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AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR ( Urdu
Urdu
: آزاد جموں و کشمیر‎ Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as AZAD KASHMIR, is a nominally self-governing polity administered by Pakistan
Pakistan
. The territory lies west of the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
, and was previously part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
, which ceased to exist as a result of the first Kashmir
Kashmir
war fought between India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947.

Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
is part of the greater Kashmir
Kashmir
region, which is the subject of a long-running conflict between Pakistan
Pakistan
and India. The territory shares a border with Gilgit-Baltistan , together with which it is referred to by the United Nations
United Nations
and other international organisations as "Pakistan-administered Kashmir". Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
is one-sixth of the size of Gilgit-Baltistan . The territory also borders Pakistan's Punjab province to the south and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to the west. To the east, Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
is separated from the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
by the Line of Control , the de facto border between India
India
and Pakistan. Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
has a total area of 13,297 square kilometres (5,134 sq mi), with an estimated population of around 4.6 million people.

The territory has a parliamentary form of government modeled after the Westminster system , with its capital located at Muzaffarabad . The President
President
is the constitutional head of state, while the Prime Minister , supported by a Council of Ministers, is the chief executive. The unicameral Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
Legislative Assembly elects both the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
and President. The state has its own Supreme Court and a High Court, while the Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
's Ministry of Kashmir
Kashmir
Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan serves as a link with Azad Kashmir's government, although Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
is not represented in the Parliament of Pakistan
Pakistan
.

The 2005 earthquake killed 100,000 people and left another three million people displaced, with widespread devastation. Since then, with help from the Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
and foreign donors, reconstruction of infrastructure is underway. Azad Kashmir's economy largely depends on agriculture, services, tourism, and remittances sent by members of the British Mirpuri community. Nearly 87% of the households own farms in Azad Kashmir, while the region has a literacy rate of approximately 72% and has the highest school enrollment in Pakistan.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Government

* 2.1 Development in AJK

* 3 Administrative divisions * 4 Geography and climate * 5 Ethnic groups * 6 Culture * 7 Economy

* 8 Education

* 8.1 Universities

* 8.1.1 Cadet College Pallandri

* 8.2 Medical colleges

* 8.2.1 Private medical colleges

* 9 Sports * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
and 1947 Poonch Rebellion Map of the entire Kashmir
Kashmir
region

At the time of the Partition of India
India
in 1947, the British abandoned their suzerainty over the princely states , which were left with the options of joining India
India
or Pakistan
Pakistan
or remaining independent. Hari Singh , the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, wanted his state to remain independent. Muslims in Western Jammu province (current day Azad Kashmir) and the Frontier Districts Province (current day Gilgit-Baltistan ) had wanted to join Pakistan
Pakistan
.

In Spring 1947, an uprising against the Maharaja
Maharaja
broke out in Poonch , an area bordering the Rawalpindi division of West Punjab . Maharaja's administration is said to have started levying punitive taxes on the peasantry which provoked a local revolt and the administration resorted to brutal suppression. The area's population, swelled by recently demobilised soldiers following World War II
World War II
, rebelled against the Maharaja's forces and gained control of almost the entire district. Following this victory, the pro-Pakistan chieftains of the western districts of Muzaffarabad , Poonch and Mirpur proclaimed a provisional Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
government in Rawalpindi on October 3, 1947. Khwaja Ghulam Nabi Gilkar , under the assumed name "Mr. Anwar," issued a proclamation in the name of the provisional government in Muzaffarabad . However, this government quickly fizzled out with the arrest of Anwar in Srinagar. On October 24, a second provisional government of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
was established at Palandri under the leadership of Sardar Ibrahim
Sardar Ibrahim
.

