical Foundation. The Foundation has recently acquired ownership of the Famous Players
Famous Players
Trademark. Cash-rich and controlling prime downtown real estate, Goldenson began looking for investments. Barred from film-making by prior anti-trust rulings, he acquired the struggling ABC television network in February 1953, leading it first to financial health, and eventually, in the mid-1970s, to first place in the national Nielsen ratings, before selling out to Capital Cities in 1985 (Capital Cities would eventually sell out, in turn, to The Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Company in 1996). United Paramount Theaters
United Paramount Theaters
was renamed ABC Theaters in 1965 and was sold to businessman Henry Plitt in 1974. The movie theater chain was renamed Plitt Theaters. In 1985, Cineplex Odeon Corporation merged with Plitt. In later years, Paramount's TV division would develop a strong relationship with ABC, providing many hit series to the network. The DuMont Network Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
had been an early backer of television, launching experimental stations in 1939 in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and Chicago. The Los Angeles station eventually became KTLA, the first commercial station on the West Coast. The Chicago station got a commercial license as WBKB in 1943, but was sold to UPT along with Balaban & Katz in 1948 and was eventually resold to CBS
CBS
as WBBM-TV. In 1938, Paramount bought a stake in television manufacturer DuMont Laboratories. Through this stake, it became a minority owner of the DuMont Television Network.[22] Also Paramount launched its own network, Paramount Television
Paramount Television
Network, in 1948 through its television unit, Television Productions, Inc.[23] Paramount management planned to acquire additional owned-and-operated stations ("O&Os"); the company applied to the FCC for additional stations in San Francisco, Detroit, and Boston.[24] The FCC, however, denied Paramount's applications. A few years earlier, the federal regulator had placed a five-station cap on all television networks: no network was allowed to own more than five VHF
VHF
television stations. Paramount was hampered by its minority stake in the DuMont Television Network. Although both DuMont and Paramount executives stated that the companies were separate, the FCC ruled that Paramount's partial ownership of DuMont meant that DuMont and Paramount were in theory branches of the same company. Since DuMont owned three television stations and Paramount owned two, the federal agency ruled neither network could acquire additional television stations. The FCC requested that Paramount relinquish its stake in DuMont, but Paramount refused.[24] According to television historian William Boddy, "Paramount's checkered anti-trust history" helped convince the FCC that Paramount controlled DuMont.[25] Both DuMont and Paramount Television Network suffered as a result, with neither company able to acquire five O&Os. Meanwhile, CBS, ABC, and NBC had each acquired the maximum of five stations by the mid-1950s.[26] When ABC accepted a merger offer from UPT in 1953, DuMont quickly realized that ABC now had more resources than it could possibly hope to match. It quickly reached an agreement in principle to merge with ABC.[27] In 1951, Paramount bought a stake in International Telemeter, an experimental pay TV service which operated with a coin inserted into a box. The service began operating in Palm Springs, California
California
on November 27, 1953, but due to pressure from the FCC, the service ended on May 15, 1954.[28] With the loss of the theater chain, Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
went into a decline, cutting studio-backed production, releasing its contract players, and making production deals with independents. By the mid-1950s, all the great names were gone; only Cecil B. DeMille, associated with Paramount since 1913, kept making pictures in the grand old style. Despite Paramount's losses, DeMille would, however, give the studio some relief and create his most successful film at Paramount, a 1956 remake of his 1923 film The Ten Commandments.[29] DeMille died in 1959. Like some other studios, Paramount saw little value in its film library, and sold 764 of its pre-1948 films to MCA Inc. (known today as Universal Studios
Universal Studios
Inc.) in February 1958.[30] 1966–70: Early Gulf+Western
Gulf+Western
era

Paramount's logo from 1953–1975. The Gulf+Western
Gulf+Western
byline was introduced following the company's purchase of Paramount. The variant shown here was used in the first three Indiana Jones
Indiana Jones
films, the first of which was released in 1981.

By the early 1960s, Paramount's future was doubtful. The high-risk movie business was wobbly; the theater chain was long gone; investments in DuMont and in early pay-television came to nothing; and the Golden Age of Hollywood
Hollywood
had just ended, even the flagship Paramount building in Times Square
Times Square
was sold to raise cash, as was KTLA (sold to Gene Autry
Gene Autry
in 1964 for a then-phenomenal $12.5 million). Their only remaining successful property at that point was Dot Records, which Paramount had acquired in 1957, and even its profits started declining by the middle of the 1960s.[31] Founding father Adolph Zukor
Adolph Zukor
(born in 1873) was still chairman emeritus; he referred to chairman Barney Balaban (born 1888) as "the boy." Such aged leadership was incapable of keeping up with the changing times, and in 1966, a sinking Paramount was sold to Charles Bluhdorn's industrial conglomerate, Gulf + Western Industries Corporation. Bluhdorn immediately put his stamp on the studio, installing a virtually unknown producer named Robert Evans as head of production. Despite some rough times, Evans held the job for eight years, restoring Paramount's reputation for commercial success with The Odd Couple, Rosemary's Baby, Love Story, The Godfather, Chinatown, and 3 Days of the Condor.[32] Gulf + Western Industries also bought the neighboring Desilu television studio (once the lot of RKO Pictures) from Lucille Ball
Lucille Ball
in 1967. Using some of Desilu's established shows such as Star Trek, Mission: Impossible, and Mannix as a foot in the door at the networks, the newly reincorporated Paramount Television
Paramount Television
eventually became known as a specialist in half-hour situation comedies.[33] 1971–80: CIC formation and high-concept era In 1970, Paramount teamed with Universal Studios
Universal Studios
to form Cinema International Corporation, a new company that would distribute films by the two studios outside the United States. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer would become a partner in the mid-1970s. Both Paramount and CIC entered the video market with Paramount Home Video (now Paramount Home Entertainment) and CIC Video, respectively. Robert Evans abandoned his position as head of production in 1974; his successor, Richard Sylbert, proved to be too literary and too tasteful for Gulf + Western's Bluhdorn. By 1976, a new, television-trained team was in place headed by Barry Diller
Barry Diller
and his "Killer-Dillers", as they were called by admirers or "Dillettes" as they were called by detractors. These associates, made up of Michael Eisner, Jeffrey Katzenberg, Dawn Steel and Don Simpson would each go on and head up major movie studios of their own later in their careers.

