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Palm Springs (Cahuilla: Se-Khi)[7][8] is a desert resort city in Riverside County, California, United States, within the Coachella Valley. It is located approximately 55 mi (89 km) east of San Bernardino, 107 mi (172 km) east of Los Angeles, 123 mi (198 km) northeast of San Diego, and 268 mi (431 km) west of Phoenix, Arizona. The population was 44,552 as of the 2010 census. Palm Springs covers approximately 94 square miles (240 km2), making it the largest city in the county by land area. Biking, golf, hiking, horseback riding, swimming, and tennis in the nearby desert and mountain areas are major forms of recreation in Palm Springs. The city is also famous for its mid-century modern architecture and design elements.[9]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Founding

1.1.1 Pre-colonial history 1.1.2 Mexican explorers 1.1.3 Later 19th century

1.1.3.1 Early names and European settlers 1.1.3.2 Land development and drought

1.2 20th century

1.2.1 Resort development 1.2.2 World War II 1.2.3 Post World War II 1.2.4 Year-round living

1.2.4.1 Spring break

1.3 Today

2 Geography and environment

2.1 Climate 2.2 Ecology 2.3 Neighborhoods

2.3.1 Movie Colony neighborhoods 2.3.2 El Rancho Vista Estates 2.3.3 Warm Sands 2.3.4 The Mesa 2.3.5 Tahquitz River Estates 2.3.6 Sunmor Estates 2.3.7 Historic Tennis Club 2.3.8 Las Palmas neighborhoods 2.3.9 Racquet Club Estates 2.3.10 Deepwell Estates

3 Demographics

3.1 2010 3.2 2000 3.3 Same-sex couples

4 Economy

4.1 Notable businesses

5 Arts and culture

5.1 Annual cultural events 5.2 Ongoing cultural events 5.3 Public art 5.4 Museums and other points of interest

6 Sports

6.1 Baseball 6.2 Tennis 6.3 Golf 6.4 Soccer 6.5 American football

7 Parks and recreation

7.1 City parks 7.2 Recreation

8 Government

8.1 City 8.2 County 8.3 State 8.4 Federal

9 Education

9.1 Public schools 9.2 Private schools 9.3 Post-secondary education

10 Media

10.1 Radio and television 10.2 Newspapers and magazines

11 Infrastructure

11.1 Libraries 11.2 Transportation 11.3 Cemeteries

12 Notable people 13 Modern architecture 14 Palm Springs in popular culture 15 Wildlife 16 See also 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links

History[edit] Founding[edit] Pre-colonial history[edit] The first humans to settle here were the Cahuilla people, 2,000 years ago.[10][11][12] Cahuilla Indians lived here in isolation from other cultures for hundreds of years prior to European contact.[13] They spoke Ivilyuat, which is a dialect of the Uto-Aztecan language family.[14] Numerous prominent and powerful Cahuilla leaders were from Palm Springs, including Cahuilla Lion (Chief Juan Antonio).[15] While Palm Canyon was occupied during winter months, they often moved to cooler Chino Canyon during the summer months.[16] The Cahuilla Indians had several permanent settlements in the canyons of Palm Springs, due to the abundance of water and shade. Various hot springs were used during wintertime. The Cahuilla hunted rabbit, mountain goat and quail, while also trapping fish in nearby lakes and rivers. While men were responsible for hunting, women were responsible for collecting berries, acorns and seeds. They also made tortillas from mesquite beans.[10] While the Cahuillas often spent the summers in Indian Canyons, the current site of Spa Resort Casino in downtown was often used during winter due to its natural hot springs.[11] Native-American petroglyphs can be seen in Tahquitz-, Chino- and Indian Canyons. The Cahuilla’s irrigation ditches, dams and house pits can also be seen here.[17] Ancient petroglyphs, pictographs and mortar holes can be seen in Andreas Canyon. The mortar holes were used to grind acorns into meals.[18][19] The Agua Caliente (“Hot Water”) Reservation was established in 1876 and consists of 31,128 acres. 6,700 acres are located by Downtown Palm Springs.[20] The Native-American land is on long lease land and next to one of California’s highend communities, making the tribe one of the wealthiest in California.[21] The first name for Palm Springs was given by the native Cahuilla: "Se-Khi" (boiling water).[7][8] When the Agua Caliente Reservation was established by the United States
United States
government in 1876, the reservation land was composed of alternating sections (640 acres) of land laid out across the desert in a checkerboard pattern. The alternating non-reservation sections were granted to the Southern Pacific Railroad as an incentive to bring rail lines through the Sonoran desert. A number of streets and areas in Palm Springs are named for Native-American notables, including Andreas, Arenas, Amado, Belardo, Lugu, Patencio, Saturnino and Chino. All of these are common Cahuilla surnames.[11] Presently the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians
Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians
are composed of several smaller bands who live in the modern day Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
and San Gorgonio Pass. The Agua Caliente Reservation occupies 32,000 acres (13,000 ha), of which 6,700 acres (2,700 ha) lie within the city limits, making the Agua Caliente natives the city's largest landowners. (Tribal enrollment as of 2010 is 410 people.[22]) Mexican explorers[edit] As of 1821 Mexico was independent of Spain and in March 1823 the Mexican Monarchy ended. That same year (in December) Mexican diarist José María Estudillo and Brevet Captain José Romero were sent to find a route from Sonora
Sonora
to Alta California; on their expedition they first recorded the existence of "Agua Caliente" at Palm Springs, California.[23][24]:30 With the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the region was ceded to the United States
United States
in 1848. Later 19th century[edit] Early names and European settlers[edit] One possible origin of palm in the place name comes from early Spanish explorers who referred to the area as La Palma de la Mano de Dios or "The Palm of God's hand".[25] The earliest use of the name "Palm Springs" is from United States
United States
Topographical Engineers who used the term in 1853 maps.[26] According to William Bright, when the word "palm" appears in Californian place names, it usually refers to the native California
California
fan palm, Washingtonia filifera, which is abundant in the Palm Springs area.[27] Other early names were "Palmetto Spring" and "Big Palm Springs".[28] The first European resident in Palm Springs itself was Jack Summers, who ran the stagecoach station on the Bradshaw Trail in 1862.[29]:44, 149 Fourteen years later (1876), the Southern Pacific railroad was laid 6 miles to the north, isolating the station.[29]:17 In 1880, local Indian Pedro Chino was selling parcels near the springs to William Van Slyke and Mathew Bryne in a series of questionable transactions; they in turn brought in W. R. Porter to help market their property through the "Palm City Land and Water Company".[24]:275 By 1885, when San Francisco attorney (later known as "Judge") John Guthrie McCallum began buying property in Palm Springs, the name was already in wide acceptance. The area was named "Palm Valley" when McCallum incorporated the "Palm Valley Land and Water Company" with partners O.C. Miller, H.C. Campbell, and James Adams, M.D.[24]:280[30][31] Land development and drought[edit] McCallum, who had brought his ill son to the dry climate for health, brought in irrigation advocate Dr. Oliver Wozencroft and engineer J. P. Lippincott to help construct a canal from the Whitewater River to fruit orchards on his property.[24]:276–9 He also asked Dr. Welwood Murray to establish a hotel across the street from his residence. Murray did so in 1886 (he later became a famous horticulturalist).[24]:280 The crops and irrigation systems suffered flooding in 1893 from record rainfall, and then an 11-year drought (1894–1905) caused further damage.[23]:40 20th century[edit] Resort development[edit]

A 1950s postcard publicizing one of the many hotels sprouting in Palm Springs during the early to mid-20th century

The city became a fashionable resort in the 1900s[32] when health tourists arrived with conditions that required dry heat. Because of the heat, however, the population dropped markedly in the summer months.[33] In 1906 naturalist and travel writer George Wharton James' two volume The Wonders of the Colorado Desert
Desert
described Palm Springs as having "great charms and attractiveness"[34]:278–81 and included an account of his stay at Murray's hotel.[35] As James also described, Palm Springs was more comfortable in its microclimate because the area was covered in the shadow of Mount San Jacinto to the west[30] and in the winter the mountains block cold winds from the San Gorgonio pass.[36] Early illustrious visitors included John Muir
John Muir
and his daughters, U.S. Vice President Charles Fairbanks, and Fanny Stevenson, widow of Robert Louis Stevenson; still, Murray's hotel was closed in 1909 and torn down in 1954.[23]:45 Nellie N. Coffman and her physician husband Harry established The Desert
Desert
Inn as a hotel and sanitarium in 1909.[37][38] It was expanded as a modern hotel in 1927 and continued on until 1967.[23]:Ch. 13[39][40] Coffman herself was a "driving force" in the city's tourism industry until her death in 1950.[41] James' Wonders of the Colorado Desert
Desert
was followed in 1920 by J. Smeaton Chase's Our Araby: Palm Springs and the Garden of the Sun, which also served to promote the area.[42] In 1924 Pearl McCallum (daughter of Judge McCallum) returned to Palm Springs and built the Oasis Hotel with her husband Austin G. McManus; the Modern/Art Deco resort was designed by Lloyd Wright
Lloyd Wright
and featured a 40-foot tower.[23]:68–9[43]

The San Jacinto Mountains
San Jacinto Mountains
border Palm Springs to the west.

The next major hotel was the El Mirador, a large and luxurious resort that attracted the biggest movie stars; opening in 1927, its prominent feature was a 68-foot tall Renaissance style tower.[23]:Ch. 23[44] Silent film star Fritzi Ridgeway's 100-room Hotel del Tahquitz was built in 1929, next to the "Fool's Folly" mansion built by Chicago heiress Lois Kellogg.[45] Golfing was available at the O'Donnell 9 hole course (1926) and the El Mirador (1929) course (see Golf below). Hollywood
Hollywood
movie stars were attracted by the hot dry, sunny weather and seclusion – they built homes and estates in the Warm Sands, The Mesa, and Historic Tennis Club neighborhoods (see Neighborhoods below). About 20,000 visitors came to the area in 1922.[46] Palm Springs became popular with movie stars in the 1930s[47] and estate building expanded into the Movie Colony neighborhoods, Tahquitz River Estates, and Las Palmas neighborhoods. Actors Charles Farrell and Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
opened the Racquet Club in 1934[23]:Ch. 25[48][49] and Pearl McCallum opened the Tennis Club in 1937.[43] Nightclubs were set up as well, with Al Wertheimer opening The Dunes outside of Palm Springs in 1934[23]:254 and the Chi Chi nightclub opening in 1936.[50][51] Besides the gambling available at the Dunes Club, other casinos included The 139 Club and The Cove Club outside of the city.[52][53] Southern California's first self-contained shopping center was established in Palm Springs as the Plaza Shopping Center in 1936.[54]

Pre-World War II Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
Resorts and Hotels

Name City Year Established Year Closed/Demolished Notes and references[55]

Agua Caliente Bathhouse Palm Springs 1880s Present day Commercial use since the 1880s; bathhouse constructed 1916; site is now the Agua Caliente Spa Resort Casino, built in 1963[56]:171

Southern Pacific Indio depot Indio 1880s Burned down in 1966 Contained a "rough resort/hotel"[57][58]:12

Hotel and tent houses Palm Springs 1910s Unknown Operated by David Manley Blanchard (tent houses in the late 1800s)[56]

Hotel Indio Indio 1925 2004 (Burned) Opened by E.R. Cooper; had 60 rooms (40 with baths)

La Quinta Hotel La Quinta 1927 Present day Built by William Morgan; designed by Gordon Kaufmann; now the La Quinta Resort and Club

Goff Hotel Palm Springs 1928 (circa) — [59]

Pepper Tree Inn Palm Springs 1924 — Also described as the Dr. Reid's Sanitarium/Matthews-Andrea-Pepper Tree Inn[60]

Ramona Hotel Palm Springs 1910s — Renamed in 1921 as the Palm Springs Hotel by the Foldesy family, although not related to original Palm Spring Hotel[61]

Sunshine Court Palm Springs 1920s 2000s (Razed) Built by Dr. J. J. Crocker and used by golfers at the O'Donnell Golf Club[61]

Hotel La Palma Palm Springs 1910s — Depicted on Palm Canyon Drive in late teens/early 1920s;[58]:118 later became the El Ray Hotel, and then razed when Chi Chi nightclub was built in 1936[56]:143, 166

The Orchid Tree Inn Palm Springs 1934 Present day 45 rooms[23]:247

Estrella Resort and Spa Palm Springs 1933 Present day Now the Viceroy Palm Springs; 74 rooms[23]:247

Ingleside Inn Palm Springs 1935 Present day Original estate built in the 1920s, and operated as the Ingleside Inn by Ruth Hardy. It was later owned and operated by Mel Haber, who died on October 25, 2016, and is now owned and managed by PlumpJack Investment Group, started by Lt. Governor Gavin Newsom in 1992. It is currently overseen by Newsom's sister Hilary.[62]

Palm Springs Tennis Club Palm Springs 1937 Present day Area is now the Tennis Club Condominiums[61]

La Bella Villas Palm Springs 1939 Present day Six Southwest-style villas[23]:247

Desert
Desert
Hot Springs Mineral Bathhouse Desert
Desert
Hot Springs 1941 Demolished Developed by L.W. & Lillian T. Coffee; burned in 1947 and rebuilt[63][64]

The Oasis Hotel Palm Springs 1925 Present day Built on grounds owned by the late John Gutherie McCallum; concrete structure designed by Lloyd Wright[65]

Hotel del Tahquitz Palm Springs 1929 1958 Built by movie star Fritzi Ridgeway; had 100 rooms

Deep Well Guest Ranch Palm Springs 1929 1948 Operated by Frank and Melba Bennet; converted to housing development[23]:148[66]

