Panavision is an American motion picture equipment company
specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills,
California. Formed by
Robert Gottschalk as a small partnership to
create anamorphic projection lenses during the widescreen boom in the
Panavision expanded its product lines to meet the demands of
modern filmmakers. The company introduced its first products in 1954.
Originally a provider of
CinemaScope accessories, the company's line
of anamorphic widescreen lenses soon became the industry leader. In
Panavision helped revolutionize filmmaking with the lightweight
Panaflex 35 mm movie camera. The company has introduced other
groundbreaking cameras such as the Millennium XL (1999) and the
digital video Genesis (2004).
Panavision operates exclusively as a rental facility—the company
owns its entire inventory, unlike most of its competitors.
1 Early history
2 Entering the market
4 Birth of Panaflex
5 Recent restructuring and acquisitions
7 See also
9 External links
9.1 Video clips
Robert Gottschalk founded
Panavision in late 1953, in partnership with
Richard Moore, Meredith Nicholson, Harry Eller, Walter Wallin, and
William Mann; the company was formally incorporated in 1954.
Panavision was established principally for the manufacture of
anamorphic projection lenses to meet the growing demands of theaters
CinemaScope films. At the time of Panavision's formation,
Gottschalk owned a camera shop in Westwood Village, California, where
many of his customers were cinematographers. A few years earlier,
he and Moore—who worked with him in the camera shop—were
experimenting with underwater photography; Gottschalk became
interested in the technology of anamorphic lenses, which allowed him
to get a wider field of view from his underwater camera housing.
The technology was created during World War I to increase the field of
view on tank periscopes; the periscope image was horizontally
"squeezed" by the anamorphic lens. After it was unsqueezed by a
complementary anamorphic optical element, the tank operator could see
double the horizontal field of view without significant distortion.
Gottschalk and Moore bought some of these lenses from C. P. Goerz, a
New York optics company, for use in their underwater photography. As
widescreen filmmaking became popular, Gottschalk saw an opportunity to
provide anamorphic lenses to the film industry—first for projectors,
and then for cameras. Nicholson, a friend of Moore, started working as
a cameraman on early tests of anamorphic photography.
In the 1950s, the motion picture industry was threatened by the advent
of television—TV kept moviegoers at home, reducing box office
Film studios sought to lure audiences to theaters with
attractions that television could not provide. These included a
revival of color films, three-dimensional films, stereophonic sound,
and widescreen movies.
Cinerama was one of the first widescreen movie
processes of the era. In its initial conception, the cumbersome
system required three cameras for shooting and three synchronized
projectors to display a picture on one wide, curved screen. Along with
the logistical and financial challenges of tripling equipment usage
and cost, the process led to distracting vertical lines between the
three projected images. Looking for a high-impact method of
widescreen filmmaking that was cheaper, simpler, and less visually
20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox acquired the rights to a process it
branded CinemaScope: in this system, the film was shot with anamorphic
lenses. The film was then exhibited with a complementary anamorphic
lens on the projector that expanded the image, creating a projected
aspect ratio (the ratio of the image's width to its height) twice that
of the image area on the physical frame of film. By the time the first
CinemaScope movie—The Robe (1953)—was announced for production,
Gottschalk, Moore and Nicholson had a demo reel of work with their
anamorphic underwater system.
Gottschalk learned from one of his vendors that Bausch & Lomb,
whom Fox had contracted to manufacture
CinemaScope lenses, was having
difficulty filling the lens orders for theatrical anamorphic
projection equipment. He teamed up with William Mann, who provided
optical manufacturing capability, and Walter Wallin, an optical
physicist who was an acquaintance of Mann's. The anamorphic lens
design they selected was prismatic rather than the cylindrical design
of the Bausch & Lomb
CinemaScope lens. This design meant the
anamorphic lens extension factor—how much the image is horizontally
unsqueezed—could be manually shifted, useful for projectionists
switching between nonanamorphic ("flat" or "spherical") trailers and
an anamorphic feature. The result was the anamorphosing system,
designed by Wallin, used in the Panatar lens; the patent for the
system was filed on August 11, 1954, and awarded five years later.