Paramount's print logo with the Viacom
Viacom
byline. This logo has been used since 1968, with minor variations, all of which reflected corporate changes. The new byline was introduced in 2010.

The Paramount specialty was now simpler. "High concept" pictures such as Saturday Night Fever
Saturday Night Fever
and Grease hit big, hit hard and hit fast all over the world,[34] and Diller's television background led him to propose one of his longest-standing ideas to the board: Paramount Television Service, a fourth commercial network. Paramount Pictures purchased the Hughes Television Network (HTN) including its satellite time in planning for PTVS in 1976. Paramount sold HTN to Madison Square Garden in 1979.[35] But Diller believed strongly in the concept, and so took his fourth-network idea with him when he moved to 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
in 1984, where Fox's then freshly installed proprietor, Rupert Murdoch
Rupert Murdoch
was a more interested listener. However, the television division would be playing catch-up for over a decade after Diller's departure in 1984 before launching its own television network – UPN
UPN
– in 1995. Lasting eleven years before being merged with The WB
The WB
network to become The CW
The CW
in 2006, UPN
UPN
would feature many of the shows it originally produced for other networks, and would take numerous gambles on series such as Star Trek: Voyager and Star Trek: Enterprise that would have otherwise either gone direct-to-cable or become first-run syndication to independent stations across the country (as Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: The Next Generation were). Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
was not connected to either Paramount Records (1910s-1935) or ABC- Paramount Records
Paramount Records
(1955–66) until it purchased the rights to use the name (but not the latter's catalog) in the late 1960s. The Paramount name was used for soundtrack albums and some pop re-issues from the Dot Records
Dot Records
catalog which Paramount had acquired in 1957. By 1970, Dot had become an all-country label[36] and in 1974, Paramount sold all of its record holdings to ABC Records, which in turn was sold to MCA (now Universal Music Group) in 1979.[37][38] 1980–94: Continual success Paramount's successful run of pictures extended into the 1980s and 1990s, generating hits like Airplane!, American Gigolo, Ordinary People, An Officer and a Gentleman, Flashdance, Terms of Endearment, Footloose, Pretty in Pink, Top Gun, Crocodile Dundee, Fatal Attraction, Ghost, the Friday the 13th slasher series, as well as teaming up with Lucasfilm
Lucasfilm
to create the Indiana Jones
Indiana Jones
franchise. Other examples are the Star Trek
Star Trek
film series and a string of films starring comedian Eddie Murphy
Eddie Murphy
like Trading Places, Coming to America
Coming to America
and Beverly Hills Cop
Beverly Hills Cop
and its sequels. While the emphasis was decidedly on the commercial, there were occasional less commercial but more artistic and intellectual efforts like I'm Dancing as Fast as I Can, Atlantic City, Reds, Witness, Children of a Lesser God and The Accused. During this period, responsibility for running the studio passed from Eisner and Katzenberg to Frank Mancuso, Sr. (1984) and Ned Tanen (1984) to Stanley R. Jaffe (1991) and Sherry Lansing
Sherry Lansing
(1992). More so than most, Paramount's slate of films included many remakes and television spinoffs; while sometimes commercially successful, there have been few compelling films of the kind that once made Paramount the industry leader. On August 25, 1983, Paramount Studios caught fire. Two or three sound stages and four outdoor sets were destroyed.[39][40] When Charles Bluhdorn died unexpectedly, his successor Martin Davis dumped all of G+W's industrial, mining, and sugar-growing subsidiaries and refocused the company, renaming it Paramount Communications in 1989. With the influx of cash from the sale of G+W's industrial properties in the mid-1980s, Paramount bought a string of television stations and KECO Entertainment's theme park operations, renaming them Paramount Parks. These parks included Paramount's Great America, Paramount Canada's Wonderland, Paramount's Carowinds, Paramount's Kings Dominion, and Paramount's Kings Island.[41] In 1993, Sumner Redstone's entertainment conglomerate Viacom
Viacom
made a bid for a merger with Paramount Communications; this quickly escalated into a bidding war with Barry Diller's QVC. But Viacom
Viacom
prevailed, ultimately paying $10 billion for the Paramount holdings. Viacom and Paramount had planned to merge as early as 1989.[42] Paramount is the last major film studio located in Hollywood
Hollywood
proper. When Paramount moved to its present home in 1927, it was in the heart of the film community. Since then, former next-door neighbor RKO closed up shop in 1957 (Paramount ultimately absorbed their former lot); Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
(whose old Sunset Boulevard studio was sold to Paramount in 1949 as a home for KTLA) moved to Burbank in 1930; Columbia joined Warners in Burbank in 1973 then moved again to Culver City in 1989; and the Pickford-Fairbanks-Goldwyn-United Artists lot, after a lively history, has been turned into a post-production and music-scoring facility for Warners, known simply as "The Lot". For a time the semi-industrial neighborhood around Paramount was in decline, but has now come back. The recently refurbished studio has come to symbolize Hollywood
Hollywood
for many visitors, and its studio tour is a popular attraction. 1989–94 Paramount Communications

Paramount Communications, Inc.

Former type

Conglomerate

Industry Entertainment, industry, mass media

Fate Sold and merged into Viacom

Predecessor Gulf+Western

Successor Viacom
Viacom
(original) (now remnants operating as Viacom
Viacom
and CBS Corporation owned by National Amusements)

Founded 1989; 29 years ago (1989)

Defunct July 7, 1994; 23 years ago (1994-07-07)

Headquarters New York, New York, United States

Key people

Charles Bluhdorn, Martin S. Davis

Subsidiaries Madison Square Garden New Jersey Zinc Paramount Pictures Paramount Television Simon and Schuster