Smoke Tree Ranch Palm Springs 1925 — [61]

Monte Vista Apartments Palm Springs 1921 2005 Operated as a hotel by John and Freda Miller, and then their sons, Frank and John.[46]

El Mirador Hotel Palm Springs 1927 (Converted) Had 200+ rooms; went bankrupt in 1930, bought by new owners; taken over as US Army Torney General Hospital in 1942;[67] reopened as hotel in 1952; became the Desert
Desert
Regional Medical Center in 1972

The Desert
Desert
Inn Palm Springs 1909 1967 Built by Nellie Coffman; originally a tent-house resort and sanitarium,[68] developed into 35 buildings and bungalows; owned by actress Marion Davies
Marion Davies
from 1955 to 1960; original building demolished in 1960; officially closed in 1953.[60] Child actress Shirley Temple was a frequent and publicized guest.[69]

Colonial House Palm Springs 1936 Present day With 56 rooms, was built by Purple Gang member Al Wertheimer with a reputed speakeasy and brothel; once known as the Howard Manor; now the Colony Palms Hotel

Welwood Murray's Palm Springs Hotel Palm Springs 1886 1909 Demolished in 1954[70]

World War II[edit] When the United States
United States
entered World War II, Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
were important in the war effort. The original airfield near Palm Springs became a staging area for the Air Corps Ferrying Command's 21st Ferrying Group in November 1941 and a new airfield was built ½ mile from the old site. The new airfield,[59]:43 designated Palm Springs Army Airfield,[71] was completed in early 1942. Personnel from the Air Transport Command 560th Army Air Forces Base Unit stayed at the La Paz Guest Ranch and training was conducted at the airfield by the 72nd and 73rd Ferrying Squadrons. Later training was provided by the IV Fighter Command 459th Base Headquarters and Air Base Squadron. Eight months before Pearl Harbor Day, the El Mirador Hotel was fully booked and adding new facilities.[72] After the war started, the U.S. government bought the hotel from owner Warren Phinney for $750,000[73] and converted it into the Torney General Hospital,[74] with Italian prisoners of war serving as kitchen help and orderlies in 1944 and 1945.[60] Through the war it was staffed with 1,500 personnel and treated some 19,000 patients.[49]:55 General Patton's Desert
Desert
Training Center encompassed the entire region, with its headquarters in Camp Young at the Chiriaco Summit and an equipment depot maintained by the 66th Ordnance in present-day Palm Desert.[59]:40 Post World War II[edit]

Kaufmann Desert
Desert
House, Palm Springs, by Richard Neutra

Architectural modernists flourished with commissions from the stars, using the city to explore architectural innovations, new artistic venues, and an exotic back-to-the-land experiences. Inventive architects designed unique vacation houses, such as steel houses with prefabricated panels and folding roofs, a glass-and-steel house in a boulder-strewn landscape, and a carousel house that turned to avoid the sun's glare.[75] In 1946 Richard Neutra
Richard Neutra
designed the Edgar and Liliane Kaufmann House. A modernist classic, this mostly glass residence incorporated the latest technological advances in building materials, using natural lighting and floating planes and flowing space for proportion and detail.[76] In recent years an energetic preservation program has protected and enhanced many classic buildings. Culver (2010) argues that Palm Springs architecture became the model for mass-produced suburban housing, especially in the Southwest. This " Desert
Desert
Modern" style was a high-end architectural style featuring open-design plans, wall-to-wall carpeting, air-conditioning, swimming pools, and very large windows. As Culver concludes, "While environmentalists might condemn desert modern, the masses would not. Here, it seemed, were houses that fully merged inside and outside, providing spaces for that essential component of Californian—and indeed middle-class American—life: leisure. While not everyone could have a Neutra masterpiece, many families could adopt aspects of Palm Springs modern."[77]

A 1960s postcard of Palm Springs with Mt. San Jacinto in the background.

Hollywood
Hollywood
values permeated the resort as it combined celebrity, health, new wealth, and sex. As Culver (2010) explains: "The bohemian sexual and marital mores already apparent in Hollywood
Hollywood
intersected with the resort atmosphere of Palm Springs, and this new, more open sexuality would gradually appear elsewhere in national tourist culture."[77] During this period, the city government, stimulated by real estate developers systematically removed and excluded poor people and Indians.[78][79] Palm Springs was pictured by the French photographer Robert Doisneau in November 1960 as part of an assignment for Fortune[80] on the construction of golf courses in this particularly dry and hot area of the Colorado desert. Doisneau submitted around 300 slides following his ten-day stay depicting the lifestyle of wealthy retirees and Hollywood
Hollywood
stars in the 1960s. At the time, Palm Springs counted just 19 courses, which had grown to 125 by 2010.[81] Year-round living[edit]

A postcard of Palm Canyon Dr. through Palm Springs' downtown village in the 1950s

Similar to the pre-war era, Palm Springs remained popular with the rich and famous of Hollywood, as well as retirees and Canadian tourists.[82] Between 1947 and 1965, the Alexander Construction Company built some 2,200 houses in Palm Springs effectively doubling its housing capacity. As the 1970s drew to a close, increasing numbers of retirees moved to the Coachella Valley. As a result, Palm Springs began to evolve from a virtual ghost town in the summer to a year-round community. Businesses and hotels that used to close for the months of July and August instead remained open all summer. As commerce grew, so too did the number of families with children. The recession of 1973–1975 affected Palm Springs as many of the wealthy residents had to cut back on their spending.[83] Later in the 1970s numerous Chicago
Chicago
mobsters invested $50 million in the Palm Springs area, buying houses, land, and businesses.[84] While Palm Springs faced competition from the desert cities to the east in the later 1980s,[85] it has continued to prosper into the 21st century.[86] Spring break[edit] Since the early 1950s[87] the city had been a popular spring break resort. Glamorized as a destination in the 1963 movie Palm Springs Weekend,[88] the number of visitors grew and at times the gatherings had problems. In 1969 an estimated 15,000 people had gathered for a concert at the Palm Springs Angel Stadium and 300 were arrested for drunkenness or disturbing the peace.[89] In the 1980s 10,000+ college students would visit the city and form crowds and parties – and another rampage occurred in 1986[90] when Palm Springs Police in riot gear had to put down the rowdy crowd.[91] In 1990, due to complaints by residents, mayor Sonny Bono
Sonny Bono
and the city council closed the city's Palm Canyon Drive to Spring Breakers and the downtown businesses lost money normally filled by the tourists.[92] Today[edit] Tourism
Tourism
is a major factor in the city's economy with 1.6 million visitors in 2011.[46] The city has over 130 hotels and resorts, numerous bed and breakfasts and over 100 restaurants and dining spots.[93] Following the 2008 recession, Palm Springs is revitalizing its Downtown or "the Village". Rebuilding started with the demolition of the Bank of America building in January 2012, with the Desert
Desert
Fashion Plaza scheduled for demolition later in 2012.[94] The movement behind Mid-Century modern
Mid-Century modern
architecture (1950s/60s era) in Palm Springs is backed by architecture enthusiasts, artistic designers and local historians to preserve many of Central Palm Springs' buildings and houses of famous celebrities, businessmen and politicians. Geography and environment[edit] Palm Springs is located at 33°49′26″N 116°31′49″W / 33.82389°N 116.53028°W / 33.82389; -116.53028 (33.823990, −116.530339) in the Sonoran Desert. According to the United States Census
Census
Bureau, the city has a total area of 95.0 square miles (246 km2), of which 94.1 square miles (244 km2) is land and 0.9 square miles (2.3 km2) (1%) is water. Located in the Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
desert region, Palm Springs is sheltered by the San Bernardino Mountains to the north, the Santa Rosa Mountains to the south, by the San Jacinto Mountains
San Jacinto Mountains
to the west and by the Little San Bernardino Mountains to the east. Climate[edit] Palm Springs has a hot desert climate, with over 300 days of sunshine and around 4.83 inches (122.7 mm) of rain annually.[95] The winter months are warm, with a majority of days reaching 70 °F (21 °C) and in January and February days often see temperatures of 80 °F (27 °C) and on occasion reach over 90 °F (32 °C), while, on average, there are 17 nights annually dipping to or below 40 °F (4 °C);[95] freezing temperatures occur in less than half of years. The lowest temperature recorded is 19 °F (−7 °C), on January 22, 1937.[96] Summer often sees daytime temperatures above 110 °F (43 °C) coupled with warm overnight lows remaining above 80 °F (27 °C). The mean annual temperature is 74.6 °F (23.7 °C). There are 180 days with a high reaching 90 °F (32 °C), and 100 °F (38 °C) can be seen on 116 days.[95] The highest temperature on record in Palm Springs is 123 °F (51 °C), most recently achieved on July 28 and 29, 1995.[97]

Climate data for Palm Springs Fire Station 2, California
California
(1981–2010 normals)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 95 (35) 99 (37) 104 (40) 112 (44) 116 (47) 122 (50) 123 (51) 123 (51) 121 (49) 116 (47) 102 (39) 93 (34) 123 (51)

Average high °F (°C) 70.8 (21.6) 74.0 (23.3) 80.4 (26.9) 87.7 (30.9) 95.7 (35.4) 103.7 (39.8) 108.1 (42.3) 107.3 (41.8) 101.9 (38.8) 91.2 (32.9) 78.5 (25.8) 69.2 (20.7) 89.0 (31.7)

Average low °F (°C) 45.4 (7.4) 48.0 (8.9) 52.2 (11.2) 57.4 (14.1) 64.3 (17.9) 70.8 (21.6) 77.5 (25.3) 77.6 (25.3) 71.9 (22.2) 62.3 (16.8) 51.6 (10.9) 44.1 (6.7) 60.3 (15.7)

Record low °F (°C) 19 (−7) 24 (−4) 29 (−2) 34 (1) 36 (2) 44 (7) 54 (12) 52 (11) 46 (8) 30 (−1) 23 (−5) 23 (−5) 19 (−7)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.15 (29.2) 1.11 (28.2) 0.53 (13.5) 0.06 (1.5) 0.02 (0.5) 0.02 (0.5) 0.13 (3.3) 0.29 (7.4) 0.23 (5.8) 0.24 (6.1) 0.32 (8.1) 0.87 (22.1) 4.97 (126.2)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 3.1 3.2 1.6 0.6 0.2 0 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 1.9 14.4

Source: NOAA (extremes 1917–present)[96]

Ecology[edit]

The Sonoran desert
Sonoran desert
Gateway to Palm Springs, California, as observed from above highway 62 in the Morongo Basin

A wind farm in Palm Springs

The locale features a variety of native Low Desert
Desert
flora and fauna. A notable tree occurring in the wild and under cultivation is the California
California
Fan Palm, Washingtonia filifera.[98] Neighborhoods[edit]

View through the San Jacinto Mountains
San Jacinto Mountains
to Palm Springs

The City of Palm Springs has developed a program to identify distinctive neighborhoods in the community.[99] Of the 33 neighborhoods,[99] 7 have historical and cultural significance.[100] Movie Colony neighborhoods[edit] The Movie Colony is just east of Palm Canyon Drive.[101] The Movie Colony East neighborhood extends further east from the Ruth Hardy Park.[102] These areas started growing in the 1930s as Hollywood
Hollywood
movie stars built their smaller getaways from their Los Angeles
Los Angeles
area estates. Bob Hope, Frank Sinatra, Estée Lauder, and Bing Crosby built homes in these neighborhoods. El Rancho Vista Estates[edit] In the 1960s, Robert Fey built 70 homes designed by Donald Wexler and Ric Harrison in the El Rancho Vista Estates.[103] Noted residents included Jack LaLanne and comic Andy Dick. Warm Sands[edit] Historic homes in the Warm Sands area date from the 1920s and many were built from adobe.[104] It also includes small resorts and the Ramon Mobile Home Park. Noted residents have included screenwriter Walter Koch, artist Paul Grimm, activist Cleve Jones and actor Wesley Eure. The Mesa[edit] The Mesa started off as a gated community developed in the 1920s near the Indian Canyons.[105] Noted residents have included King Gillette, Zane Grey, Clark Gable, Carole Lombard, Suzanne Somers, Herman Wouk, Henry Fernandez, Barry Manilow and Trina Turk. Distinctive homes include Donald Wexler's "butterfly houses" and the "Streamline Moderne Ship of the Desert".[106] Tahquitz River Estates[edit]

Tahquitz Canyon
Tahquitz Canyon
Way

Some of the homes in this neighborhood date from the 1930s. The area was owned by Pearl McCallum McManus and she started building homes in the neighborhood after World War II ended. Dr. William Scholl (Dr. Scholl's foot products) owned a 10-acre estate here. Today the neighborhood is the largest neighborhood organization with 600 homes and businesses within its boundaries.[107] Sunmor Estates[edit] During World War II, the original Sunmor Estates area was the western portion the Palm Springs Army Airfield.[108] Homes here were developed by Robert Higgins and the Alexander Construction Company. Actor and former mayor Frank Bogert
Frank Bogert
bought his home for $16,000 and lived there for more than 50 years. Historic Tennis Club[edit] Impoverished artist Carl Eytel
Carl Eytel
first set up his cabin on what would become the Tennis Club in 1937. Another artist in the neighborhood, who built his Moroccan-style "Dar Marrac" estate in 1924, was Gordon Coutts.[109] Other estates include Samuel Untermyer's Mediterranean style villa (now The Willows Historic Palm Springs Inn),[110] the Casa Cody Inn, built by Harriet and Harold William Cody (cousin of Buffalo Bill Cody) and the Ingleside Inn,[111] built in the 1920s by the Humphrey Birge family. The neighborhood now has about 400 homes, condos, apartments, inns and restaurants.[112] Las Palmas neighborhoods[edit] To the west of Palm Canyon Drive are the Vista Las Palmas,[113] Old Las Palmas, and Little Tuscany neighborhoods.[114] These areas also feature distinctive homes and celebrity estates. Racquet Club Estates[edit] Historic Racquet Club Estates, located north of Vista Chino, is home to over five hundred mid-century modern homes from the Alexander Construction Company. "Meiselman" homes, and the famed Donald Wexler steel homes (having Class One historic designation) are also prominent in the area.[115] Racquet Club Estates was Palm Springs' first middle income neighborhood. Deepwell Estates[edit] Deepwell Estates, the eastern portion of the square mile defined by South/East Palm Canyon, Mesquite, and Sunrise, contains around 370 homes, including notable homes architecturally and of celebrity figures. Among the celebrities who lived in the neighborhood are Jerry Lewis, Loretta Young, Liberace, and William Holden.[116][117] Demographics[edit] 2010[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1940 3,434