Entering the market
Panavision's first product—the Super Panatar projection
lens—debuted in March 1954. Priced at $1,100, it captured the
market. The Super Panatar was a rectangular box that attached to
the existing projection lens with a special bracket. Its variable
prismatic system allowed a range of film formats to be shown from the
same projector with a simple adjustment of the lens. Panavision
improved on the Super Panatar with the Ultra Panatar, a lighter design
that could be screwed directly to the front of the projection
Panavision lenses gradually replaced
CinemaScope as the
leading anamorphic system for theatrical projection.
In December 1954, the company created a specialized lens for film
laboratories—the Micro Panatar. When fitted to an optical printer,
the Micro Panatar could create "flat" (nonanamorphic) prints from
anamorphic negatives. This allowed films to be distributed to theaters
that did not have an anamorphic system installed. To accomplish this
dual platform release strategy before the Micro Panatar, studios would
sometimes shoot films with one anamorphic and one spherical camera,
allowing nonwidescreen theaters to exhibit the film. The cost savings
of eliminating the second camera and making flat prints in
post-production with the Micro Panatar were enormous.
Another innovation of the era secured Panavision's leading position:
the Auto Panatar camera lens for 35 mm anamorphic productions.
CinemaScope camera lenses were notoriously problematic in
close-ups with an optical aberration that was commonly known as "the
mumps": a widening of the face due to a loss of anamorphic power as a
subject approaches the lens. Because of the novelty of the new
anamorphic process, early
CinemaScope productions compensated for this
aberration by avoiding tightly framed shots. As the anamorphic process
became more popular, it became more problematic.
Panavision invented a
solution: adding a rotating lens element that moved in mechanical sync
with the focus ring. This eliminated the distortion and allowed for
natural close-up anamorphic photography. The Auto Panatar, released in
1958, was rapidly adopted, eventually making
obsolete. This innovation earned
Panavision the first of its 15
Academy Awards for technical achievement. Soon the screen credit
"Filmed in Panavision" (as if
Panavision itself were a widescreen
format) began appearing on motion picture screen credits.
The Big Fisherman
The Big Fisherman (1959), the first film released using
Super Panavision 70 process. The image shows the 2.20:1 aspect
ratio in which the film was presented.
Panavision had been working on a new widescreen process
commissioned by MGM. The MGM camera system used 1930 Mitchell FC
"Fox Grandeur" 70mm motion picture cameras, retooled for 65mm film and
modern lenses. The resulting system used the retooled Grandeur
65 mm film camera in conjunction with the APO Panatar lens, which
was an integrated anamorphic lens (as opposed to a standard prime lens
with an anamorphoser mounted on it). This created a 1.25x anamorphic
squeeze factor. Movies using the process had an astounding
potential aspect ratio of 2.76:1 when exhibited with 70 mm
anamorphic projection prints. Introduced as MGM
Camera 65, the system
was used on just a few films, the first of which was Raintree County
(1956). However, the film was released only in 35 mm
anamorphic prints because the circuit of 70 mm theaters was
booked with Around the World in Eighty Days (1956), shot with the
Todd-AO system. In January 1959, the posters
for the 70 mm release of Disney's Sleeping Beauty carried the
notation "Process lenses by Panavision" next to the Super Technirama
70 logo. The first film to be presented in 70 mm
anamorphic—Ben-Hur—was released by MGM in 1959 under the trade
Panavision also developed a nonanamorphic
widescreen process called Super
Panavision 70, which was essentially
identical to Todd-AO. Super
Panavision made its screen debut in 1959
with The Big Fisherman, released by Disney's Buena Vista division.