Website www.paramount.com

In 1983 Gulf and Western began a restructuring process that would transform the corporation from a bloated conglomerate consisting of subsidiaries from unrelated industries to a more focused entertainment and publishing company. The idea was to aid financial markets in measuring the company's success, which, in turn, would help place better value on its shares. Though its Paramount division did very well in recent years, Gulf and Western's success as a whole was translating poorly with investors. This process eventually led Davis to divest many of the company's subsidiaries. Its sugar plantations in Florida and the Dominican Republic were sold in 1985; the consumer and industrial products branch was sold off that same year.[43] In 1989, Davis renamed the company Paramount Communications Incorporated after its primary asset, Paramount Pictures.[44] In addition to the Paramount film, television, home video, and music publishing divisions, the company continued to own the Madison Square Garden properties (which also included MSG Network), a 50% stake in USA Networks (the other 50% was owned by MCA/Universal Studios) and Simon & Schuster, Prentice Hall, Pocket Books, Allyn & Bacon, Cineamerica (a joint venture with Warner Communications), and Canadian cinema chain Famous Players
Famous Players
Theatres.[43] That same year, the company launched a $12.2 billion hostile bid to acquire Time Inc.
Time Inc.
in an attempt to end a stock-swap merger deal between Time and Warner Communications, which also renamed itself after a movie studio it owned upon selling off its non-entertainment assets. (The original name of Warner Communications
Warner Communications
was Kinney National Company.) This caused Time to raise its bid for Warner to $14.9 Billion in cash and stock. Gulf and Western responded by filing a lawsuit in a Delaware court to block the Time-Warner merger. The court ruled twice in favor of Time, forcing Gulf and Western to drop both the Time acquisition and the lawsuit, and allowing the formation of Time Warner. Paramount used cash acquired from the sale of Gulf and Western's non-entertainment properties to take over the TVX Broadcast Group chain of television stations (which at that point consisted mainly of large-market stations which TVX had bought from Taft Broadcasting, plus two mid-market stations which TVX owned prior to the Taft purchase), and the KECO Entertainment chain of theme parks from Taft successor Great American Broadcasting. Both of these companies had their names changed to reflect new ownership: TVX became known as the Paramount Stations Group, while KECO was renamed to Paramount Parks. Paramount Television
Paramount Television
launched Wilshire Court Productions in conjunction with USA Networks, before the latter was renamed NBCUniversal
NBCUniversal
Cable, in 1989. Wilshire Court Productions (named for a side street in Los Angeles) produced made-for-television movies that aired on USA, and later for other networks. USA Networks launched a second channel, the Sci-Fi Channel (now known as Syfy), in 1992. As its name implied, it focused on films and television series within the science fiction genre. Much of the initial programming was owned either by Paramount or Universal. Paramount bought one more television station in 1993: Cox Enterprises' WKBD-TV
WKBD-TV
in Detroit, Michigan, at the time an affiliate of the Fox Broadcasting Company. 1994–2005: Dolgen/Lansing and "old" Viacom
Viacom
era Main article: Viacom
Viacom
(original) On July 7, 1994 Paramount Communications Inc. was sold to Viacom[45][46] following the purchase of 50.1% of Paramount's shares for $9.75 billion. At the time, Paramount's holdings included Paramount Pictures, Madison Square Garden, the New York Rangers, the New York Knicks, and the Simon & Schuster publishing house.[47] The deal had been planned as early as 1989, when the company was still known as Gulf and Western.[42] Though Davis was named a member of the board of National Amusements, which controlled Viacom, he ceased to manage the company. Under Viacom, the Paramount Stations Group
Paramount Stations Group
continued to build with more station acquisitions, eventually leading to Viacom's acquisition of its former parent, the CBS
CBS
network, in 1999. Around the same time, Viacom
Viacom
bought out Spelling Entertainment, incorporating its library into that of Paramount itself. Viacom
Viacom
split into two companies in 2006, one retaining the Viacom
Viacom
name (which continues to own Paramount Pictures), while another was named CBS
CBS
Corporation (which now controls Paramount Television
Paramount Television
Group, which was renamed CBS
CBS
Paramount Television, now known as CBS
CBS
Television Studios and worldwide distribution unit is now CBS
CBS
Television Distribution and CBS
CBS
Studios International, in 2006, Simon & Schuster [except for Prentice Hall
Prentice Hall
and other educational units, which Viacom
Viacom
sold to Pearson PLC
Pearson PLC
in 1998, and what's left of the original Paramount Stations Group, now known as CBS
CBS
Television Stations). National Amusements
National Amusements
retains majority control of the two. Together, these two companies own many of the former media assets of Gulf and Western and its Paramount successor today. Meanwhile, the Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden
properties (including the Knicks and Rangers) were sold to Cablevision
Cablevision
not long after the Viacom
Viacom
takeover. Cablevision
Cablevision
owned the MSG properties until 2010, when they were spun off as their own company. CBS
CBS
retained ownership of the Paramount Parks chain for a few months after becoming part of the new CBS Corporation, but sold the parks to Cedar Fair
Cedar Fair
in the summer of 2006, and thus National Amusements
National Amusements
got out of the theme park ownership business entirely. Over the next few years, Cedar Fair
Cedar Fair
purged references to Viacom-owned properties from the former Paramount Parks, a task completed in 2010. Viacom
Viacom
also sold its stake in the USA Networks to Universal in 1997, and the channels came under the ownership of Universal's successor, NBCUniversal, which still retained those holdings as of late July 2013. During this time period, Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