1950 7,660

123.1%

1960 13,468

75.8%

1970 20,936

55.4%

1980 32,359

54.6%

1990 40,181

24.2%

2000 42,807

6.5%

2010 44,552

4.1%

Est. 2016 47,689 [6] 7.0%

U.S. Decennial Census[118]

The 2010 United States
United States
Census[119] reported that Palm Springs had a population of 44,552. The population density was 469.1 people per square mile (181.1/km²). The racial makeup of Palm Springs was 33,720 (75.7%) White (63.6% Non-Hispanic White),[5] 1,982 (4.4%) African American, 467 (1.0%) Native American, 1,971 (4.4%) Asian, 71 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 4,949 (11.1%) from other races, and 1,392 (3.1%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11,286 persons (25.3%). The Census
Census
reported that 44,013 people (98.8% of the population) lived in households, 343 (0.8%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 196 (0.4%) were institutionalized. There were 22,746 households, out of which 3,337 (14.7%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 5,812 (25.6%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,985 (8.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 868 (3.8%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,031 (4.5%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 2,307 (10.1%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 10,006 households (44.0%) were made up of individuals and 4,295 (18.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.93. There were 8,665 families (38.1% of all households); the average family size was 2.82. The population was spread out with 6,125 people (13.7%) under the age of 18, 2,572 people (5.8%) aged 18 to 24, 8,625 people (19.4%) aged 25 to 44, 15,419 people (34.6%) aged 45 to 64, and 11,811 people (26.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51.6 years. For every 100 females there were 129.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 133.8 males. There were 34,794 housing units at an average density of 366.3 per square mile (141.4/km²), of which 13,349 (58.7%) were owner-occupied, and 9,397 (41.3%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 6.7%; the rental vacancy rate was 15.5%. 24,948 people (56.0% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 19,065 people (42.8%) lived in rental housing units. During 2009–2013, Palm Springs had a median household income of $45,198, with 18.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line.[5] 2000[edit]

A view of Palm Springs from the Museum Trail

As of the census[120] of 2000, there were 42,807 people, 20,516 households, and 9,457 families residing in the city. The population density was 454.2 people per square mile (175.4/km2). There were 30,823 housing units at an average density of 327.0 per square mile (126.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 78.3% White, 3.9% African American, 0.9% Native American, 3.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.8% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.7% of the population. There were 20,516 out of which 16.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.0% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 53.9% were non-families. 41.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.1 and the average family size was 2.9. In the city, the population was spread out with 17.0% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, and 26.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females there were 107.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,973 and the median income for a family was $45,318. Males had a median income of $33,999 versus $27,461 for females. The per capita income for the city was $25,957. About 11.2% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.2% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over. Same-sex couples[edit] Palm Springs has one of the highest concentrations of same-sex couples of any community in the United States.[121][122] In the city, 7.2% of households belong to a same-sex couple compared to the national average of 1%. Palm Springs has the fifth-highest percentage of same-sex households in the nation.[121]:27 Former mayor Ron Oden estimated that about a third of Palm Springs is gay.[123] Over various times, the city has catered to LGBT
LGBT
tourists.[124] Palm Springs is host to the Greater Palm Springs Pride Celebration. This celebration, held every year in November, includes events such as the Palm Springs Pride Golf Classic, the Stonewall Equality Concert, and a Broadway in Drag Pageant. The city also held same sex wedding ceremonies at the iconic 'Forever Marilyn' statue located downtown, before its relocation in 2014. Economy[edit]

Palm Springs Official Visitors Center is located in the historic Tramway Gas Station
Tramway Gas Station
building designed by Albert Frey.

Though celebrities still retreat to Palm Springs, many today establish residences in other areas of the Coachella Valley. The city's economy now relies on tourism, and local government is largely supported by related retail sales taxes and the TOT (transient occupancy tax). It is a city of numerous festivals, conventions, and international events including the Palm Springs International Film Festival. The world's largest rotating aerial tramcars[125] (cable cars) can be found at the Palm Springs Aerial Tramway. These cars, built by Von Roll Tramways,[125] ascend from Chino Canyon two-and-a-half miles up a steep incline to the station at 8,516 feet (2,596 m). The San Jacinto Wilderness is accessible from the top of the tram and there is a restaurant with notable views. The Palm Springs Convention Center
Palm Springs Convention Center
underwent a multimillion-dollar expansion and renovation under Mayor
Mayor
Will Kleindienst. The City Council Sub-Committee of Mayor
Mayor
Kleindienst and City Council Member Chris Mills selected Fentress Bradburn Architects[126] from Denver, Colorado for the redesign. Numerous hotels, restaurants and attractions cater to tourists, while shoppers can find a variety of high-end boutiques in downtown and uptown Palm Springs. The city is home to 20 clothing-optional resorts including many catering to gay men.[127] Notable businesses[edit]

Ace Hotel & Swim Club – a renovated mid-20th century motel.[128] Bird Medical Technologies[129] Colony Palms Hotel
Colony Palms Hotel
– opened in 1936 as The Colonial House by Las Vegas casino owner Al Wertheimer. Raven Productions – a television production company based in Palm Springs.

Hello Paradise – a weekly television magazine about the Palm Springs area produced by Raven. Earth Trek – a travel and adventure program produced by Raven.

Arts and culture[edit] Annual cultural events[edit]

The Palm Springs International Film Festival and Palm Springs International Festival of Short Films ("ShortFest") present movie star-filled, red-carpet affairs in January and June respectively. Modernism Week, in February, is an 11-day event featuring mid-century modern architecture through films, lectures, tours and its Modernism Show & Sale. A four-day Modernism Week Preview is held in mid-October.[130]

The Palm Springs Black History Committee celebrates Black History Month with a parade and town fair every February.[131]

Agua Caliente Cultural Museum
Agua Caliente Cultural Museum
presents its annual Festival of Native Film & Culture[132] at the Camelot Theaters in central Palm Springs.

Village Fest in Palm Springs

The Club Skirts Dinah Shore Weekend, known as "The Dinah",[30] is a LGBT
LGBT
event billed as the "Largest Girl Party in the World" held each March. A circuit White Party
White Party
is held in April, attracting 10,000 visitors.[30][133] The Arthur Lyons Film Noir
Film Noir
Festival,[134] co-sponsored by the Palm Springs Cultural Center,[135] is held in May with screenings at the Camelot Theater. Palm Springs Desert
Desert
Resorts Restaurant Week is held every June, featuring 10 days of dining at over 100 restaurants in the Coachella Valley.[136] The Caballeros, a gay men's chorus and member of GALA Choruses, has presented concerts since 1999.[137]

The following three parades, held on Palm Canyon Drive, were created by former Mayor
Mayor
Will Kleindienst:

Palm Springs Annual Homecoming
Homecoming
Parade is held on the Wednesday prior to the Friday night Palm Springs High School
Palm Springs High School
Homecoming
Homecoming
Game.[138] The city sponsors a Veterans Day
Veterans Day
parade, concert and fireworks display since 1996.[139] It is one of 54 US Department of Veterans Affairs designated Regional Sites[140] for the national observance of Veterans Day.[141] Since 1992 the Palm Springs Festival of Lights Parade is held on the first Saturday of December.[142]

Ongoing cultural events[edit] For many years, The Fabulous Palm Springs Follies
The Fabulous Palm Springs Follies
was a stage-show at the historic Plaza Theatre featuring performers over the age of 55. Still Kicking: The Fabulous Palm Springs Follies
The Fabulous Palm Springs Follies
is a 1997 Mel Damski short documentary film about the Follies. The Palm Springs Follies closed for good after the 2013-14 season.[143] Starting in 2004, the city worked with downtown businesses to develop the weekly Palm Springs VillageFest. The downtown street fair has been a regular Thursday evening event, drawing tourists and locals alike to Palm Canyon Drive to stroll amid the food and craft vendors.[144] Events related to films and film-craft are sponsored by the Desert Film Society.[145] Public art[edit] The city council has established a 7-member commission to promote art in the city.[146] The commission has sponsored several notable public art projects in the city, including:[147]

"Red Echo" (2010) by Konstantin Demopoulos. Ramon Road and Gene Autry Trail "Male Figure of Balzac" (2009) by Christopher Georgesco. Palm Canyon Blvd. and Andreas Road "Gene Autry, America's Favorite Singing Cowboy" (2007) by DeL'Esprie "Squeeze" (2007) by John Clement. 538 N. Palm Canyon Drive "Agua Caliente Women" (1994) by Doug Hyde, corner of Tahquitz and Indian Canyon Way "A Personal History of Palm Springs" by Tony Berlant
Tony Berlant
diptych mural, Convention Center lobby "The Batter" by Bill Arms, Baseball stadium "Standing Woman" by Felipe Castaneda, Palm Canyon in front of the Historical Society "Flight" by Damian Priour, entrance to Bird Medical Technologies on Gene Autry Drive "Daimaru XII" by Michael Todd. Convention Center; on lease from the Palm Springs Art Museum "Lucy Ricardo" by Emmanuil Snitkovsky. Tahquitz Canyon
Tahquitz Canyon
at Palm Canyon " Desert
Desert
Highland Mural Project" by Richard Wyatt. Desert
Desert
Highland Unity Center, Tramview Road " Desert
Desert
Reflections" by Phill Evans. City Dog Park "Nines and Elevens" by James Jared Taylor III. Demuth Park "Charlie Farrell" by George Montgomery. Palm Springs International Airport "Rainmaker" by David Morris. Fountain, Frances Stevens Park "Lawn Chair" by Blue McRight. Pepper Tree Inn "Whirlwind" by Gary Slater. Ruth Hardy Park "Wave Rhythms" by John Mishler. Sunrise Park

Museums and other points of interest[edit]

Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians

Agua Caliente Cultural Museum[148] (presently located downtown at the Village Green) Indian Canyons (Palm Canyon,[149] Andreas Canyon, Murray Canyon)[150] Tahquitz Canyon,[151] wildlife area and one-time staging place for the outdoor " Desert
Desert
Plays" in the 1920s[152] Tahquitz Falls, 60 foot waterfall used as a scene in Frank Capra's 1937 film, Lost Horizon.[153] Agua Caliente Casino
Agua Caliente Casino
in Rancho Mirage Spa Resort Casino, which is based on the original hot springs of the town[154]

Forever Marilyn sculpture by Seward Johnson in downtown Palm Springs[155] (presently in New Jersey for a Seward Johnson exhibition) Moorten Botanical Garden and Cactarium Palm Springs Historical Society Museums[156] (and Village Green[157])

Miss Cornelia White's "Little House" (railroad ties from the defunct Palmdale Railroad were used to build the house) The McCallum Adobe – the oldest remaining building, built in 1884 Ruddy's General Store Museum – a 1930s general store[158]

Palm Springs Air Museum
Palm Springs Air Museum
– located at the Palm Springs International Airport Palm Springs Art Museum
Palm Springs Art Museum
– originally developed as the Desert
Desert
Museum

Annenberg Theater[159]

Palm Springs Walk of Stars San Jacinto Mountains

Cactus to Clouds Trail
Cactus to Clouds Trail
– leads from the Art Museum to San Jacinto Peak Mount San Jacinto State Park Palm Springs Aerial Tramway Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains
San Jacinto Mountains
National Monument

Children's Discovery Museum of the Desert
Desert
– in Rancho Mirage[160] Living Desert
Desert
Zoo and Gardens – in Palm Desert, California Joshua Tree National Park

Little San Bernardino Mountains

Numerous galleries and studios are located in the city and region.[161] The California
California
Art Club has a chapter in Palm Springs.[162] The Desert
Desert
Art Center of Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
was established in Palm Springs in 1950.[163]

Delos Van Earle's[164] "Jungle Red" (Warm Sands neighborhood)[165]

Sports[edit]

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O'Donnell Golf Club in Palm Springs

Baseball[edit] Palm Springs is home to the Palm Springs POWER, a semi-pro collegiate league baseball team composed of college all-stars of the Southern California
California
Collegiate Baseball Association. It has a winter league baseball team, the POWER winter team and Palm Springs Chill
Palm Springs Chill
of the California
California
Winter League (2010) consists of 12 other teams as of 2016. The League plays its games in Palm Springs Stadium
Palm Springs Stadium
and also on the baseball field in nearby Palm Springs High School. Both sites feature 6 teams of the Palm Springs Collegiate League in the summer.[166] The Palm Springs stadium was once the spring training site of the Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
California
California
Angels (now the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Angels of Anaheim) of the American League
American League
from 1961 to 1993. The stadium also hosted spring training of the Oakland A's
Oakland A's
and Chicago
Chicago
White Sox, and the 1950s minor league Seattle Rainiers
Seattle Rainiers
of the Pacific Coast League also trained there. Tennis[edit] The Palm Springs area features a number of sporting events including the BNP Paribas Open, one of the most significant tennis events in the world, after the four Grand Slam tournaments. The Easter Bowl, sponsored by the United States
United States
Tennis Association[167] for Juniors has been held in the Palm Springs area in 2008, 2009, and 2010.[168] Golf[edit]