Panavision cinematic camera R-200°
By 1962, four of Panavision's founders had left the company to pursue
private careers. That year, MGM's
Camera 65 production of Mutiny on
the Bounty went so far over budget that the studio liquidated assets
to cover its costs. As a result of this liquidation, Panavision
acquired MGM's camera equipment division, as well as the rights to the
Camera 65 system it had developed for MGM; the technology was renamed
Ultra Panavision. Only six more features were made with the system:
It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World
It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963), The Fall of the Roman Empire
Battle of the Bulge
Battle of the Bulge (1965), The Greatest Story Ever Told
The Hallelujah Trail (1965), and Khartoum (1966). The
system was revived in 2015 for Quentin Tarantino's The Hateful Eight.
As 1.25× anamorphosers for 70 mm projectors have become rare,
most of the 70 mm prints of these films still in circulation are
designed for projection with non-anamorphic, spherical lenses. The
result is a 2.20:1 aspect ratio, rather than the broader ratio
Although Fox insisted on maintaining
CinemaScope for a time, some
actors disliked the system. For Fox's 1965 production Von Ryan's
Frank Sinatra reputedly demanded that Auto Panatar lenses be
used. Such pressures led Fox to completely abandon
Auto Panatars that year;
Von Ryan's Express
Von Ryan's Express was the studio's first
Panavision lenses. To meet the extraordinary demand
Panavision projection lenses, Gottschalk had Bausch & Lomb
CinemaScope lenses retrofitted into
Panavision housings with a new
astigmatic attachment, improving them greatly. This was revealed many
years after Gottschalk's death; a lead designer from Bausch &
Lomb, who had been involved with the original
came to work as a designer for
Panavision and—after opening some of
the older lenses—figured out the secret.
Panavision logo incorporates three aspect ratios into its
design—1.33:1 (TV, standard "Academy" ratio) on the inside, 1.85:1
(standard U.S. widescreen) in the middle, and 2.35/2.40:1 (modern 35mm
anamorphic) on the outside.
In the mid-1960s, Gottschalk altered Panavision's business model. The
company now maintained its full inventory, making its lenses and the
cameras it had acquired from MGM available only by rental. This
meant that equipment could be maintained, modified, and regularly
updated by the company. When
Panavision eventually brought its own
camera designs to market, it was relatively unconstrained by
retrofitting and manufacturing costs, as it was not directly competing
on sales price. This allowed
Panavision to build cameras to new
standards of durability.
The new business model required additional capital. To this end, the
company was sold to Banner Productions in 1965, with Gottschalk
remaining as president.
Panavision would soon expand into markets
beyond Hollywood, eventually including New York, Europe, Australia,
Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia.
Kinney National Company bought out
Banner in 1968 and took over
Warner Bros.-Seven Arts
Warner Bros.-Seven Arts the following
year, eventually renaming itself
Warner Communications due to a
financial scandal. Kinney/Warner's financial resources made
possible a massive expansion in Panavision's inventory, as well as
substantial leaps in research and development.
During this period, the company's R&D department focused on
retrofitting the industry standard 35 mm camera, the Mitchell
BNC. The first cameras produced by
Panavision were Mitchell cameras,
and all standard 35mm cameras made by
Panavision to this day are based
on the Mitchell movement.
The effort to develop a lighter, quieter camera with a reflex
viewfinder led to the introduction of the
Panavision Silent Reflex
(PSR) in 1967. The camera could provide a shutter angle of up to
200 degrees. Many refinements were made to the PSR during the first
few years after its introduction, and it soon became one of the most
popular studio cameras in the world.
Panavision also began
manufacturing spherical lenses for 1.85:1 photography, garnering a
significant share of the market.
Panavision released a handheld 65 mm camera. By that
time, however, the much cheaper process of blowing up 35 mm
anamorphic films to 70 mm—introduced with The Cardinal
(1964)—had made 65 mm production virtually obsolete. In
1970, the last two feature films shot entirely with Super Panavision
Song of Norway and Ryan's Daughter. In the decades
since, only a handful of films have been shot in 65 mm.