went under the guidance of Jonathan Dolgen, chairman and Sherry Lansing, president.[48][49] During their administration over Paramount, the studio had an extremely successful period of films with two of Paramount's ten highest-grossing films being produced during this period.[50] The most successful of these films, Titanic, a joint partnership with 20th Century Fox, and Lightstorm Entertainment
Entertainment
became the highest-grossing film up to that time, grossing over $1.8 billion worldwide.[51] Also during this time, three Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
films won the Academy Award for Best Picture; Titanic, Braveheart, and Forrest Gump. Paramount's most important property, however, was Star Trek. Studio executives had begun to call it "the franchise" in the 1980s due to its reliable revenue, and other studios envied its "untouchable and unduplicatable" success. By 1998 Star Trek
Star Trek
TV shows, movies, books, videotapes, and licensing provided so much of the studio's profit that "it is not possible to spend any reasonable amount of time at Paramount and not be aware of [its] presence"; filming for Star Trek: Voyager and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine required up to nine of the largest of the studio's 36 sound stages.[52][53]:49–50,54 In 1995, Viacom
Viacom
and Chris-Craft Industries' United Television launched United Paramount Network
Paramount Network
(UPN) with Star Trek: Voyager as its flagship series, fulfilling Barry Diller's plan for a Paramount network from 25 years earlier. In 1999, Viacom
Viacom
bought out United Television's interests, and handed responsibility for the start-up network to the newly acquired CBS
CBS
unit, which Viacom
Viacom
bought in 1999 – an ironic confluence of events as Paramount had once invested in CBS, and Viacom had once been the syndication arm of CBS
CBS
as well.[54] During this period the studio acquired some 30 TV stations to support the UPN network as well acquiring and merging in the assets of Republic Pictures, Spelling Television
Spelling Television
and Viacom
Viacom
Television, almost doubling the size of the studio's TV library. The TV division produced the dominant prime time show for the decade in Frasier as well as such long running hits as NCIS and Becker and the dominant prime time magazine show Entertainment
Entertainment
Tonight. Paramount also gained the ownership rights to the Rysher library, after Viacom
Viacom
acquired the rights from Cox Enterprises. During this period, Paramount and its related subsidiaries and affiliates, operating under the name " Viacom
Viacom
Entertainment
Entertainment
Group" also included the fourth largest group of theme parks in the United States and Canada which in addition to traditional rides and attractions launched numerous successful location-based entertainment units including a long running "Star Trek" attraction at the Las Vegas Hilton. Famous Music – the company's celebrated music publishing arm almost doubled in size and developed artists including Pink, Bush, Green Day as well as catalog favorites including Duke Ellington and Henry Mancini. The Paramount/ Viacom
Viacom
licensing group under the leadership of Tom McGrath created the "Cheers" franchise bars and restaurants and a chain of restaurants borrowing from the studio's Academy Award-winning film Forrest Gump – The Bubba Gump Shrimp Company. Through the combined efforts of Famous Music and the studio over ten "Broadway" musicals were created including Irving Berlin's White Christmas, Footloose, Saturday Night Fever, Andrew Lloyd Webber's Sunset Boulevard among others. The Company's international arm, United International Pictures
United International Pictures
(UIP), was the dominant distributor internationally for ten straight years representing Paramount, Universal and MGM. Simon and Schuster became part of the Viacom Entertainment
Entertainment
Group emerging as the US' dominant trade book publisher. In 2002, Paramount, Buena Vista Distribution, 20th Century Fox, Sony Pictures, Universal Studios, and Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
formed the Digital Cinema Initiatives. Operating under a waiver from the anti-trust law, the studios combined under the leadership of Paramount Chief Operating Officer Tom McGrath to develop technical standards for the eventual introduction of digital film projection – replacing the now 100-year-old film technology.[55] DCI was created "to establish and document voluntary specifications for an open architecture for digital cinema that ensures a uniform and high level of technical performance, reliability and quality control."[55] McGrath also headed up Paramount's initiative for the creation and launch of the Blu-ray Disc. 2005–2006: Dissolution of the Viacom
Viacom
Entertainment
Entertainment
Group and Paramount Main article: Viacom In 2005, Viacom
Viacom
announced the spinoff of CBS
CBS
into a separate public entity. As part of this spinoff, the Entertainment
Entertainment
Group that was led by Dolgen, Lansing and McGrath, was dissolved and Paramount broken up into its separate assets. Famous Music, part of the company since its founding by Jesse Lasky, was sold to Sony Music. The UPN
UPN
network and its TV stations were transferred to CBS. Paramount itself was broken into two parts and the television production and assets were stripped and made part of CBS. The theme parks group was sold to Cedar Fair
Cedar Fair
in 2006 and renamed the parks by taking out the "Paramount's" prefix. Simon and Schuster also became part of CBS. The company's three chains of movie theaters were divested – Famous Players
Famous Players
Theaters, the dominant theater circuit in Canada was sold to its competitor Cineplex Odeon. UCI which dominated the international theater markets consisting of 1,300+ screens in 11 countries was sold to buyout firm Terra Firma. Mann Theaters was slowly divested screen by screen with the world-famous "Graumann's Chinese Theater" being sold to a consortium led by Eli Samaha. The resulting company, approximately 20% of its former size coalesced in 2006 under the leadership of its new CEO, Brad Grey
Brad Grey
who held the same title as Sherry Lansing
Sherry Lansing
despite the much smaller size of the business under his leadership. 2006–present: Paramount today CBS
CBS
Corporation/ Viacom
Viacom
split Main article: CBS
CBS
Corporation