Aerial view overlooking the O'Donnell Golf Club during the 1960s

With more golf courses than any other region in California, Coachella Valley is the most popular golf vacation destination in California. Early golf courses in Palm Springs were the O'Donnell Golf Club (built by oil magnate Thomas A. O'Donnell)[169] and the El Mirador Hotel course, both of which opened in the 1920s.[23]:120 After the Cochran-Odlum (Indio) and Shadow Mountain pitch and putt courses were built after World II, the first 18-hole golf course in the area was the Thunderbird Country Club, established 1951 in Rancho Mirage.[170][171] Thunderbird was designed by golf course architects Lawrence Hughes and Johnny Dawson[172] and in 1955 it hosted the 11th Ryder Cup
Ryder Cup
championship. In the 1970s the area had over 40 courses and in 2001 the 100th course was opened.[23]:121 The area is also home to the PGA Tour's Humana Challenge in partnership with the Clinton Foundation
Clinton Foundation
(formerly the Bob Hope Chrysler Classic), the LPGA's ANA Inspiration
ANA Inspiration
and the Canadian Tour's Desert
Desert
Dunes Classic.[173] Soccer[edit] The Palm Springs AYSO Region 80 plays in Section 1H of the American Youth Soccer Organization.[174][175] American football[edit] The Desert
Desert
Fire Cats women's football team plays in Palm Springs. They were scheduled to play in the Independent Women's Football League in 2011, but the team's season was cancelled and they moved to play as an affiliate team in the Women's Spring Football League. Parks and recreation[edit] City parks[edit]

City parks include:[176]

Baristo Park DeMuth Park Desert
Desert
Healthcare (Wellness) Park James O. Jessie Desert
Desert
Highland Unity Center[177] Dog Park (behind city hall)[178] Frances Stevens Park Ruth Hardy Park Sunrise Park Victoria Park

Recreation[edit]

The Palm Springs Desert
Desert
Ice Palace ice skating rink opened in nearby Cathedral City in October 2011.[179][180] Boomers! is a family entertainment center in Cathedral City.[181] A city skatepark was designed after the noted Nude Bowl.[182] CNL Financial Group
CNL Financial Group
operates the Wet'n'Wild Palm Springs
Wet'n'Wild Palm Springs
water park in the summer. (Formerly operated as Knott's Soak City
Knott's Soak City
by Cedar Fair Entertainment Company.)

In 1931 the Desert
Desert
Riders was established.[183] Starting off as a social organization for the cream of Palm Springs society, the group sponsors horseback riding and trail building for equestrians, hikers, and bicyclists.[184] The Desert
Desert
Riders were also significant in providing combination chuckwagon meals and rides through nearby canyons to hotel guests as Palm Springs developed its tourist industry.[185] Government[edit] City[edit] See also: List of Mayors of Palm Springs, California Business owners in the village first established a Palm Springs Board of Trade in 1918, followed by a chamber of commerce; the City itself was established by election in 1938[56][186] and converted to a charter city, with a charter adopted by the voters in 1994.[187] Presently the city has a council-manager type government, with a five-person city council that hires a city manager and city attorney. The mayor is directly elected and serves a four-year term. The other four council members also serve four-year terms, with staggered elections. The city is considered a full-service city, in that it staffs and manages its own police and fire departments including parks and recreation programs, public library,[188] sewer system and wastewater treatment plant, international airport, and planning and building services. The city government is a member of the Southern California
California
Association of Governments.[189] The current mayor is Robert Moon, elected in 2015. Mr. Moon is the City's third openly gay mayor in the city's history. Palm Springs' longest-tenured mayor was Frank Bogert
Frank Bogert
(1958–66 and 1982–88), but the best-known mayor in the city's history was Sonny Bono. Bono served from 1988 to 1992 and was eventually elected to the U.S. Congress. County[edit] Palm Springs is in Supervisorial District 4 of Riverside County.[190] State[edit] In the California
California
State Legislature, Palm Springs is in the 28th Senate District, represented by Republican Jeff Stone, and in the 42nd Assembly District, represented by Republican Chad Mayes.[191] Federal[edit] In the United States
United States
House of Representatives, Palm Springs is in California's 36th congressional district, represented by Democrat Raul Ruiz.[192] Education[edit] Public schools[edit] Public education in Palm Springs is under the jurisdiction of the Palm Springs Unified School District, an independent district with five board members.[193] The Palm Springs High School[194] is the oldest school in the district, built in 1938. Originally it was a K–12 school in the 1920s and had the College of the Desert
Desert
campus from 1958 to 1964. Elementary schools in Palm Springs include:[195]

Cahuilla Elementary School Cielo Vista Charter School (received a U.S. Department of Education National Blue Ribbon award in 2011, and U.S. Department of Education National Gold Ribbon Award in 2016[196]) Katherine Finchy Elementary School[197] (received a U.S. Department of Education National Blue Ribbon award in 2011, and U.S. Department of Education National Gold Ribbon Award in 2016[196]) Vista del Monte Elementary School

Alternative education is provided by the Ramon Alternative Center.[198] Private schools[edit] Private schools in Palm Springs and nearby communities include Desert Chapel Christian School (K-12), Desert
Desert
Adventist Academy (K–8), Sacred Heart School (PS-8), St. Theresa (PreK–8), King's School – formerly known as Palm Valley School (K–8), Desert
Desert
Christian (K–12), Marywood-Palm Valley School, and The Academy. In 2006 the Roman Catholic Diocese of San Bernardino
Roman Catholic Diocese of San Bernardino
built the Xavier College Preparatory High School[199] in Palm Desert. Post-secondary education[edit] The Desert
Desert
Community College District, headquartered with its main campus, College of the Desert, is located in Palm Desert. California State University, San Bernardino and University of California, Riverside used to have satellite campuses available within the College of the Desert
Desert
campus, but now have their own buildings in Palm Desert. Private post-secondary education institutions include Brandman University (branch in Palm Desert),[200] California
California
Desert
Desert
Trial Academy College of Law (in Indio),[201] Kaplan College
Kaplan College
(Palm Springs),[202] University of Phoenix
University of Phoenix
(Palm Desert),[203] Mayfield College (Cathedral City),[204] and California
California
Nurses Educational Institute (Palm Springs).[205] Media[edit] Radio and television[edit] Further information: List of television stations in California § LPTV stations Palm Springs is the 144th largest TV market as defined by AC Nielsen. The Palm Springs DMA is unique among TV markets as it is entirely located within only a small portion of Riverside County. Also, while most areas received their first local television stations during the 1950s, Palm Springs did not receive its first TV stations until October 1968 when stations KPLM-TV (now KESQ) and KMIR-TV
KMIR-TV
debuted. Prior to that time, Palm Springs was served by TV stations from the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
market, which were carried on the local cable system that began operations in the 1950s and which predated the emergence of local broadcast stations by more than a decade. TV stations serving the Palm Springs and Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
area include:

KESQ-TV
KESQ-TV
ABC, Channel 42 (Channel 3 on cable) KMIR-TV
KMIR-TV
NBC, Channel 36 (Channel 13 on cable) KPSP-CD
KPSP-CD
CBS, Channel 38 (Channel 2 on cable)

The CW, Fox, MyNetworkTV, PBS
PBS
and other networks are covered by low power TV stations in the market. Additionally, Palm Springs and the surrounding area are served by AM and FM radio stations including the following:

KCLB-FM KCOD KCRI KCWQ-LP KDES-FM KDGL KESQ (AM) KEZN KGAM (AM) KHCS KHCV KKGX KKUU KLOB KMRJ KNWZ/KNWQ KPLM KPSC (FM) KPSH KPSI-FM KRCK-FM KRHQ KSUT KUNA-FM KVGH KVLA-FM KWXY KXPS

Newspapers and magazines[edit]

The Desert
Desert
Sun is the local daily newspaper serving Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
region. Desert
Desert
Magazine is a monthly lifestyle magazine delivered to 40,000 homes. The Desert
Desert
Star Weekly (formerly the Desert
Desert
Valley Star) is published in Desert
Desert
Hot Springs, California. The Desert
Desert
Daily Guide[206] is a weekly LGBT
LGBT
periodical.[207] Palm Springs Life is a monthly magazine; it also has publications on El Paseo Drive shopping in Palm Desert, desert area entertainment, homes, health, culture and arts, golf, plus annual issues on weddings and dining out.[208] The Palm Springs Villager[209] was published in the early 20th century until 1959.[210] The Palm Canyon Times was published from 1993–1996. The Desert
Desert
Post Weekly – Cathedral City.[211] The Public Record – Palm Desert, is a business and public affairs weekly.[212]

Infrastructure[edit] Libraries[edit] The city's library was started in 1924 and financed by Martha Hitchcock. It expanded in 1940 on land donated to the newly incorporated city by Dr. Welwood Murray and was financed through the efforts of Thomas O'Donnell.[213] The present site now operates as a branch library, research library for the Palm Springs Historical Society, and tourism office for the Palm Springs Bureau of Tourism.[214] Transportation[edit] One of the first transportation routes for Palm Springs was on the Bradshaw Trail, an historic overland stage coach route from San Bernardino to La Paz, Arizona. The Bradshaw Trail operated from 1862 to 1877. In the 1870s the Southern Pacific Railroad
Southern Pacific Railroad
expanded its lines into the Coachella Valley.[215] Modern transportation services include:

Palm Springs International Airport
Palm Springs International Airport
serves Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley.

Historical note: during World War II it was operated as the Palm Springs Army Airfield.

SunLine Transit Agency
SunLine Transit Agency
provides bus service in the Coachella Valley. Morongo Basin
Morongo Basin
Transit Authority provides bus service to and from Morongo Basin
Morongo Basin
communities. Amtrak's Sunset Limited
Sunset Limited
and Texas Eagle
Texas Eagle
form a single train which stops thrice weekly at the Palm Springs Amtrak
Amtrak
station.

Amtrak's Thruway Motorcoach connects Palm Springs to Bakersfield, Claremont, Indio, La Crescenta, Ontario, Pasadena, Riverside and San Bernardino.[216] A city curbside Thruway bus stop is located at 3400 East Tahquitz Canyon
Tahquitz Canyon
Way.[217] Historical note: the Southern Pacific Railroad
Southern Pacific Railroad
Argonaut served Palm Springs from 1926 to 1961.[citation needed]

Greyhound Bus Lines has a stop (no ticketing) at the Palm Springs Amtrak
Amtrak
station.[218]

Highways include:

SR 111 – California
California
State Route 111, which intersects the city. I-10 – Interstate 10 runs north of the city. SR 74 – The Pines to Palms Scenic Byway
Pines to Palms Scenic Byway
( California
California
State Route 74) runs from the coast, over the San Jacinto Mountains
San Jacinto Mountains
to nearby Palm Desert. SR 62 – California
California
State Route 62 (a Blue Star Memorial Highway) intersects I-10 north-west of the city and runs north to San Bernardino County and the Colorado River.

Cemeteries[edit] In 1890, the Jane Augustine Patencio Cemetery[219] was established on Tahquitz Way with the burial of Jane Augustine Patencio.[60] It is maintained by the Agua Caliente Tribe. The Welwood Murray Cemetery[220] was started by hotel operator Welwood Murray in 1894 when his son died.[23]:46[221] It is maintained by the Palm Springs Cemetery District,[222] which also maintains the Desert Memorial Park in Cathedral City. Also in Cathedral City is the Forest Lawn Cemetery, maintained by Forest Lawn Memorial-Parks & Mortuaries. Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Palm Springs, California Over 300 Palm Springs residents have been recognized on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars. Modern architecture[edit]

Mid-century modern
Mid-century modern
house in Palm Springs

Miller House, by Richard Neutra

Main article: Mid-Century modern
Mid-Century modern
§  Mid-century modern
Mid-century modern
in Palm Springs Besides its tradition of mid-century modern architecture, Palm Springs and the region features numerous noted architects. Other (non-Mid-Century Modern) include[223] Edward H. Fickett, Haralamb H. Georgescu, Howard Lapham, and Karim Rashid.[224] Palm Springs in popular culture[edit] Main article: Palm Springs in popular culture See also: List of films and TV series set in Palm Springs, California and List of films shot in Palm Springs, California The Palm Springs area has been a filming location, topical setting, and storyline subject for many films, television shows, and literature. Wildlife[edit] The fauna of Palm Springs is mostly species adapted to desert, temperature extremes and to lack of moisture. It is located within the Nearctic
Nearctic
faunistic realm in a region containing an assemblage of species similar to Northern Africa.[225] Native fauna includes Pronghorns, Desert
Desert
Bighorn Sheep, Desert
Desert
Tortoise, Kit Fox, Desert Iguanas, Horned Lizards, Chuckwalla, Bobcats, Mountain lions and Gila Monsters. Other animals include ground squirrels, rock squirrels, porcupines, skunks, cactus mice, kangaroo rats, pocket gophers and raccoons. Desert
Desert
birds here include the iconic Roadrunner, which can run at speeds exceeding 15 mp/h. Other avifauna includes the Ladder-backed woodpecker, flycatchers, elf owls, great horned owls, sparrow hawks and a variety of raptors.[226] The Sonoran Desert
Desert
has more species of rattlesnakes (11) than anywhere else in the world.[227] The most common species is the extremely venomous Mojave rattler, which is considered the world's most dangerous rattlesnake. The largest rattle snake species here is the Western diamondback rattlesnake, while other species include the Black-tailed rattlesnake, Tiger rattler
Tiger rattler
and Sidewinder rattler.[228] Palm Springs is home to Tarantulas
Tarantulas
and various Scorpion
Scorpion
species, including the Vinegaroon.[229]