Birth of Panaflex
Albert Mayer led the next major project: the creation of a lightweight
reflex camera adaptable to either handheld or studio conditions. After
four years of development, the
Panaflex debuted in 1972. A
revolutionary camera that operated quietly, the
the need for a cumbersome sound blimp, and could synchronize handheld
Panaflex also included a digital electronic tachometer and
magazine motors for the take-up reel. Steven Spielberg's The
Sugarland Express (1974) was the first motion picture filmed with the
During the 1970s, the
Panaflex line was updated and marketed in new
Panaflex Lightweight (for steadicam),
the high-speed Panastar,
Panaflex Gold, and
Panaflex G2. Panavision
came out with a direct competitor to Tiffen's
Panaglide harness. The Panacam, a video camera, was also
brought out, though the company largely left the video field to
Robert Gottschalk died in 1982 at the age of 64. After Gottschalk's
Warner Communications sold the company to a consortium headed
by Ted Field, John Farrand, and Alan Hirschfield. With new
ownership came sweeping changes to the company, which had stagnated.
Optics testing was computerized and, in 1986, the new Platinum model
camera was introduced. The next year—responding to a perceived
demand for the resurrection of the 65 mm camera—development
began on a new model. The company was sold to Lee
for $100 million in 1987, but financing was overextended and ownership
reverted to the investment firm
Warburg Pincus two years later.
In 1989, the company brought out Primo, a new line of lenses. Designed
with a consistent color match between all the different focal-length
instruments in the line, these were also the sharpest lenses yet
manufactured by Panavision. Six years later, Oscars were awarded to
the company and to three of its employees for their work on the Primo
3:1 zoom lens: Iain Neil for the optical design, Rick Gelbard for the
mechanical design, and Eric Dubberke for the lens's engineering.
According to the AMPAS citation, "The high contrast and absence of
flare, along with its ability to provide close focusing and to
maintain constant image size while changing focus, make the Primo 3:1
Zoom Lens truly unique." In 1991, the company released its new
65 mm technology, System 65, though
Arri had beaten it to
market by two years with the Arriflex 765. The gauge was not widely
readopted, and only two major
Hollywood films were shot with the new
Far and Away
Far and Away (1992) and Kenneth
Branagh's Hamlet (1996).
Panavision launched a project to develop a camera that
involved rethinking every aspect of the company's existing 35 mm
system. Nolan Murdock and Albert Mayer Sr. headed up the design
team. The new Millennium camera, replacing the Platinum as the
company's flagship, was introduced in 1997. The Millennium XL came to
the market in 1999 and was led by Al Mayer, Jr. It soon established
itself as Panavision’s new 35mm workhorse. The XL was the first
Panavision history to win both an Academy Award and a
Primetime Emmy Award within the first year of official release. The
update to the XL, the XL2 was initially released in 2004. .
The first feature films to use these latter two systems were,
respectively, The Perfect Storm (2000) and Just Like Heaven (2005).
The XL series not only had a much smaller camera body—making it
suitable for studio, handheld, and steadicam work—but also marked
the first significant change to the film transport mechanism in the
camera since the Panaflex: two smaller sprocket drums for feed and
take-up (a design similar to the
Moviecam and subsequent Arricam)
instead of one large drum to do both. As of 2006,
no further plans to develop additional film camera models.
Recent restructuring and acquisitions
In May 1997,
Panavision announced it would be purchasing Visual Action
Holdings PLC, a major film services group for $61m (£37.5m). The
British-based company was formerly known as Samuelson Group PLC. The
company operated three rental depots in the UK and was main agent for
Panavision in France and Australia. It also had smaller rental
operations in New Zealand, Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia.
Crucially, it controlled three
Panavision agencies in the US cities of
Atlanta, Chicago, and Dallas (acquired from Victor Duncan, Inc.).