Paramount Pictures' studio lot in Hollywood
Hollywood
(Melrose Gate entrance)

Reflecting in part the troubles of the broadcasting business, in 2006 Viacom
Viacom
wrote off over $18 billion from its radio acquisitions and, early that year, announced that it would split itself in two. The split was completed in January 2006.[56][57] With the announcement of the split of Viacom, Dolgen and Lansing were replaced by former television executives Brad Grey
Brad Grey
and Gail Berman.[58][59] The Viacom
Viacom
Inc. board split the company into CBS Corporation and a separate company under the Viacom
Viacom
name. The board scheduled the division for the first quarter of 2006. Under the plan, CBS
CBS
Corp. would comprise CBS
CBS
and UPN
UPN
networks, Viacom
Viacom
Television Stations Group, Infinity Broadcasting, Viacom
Viacom
Outdoor, Paramount Television, KingWorld, Showtime, Simon and Schuster, Paramount Parks, and CBS
CBS
News. The revamped Viacom
Viacom
would include "MTV, VH1, Nickelodeon, BET
BET
and several other cable networks as well as the Paramount movie studio".[60] Paramount's home entertainment unit continues to distribute the Paramount TV library through CBS
CBS
DVD, as both Viacom
Viacom
and CBS
CBS
Corporation are controlled by Sumner Redstone's National Amusements.[61] In 2009, CBS
CBS
stopped using the Paramount name in its series and changed the name of the production arm to CBS
CBS
Television Studios, eliminating the Paramount name from television, to distance itself from the latter. DreamWorks
DreamWorks
purchased On December 11, 2005, the Paramount Motion Pictures Group announced that it had purchased DreamWorks
DreamWorks
SKG (which was co-founded by former Paramount executive Jeffrey Katzenberg) in a deal worth $1.6 billion. The announcement was made by Brad Grey, chairman and CEO of Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
who noted that enhancing Paramount's pipeline of pictures is a "key strategic objective in restoring Paramount's stature as a leader in filmed entertainment."[62] The agreement does not include DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Animation SKG Inc., the most profitable part of the company that went public the previous year.[63] On October 6, 2008, DreamWorks
DreamWorks
executives announced that they were leaving Paramount and relaunching an independent DreamWorks. The DreamWorks
DreamWorks
trademarks remained with DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Animation when that company was spun off before the Paramount purchase, and DreamWorks Animation transferred the license to the name to the new company.[64] History since 2006 Grey also broke up the famous UIP international distribution company, the most successful international film distributor in history, after a 25-year partnership with Universal Studios
Universal Studios
and has started up a new international group. As a consequence Paramount fell from No.1 in the international markets to the lowest ranked major studio in 2006 but recovered in 2007.[65] DreamWorks
DreamWorks
films, acquired by Paramount but still distributed internationally by Universal, are included in Paramount's market share. Grey also launched a Digital Entertainment
Entertainment
division to take advantage of emerging digital distribution technologies. This led to Paramount becoming the second movie studio to sign a deal with Apple Inc. to sell its films through the iTunes Store.[66] Also, in 2007, Paramount sold another one of its "heritage" units, Famous Music, to Sony/ATV Music Publishing
Sony/ATV Music Publishing
(best known for publishing many songs by The Beatles, and for being co-owned by Michael Jackson), ending a nearly-eight-decade run as a division of Paramount, being the studio's music publishing arm since the period when the entire company went by the name "Famous Players."[67] In early 2008, Paramount partnered with Los Angeles-based developer FanRocket to make short scenes taken from its film library available to users on Facebook. The application, called VooZoo, allows users to send movie clips to other Facebook users and to post clips on their profile pages.[68] Paramount engineered a similar deal with Makena Technologies to allow users of v MTV
MTV
and There.com to view and send movie clips.[69] In March 2010, Paramount founded Insurge Pictures, an independent distributor of "micro budget" films. The distributor planned ten movies with budgets of $100,000 each.[70] The first release was The Devil Inside, a movie with a budget of about US$1 million.[71] In March 2015, following waning box office returns, Paramount shuttered Insurge Pictures and moved its operations to the main studio. In July 2011, in the wake of critical and box office success of the animated feature, Rango, and the departure of DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Animation upon completion of their distribution contract in 2012, Paramount announced the formation of a new division, devoted to the creation of animated productions.[72] It marks Paramount's return to having its own animated division for the first time since 1967, when Paramount Cartoon Studios shut down (it was formerly Famous Studios
Famous Studios
until 1956).[73] In December 2013, Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Studios (via its parent company's purchase of Lucasfilm, Ltd. a year earlier[74]) gained Paramount's remaining distribution and marketing rights to future Indiana Jones films after exchanging them for the sequel rights to Gnomeo & Juliet. Paramount will permanently retain the distribution rights to the first four films, and will receive "financial participation" from any additional films.[75][76][77] In February 2016, Viacom
Viacom
CEO and newly appointed chairman Philippe Dauman announced that the conglomerate is in talks to find an investor to purchase a minority stake in Paramount.[78] Sumner Redstone and his daughter Shari are reportedly opposed with the deal.[79] On July 13, 2016, Wanda Group
Wanda Group
was in talks to acquire a 49% stake of Paramount.[80] The talks with Wanda were dropped. On January 19, 2017, Shanghai Film
Film
Group Corp. and Huahua Media said they would finance at least 25% of all Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
movies over a three-year period. Shanghai Film
Film
Group and Huahua Media, in the deal, would help distribute and market Paramount's features in China. At the time, the Wall Street Journal wrote that "nearly every major Hollywood
Hollywood
studio has a co-financing deal with a Chinese company."[81] On September 29, 2016, National Amusements
National Amusements
sent a letter to both CBS Corp. and Viacom, encouraging the two companies to merge back into one company.[82] On December 12, the deal was called off.[83] On March 27, 2017, Jim Gianopulos
Jim Gianopulos
was named as a chairman and CEO of Paramount Pictures, replacing Brad Grey.[84] On July 2017, Paramount Players was formed by the studio with the hiring of Brian Robbins, founder of AwesomenessTV, Tollin/Robbins Productions and Varsity Pictures, as the division's president. The division was expected to produce films based on the Viacom
Viacom
Media Networks properties including MTV, Nickelodeon, BET
BET
and Comedy Central.[85] Distribution deal with Netflix
Netflix
and possible CBS/ Viacom
Viacom
re-merger On December 7, 2017, it was reported that Paramount sold the non-U.S/non-Canadian/non-Chinese distribution rights to Annihilation to Netflix.[86] Netflix
Netflix
subsequently bought both the international and domestic rights to The Cloverfield Paradox.[87] On January 12, 2018, CNBC
CNBC
reported that CBS
CBS
and Viacom
Viacom
re-entered talks to merge.[88] This was reported at the same time as the Lionsgate
Lionsgate
acquisition talks with both companies.[89][90] Investments DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Pictures In 2006, Paramount became the parent of DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Pictures. Soros Strategic Partners and Dune Entertainment
Entertainment
II soon afterwards acquired controlling interest in live-action films released through DreamWorks, with the release of Just Like Heaven on September 16, 2005. The remaining live-action films released until March 2006 remained under direct Paramount control. However, Paramount still owns distribution and other ancillary rights to Soros and Dune films. On February 8, 2010, Viacom
Viacom
repurchased Soros' controlling stake in DreamWorks' library of films released before 2005 for around $400 million.[91] Even as DreamWorks
DreamWorks
switched distribution of live-action films not part of existing franchises to Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Studios Motion Pictures and later Universal Studios, Paramount continues to own the films released before the merger, and the films that Paramount themselves distributed, including sequel rights such as that of Little Fockers (2011), distributed by Paramount and DreamWorks. It was a sequel to two existing DreamWorks
DreamWorks
films, Meet the Parents
Meet the Parents
(2000) and Meet the Fockers (2004). Paramount only owned the international distribution rights to Little Fockers, whereas Universal Studios handled domestic distribution[92]). Paramount owned distribution rights to the DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Animation library of films made before 2013, and their previous distribution deal with future DWA titles expired at the end of 2012, with Rise of the Guardians. 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
took over distribution on post-2012 titles beginning with The Croods
The Croods
(2013)[93] and ended with Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie (2017) with Universal Pictures
Universal Pictures
taking over distribution for DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Animation with NBCUniversal's acquisition of DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Animation in 2016, starting in 2019 with the release of How to Train Your Dragon 3, though Paramount's rights to pre-2013 DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Animation films would've expired 16 years after each film's initial theatrical release date.[94] However, in July 2014, DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Animation purchased Paramount's distribution rights to the pre-2013 library, with 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
distributing the library until January 2018, which Universal then assumed ownership of distribution rights.[95] Another asset of the former DreamWorks
DreamWorks
owned by Paramount, is the pre-2008 DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Television library, distributed through Paramount Worldwide Television Licensing & Distribution, the library includes Spin City, High Incident, Freaks and Geeks, Undeclared and On the Lot, the DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Television library was distributed by the old Paramount Television
Paramount Television
years before. CBS
CBS
library Independent company Hollywood
Hollywood
Classics now represents Paramount with the theatrical distribution of all the films produced by the various motion picture divisions of CBS
CBS
over the years, as a result of the Viacom/ CBS
CBS
merger. Paramount (via CBS
CBS
Home Entertainment) has outright video distribution to the aforementioned CBS
CBS
library with few exceptions-for example, the original Twilight Zone DVDs are handled by Image Entertainment. Until 2009, the video rights to My Fair Lady were with original theatrical distributor Warner Bros., under license from CBS
CBS
(the video license to that film has now reverted to CBS
CBS
Home Entertainment
Entertainment
under Paramount). The CBS-produced/owned films, unlike other films in Paramount's library, are still distributed by CBS
CBS
Television Distribution on TV, and not by Trifecta Entertainment
Entertainment
& Media, because CBS
CBS
(or a subdivision) is the copyright holder for these films. Units Divisions