American black bear

Although Black bears are not common in the Coachella Valley, bears have been observed in Palm Springs and other parts of California.[230] Today, Jaguars
Jaguars
roam the northern Mexican dry-lands, however, they were previously common throughout the Coachella Valley. The last documented Jaguar sighting in Palm Springs, was in 1860.[231] See also[edit]

Inland Empire
Inland Empire
portal

Leonore Annenberg
Leonore Annenberg
and Walter Annenberg Rancho Mirage
Rancho Mirage
residents involved in Palm Springs activities. Their Sunnylands
Sunnylands
estate hosted many dignitaries and celebrities. History of the Jews in the U.S. – Palm Springs – for information about the Jewish community in Palm Springs. Pumilia novaceki
Pumilia novaceki
– an extinct iguanid from the Palm Springs area. United States
United States
cities by crime rate (40,000–60,000) – for a comparative table on crime rates in Palm Springs

References[edit]

^ a b "Palm Springs". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved November 11, 2014.  ^ " California
California
Cities by Incorporation Date". California
California
Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.  ^ "Robert Moon" (PDF). City of Palm Springs. Retrieved May 6, 2017.  ^ "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau. Retrieved Jun 28, 2017.  ^ a b c "Palm Springs (city) QuickFacts". United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau. Archived from the original on August 26, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2015.  ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.  ^ a b Wilkerson, Lyn (2009). Slow Travels – California. Lulu Press, Inc. p. 96. ISBN 978-0557088072. ^ a b Wares, Donna (2008). Great Escapes: Southern California. The Countryman Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0881507799. ^ "Parks & Recreation". City of Palm Springs. Retrieved August 28, 2014.  ^ a b Baker, Christopher P. (2008). Explorer's Guide Palm Springs & Desert
Desert
Resorts: A Great Destination. The Countryman Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-1581570489. ^ a b c Vechten, Ken Van (2010). Insider’s Guide to Palm Springs. Roman & Littlefield. p. 17. ISBN 978-0762761579. ^ Smolinski, Dick and Craig A. Doherty (1994). The Cahuilla. Rourke Publications. p. 4. ISBN 978-0866255271. ^ Palmer, Roger C. (2012). Palm Springs. Arcadia Publishing. p. ix. ISBN 978-0738589138. ^ Gray-Kanatiiosh, Barbara A. (2010). Cahuilla. ABDO Publishing Company. p. 4. ISBN 978-1617849077. ^ Niemann, Greg (2006). Palm Springs Legends: Creation of a Desert Oasis. Sunbelt Publications, Inc. p. 15. ISBN 978-0932653741. ^ Bean, Lowell L. (1974). Mukat's People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California. University of California
California
Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0520026278. ^ Baker, Christopher P. (2008). Explorer's Guide Palm Springs & Desert
Desert
Resorts: A Great Destination. The Countryman Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-1581570489. ^ Whitley, David S. (1996). A Guide to Rock Art Sites: Southern California
California
and Southern Nevada. Mountain Press Publishing. pp. 94–96. ISBN 978-0878423323. ^ Baker, Christopher P. (2008). Explorer's Guide Palm Springs & Desert
Desert
Resorts: A Great Destination. The Countryman Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-1581570489. ^ Niemann, Greg (2006). Palm Springs Legends: Creation of a Desert Oasis. Sunbelt Publications, Inc. p. 259. ISBN 978-0932653741. ^ Eargle, Dolan H. (2008). Native California: An Introductory Guide to the Original Peoples From Earliest to Modern Times. Trees Company Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0937401118. ^ https://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2010/cph-t/t-6tables/TABLE%20(1).pdf ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Niemann, Greg (2006). Palm Springs Legends: creation of a desert oasis. San Diego, CA: Sunbelt Publications. p. 286. ISBN 978-0932653741. OCLC 61211290.  (here for Table of Contents) ^ a b c d e Lech, Steve (2004). Along the Old Roads: A History of the Portion of Southern California
California
that became Riverside County: 1772–1893. Riverside, CA: Steve Lech. p. 902. OCLC 56035822.  ^ Gittens, Roberta (November 1992). "A Palm-filled Oasis: Palm Springs and the Desert
Desert
Communities of the Coachella Valley". Art of California. Napa, CA: Art Institute of California. 5 (5): 45. ISSN 1045-8913. OCLC 19009782.  ^ City of Palm Springs: History ^ Bright, William (1998). Fifteen Hundred California
California
Place Names. University of California
California
Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0520212718. Retrieved April 5, 2013.  ^ Gudde, Erwin Gustav; Bright, William (1998). California
California
Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names (4th ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California
California
Press. p. 277. ISBN 0520242173. LCCN 97043168. 'The fine large trees which mark the course of the run have furnished the name ...' (Whipple 1849:7–8). The place is shown as Big Palm Springs on the von Leicht-Craven map of 1874.  ^ a b Wild, Peter (2007). Tipping the Dream: A Brief History of Palm Springs. Johannesburg, CA: The Shady Myrick Research Project. p. 228. OCLC 152590848.  ^ a b c d Colacello, Bob (June 1999). Becker, Jonathan (photographs). "Palm Springs Weekends" (PDF). Vanity Fair: 192–211. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 11, 2013.  ^ Palm Valley Land Co. (c. 1888). Views in Palm Valley...: The earliest fruit region in the state...now on sale by Biggs, Fergusson & Co. San Francisco. OCLC 82950785.  ^ Two early, but fictional, visitors were six-year-old Mary and her cousin Jack. See: Foster, Ethel T. (1913). "A Visit to Palm Springs". Little Tales of the Desert. Villa, Hernando G. (illustrations). Los Angeles, CA: Kingsley, Mason and Collins Co. p. 23. ISBN 978-1176787933. LCCN 13025440. OCLC 3726918. Just beyond [the Indian village] was Palm Springs settlement itself, with lots of tents, several houses, a store and [Dr. Murray's Hotel]....They visited the funny little cottages with their roofs and sides all covered with big palm leaves instead of boards. Then they went up to the hot springs.  ^ Brown, Renee (July 24, 2014). "Palm Springs History: Pioneers survived summer". The Desert
Desert
Sun. Palm Springs, CA: Gannett.  ^ James, George Wharton; Eytel, Carl (illustrator) (1906). The Wonders of the Colorado Desert
Desert
(Southern California). Boston: Little, Brown and Company. p. 547. ISBN 978-1103733613. LCCN 06043916. OCLC 2573290.  (Available as a pdf file through the HathiTrust
HathiTrust
Digital Library.)

Wonders is illustrated with over 300 drawings by desert artist Carl Eytel. Many of those drawings, including the Title Page figure, are used throughout Steve Lech's extensive history of early Riverside County. See: Along the Old Roads (cited above).

^ Reviews of Wonders included:

Adams, Cyrus C. (March 2, 1907). "Wonders of the Far West: George Wharton James's New Book on the Colorado Desert". The New York Times Saturday Review of Books. Retrieved August 30, 2012.  "A Guide to the New Books". The Literary Digest. New York and London: Funk & Wagnalls. XXXIV (7): 263–64. February 16, 1907. This elaborate treatise is a distinct contribution to the literature of the natural wonders of our country.  Gilmour, John Hamilton (February 3, 1907). "The Wonders of the Colorado Desert, California". San Francisco Call. 101 (65): Magazine, 3. He has written admirably and knowingly ... and this ... is in line with his previous works. 

^ Starr, Kevin (1997). "1. Good Times on the Coast: Affluence and the Anti-Depression". The Dream Endures: California
California
Enters the 1940s. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 512. ISBN 978-0195100792.  ^ Desert
Desert
Inn (1923). The Desert
Desert
Inn: Where Desert
Desert
and Mountains Meet, Palm Springs, California. Los Angeles, CA: Times-Mirror Print & Binding House. p. 24. OCLC 82839637.  ^ "Historic Sites: Desert
Desert
Inn". Palm Springs Life. County of Riverside Historical Marker No. 044; 123 North Palm Canyon (image of marker with 1908 date)  ^ Bright, Marjorie Belle (1981). Nellie's Boardinghouse: a dual biography of Nellie Coffman and Palm Springs. Palm Springs, CA: ETC Pub. p. 247.  ^ Janss, Betty; Frashers Inc (1933). Palm Springs California: presented with the compliments of the Desert
Desert
Inn. Palm Springs, CA: Desert
Desert
Inn. p. 34. OCLC 427216166.  ^ Brown, Renee (March 28, 2015). "Nellie Coffman's hospitality helped Palm Springs grow". The Desert
Desert
Sun. Gannett.  ^ Chase, J. Smeaton (1987) [1920]. Our Araby: Palm Springs and the Garden of the Sun. Pasadena, CA: Star-News Publishing Co. p. 83. ISBN 0961872403. LCCN 24010428. OCLC 6169840.  ^ a b Bowhart, W. H.; Hector, Julie; McManus, Sally Mall; Coffman Kieley, Elizabeth (April 1984). "The McCallum Centennial – Palm Springs' founding family". Palm Springs Life. Palm Springs, CA: Desert Publications. Retrieved February 24, 2012. ; and, Ainsworth, Katherine (1996) [1973]. The McCallum Saga: The Story of the Founding of Palm Springs. Palm Springs, CA: Palm Springs Public Library. p. 245. ISBN 0961872411. LCCN 96052785. OCLC 799840.  ^ During World War II, the hotel was taken over and operated as a United States
United States
Army General Hospital, named in honor of Surgeon General George H. Torney. ^ Wild, Peter (2011). Heiress of Doom: Lois Kellogg of Palm Springs. Tucson, AZ: Estate of Peter Wild. p. 449. OCLC 748583736.  ^ a b c Palmer, Roger C. (2011). Palm Springs (Then & Now). Charleston, SC: Arcadia. p. 95. ISBN 978-0738589138. LCCN 2011932500. OCLC 785786600.  ^ Brown, Renee (May 21, 2016). "Movie stars began flocking to Palm Springs in the 1930s". The Desert
Desert
Sun. Palm Springs, CA. Gannett.  ^ Rippingale, Sally Presley (1984). The History of the Racquet Club of Palm Springs. Yucaipa, CA: US Business Specialties. p. 146. LCCN 85226534. OCLC 13526611. . Also see: Turner, Mary L. and Turner, Cal A. (photography) (2006). The Beautiful People of Palm Springs. Sedona, AZ: Gene Weed. pp. 154. ISBN 978-1-4116-3488-6 OCLC 704086361. The Racquet Club would cater to the Hollywood
Hollywood
elite for decades. ^ a b Carr, Jim (1989). Palms Springs and the Coachella Valley. Helena, MT: American Geographic Publishing. p. 112. ISBN 0938314688. LCCN 91166185. OCLC 25026437.  ^ Kleinschmidt, Janet (September 2005). "Remembering The Chi Chi: 'A hip little place to come for wealthy people.'". Palm Springs Life. ; and, Johns, Howard (September 2007). "In the Swing: Dinner clubs and lounges echo the days (and nights) of Palm Springs' famed Chi Chi club". Palm Springs Life.  ^ Meeks, Eric G. (2012). The Best Guide Ever to Palm Springs Celebrity Homes. Horatio Limburger Oglethorpe. pp. 206–07. ISBN 978-1479328598.  ^ Fessier, Bruce. "Mob looks to win big with casinos in valley". The Desert
Desert
Sun. Gannett.  ^ Brown, Renee (April 9, 2016). "Gambling in desert was 'economic driver' in 1930s". The Desert
Desert
Sun. Palm Springs, CA: Gannett.  ^ Howser, Huell; Bogert, Frank; McManus, Sally; Pitts, Larry (September 27, 2010). "Palm Springs Plaza Update – Palm Springs Week (35)". California's Gold. Chapman University
Chapman University
Huell Howser Archive.  ^ Except where noted, most data is from: Lech, Steve (2005). "Six: Palm Springs, Desert
Desert
Hot Springs, Indio, and La Quinta". Resorts of Riverside County. Charleston, SC: Arcadia. p. 128. ISBN 978-0738530789. OCLC 62790503.  ^ a b c d Bogert, Frank M. (1987 (republished 2003)). Palm Springs: First Hundred Years. Palm Springs, CA: Palm Springs Library. p. 288. ISBN 096187242X. OCLC 17171891.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
History Museum: Exhibits ^ a b Nordland, Ole J. (1978) [1968]. Coachella Valley's Golden Years: History of the Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
County Water District (PDF). Coachella, CA: Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
Water District. p. 120. OCLC 4511277. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2015.  ^ a b c Desert
Desert
Memories: Historic Images of the Coachella Valley. Palm Springs, CA: The Desert
Desert
Sun. 2002. p. 128. ISBN 978-1932129014. OCLC 50674171.  ^ a b c d Robinson, Nancy (1992). Palm Springs History Handbook. Palm Springs, CA: Palm Springs Public Library. p. 41. OCLC 31595834.  ^ a b c d Henderson, Moya; Palm Springs Historical Society (2009). Images of America: Palm Springs. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 127. ISBN 978-0738559827. LCCN 2008931760. OCLC 268792707.  ^ "Ingleside Inn Purchased".  ^ " Desert
Desert
Hot Springs" (PDF) (Brochure). Desert
Desert
Hot Springs Historical Society. 1952. Retrieved September 24, 2012.  ^ Abbott, Maggie. "Jerry Skuse". Desert
Desert
Hot Springs Historical Society. Retrieved September 24, 2012.  ^ Palm Springs Life: Palm Spring Historical Sites – Building and Land Markers – Oasis Hotel ^ Palm Springs, California. Palm Springs, CA: The Hotels. 1929. p. 34. WorldCat
WorldCat
note: sponsored and distributed by the four leading hotels of Palm Springs: the Desert
Desert
Inn, El Mirador, the Oasis, Deep Well Guest Ranch ; OCLC 29907656, 228699240 ^ Brown, Renee (September 25, 2015). "History: Torney general hospital's contribution in WWII". The Desert
Desert
Sun. Palm Springs, CA: Gannett.  ^ The 1918 flu pandemic
1918 flu pandemic
produced an influx of patients. Pyle, Ernie (March 27, 1942). "Palatial Palm Springs Monument To the Faith and Work of One Woman". St. Petersburg Times. p. 6. Retrieved September 30, 2012. In 1917 the new crop of war millionaires looked afield for vacation places, and came to Palm Springs....But the flu epidemic filled the place up.  ^ Wenzell, Nicolette (February 20, 2014). "Palm Springs History: Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
tap-danced into our hearts". The Desert
Desert
Sun. Gannett.  ^ Holmes, Elmer Wallace; Bird, Jessica (1912). "XX: San Gorgonio Pass". History of Riverside County, California. Los Angeles, CA: Historic Record Company. p. 783. OCLC 7951260.  ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Palm Springs Army Air Field (historical) ^ "Palm Springs Visitors Set Fashion Pace: Desert
Desert
Resort Hotels And Clubs Are Crowded To Capacity". The Pittsburgh Press. March 26, 1941. p. 28. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ Johnson, Erskine (December 18, 1949). "Palm Springs An Odd Place". The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ "Torney General Hospital". Historic California
California
Posts. The California State Military Museum.  ^ Wills, Eric (May/June 2008). "Palm Springs Eternal", Preservation, Vol. 60, Issue 3, pp. 38–45 ^ Goldberger, Paul (May–June 2008). "The Modernist Manifesto". Preservation. 60 (3): 30–35.  ^ a b Culver, Lawrence (2010). "Chapter 5: The Oasis of Leisure – Palm Springs before 1941; and Chapter 6: Making of Desert
Desert
Modern – Palm Springs after World War II". The Frontier of Leisure: Southern California
California
and the Shaping of Modern America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 317. ISBN 978-0195382631. LCCN 2009053932.  OCLC 620294456, 464581464 ^ Kray, Ryan M. (February 2004). "The Path to Paradise: Expropriation, Exodus and Exclusion in the Making of Palm Springs". Pacific Historical Review. 73 (1): 85–126. doi:10.1525/phr.2004.73.1.85. ISSN 0030-8684. JSTOR 10.1525/phr.2004.73.1.85.  OCLC 4635437946, 361566392 (subscription required) ^ Kray, Ryan M. (2009). Second-class Citizenship at a First-class Resort: Race and Public Policy in Palm Springs. Irvine, CA: University of California
California
(Ph.D. thesis). p. 407. ISBN 978-1109197983. OCLC 518520550.  ^ "Palm Springs: Green and Grows the Desert" (PDF). Fortune: 122–27. February 1961. Before President Eisenhower went to Palm Springs...in 1954, [it] was only a regional resort. Overnight it became a winter resort with national drawing power.  ^ A book of Doisneau's photographs was published in 2010. Doisneau, Robert; Dubois, Jean-Paul (Forward) (2010). Palm Springs 1960. Paris: Flammarion. p. 9. ISBN 978-2080301291. LCCN 2010442384. OCLC 491896174.  ^ See:

Amory, Cleveland (March 12, 1961). "Palm Springs Is Really An Incredible Place". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved October 2, 2012. It is Hollywood
Hollywood
without the wood. Beverly Hills without the hills and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
without the – well, freeways.  "Palm Springs Now Top Desert
Desert
Resort". The Sun. Vancouver, Canada. January 5, 1968. Retrieved October 2, 2012. One finds 21 golf courses sprinkled across the golden sands of the desert. More than 3,650 swimming pools dot the landscape.  "Palm Springs: Outdoors Paradise". St. Petersburg Independent. St. Petersburg, FL. January 11, 1972. p. 4-D. Retrieved October 2, 2012. Moonlight steak [horseback] rides, breakfast rides and group rides are a way of life in the...desert resort.  Fix, Jack V. (June 9, 1977). "Palm Springs Place Where Rich Retire". The Pittsburgh Press. UPI. p. B-1. Retrieved October 2, 2012. This desert town...with 5,000 private swimming pools, 38 golf courses and homes selling for 'only $250,000 down' is probably the most wealthy retirement community in the world. Yet it is an area of 37 mobile home parks and senior citizens, 32 per cent of whom...reported an income of less than $4,000 a year.  Eichenbaum, Marlene (June 9, 1979). "Palm Springs: It's a plush resort for rich and poor alike". The Gazette. Montreal, Canada. p. T-2. Retrieved October 2, 2012. ...it has long been a haven for the rich and famous....it [also] offers a wide choice of moderately-priced accommodations....  von Sorge, Helmut (April 30, 1984). "Palm Springs – das Goldene Kaff". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved October 3, 2012.  Braid, Don (January 9, 1985). "Palm Springs: Where the rich meet to greet". The Gazette. Montreal, Canada. p. B-3. Retrieved October 2, 2012. The whole place is flamboyant, bold, obscenely rich,....It's so utterly un-Canadian that Canadian [tourists] can't resist it, even when they can't afford it.  Miller, Judith (December 16, 1990). "Palm Springs ain't what she used to be". Deseret News. Salt Lake City, UT. NY Times News Service. p. 2P. Retrieved October 3, 2012. The metropolitan area, which includes nine cities, has 187,000 year-round residents and plays host to 2 million visitors each year. It has 7,645 swimming pools, more than 100 tennis courts and 101 golf courses .... 

^ "Recession Comes to Posh Palm Springs". Lewiston Evening Journal. AP. March 6, 1975. p. 7. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ Yates, Ronald; Koziol, Ronald (May 9, 1978). "Elite Palm Springs Becomes A Gangsters' Playground". The Evening Independent. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 30, 2012. [Palm Springs] has become Our Town for such Chicago
Chicago
luminaries as Anthony "Big Tuna" Accardo, Joey "The Dove" Aiuppa, James "The Turk" Torello, and Frank "The Horse" Buccieri.  Also, Vincent Dominic Caci
Vincent Dominic Caci
bought a home in Palm Springs. ^ See:

Sahagun, Louis (March 16, 1986). "Palm Springs takes pains to gloss up its faded star image". The Pittsburgh Press. The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. pp. G1, G4. Retrieved October 3, 2012. Now, big spenders, tourists and developers are sidestepping this 50-year-old resort community, gravitating instead toward the towns that have blossomed east of here in the Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
over the last 10 years.  "Palm Springs, Calif.; A $100 Million Resort Hotel". New York Times. February 19, 1989. Retrieved October 3, 2012. But while the city of Palm Springs has won national recognition as a resort area, the lower Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
cities...have benefited most from the new hotels. 

^ For international coverage, see:

Werb, Helmut (April 27, 2006). "Palm Springs: Die Wüste lebt! [Living Desert]" (in German). stern.de. Retrieved October 3, 2012.  QMI Agency (August 21, 2009). "Palm Springs, la princesse du désert [ Desert
Desert
Princess]" (in French). Quebec, Canada: canoë.ca. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 

^ "Is party over for Palm Springs?". Lodi News-Sentinel. Associated Press. April 9, 1993. Retrieved October 1, 2012. For 40 years, this desert city endured an Easter week invasion of student revelers...  ^ Gianoulis, Tina (2000). "Spring Break." St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. Gale. Retrieved January 7, 2013 from HighBeam Research ^ "Palm Springs Lowers Lid On Disorderly Students: Jails Crammed in Crackdown: Spring Vacations Marked By Violence". The Blade. Toledo, OH. AP. April 3, 1969. p. 6. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ "Palm Springs quiet as youths leave". The Milwaukee Journal. AP. March 31, 1986. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ Hubler, Shawn (February 8, 1991). "Palm Springs Votes to Tone Down Easter Break". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times.  ^ Hubler, Shawn (March 31, 1991). "Palm Springs Sees a Kinder and Gentler Spring Break: Crackdown: City officials call the week the most orderly and successful in years. But merchants catering to the young say it was a financial disaster". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times.  ^ Brooks, Ken (December 16, 2010). "A Palm Springs Break". Payson Roundup. Payson, AZ. Retrieved September 29, 2012. There are spas, golf courses, famed hotels and resorts, tennis, swimming, sunning, shopping, museums, restaurants and an extensive list of amenities and attractions.  ^ Monroe, Angela (January 26, 2012). "The Road Ahead for the Desert Fashion Plaza". KMIR-TV, KMIR6 News ^ a b c "Monthly Normals for Palm Springs, CA – Temperature and Precipitation". NOAA. Retrieved 2011-07-24.  ^ a b "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2012-04-17.  ^ "Monthly Averages for Palm Springs, CA – Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2010-05-29.  ^ Hogan, C. Michael; Stromberg, Nicklas (ed.) (2009). California
California
Fan Palm: Washingtonia filifera, GlobalTwitcher.com Archived September 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Palm Springs Office of Neighborhood Involvement ^ Palm Springs Historic Neighborhoods by The Desert
Desert
Sun feature writer Judith Salkin ^ The Movie Colony: History ^ Movie Colony East ^ El Rancho Vista Estates: History Archived May 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Warm Sands Neighborhood Organization: Profile ^ The Mesa Neighborhood: History[permanent dead link] ^ Palm Springs Preservation Foundation: Then and Now ^ Treno: About ^ Sunmor Neighborhood Organization; and, Sunmor Estates: Neighborhood History Archived March 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Gordon Coutts; the Dar Marrac is now operated as the Mediterranean-style Korakia Pensione ^ The Willows: history

Clark Gable
Clark Gable
and Carole Lombard
Carole Lombard
enjoyed their honeymoon at the Willows. Palmeri, Christopher (September 3, 2000). "Palm Springs: An Oasis of Nostalgia in the Desert". [[Bloomberg Businessweek.]

^ Robinson, Rita (1996). Umbrella Guide to Grand Old Hotels of Southern and Central California. Kenmore, WA: Epicenter Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0945397472. LCCN 97116800.  ^ Historic Tennis Club Neighborhood Organization: History Archived October 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Las Palmas Neighborhood Organization ^ Old Las Palmas Neighborhood: History[permanent dead link] ^ Hart, Lisa Marie (September 2015). "The Real Steel". Palm Springs Life.  ^ "Deepwell Estates Neighborhood Organization". www.ourdeepwell.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01.  ^ "Deepwell Estates Neighborhood Organization (DENO) Palm Springs Villager". www.ourdeepwell.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01.  ^ " Census
Census
of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.  ^ "2010 Census
Census
Interactive Population Search: CA – Palm Springs city". U.S. Census
Census
Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014.  ^ "American FactFinder". United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.  ^ a b Gates, Gary; Ost, Jason (2004). The Gay and Lesbian Atlas. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. p. 241. ISBN 0877667217.  (data summarized at Urban Institute Factsheet ^ Wallace, David (2008). A City Comes Out: How Celebrities Made Palm Springs a Gay and Lesbian Paradise. Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade Books. p. 192. ISBN 978-1569803493. LCCN 2008022210. OCLC 209646547. Archived from the original on June 17, 2013.  ^ The Body: African-American HIV/AIDS Resource Center: Interview with Ron Oden ^ Palm Springs Bureau of Tourism
Tourism
(2005). Palm Springs: official gay & lesbian visitors guide. Palm Springs, CA: Pride National Network. p. 62. OCLC 64229593. ; "Gay pocket guide: Palm Springs, Cathedral City & the entire Coachella Valley". Hollywood, CA: GHighway. OCLC 74711792. ; The Bottom Line. Palm Springs, CA: Su-Go Ltd. 1978–. OCLC 45909832.  Check date values in: date= (help); Missing or empty title= (help) ^ a b Palm Springs Aerial Tramway
Palm Springs Aerial Tramway
news release, January 5, 2005 Archived September 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Fentress Bradburn: Convention Center remodeling Archived March 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sone, Tamara (August 16, 2011). "They all thought I was nuts". The Desert
Desert
Sun. (subscription required) ^ Designed by the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
design firm Commune. Nakano, Craig (August 11, 2012) "L.A. firm Commune leaves fingerprints across Japan for a cause" Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times ^ Bloomberg Businessweek: Company Overview of Bird Medical Technologies] ^ Modernism Week ^ PS Black History Committee: Calendar ^ ACC Museum: Film Festival ^ Jeffrey Sanker, White Party
White Party
sponsor ^ Arthur Lyons Film Noir
Film Noir
Festival ^ Palm Springs Cultural Center ^ Palm Springs Restaurant Week ^ The Gay Men's Chorus of Palm Springs: About ^ City of Palm Springs: PSHS Homecoming; and, KESQ.com PSHS Homecoming Parade ^ City of Palm Springs Veterans Day
Veterans Day
Parade ^ VA Department: Regional Sites ^ City of Palm Springs Event Calendar: Veterans Day ^ Palm Springs Festival of Lights; and, "2011 Palm Springs Festival of Lights Parade" (December 3, 2011). mydesert.com ( Desert
Desert
Sun) ^ " The Fabulous Palm Springs Follies
The Fabulous Palm Springs Follies
to Close its Doors for Good". www.palmspringslife.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01.  ^ Palm Springs VillageFest ^ Desert
Desert
Film Society – Palm Springs ^ City of Palm Springs: Boards and Commissions ^ City of Palm Springs: Art in Public Places History ^ ACC Museum ^ The visitor's center for Palm Canyon was named "Hermit's Haven" and "Hermit's Bench" after early "hippie" William Pester who had a cabin overlooking the canyon. See: Lech, Steve (2012). For Tourism
Tourism
and a Good Night's Sleep. Riverside, CA: Steve Lech. p. 230. ISBN 978-0983750017. , citing "Hermit Haven is Next to Nature" (December 2, 1917). Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times; U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Palm Canyon; and, Wild, Peter (2008). William Pester: The Hermit of Palm Springs. Johannesburg, CA: The Shady Myrick Research Project. p. 161. OCLC 234084689.  ^ Agua Caliente Indian Canyons ^ Tahquitz Canyon ^ Brown, Renee (June 11, 2015). "' Desert
Desert
Plays' performed in Tahquitz Canyon in 19202". The Desert
Desert
Sun. Palm Springs, CA: Gannett.  ^ Lost Horizon at the American Film Institute Catalog ^ Agua Caliente Spa Resort Casino ^ Mendoza, Mariecar (May 5, 2012). "Marilyn Monroe returning to Palm Springs in a big way". The Desert
Desert
Sun. Retrieved May 26, 2012.  ^ PSHS About ^ Palm Springs Historical Society Village Green Heritage Center ^ Schenden, Laurie K. (n.d.). "Ruddy's General Store Museum". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 17, 2012. ; and, Palm Springs heritage ^ Palm Springs Art Museum: Annenberg Theater ^ Children's Discovery Museum of the Desert: About ^ Art Palm Springs.com: Gallery, Studio, Museum, Festival, Event Guide ^ CAC Chapters ^ Desert
Desert
Art Center: History ^ Biller, Steven (Winter–Spring 2006). "In the Studio – Delos Van Earl: Hide and Seek". Palm Springs Life. Art + Culture. Retrieved January 31, 2013.  ^ "Warm Sands Sculpture Project". Palms Springs Office of Neighborhood Involvement.  ^ http://www.hometeamsonline.com/teams/?u=PALMSPRINGSCOLLEGIAT&s=baseball ^ USTA Easter Bowl ITF ^ USTA Easter Bowl Wrap-Ups ^ Dean, Terry; Dickinson, Judy. O'Donnell Golf Club: Jewel of the Desert
Desert
for 65 Years. p. 52. OCLC 810251995.  ^ Thunderbird Country Club: Mission and History[permanent dead link] ^ The Thunderbird Country Club had started off as a dude ranch in 1956. Howser, Huell; Bogert, Frank; Dawson, Velma; Windeler, Robert (September 29, 2002). "Thunderbird Country Club – Palm Springs (32)". California's Gold. Chapman University
Chapman University
Huell Howser Archive. ; Windeler, Robert (2002). Thunderbird Country Club: from desert to oasis. New York, NY: Bluefin Press. p. 184. OCLC 60860787.  ^ Best, Hugh (1988). Thunderbird Country Club. pp. 128. OCLC 41519919 ASIN B002I5PBH2 ^ CANTOUR 2012 Season ( Desert
Desert
Hot Springs)