On October 21, several thousand Pashtun tribesmen from North-West Frontier Province poured into Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
to liberate it from the Maharaja's rule. They were led by experienced military leaders and were equipped with modern arms. The Maharaja's crumbling forces were unable to withstand the onslaught. The raiders captured the towns of Muzaffarabad and Baramulla , the latter 20 miles (32 km) northwest of the state capital Srinagar
Srinagar
. On October 24, the Maharaja
Maharaja
requested military assistance from India, which responded that it was unable to help him unless he acceded to India. Accordingly, on October 26, 1947, Maharaja
Maharaja
Hari Singh signed an Instrument of Accession , handing over control of defence, external affairs and communications to the Government of India
India
in return for military aid. Indian troops were immediately airlifted into Srinagar. Pakistan
Pakistan
intervened subsequently. Fighting ensued between the Indian and Pakistani armies, with the two areas of control more or less stabilised around what is now known as the " Line of Control ".

India
India
later approached the United Nations, asking it to resolve the dispute, and resolutions were passed in favour of the holding of a plebiscite with regard to Kashmir's future. However, no such plebiscite has ever been held on either side, since there was a precondition which required the withdrawal of the Pakistani Army along with the non-state elements and the subsequent partial withdrawal of the Indian Army. from the parts of Kashmir
Kashmir
under their respective control – a withdrawal that never took place. In 1949, a formal cease-fire line separating the Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of Kashmir
Kashmir
came into effect.

Following the 1949 cease-fire agreement with India, the government of Pakistan
Pakistan
divided the northern and western parts of Kashmir
Kashmir
that it occupied at the time of cease-fire into the following two separately-controlled political entities:

* Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
(AJK) – the narrow, southern part, 250 miles (400 km) long, with a width varying from 10 to 40 miles (16 to 64 km). * Gilgit–Baltistan
Gilgit–Baltistan
formerly called the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA) – the much larger political entity to the north of AJK with an area of 72,496 square kilometres (27,991 sq mi).

At one time under Pakistani control, Kashmir's Shaksgam tract , a small region along the northeastern border of Gilgit–Baltistan, was provisionally ceded by Pakistan
Pakistan
to the People's Republic of China in 1963 and now forms part of China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

In 1972, the then current border between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of Kashmir
Kashmir
was designated as the " Line of Control ". This line has remained unchanged since the 1972 Simla Agreement , which bound the two countries "to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations". Some political experts claim that, in view of that pact, the only solution to the issue is mutual negotiation between the two countries without involving a third party such as the United Nations. The 1974 Interim Constitution Act was passed by the 48-member Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
unicameral assembly.

GOVERNMENT

See also: Azad Jammu "> Districts of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir

Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
(AJK) is a self-governing state under Pakistani control, but under Pakistan\'s constitution the state is informally part of the country. Pakistan
Pakistan
is administering the region as a self-governing territory rather than incorporating it in the federation since the UN-mandated ceasefire. Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
has its own elected President
President
, Prime Minister
Prime Minister
, Legislative Assembly , High Court , with Azam Khan as its present chief justice, and official flag.

Azad Kashmir's financial matters, i.e., budget and tax affairs, are dealt with by the Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
Council rather than by Pakistan's Central Board of Revenue. The Azad Jammu and Kashmir Council is a supreme body consisting of 14 members, 8 from the government of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
and 6 from the government of Pakistan. Its chairman/chief executive is the prime minister of Pakistan. Other members of the council are the president and the prime minister of Azad Kashmir(or and individual nominated by her/him) and 6 members of the AJK Legislative Assembly. Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
Day is celebrated in Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
on October 24, which is the day that the Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
government was created in 1947. Pakistan
Pakistan
has celebrated Kashmir
Kashmir
Solidarity Day on February 5 of each year since 1990 as a day of protest against India
India
's de facto sovereignty over its State of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
. That day is a national holiday in Pakistan. Kashmiris
Kashmiris
in Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
observe the Kashmir
Kashmir
Black Day on October 27 of each year since 1947 as day of protest against military occupation in Indian controlled Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
.