Paramount Licensing, Inc. Paramount Home Media Distribution

Paramount Famous Productions, direct-to-video

Paramount Digital Entertainment Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
International Paramount Studio Group – physical studio and post production

The Studios at Paramount – production facilities & lot Paramount on Location – production support facilities throughout North America including New York, Vancouver, and Atlanta Worldwide Technical Operations – archives, restoration and preservation programs, the mastering and distribution fulfillment services, on-lot post production facilities management

Paramount Television
Paramount Television
(revived in March 2013. Original Paramount Television now CBS
CBS
Television Studios) Worldwide Television Distribution Paramount Parks
Paramount Parks
& Resorts, licensing and design for parks and resorts[96] Paramount Motion Picture Group Paramount Pictures

Paramount Players (June 2017–) ( Viacom
Viacom
Media Networks branded labels):

MTV
MTV
Films Nickelodeon
Nickelodeon
Movies Comedy Central
Comedy Central
Films

Insurge Pictures, micro-budget film (March 2015–)[70] Paramount Animation (2011–present)[72] Paramount Vantage[97]

Republic Pictures

Joint ventures

United International Pictures

Former divisions, subsidiaries, and joint ventures Original Paramount Television
Paramount Television
now CBS
CBS
Television Studios

Big Ticket Entertainment
Entertainment
(semi-in-name-only since 2006, only shows running is Judge Judy
Judge Judy
and Hot Bench) Spelling Television
Spelling Television
(in-name-only since 2006) Viacom
Viacom
Productions (folded into PNT in 2004) Wilshire Court Productions (shut down in 2003)

Paramount Domestic Television, now CBS
CBS
Television Distribution

Folded Viacom
Viacom
Enterprises in 1995 and Rysher Entertainment
Entertainment
and Worldvision Enterprises
Worldvision Enterprises
in 1999 RTV News, Inc., producer of Real TV
Real TV
and Maximum Exposure

United Paramount Network
Paramount Network
(UPN) – formerly a joint venture with United Television, now part of the CBS/ Time Warner
Time Warner
joint venture The CW Television Network Paramount Stations Group
Paramount Stations Group
(now CBS
CBS
Television Stations) USA Networks (also including what is now called Syfy) – Paramount owned a stake starting in 1982, 50% owner (with Universal Studios) from 1987 until 1997, when Paramount/ Viacom
Viacom
sold their stake to Universal (now part of NBCUniversal) Paramount International Television (now CBS
CBS
Studios International)

Paramount Parks
Paramount Parks
(Purchased by Cedar Fair
Cedar Fair
Entertainment
Entertainment
Company in 2006) DW Studios, LLC (also DW Pictures) – defunct, holding film library and rights, principal officers left to recreate DreamWorks
DreamWorks
as an independent company

DW Funding LLC – DreamWorks
DreamWorks
live-action library (pre-09/16/2005; DW Funding, LLC) sold to Soros Strategic Partners and Dune Entertainment II and purchased back in 2010[98]

Paramount Theatres Limited - Founded 1930 in the United Kingdom with the opening of a cinema in Manchester. Several Paramount Theatres had opened or had been acquired in the United Kingdom during the 1930s before being sold to the Rank Organisation's, Odeon Cinemas
Odeon Cinemas
chain in 1939. Epix
Epix
– 49,76% owner (with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
and Lionsgate) from 2009 until 2017, when Paramount/ Viacom
Viacom
and Lionsgate
Lionsgate
sold their stake to MGM

Other interests In March 2012, Paramount licensed their name and logo to a luxury hotel investment group which subsequently named the company Paramount Hotels and Resorts. The investors plan to build 50 hotels throughout the world based on the themes of Hollywood
Hollywood
and the California lifestyle. Among the features are private screening rooms and the Paramount library available in the hotel rooms. On April 2013, Paramount Hotels and Dubai-based DAMAC Properties
DAMAC Properties
announced the building of the first resort: "DAMAC Towers by Paramount."[99][100] Production deals