Panavision CEO William C Scott said, "This transaction provides
Panavision with a strong platform on which to grow the international
side of our business and also completes our company-controlled
distribution system in the US. Additionally, we will immediately
expand our presence in key Southeast Asia markets, where television
and film activity are expect to grow rapidly. Overall, the transaction
enables us to control a true worldwide distribution network for
Panavision’s camera systems and related products, one of our most
important strategic objectives."
Ronald Perelman's solely owned MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings
(Mafco) acquired a majority interest in
Panavision in 1998, via a
Mafco subsidiary. After aborted attempts to create a film-style video
camera in the 1970s and 1980s,
Panavision joined the digital
revolution in July 2000, establishing DHD Ventures in partnership with
Sony. The new company's objective was to raise the quality of high
definition digital video to the standards of top-level Hollywood
This cooperative venture was established, largely at the instigation
of George Lucas, to serve his designs for the
Star Wars prequels.
The collaboration resulted in the
definition video camera.
Sony produced the electronics and a
stand-alone version of the camera;
Panavision supplied custom-designed
high definition lenses, trademarked Primo Digital, and retrofitted the
camera body to incorporate standard film camera accessories,
facilitating the equipment's integration into existing crew equipment
as a "digital cinema camera". This
Panavision HD-900F, was used in
the making of Lucasfilm's Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the
Clones (2002), described as "the first digital major feature
film". Panavision's next step in the evolution of digital cinema
cameras also involved collaboration between
Sony and Panavision; this
Panavision participated in all the stages of development. The
aim was to create a system that could use the entire range of the
company's 35 mm spherical lenses.
This led to the 2004 introduction of the Genesis HD—a full bandwidth
(4:4:4) HD SDI camera with improved colorimetry- and
sensitometry-related specs. Its
Super 35 mm film–sized recording
area made it focally compatible with regular 35 mm lenses, giving
it a true 35 mm depth of field. The camera's
electronics—including its CCD (charge-coupled device) image
HDCAM SR record deck were manufactured by Sony. The
chassis and mechanics were designed by a
Panavision team led by Albert
Mayer Jr., son of the
Panaflex designer. The Genesis was first
Superman Returns (2006) followed soon after by Flyboys
(2006); But the comedy
Scary Movie 4
Scary Movie 4 (2006), shot afterward on a
mixture of 35mm film and the Genesis, actually went into general
release first because of the extensive visual effects work needed to
complete both Flyboys and Superman Returns. Subsequent to the
completion of major design work on the Genesis,
Panavision bought out
Sony's 49 percent share of DHD Ventures and fully consolidated it in
During the same period,
Panavision began acquiring related motion
picture companies, including
EFILM (acquired 2001; sold to Deluxe in
full by 2004), Technovision France (2004), the motion picture
camera-rental arm of the Canadian rental house William F. White
International (2005), the digital camera rental company
Plus8Digital (2006), the international lighting and equipment
company AFM and the camera company One8Six (2006), and the camera
inventory of Joe Dunton & Company (2007). On July 28, 2006,
Mafco announced it was acquiring the remaining
Panavision stock and
returning the company to private status. A $345 million credit line
Bear Stearns and
Credit Suisse was secured to finance the
company's debt as well as to facilitate "global acquisitions."
That same year, Mafco acquired Deluxe Entertainment Services
In March 2010, citing a drop in production and difficulty servicing
significant debt as a result of the 1998 Mafco transaction,
shareholder MacAndrews & Forbes agreed to a debt restructuring
arrangement with Panavision's creditors.
Private equity firm Cerberus
Capital was the lead investor in the deal, which involved a US$140
million reduction in debt and a US$40 million cash infusion. In return
the majority shareholder
Ronald Perelman was required to relinquish
control of Panavision, and he no longer has any equity in the
company. In June 2013, its creditors sued over an unpaid debt of
$1.7 million, threatening to dissolve the company if they win.