For more information on golf courses in the region, see:

Wexler, Daniel (2011). The Black Book: Palm Springs Area Golf Guide. CreateSpace. p. 132. ISBN 978-1467975643. , covers Riverside, San Bernardino, and Imperial Counties. Ryder, Jay (1989). The Greater Palm Springs Golf Guide: a Comprehensive Reference Guide to Playing the Desert's Finest Gold Courses. Palm Desert, CA: Ryder Publications. p. 156. LCCN 90115597. 

^ AYSO Region 80 ^ AYSO Section 1H ^ PS Parks & Recreation ^ City of Palm Springs, James O. Jessie Desert
Desert
Highland Unity Center ^ PS Parks & Recreation: Dog Park ^ Vacation Palm Springs: Desert
Desert
Ice Palace ^ KESQ.COM, "Ice Skating Rink Slated To Open In Cathedral City", April 29, 2010, retrieved February 27, 2012 ^ Boomers! Palm Springs: Directions ^ City of Palm Springs, Skate Park and Swim Center ^ Hicks, John David (1973). History of the Desert
Desert
Riders. pp. 24. OCLC 19766413 ^ Patten, Carolyn (March 1995). "The Desert
Desert
Riders". Palm Springs Life.  ^ Hubbard, Doni (1991). Favorite Trails of Desert
Desert
Riders. Redwood City, CA: Hoofprints. p. 239. OCLC 26698066.  ^ "Incorporation Wins". The Desert
Desert
Sun. XI (36). April 12, 1938.  ^ Charter of the City of Palm Springs, Approved by the people June 7, 1994; effective July 12, 1994. OCLC 30622447 ^ Weiss, Henry (c. 1999). At Sunrise: the History of the Palm Springs Public Library. Palm Springs, CA: Palm Springs Public Library. p. 121. LCCN 2002510928.  ^ SCAG: Member cities ^ County of Riverside, 2011 Supervisoral Districts ^ "Statewide Database". UC Regents. Retrieved November 18, 2014.  ^ "California's 36th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC.  ^ PSUSD Home Page ^ PSUSD: Palm Springs High School; and, PSHS Homepage ^ Palm Springs Unified School District:

Cahuilla Elementary School Cielo Vista Charter School Katherine Finchy Elementary School Vista del Monte Elementary School

^ a b US DOE 2011 National Blue Ribbon Schools ^ The school is named after an early teacher in Palm Springs. Galon, Buddy; et al. (1980). The Little School House: the Life of Miss Katherine Finchy. Palm Springs, CA: Lyceum of the Desert, pp. 80. OCLC 7374555 ^ PSUSD Alternative Education ^ Xavier Prep home page ^ Brandman University: Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
Programs ^ DeBenedictis, Don J. (July 12, 2012). "New law school to focus on advocacy". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Daily Journal. p. 5.  ^ Kaplan College
Kaplan College
Palm Springs ^ University of Phoenix, Palm Desert ^ Mayfield College ^ Council on Occupational Education Accredited Membership ^ Desert
Desert
Daily Guide. P.S. Pairing Partners. OCLC 54477925.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ DDG Archived February 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Palm Springs Life publications ^ LCCN 52-17796 ^ Palm Springs Villager. Village Publishing Company. OCLC 11990550. America's most beautiful desert magazine  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ OCLC 44505524 ^ The Public Record: About Us ISSN 0744-205X OCLC 8101482, 252439622 ^ Brown, Renee (August 14, 2014). "Welwood Murray library has storied past, future". The Desert
Desert
Sun. Gannett.  ^ "Welwood Murray Memorial Library". City of Palm Springs, CA.  ^ Goolsby, Denise (August 24, 2014). " Southern Pacific Railroad
Southern Pacific Railroad
made path through the wild". The Desert
Desert
Sun. Palm Springs, CA: Gannett.  ^ Amtrak
Amtrak
California
California
Trains and Thruways map; and, Thruway motorcoach service is available only in connection with an Amtrak
Amtrak
rail trip. ^ Palm Springs (city) curbside bus stop (Thruway) ^ Greyhound.com Locations: California ^ Jane Augustine Patencio Cemetery Find A Grave ^ Welwood Murray Cemetery Find A Grave. Some famous burials (Palm Springs Cemetery District "Interments of Interest" and Find A Grave: Famous Burials at Welwood Murray include:

J. Smeaton Chase
J. Smeaton Chase
(author) J. Smeaton Chase
J. Smeaton Chase
at Find a Grave Charles Farrell
Charles Farrell
(actor) Albert Frey (architect) Hugo Montenegro
Hugo Montenegro
(orchestra leader) Jackie Saunders
Jackie Saunders
(silent film actress) Herbert E. Toor (philanthropist) "Herbert Tour, 88; Furniture Retailer". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. October 15, 1988. Retrieved September 5, 2012.  Virginia Valli
Virginia Valli
(stage and film actress, manager of the Palm Springs Racquet Club, and spouse of Charles Farrell)

^ Palm Springs Life, "Palm Spring Historical Sites – Building and Land Markers" accessed October 10, 2011 ^ Palm Springs Cemetery District ^ City of Rancho Mirage
Rancho Mirage
Historic Preservation Commission "Architect Bios" ^ "Sci Fi – Futuristic Bungalow by Karim Rashid". Best Home News. June 29, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2012. ...bungalow is created specifically for the Sci Fi channel and Morongo Casino.  ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/616563/United-States/77969/Animal-life ^ Baker, Christopher P. (2008). Explorer's Guide Palm Springs & Desert
Desert
Resorts: A Great Destination. The Countryman Press. pp. 22-28. ISBN 9781581570489. ^ http://wc.pima.edu/~bfiero/tucsonecol109/boxes/rattlesnake.htm ^ Baker, Christopher P. (2008). Explorer's Guide Palm Springs & Desert
Desert
Resorts: A Great Destination. The Countryman Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-1581570489. ^ Baker, Christopher P. (2008). Explorer's Guide Palm Springs & Desert
Desert
Resorts: A Great Destination. The Countryman Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-1581570489. ^ http://www.desertsun.com/story/news/environment/2017/05/15/bear-sighting-indio-la-verne-rare/323126001/ ^ Jameson, Everlett Williams and Hans J. Peeters (1988). California Mammals. University of California
California
Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780520053915.

Further reading[edit]

Palm Springs in general, history, culture, and city

Berk, Heather Lynn (1994). Times of Change: The Growth of Palm Springs from Village to Suburbia, 1945–1955. Claremont McKenna College Senior Thesis X190. p. 114. OCLC 33434649.  Block, Charles (1989). Canyon Palms: a Desert
Desert
Tribute. C. Block. p. 64. LCCN 89090703. OCLC 22984922.  Bogert, Frank M. (2006). View From the Saddle: Characters Who Crossed My Trail. Palm Springs, CA: ETC Publications. p. 232. ISBN 0882801589. OCLC 62110026.  Churchwell, Mary Jo (2001). Palm Springs: the Landscape, the History, the Lore. Palm Springs, CA: Ironwood. p. 234. ISBN 978-0971301603. LCCN 2001118347. OCLC 48484360.  Dutcher, L C (Lee Carlton); Bader, John S. (1963). Geology and Hydrology of Agua Caliente Springs, Palm Springs. Washington, DC: GPO. p. 43. LCCN gs63000220. OCLC 9026608.  Gunther, Jane Davies (1984). Riverside County, California, Place Names: Their Origins and Their Stories. Riverside, CA. p. 634. LCCN 84072920. OCLC 12103181.  Haber, Mel (2010) [1996]. Bedtime Stories of the Ingleside Inn. BearManor Media. p. 248. ISBN 978-1593935337. LCCN 96143705. OCLC 34068259.  Haber, Mel; Terrill, Marshall (2008). Palm Springs a la Carte: The Colorful World of the Caviar Crowd at Their Favorite Desert
Desert
Hideaway. Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade Books. p. 256. ISBN 978-1569803530. LCCN 2008020745. OCLC 221149085.  Jensen, Thomas Arden (1954). Palm Springs, California: its evolution and functions. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles. p. 221. LCCN mic58006446.  OCLC 14691400, 17345784 Lawson, Greg (1989). Palm Springs Oasis. Translated by Fabienne S. Chauderlot; Margaret M. Posner; Roselinde Konrad. El Cajon, CA: First Choice Publishers. p. 63. ISBN 091625139X. LCCN 89085067. OCLC 21541845.  McKinney, Marshall Glenn (1996). Vanishing footprints from the hot desert sand: remembrances of a 90 year old Palm Springs pioneer: horse and wagon days on the southern California
California
desert: a historical autobiography. Sonoma, CA: McKinney. p. 245. LCCN 96094678. OCLC 36017354.  Moruzzi, Peter (2009). Palm Springs Holiday: A Vintage Tour from Palm Springs to the Salton Sea. Salt Lake City, UT: Gibbs Smith. p. 176. ISBN 978-1423604761. LCCN 2009000539. OCLC 298470746. This is the story of the Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
– home of Palm Springs, Rancho Mirage, Palm Desert, La Quinta, Indio, and other desert cities – as experienced by the average tourist who vacationed here from the 1910s through the 1960s. 

Moruzzi, Peter (2006). "Palm Springs Holiday: A Vintage Postcard Tour from Palm Springs to the Salton Sea". Palm Springs, CA: Palm Springs Modern Committee. OCLC 666527235  (DVD)

Navez, Ren (2006). Palm Springs: California's Desert
Desert
Gem. Englewood, CO: Westcliffe. p. 112. ISBN 978-1565795525. LCCN 2005024385. OCLC 61458191.  Nelson, John (Feb–May 1948). "The History of Palm Springs". Palm Springs Villager. Palm Springs, CA: The Villager. OCLC 14691205.  Presley, Sally (1993). Facts and legends: the village of Palm Springs. Palm Springs, CA: Almost Publishers and Mee. p. 25. LCCN 94203576. OCLC 31331501.  Reynolds, Christopher (December 6, 2009). "A visit to 1959 Palm Springs: The year was a seminal one for the desert resort town; 50 years on it's still a swingin' time". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved September 15, 2012.  Richards, Elizabeth W. (1981). Palm Springs – the Early Years. Palm Springs, CA: Palm Springs Savings and Loan. p. 37. OCLC 7395533.  (Originally published in 1961 as A Look into Palm Springs' Past by Santa Fe Federal Savings & Loan Assoc. LCC F869 P18 R5) Ringwald, George (1960). "Legend, Feuding and Tragedy: A Story of Palm Springs' Beginnings". Palm Springs Life, 1960–1961: Annual Pictorial: 19–39.  Saeks, Diane Dorrans (2007). Palm Springs Living. David Glomb (photographs). Rizzoli. p. 224. ISBN 978-0847827664. LCCN 2007921705. OCLC 159649838.  Thompson, Gail Borden; Don R. Peterson (c. 1987). Palm Springs Galaxy. Springfield, MN: Mardo Copr. LCCN 88120371. OCLC 18292008.  Wild, Peter (2007). The Grumbling Gods: a Palm Springs Reader. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press. p. 251. ISBN 978-0874808995. LCCN 2007015086. OCLC 122974473.  covers the city's history Wild, Peter (1999). "Chapter 9: J. Smeaton Chase
J. Smeaton Chase
– Our Araby". The Opal Desert: Explorations of Fantasy and Reality in the American Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0292791299.  OCLC 40762502, 649978425 (print and on-line) The Palm Springs and Desert
Desert
Resort Area Story. Palm Springs, CA: Chamber of Commerce. 1955. p. 80. OCLC 8463129. 