Active

Appian Way Productions
Appian Way Productions
(2016—)[101] Di Bonaventura Pictures [102] Disruption Entertainment
Entertainment
(2011—)[103] Fake Empire Productions[102] Hasbro Studios
Hasbro Studios
(2011—) Hasbro movie universe[104] Jerry Bruckheimer Films
Jerry Bruckheimer Films
(April 2014—)[105] The Michaels-Goldwyn Company (2003—)[102][106] The Montecito Picture Company & its financing arm, Cold Spring Pictures (October 2008—)[107] Platinum Dunes
Platinum Dunes
(2009—)[108] Skydance Productions
Skydance Productions
(co-financier; 2013—present) [109]

Former

Cruise/Wagner Productions
Cruise/Wagner Productions
(1996—2011)[102] Plan B Entertainment
Entertainment
(2005—[102] 2013)[110] Gary Sanchez Productions
Gary Sanchez Productions
(2007—2013)[102] Bad Robot (2006—2018)[111]

Logo

Artist Dario Campanile poses with a picture Paramount commissioned him to paint for its 75th anniversary in 1987. The company later used the painting as a basis for its new logo. That logo was introduced as a prototype in the 1986 film The Golden Child; the 1987 film Critical Condition was the first to feature the finalized version of the logo. 1999's South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut was the first to use an enhanced version of the logo, which was last used on 2002's Crossroads.

For its 90th anniversary, Paramount adopted the logo shown here. In 2012, it was used in tandem with the current one. This picture shows the 2010 modification of the logo, which includes Viacom's new byline introduced in 2006. The first movie to use the new Viacom
Viacom
byline was Iron Man 2.

The distinctively pyramidal Paramount mountain has been the company's logo since its inception and is the oldest surviving Hollywood
Hollywood
film logo. In the sound era, the logo was accompanied by a fanfare called Paramount on Parade
Paramount on Parade
after the film of the same name, released in 1930. The words to the fanfare, originally sung in the 1930 film, were "Proud of the crowd that will never be loud, it's Paramount on Parade." Legend has it that the mountain is based on a doodle made by W. W. Hodkinson during a meeting with Adolph Zukor. It is said to be based on the memories of his childhood in Utah. Some claim that Utah's Ben Lomond is the mountain Hodkinson doodled, and that Peru's Artesonraju[112] is the mountain in the live-action logo, while others claim that the Italian side of Monviso inspired the logo. Some editions of the logo bear a striking resemblance to the Pfeifferhorn,[113] another Wasatch Range
Wasatch Range
peak, and to the Matterhorn on the border between Switzerland
Switzerland
and Italy. The motion picture logo has gone through many changes over the years:

The logo began as a somewhat indistinct charcoal rendering of the mountain ringed with superimposed stars. The logo originally had twenty-four stars, as a tribute to the then current system of contracts for actors, since Paramount had twenty-four stars signed at the time. In 1951, the logo was redesigned as a matte painting created by Jan Domela. A newer, more realistic-looking logo debuted in 1953 for Paramount films made in 3D. It was reworked in early-to-mid 1954 for Paramount films made in widescreen process VistaVision. The text VistaVision
VistaVision
– Motion Picture High Fidelity was often imposed over the Paramount logo briefly before dissolving into the title sequence. In early 1968, the text "A Paramount Picture/Release" was shortened to "Paramount", and the byline A Gulf+Western
Gulf+Western
Company appeared on the bottom. The logo was given yet another modification in 1974, with the number of stars being reduced to 22, and the Paramount text and Gulf+Western
Gulf+Western
byline appearing in different fonts. In September 1975, the logo was simplified in a shade of blue, adopting the modified design of the 1968 print logo, which was in use for many decades afterward. The studio launched an entirely new logo in December 1986 with computer-generated imagery of a lake and stars. This version of the Paramount logo was designed by Dario Campanile and animated by Apogee, Inc; for this logo, the stars would move across the screen into the arc shape instead of it being superimposed over the mountain as it was before. An redone version of this logo debuted with South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut (released on June 30, 1999). In March 2002, an updated logo was introduced in which shooting stars would fall from a night sky to form the arc while the Paramount logo would fly into place between them. An enhanced version of this logo debuted with Iron Man 2, released on May 7, 2010. The south col area of Mount Everest
Mount Everest
became the primary basis. The music is accompanied by Paramount on Parade. This logo is still featured on DVD and Blu-ray releases with Old Viacom
Viacom
Byline. On December 16, 2011, an updated logo[114][115][116] was introduced with animation done by Devastudios, Inc.[117] The new logo includes a surrounding mountain range and the sun shining in the background. Michael Giacchino
Michael Giacchino
composed the logo's new fanfare.

Studio tours Those wishing to visit Paramount can take studio tours, which are offered seven days a week. Reservations are required, and can be made by visiting the tour website.[118] Each tour day is different because the tour has to work around active movie sets. Pictures are allowed in some areas. Your tour guide will let you know if you can not take pictures. Most of the time this is because an area or studio is "set", meaning the area or set is being used for a current production and can't be photographed due to copyright laws. The regular tour offers a behind-the-scenes look at the current operations of the studio. Most of the buildings on the tour are named for historical Paramount executives or the artists that worked at Paramount over the years. Many of the stars' dressing rooms have been converted into working offices. The stages where Samson and Delilah, Sunset Blvd., White Christmas, Rear Window, Sabrina, Breakfast at Tiffany's, and many other classic films were shot are still in use today. The studio's backlot set, "New York Street", features numerous blocks of façades that depict a number of New York locales: "Washington Square" (where some scenes in The Heiress, starring Olivia de Havilland, were shot), "Brooklyn", "Financial District", and others. Led by a guide on a golf cart, the tour takes approximately two hours. The best time to take the regular tour is on the weekends because most of the filming is shut down and you can get into more areas. The VIP tour takes you to additional areas not covered by the standard tour, plus you have lunch in the studio restaurant. This tour takes 5 to 6 hours and is usually only offered on weekdays. Film
Film
library Main article: List of Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
films A few years after the ruling of the United States
United States
v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. case in 1948, Music Corporation of America (MCA) approached Paramount offering $50 million for 750 sound feature films released prior to December 1, 1949 with payment to be spread over a period of several years. Paramount saw this as a bargain since the fleeting movie studio saw very little value in its library of old films at the time. To address any anti-trust concerns, MCA set up EMKA, Ltd. as a dummy corporation to sell these films to television. EMKA's/ Universal Pictures
Universal Pictures
library includes the five Paramount Marx Brothers films, most of the Bob Hope– Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby
Road to... pictures, and other classics such as Trouble in Paradise, Shanghai Express, She Done Him Wrong, Sullivan's Travels, The Palm Beach Story, For Whom the Bell Tolls, Double Imdemnity, The Lost Weekend, and The Heiress. Highest-grossing films