Panavision 3D was a system for presenting
3-D film in a digital
cinema. It was a passive stereoscopic 3D system that utilized spectral
comb filters produced using thin-film optics technology. In such
systems, the visible spectrum is broken into alternate bands of light
that evenly span the entire visible spectrum.
In June 2012 the
Panavision 3D system was discontinued by DVPO
Theatrical, who marketed it on behalf of Panavision, citing
"challenging global economic and 3D market conditions".
Marketing brands for movies made with Panavision's anamorphic movie
Super Panavision 70 for movies made between 1959 and 1983
Ultra Panavision 70 for movies made from 1957 to 1966 (and since 2015)
List of film formats
^ Thursby, Keith (2009-08-31). "Richard Moore dies at 83;
cinematographer and co-founder of Panavision".
Los Angeles Times.
^ Samuelson, David W.
Panaflex Users' Manual. Focal Press, 1990.
^ a b c d e Roudebush, James. "Filmed in Panavision: The Ultimate Wide
Screen Experience." Secrets of Home Theater and High Fidelity vol. 2,
no. 1 (HomeTheaterHiFi.com). January 1995. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
^ a b c Samuelson, David W. "Golden Years." American Cinematographer,
September 2003, pp. 70–77.
^ a b c Henderson, Scott. "The
Panavision Story." American
Cinematographer, April 1977.
^ a b c d e f g h Bijl, Adriaan. "The Importance of Panavision." The
70mm Newsletter no. 67 (in70mm.com). March 2002. Retrieved on
^ Hart, Martin. "A Little Pre-history." WidescreenMuseum.com.
Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
^ Pryor, Thomas M. "Cine-Miracle Joins Big Screen's Big Parade." New
York Times 1955-07-13. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
^ Gray, Peter. "CinemaScope, A Concise History." Archived 2009-05-11
at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2008-07-06
^ Wallin, Walter. "Anamorphosing System (U.S. patent no. 2890622)"
FreePatentsOnline.com. Retrieved on 2009-09-25.
^ The Panatar name was in response to the Bausch & Lomb lens
called the Baltar. Gray, Peter. History of
2009-05-11 at the Wayback Machine., 2003. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
^ a b c "History" (official company history and timeline). Archived
2007-02-13 at the Wayback Machine. Panavision.com. Retrieved on
^ Super Panatar Instruction Manual. Panavision, 1954. HTML
transcription by WidescreenMuseum.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
^ Ultra Panatar Instruction Manual. Panavision, 1955. HTML
transcription by WidescreenMuseum.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
^ Cook, David A. A History of Narrative Film. Norton & Company,
1990. ISBN 0-393-95553-2.
^ a b c Hart, Martin. "Solving The Mysteries of MGM
Camera 65 and
Panavision 70." WidescreenMuseum.com. September 2002. Retrieved
^ Hart, Martin. MGM
Camera 65 Circa 1959 Anamorphic 70mm Print.
WidescreenMuseum.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19
^ Hart, Martin. "
WidescreenMuseum.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
^ "Honoring Our Own" Archived 2006-10-17 at the Wayback Machine..
Panavision.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
^ a b c d e f Bijl, Adriaan. "The Importance of Panavision: Diffusion
Phase". in70mm.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
Panavision 8-K SEC Filing. SECInfo.com. 2004-08-08;
"Panavision". Encyclopedia of Company Histories/Answers.com. Both
retrieved on 2007-01-20.
^ Dodge, Sam. "Mitchell 390". Retrieved 12 May 2014.
^ Loring, Charles. "Breakthrough in 35mm-to-70mm Print-Up Process".
American Cinematographer, April 1964.
^ Hart, Martin. "Super
Panavision Filmography", WidescreenMuseum.com.