Cahuilla Indian further reading

Ainsworth, Ed (1965). Golden Checkerboard. Palm Desert, CA: Desert-Southwest. p. 195. LCCN 66000811. OCLC 4391736.  About the mid-20th century economic conditions of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians; its title comes from the layout of alternating land parcels shared between the Southern Pacific Railroad
Southern Pacific Railroad
and Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians. Brumgardt, John R. (1981). People of the magic waters: the Cahuilla Indians of Palm Springs. Palm Springs, CA: ETC Publications. p. 122. ISBN 0882800604. LCCN 78016023.  Fischer, Mille Wolfe (c. 1995). Footprints Through the Palms. p. 36. OCLC 40422476.  Hooper, Lucile (April 10, 1920). "The Cahuilla Indians". University of California
California
Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. Kessinger Publishing Rare Reprints. Berkeley, CA. 16 (6): 315–80. ISBN 978-1417962235. OCLC 225133390.  Ortner, Vyola J.; du Pont, Diana C. (2012). You Can't Eat Dirt, Leading America's First All-Women Tribal Council and How We Changed Palm Springs. Fan Palm Research Project. p. 264. ISBN 978-0615495590. LCCN 2011939660. OCLC 801995611.  Patencio, Chief Francisco; Boynton, Margaret (1943). Stories and Legends of the Palm Springs Indians. Times-Mirror. Los Angeles. p. 33. LCCN 44018350. OCLC 4020904.  Ringwald, George (1968). The Agua Caliente Indians and Their Guardians. Riverside, CA: Press-Enterprise. p. 36.  OCLC 3094608, 14015139 A reprint of Ringwald's Pulitzer Prize–winning articles concerning the scandal of Section 14 of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation. Shaw, Rachel Dayton (1999). "Evolving Ecoscape: An Environmental and Cultural History of Palm Springs, California, and the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, 1877–1939". San Diego, CA: University of California
California
(Ph.D. thesis). p. 374. ISBN 0599379804.  OCLC 41942987, 43734890

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Palm Springs, California.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Palm Springs.

Official website Palm Springs Bureau of Tourism
Tourism
page Palm Springs Preservation Foundation Palm Springs at Curlie (based on DMOZ) "Palm Springs, California". C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Cities Tour. June 2013.  Greater Palm Springs Convention & Visitors Bureau

Places adjacent to Palm Springs, California

Whitewater Cabazon Morongo Valley North Palm Springs Desert
Desert
Hot Springs

Chino Canyon San Jacinto Mountains

Palm Springs

Cathedral City

Idyllwild-Pine Cove Mountain Center San Jacinto Mountains Agua Caliente Indian Canyons Rancho Mirage

v t e

Inland Empire

Counties

Riverside San Bernardino

Major cities

Riverside San Bernardino

Cities and towns 100k+

Corona Fontana Moreno Valley Murrieta Ontario Rancho Cucamonga Temecula Victorville

Cities and towns 25k–100k

Apple Valley Banning Beaumont Cathedral City Chino Chino Hills Coachella Colton Desert
Desert
Hot Springs Eastvale Hemet Hesperia Highland Indio Jurupa Valley Lake Elsinore Menifee Montclair Norco Palm Desert Palm Springs Perris Redlands Rialto Rubidoux San Jacinto Twentynine Palms Upland Valle Vista Wildomar Yucaipa

Cities and towns 10k–25k

Adelanto Barstow Big Bear City Bloomington Blythe Cabazon Canyon Lake Crestline Glen Avon Grand Terrace La Quinta Loma Linda Mira Loma Pedley Rancho Mirage Twentynine Palms Yucca Valley

Cities and towns under 10k

Big Bear Lake Calimesa Devore El Cerrito Oak Glen Highgrove Home Gardens Indian Wells Joshua Tree Lake Arrowhead Landers Mentone Muscoy Needles Romoland San Antonio Heights Sunnyslope Wrightwood Woodcrest

Regions

Coachella Valley Cucamonga Valley Elsinore Trough High Desert Morongo Basin Perris Plain Plains of Leon San Bernardino Mountains San Bernardino Valley San Jacinto Mountains San Jacinto Valley Santa Ana Mountains Temescal Mountains Victor Valley

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Riverside County, California, United States

County seat: Riverside

Cities

Banning Beaumont Blythe Calimesa Canyon Lake Cathedral City Coachella Corona Desert
Desert
Hot Springs Eastvale Hemet Indian Wells Indio Jurupa Valley La Quinta Lake Elsinore Menifee Moreno Valley Murrieta Norco Palm Desert Palm Springs Perris Rancho Mirage Riverside San Jacinto Temecula Wildomar

CDPs

Aguanga Anza Bermuda Dunes Cabazon Cherry Valley Coronita Crestmore Heights Desert
Desert
Center Desert
Desert
Edge Desert
Desert
Palms East Hemet El Cerrito El Sobrante French Valley Garnet Glen Avon Good Hope Green Acres Highgrove Home Gardens Homeland Idyllwild-Pine Cove Indio Hills Lake Mathews Lake Riverside Lakeland Village Lakeview March ARB Mead Valley Meadowbrook Mecca Mesa Verde Mira Loma Mountain Center North Shore Nuevo Oasis Pedley Ripley Romoland Rubidoux Sky Valley Sunnyslope Temescal Valley Thermal Thousand Palms Valle Vista Vista Santa Rosa Warm Springs Whitewater Winchester Woodcrest

Unincorporated communities

Alberhill Alessandro Arcilla Arnold Heights B Bar H Ranch Belltown Biskra Palms Bly Bonnie Bell Box Springs Cactus City Cahuilla Cahuilla Hills Chiriaco Summit Desert
Desert
Beach East Blythe Edgemont El Cariso Gilman Hot Springs La Cresta Lost Lake Mortmar North Palm Springs Pinyon Pines Radec Rancho Capistrano River Bend Lodge Sage Snow Creek Village Sun City Palm Desert Valerie

Indian reservations

Agua Caliente Band Augustine Band Cabazon
Cabazon
Band Cahuilla Band Colorado River Indian Reservation Los Coyotes Band Morongo Band Pechanga Band Ramona Band Santa Rosa Band Soboba Band Torres-Martinez Desert
Desert
Cahuilla Indians Twenty-Nine Palms Band

Ghost towns

Alamo Bonito Auld Bergman Bradshaw's Ferry Caleb Dos Palmas Eagle Mountain Hell La Placita Leon Linda Rosa Midland Olive City Pinacate Saahatpa Temescal Terra Cotta Willard Willow Springs Station

v t e

Television stations in Palm Springs, California
California
and the Coachella Valley of the Inland Empire

Local stations

KCWQ-LP/LD (2.3 CW+) KAKZ-LD 4 (Azteca) KEVC-CD 5 (UniMás) KPOM-LP 6 (Spanish-language religious) KYAV-LD 12 (AccuWeather) KUNA-LP/LD (15.1 TMD) KODG-LP (17.1 PBS-HD, 17.2 OC, 17.3 DS, 17.4 World, 17.5 Kids) KJHP-LP 18/K09XW (24.1 PBS, 24.2 FNX, 24.3 PBS
PBS
Desert
Desert
Cities, 24.4 Create) K21DO-D 21 "KNDO" (3ABN) KSHT-LD (22.1 Ind.) KVMD (23.1 Ind. / A1) KPDC 25 (A1) KDFX-CD
KDFX-CD
(33.2 Fox) KMIR (36.1 NBC, 36.2 MeTV, 36.3 Movies!) KPSP-CD
KPSP-CD
(38.1 CBS) KVER-CA 40 / KVES-LP 28 also on 27 (UNI) KESQ (42.1 ABC, 42.2 CBS, 42.4 Fox, 42.7 TMD, 42.8 CW+, 42.9 AccuWX) KDUO-LP 43 (Evine Live) KRET-CD (45.1 H&I, 45.2 This TV, 45.3 Estrella TV, 45.4 Antenna TV) KIJR-LP 47 (Ind. / Religious) K49HV 49 (SBN) KPSE-LD
KPSE-LD
(50.1 MNTV)

Translator stations

K15FC
K15FC
(KESQ ABC), subchannels of KCWQ, KDFX, KPSP and KUNA.

Adjacent locals (translators and cable service)

KCBS-TV
KCBS-TV
2/over-air 29 (CBS) Los Angeles K NBC
NBC
4/over-air 44 ( NBC
NBC
Los Angeles KTLA
KTLA
5/over-air 01 (CW) Los Angeles KABC-TV
KABC-TV
7/over-air 22 ABC) Los Angeles KCAL-TV
KCAL-TV
9/K16AA (IND) Los Angeles KECY
KECY
9 (Fox/ABC) El Centro CA-Yuma AZ KTTV
KTTV
11/K14AB (Fox) Los Angeles KYMA
KYMA
11 (NBC) El Centro-Yuma AZ KCOP 13/over-air 48 (My Network) Los Angeles KSWT
KSWT
13 (CBS) El Centro-Yuma XHBM-TV
XHBM-TV
14 (Televisa) Mexicali KWHY
KWHY
22 (KWHY) Los Angeles XHAQ-TV
XHAQ-TV
1.1/Over-air 28 (Azteca) Mexicali XHMEE-TV
XHMEE-TV
5.1/Over-air 44 (Canal 5) Mexicali KTBN 33 (TBN) Orange County XHBC-TV
XHBC-TV
3/over-air 34 (Televisa) Mexicali KOCE
KOCE
50/K41CB (PBS) Orange County-Los Angeles

Cable channels

KCET
KCET
Desert
Desert
Cities / K35LA (Public Independent)

Defunct

KVPS-LP 8 (Vida) KLPS-LP 19 (Spanish-language religious) K20HZ 20 (LAT TV/HSN) K27DS
K27DS
in Yucca Valley, California KPSG-LP 50 (UPN/MNTV)

California
California
television Bakersfield Chico–Redding Eureka Fresno Las Vegas NV Los Angeles Medford OR Monterey Inland Empire
Inland Empire
(Palm Springs) Reno NV Sacramento San Diego San Francisco Santa Barbara El Centro CA / Yuma AZ

See also Phoenix TV

v t e

Radio stations in the Palm Springs, California
California
market

By AM frequency

920 970 1010 1140 1200 1270 1340 1400 1450

By FM frequency

88.1 88.5 89.3 90.3 90.9 91.7 92.1 92.7 93.7 94.3 94.7 95.3 95.9 96.7 97.1 97.7 98.1 98.5 99.5 100.5 101.5 [1] 102.3 103.1 103.5 104.3 105.1 106.1 106.9 107.3

By callsign

K232CX K297BO KAJI-LP KCLB-FM KCOD KCRI KDES-FM KDGL KESQ KEZN KHCS KHCV KJJZ KKCM KKGX KKUU KLOB KLXB KMRJ KNWQ KNWZ KPLM KPSC KPSF KPSH KPSI-FM KPST-FM KRCK-FM KRHQ KRTM KUNA-FM KVGH KVLA-FM KWXY KXCP-LP KXPS

Defunct

KBFR (101.1 FM) - revived as FM simulcast of KPSF.

Nearby radio markets Imperial Valley Inland Empire Laughlin-Needles-Lake Havasu City Los Angeles San Diego Victor Valley

See also List of radio stations in California

v t e

Gay villages in the United States

Atlanta
Atlanta
(Midtown, Piedmont Avenue) Austin Baltimore Boston
Boston
(Jamaica Plain, South End) Buffalo Charlotte Chicago
Chicago
(Boystown, Edgewater) Cincinnati Columbus (The Short North, Victorian Village) Dallas Detroit Denver Eugene Fire Island
Fire Island
( Fire Island
Fire Island
Pines, Cherry Grove) Fort Lauderdale Guerneville, California Houston
Houston
(Hyde Park, Montrose) Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
(Albany, Hudson) Jersey Shore
Jersey Shore
(Asbury Park, Ocean Grove) Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(Broadway Corridor, Sunset Junction, Silver Lake, West Hollywood) Miami
Miami
(South Beach, Wilton Manors) New Hope, Pennsylvania New York City
New York City
(Chelsea, Christopher Street, Greenwich Village) Ogunquit, Maine Oklahoma City Palm Springs Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(Gayborhood, East Passyunk Crossing) Phoenix (Alhambra, Encanto) Portland Provincetown Rehoboth Beach, Delaware Sacramento Saint Petersburg, Florida San Diego San Francisco (Castro District, SoMa) San Jose Saugatuck, Michigan Seattle Shreveport Stonewall Nation Syracuse Trenton Western Massachusetts
Western Massachusetts
(Northampton, Springfield) Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
(Dupont Circle, Logan Circle, U Street)

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 140714700 LCCN: n80028568 GND: 4140870-6 BNF: cb150839043 (data)

^ https://www.cactushugs.com/alternative-radio-returns-palm-spring

.