Highest-grossing films in North America[119]

Rank Title Year Box office gross

1 Titanic ‡ 1 1997 $658,672,302

2 Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen 2009 $402,111,870

3 Transformers: Dark of the Moon 2011 $352,390,543

4 Forrest Gump ‡ 1994 $330,252,182

5 Shrek the Third
Shrek the Third
2 2007 $322,719,944

6 Transformers 2007 $319,246,193

7 Iron Man 3 2008 $318,412,101

8 Indiana Jones
Indiana Jones
and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull 2008 $317,101,119

9 Iron Man 2
Iron Man 2
3 2010 $312,433,331

10 Star Trek 2009 $257,730,019

11 Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
‡ 1981 $248,159,971

12 Transformers: Age of Extinction 2014 $245,439,076

13 Shrek Forever After
Shrek Forever After
2 2010 $238,736,787

14 Beverly Hills Cop 1984 $234,760,478

15 War of the Worlds 2005 $234,280,354

16 Star Trek
Star Trek
Into Darkness 2013 $228,778,661

17 Ghost 1990 $217,631,306

18 How to Train Your Dragon 2 2010 $217,581,231

19 Madagascar
Madagascar
3: Europe's Most Wanted 2 2012 $216,391,482

20 Kung Fu Panda
Kung Fu Panda
2 2008 $215,434,591

21 Mission: Impossible 2 2000 $215,409,889

22 Mission: Impossible - Ghost Protocol 2011 $209,397,903

23 World War Z 2013 $202,359,711

24 Monsters vs. Aliens
Monsters vs. Aliens
2 2009 $198,351,526

25 Indiana Jones
Indiana Jones
and the Last Crusade 1989 $197,171,806

Highest-grossing films worldwide

Rank Title Year Box office gross

1 Titanic ‡ 1 1997 $2,186,772,302

2 Transformers: Dark of the Moon 2011 $1,123,794,079

3 Transformers: Age of Extinction 2014 $1,104,054,072

4 Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen 2009 $836,303,693

5 Shrek the Third
Shrek the Third
2 2007 $798,958,162

6 Indiana Jones
Indiana Jones
and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull 2008 $786,636,033

7 Shrek Forever After
Shrek Forever After
2 2010 $752,600,867

8 Madagascar
Madagascar
3: Europe's Most Wanted 2 2012 $746,921,274

9 Transformers 2007 $709,709,780

10 Mission: Impossible - Ghost Protocol 2011 $694,713,380

11 Mission: Impossible - Rogue Nation 2015 $682,330,139

12 Forrest Gump ‡ 1994 $677,945,399

13 Interstellar 2014 $675,120,017

14 Kung Fu Panda
Kung Fu Panda
2 2 2011 $665,692,281

15 Kung Fu Panda
Kung Fu Panda
2 2009 $631,744,560

16 Iron Man 2
Iron Man 2
3 2010 $623,933,331

17 Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa 2 2008 $603,900,354

18 Transformers: The Last Knight 2017 $594,045,627

19 War of the Worlds 2005 $591,745,540

20 Iron Man 3 2008 $585,174,222

21 Puss in Boots
Puss in Boots
2 2011 $554,987,477

22 Mission: Impossible 2 2000 $546,388,105

23 World War Z 2013 $540,007,876

24 Ghost 1990 $505,702,588

25 How to Train Your Dragon 2 2010 $494,878,759

‡—Includes theatrical reissue(s). See also

Film
Film
in the United States
United States
portal Companies portal Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
portal

DreamWorks List of Paramount executives List of television series produced by Paramount Television

Notes

^ North America distribution only. Released by 20th Century Fox internationally. ^ In July 2014, the film's distribution rights were purchased by DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Animation from Paramount and transferred to 20th Century Fox.[120] In 2018, they will transfer to Universal Pictures.[121][122] ^ In July 2013, the film's distribution rights were transferred from Paramount to the Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Studios.[123][124][125]

References

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Further reading

Berg, A. Scott. Goldwyn. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989. DeMille, Cecil B. Autobiography. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1959. Dick, Bernard F. Engulfed: the death of Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
and the birth of corporate Hollywood. Lexington, Kentucky: University of Press Kentucky Scholarly, 2001. Eames, John Douglas, with additional text by Robert Abele. The Paramount Story: The Complete History of the Studio and Its Films. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002. Evans, Robert. The Kid Stays in the Picture. New York: Hyperion Press, 1994. Gabler, Neal. An Empire of Their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood. New York: Crown Publishers, 1988. Lasky, Jesse L. with Don Weldon, I Blow My Own Horn. Garden City NY: Doubleday, 1957. Mordden, Ethan. The Hollywood
Hollywood
Studios. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988. Schatz, Thomas. The Genius of the System. New York: Pantheon, 1988. Sklar, Robert. Movie-Made America. New York: Vintage, 1989. Zukor, Adolph, with Dale Kramer. The Public Is Never Wrong: The Autobiography of Adolph Zukor. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1953.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paramount Pictures.

Official website Insurge Pictures division. Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
on IMDbPro (subscription required) Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
papers at the Margaret Herrick Library Leo Morgan Paramount Publix and Strand Theatre materials, 1926-1947, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts Finding aid author: Morgan Crockett (2014). "Paramount Pictures pressbooks". Prepared for the L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Provo, UT. Retrieved May 16, 2016.

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Founders

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Theatrical short film series

Out of the Inkwell
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One-shot theatrical short films

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Theatrical short film series

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TV series

The Harveytoons Show (1949-1962) Felix the Cat (1958-1962) * Popeye the Sailor
Popeye the Sailor
(1960–1962) The New Casper Cartoon Show (1963–1964) King Features Trilogy (1962–1965)

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157227502 LCCN: n79055404 ISNI: 0000 0001 2193 1929 GND: 4515799-6 SUDOC: 050257285 BNF:

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