Retrieved on 2007-01-19; Hauerslev, Thomas. "Super
Archived 2007-02-10 at the Wayback Machine.. in70mm.com. Retrieved on
^ a b Probst, Christopher. "A
Camera for the 21st century." American
Cinematographer, March 1999, pp. 201–211.
^ Brode, Douglas. The Films of Steven Spielberg. Citadel Press, 1995:
p. 39. ISBN 0-8065-1540-6.
^ Slide, Anthony. "Panavision," in The American
Film Industry: A
Historical Dictionary. Limelight Editions, 1990: pp. 253–254.
^ 1995 (68th Academy Awards)—Scientific and Engineering
Award—Lenses and Filters. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and
Sciences. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. Archived August 27, 2007, at the
^ Kaczek, Frédéric-Gérard. "Panavision." European Federation of
Cinematographers (Imago.org). Retrieved on 2007-01-20. Archived August
23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Probst, Christopher. "Dawn of a New Millennium." American
Cinematographer, February 2005, pp. 80–82.
^ Kirsner, Scott. "Studios Shift to Digital Movies, but Not Without
Resistance", The New York Times, 2006-07-24. Retrieved 2007-10-13.
^ a b
Panavision 10-K SEC Filing for 2002. Archived
2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. Edgar-Online.com. Retrieved on
^ Hearn, Marcus. The Cinema of George Lucas. Abrams, 2005: p. 222.
Panavision Makes Major Purchase of
Definition Camcorders" Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine..
HDTVMagazine.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
^ a b Holben, Jay. "Let There Be Digital:
Panavision Unveils Digital
Cinematography Camera." American Cinematographer, September 2004, pp.
^ Lazotte, Suzanne. "
Super 35 Digital
Camera System." Panavision.com. Retrieved on
2007-01-20. Archived February 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Birchard, Robert S. "World War I Flying Aces." American
Cinematographer (ASCMag.com). October 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-31.
Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
Scary Movie 4
Scary Movie 4 (release dates); Flyboys (release dates). IMDb.com.
Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
Panavision 10-K SEC Filing for 2005. SECInfo.com.
Retrieved on 2007-01-31.
Panavision Sells Interest in
EFILM to Deluxe Labs" (press release).
Archived 2006-10-22 at the Wayback Machine. Panavision.com.
2004-08-09. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
Panavision Purchases Technovision France" (press release). Archived
2006-10-22 at the Wayback Machine. Panavision.com. 2004-08-16.
Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
Panavision Canada Acquires
Camera Assets of William F. White
International Inc." (press release). Archived 2006-10-22 at the
Wayback Machine. Panavision.com. 2005-01-04. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
Panavision Acquires Plus 8 Digital" (press release). Archived
2006-10-22 at the Wayback Machine. Panavision.com. 2006-10-02.
Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
Panavision Enters Into Agreement to Acquire AFM Group."
PRNewswire.co.uk. 2006-11-07. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
^ Giardina, Carolyn. "
Panavision reels in Joe Dunton." The Hollywood
Reporter. 2007-08-15. Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
^ Zeitchik, Steven. "
Panavision Hones Its Focus." Variety.com.
2006-04-18. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
^ "Deluxe" (corporate holdings description). Archived 2006-12-24 at
the Wayback Machine. MacAndrewsandForbes.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
^ Verrier, Richard.
Los Angeles Times. "Creditors set to gain
Panavision". 2 March 2010.
Panavision sued over unpaid loans
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-07. Retrieved
Panavision's Future is in Need of Focus by Richard Verrier, The Los
Angeles Times, July 20, 2009
Panavision YouTube channel
Motion picture film formats
Modern anamorphic (1957)
Super 35 (1982)
Super Panavision 70 (1959)
35 mm × 3
Aspect ratio standards
Video framing issues
Pan and scan
Pan and scan (Fullscreen)
Shoot and protect
MacAndrews & Forbes
Deluxe Entertainment Services Group
Deluxe Entertainment Services Group Inc.
Scientific Games Corporation
Revlon v. MacAndrews & Forbes