Brad Adams the Asia director at the U.S. based NGO
NGO
Human Rights Watch has said in 2006; "Although 'azad' means 'free,' the residents of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
are anything but, the Pakistani authorities govern Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
government with tight controls on basic freedoms." Scholar Christopher Snedden has observed that despite tight controls the people of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
have generally accepted whatever Pakistan
Pakistan
has done to them, which in any case has varied little from how most Pakistanis have been treated (by Pakistan). According to Christopher Snedden one of the reasons for this was that the people of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
had always wanted to be a part of Pakistan.

Consequently, having little to fear from a pro- Pakistan
Pakistan
population devoid of options, Pakistan
Pakistan
imposed its will through the Federal Ministry of Kashmir
Kashmir
Affairs and failed to empower the people of Azad Kashmir, allowing genuine self-government for only a short period in the 1970s. The Interim Constitution of the 1970s only allows the political parties that pay allegiance to Pakistan: "No person or political party in Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
shall be permitted... activities prejudicial or detrimental to the State's accession to Pakistan." The pro-independence Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
Liberation Front has never been allowed to contest elections in Azad Kashmir. While the Interim Constitution does not give them a choice, the people of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
have not considered any option other than joining Pakistan. Except in the legal sense, Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
has been fully integrated into Pakistan.

DEVELOPMENT IN AJK

According to the project report by the Asian Development Bank ; The Asian Development Bank has set out development goals for Azad Kashmir in the areas of Health, Education, Nutrition and Social development. The whole project is estimated to cost $76 million Dollars. Germany between 2006 and 2014 has also donated $38,180,000 towards the AJK Health Infrastructure Programme.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

The state is administratively divided into three divisions which, in turn, are divided into ten districts.

DIVISION DISTRICT AREA (KM²) POPULATION (2008) HEADQUARTERS

MIRPUR Mirpur 2,310 754,482 New Mirpur City

Kotli
Kotli
2,162 834,094 Kotli
Kotli

Bhimber 1,516 301,633 Bhimber

MUZAFFARABAD Muzaffarabad 2,496 638,973 Muzaffarabad

Jhelum Valley 854 251,000 Jhelum Valley

Neelam 3,621 106,778 Athmuqam

POONCH Poonch 855 411,035 Rawalakot

Haveli 600 (est.) 150,000 (est.) Forward Kahuta

Bagh 768 351,415 Bagh

Sudhanoti 569 204,091 Palandri

AJK TOTAL 10 districts 13,297 4,567,982 Muzaffarabad

Kotla Bagh Azad Kashmir
Kashmir

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2010)

Landscape of Azad kashmir

The northern part of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
encompasses the lower part of the Himalayas
Himalayas
, including Jamgarh Peak (15,531 feet ). However, Sarwali peak in the Neelum Valley
Neelum Valley
is the highest peak in the state. Fertile, green, mountainous valleys are characteristic of Azad Kashmir's geography, making it one of the most beautiful regions on the subcontinent.

The southern parts of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
including Bhimber, Mirpur and Kotli
Kotli
districts has extremely hot weather in summers and moderate cold weather in winters. It receives rains mostly in monsoon weather. Paddy field in Leepa valley

In the central and northern parts of state weather remains moderate hot in summers and very cold and chilly in winter. Snow fall also occurs there in December and January.

This region receives rainfall in both winters and summers. Muzaffarabad and Pattan are among the wettest areas of the state. Throughout most of the region, the average rainfall exceeds 1400 mm, with the highest average rainfall occurring near Muzaffarabad (around 1800 mm). During summer, monsoon floods of the Jhelum and Leepa rivers are common, due to high rainfall and melting snow.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
has an almost entirely Muslim population. Most residents of the region are not ethnic Kashmiris. The majority of people in Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
are ethnically Punjabi. While Urdu
Urdu
is the official language of the region, other languages commonly spoken are Pahari , Gojri and Potohari . The main communities living in this region are as follows:

* Gurjar -They are an agricultural tribe and are estimated to be the largest community living in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. * Jat - They are one of the larger community of AJK and primarily inhabit the Districts of Mirpur, Bhimber and Kotli. A large Mirpuri population lives in the UK and it is estimated that more people of Mirpuri origins are now residing in the UK than in Mirpur district. The district Mirpur retains strong ties with the UK. * Pahari Rajputs - They primarily inhabit the Districts of Muzaffarabad, Bagh, Mirpur, Bhimber and Kotli
Kotli
* Sudhan - They are a large clan living in Poonch , Sudhanoti , Bagh and Kolti districts. * Abbasi - They are a large clan in Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
and mostly live in Bhag, Jhelum Valley and Muzaffarabad districts. Besides Azad Kashmir, they also inhabit, Abbottabad and upper Potohar Punjab in large numbers. * Awan - A clan with significant numbers found in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, living mainly in the Poonch, Jhelum Valley and Muzaffarabad districts. Besides Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
they also reside in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in large numbers. * Kashmiris
Kashmiris
- Ethnic Kashmiri populations are found in Neelam Valley and Leepa Valley
Leepa Valley
.

CULTURE

The culture of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
has many similarities to that of northern Punjabi (Potohar ) culture in Punjab province. The natives of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
speak Urdu
Urdu
, Potwari , and the Pahari languages . The Kashmiri language is spoken by hardly 5% of Azad Kashmir's population according to Kashmiri journalist Shujaat Bukhari. Professor Khawaja Abdul Rehman states that the Kashmiri language is on the verge of dying out in the Neelam Valley.

The traditional dress of the women is the shalwar kameez in Pahari style. The shalwar kameez is commonly worn by both men and women. Women use shawl to cover their head and upper body.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
Neelum valley is a popular tourist destination in Azad Kashmir.

Historically the economy of these areas now called ‘Azad’ Kashmir has been agricultural which meant that land was the main source or mean of production. This means that all food for immediate and long term consumption was produced from land. The produce included various crops, fruits, vegetables etc. Land was also the source of other livelihood necessities such as wood, fuel, grazing for animals which then turned into dairy products. Because of this land was also the main source of revenue for the governments whose primary purpose for centuries was to accumulate revenue.

Agriculture is a major part of Azad Kashmir's economy. Low-lying areas that have high populations grow crops like barley , mangoes , millet , corn (maize), and wheat, and also raise cattle. In the elevated areas that are less populated and more spread-out, forestry, corn, and livestock are the main sources of income. There are mineral and marble resources in Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
close to Mirpur and Muzaffarabad . There are also graphite deposits at Mohriwali. There are also reservoirs of low-grade coal, chalk , bauxite , and zircon . Local household industries produce carved wooden objects, textiles, and dhurrie carpets. There is also an arts and crafts industry that produces such cultural goods as namdas, shawls, pashmina, pherans, Papier-mâché
Papier-mâché
, basketry copper, rugs, wood carving, silk and woolen clothing, patto, carpets, namda gubba, and silverware. Agricultural goods produced in the region include mushrooms, honey, walnuts, apples, cherries, medicinal herbs and plants, resin, deodar, kail, chir, fir, maple, and ash timber. Munda Gali Leepa valley AJK

The migration to UK was accelerated and by the completion of Mangla Dam in 1967 the process of ‘chain migration ’ became in full flow. Today, remittances from British Mirpuri community make a critical role in AJK's economy. In the mid-1950s various economic and social development processes were launched in Azad Kashmir. In the 1960s, with the construction of the Mangla Dam in Mirpur District
Mirpur District
, the Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
Government began to receive royalties from the Pakistani government for the electricity that the dam provided to Pakistan. During the mid-2000s, a multibillion-dollar reconstruction began in the aftermath of the 2005 Kashmir
Kashmir
earthquake .

In addition to agriculture, textiles, and arts and crafts, remittances have played a major role in the economy of Azad Kashmir. One analyst estimated that the figure for Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
was 25.1% in 2001. With regard to annual household income, people living in the higher areas are more dependent on remittances than are those living in the lower areas. In the latter part of 2006, billions of dollars for development were mooted by international aid agencies for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of earthquake-hit zones in Azad Kashmir, though much of that amount was subsequently lost in bureaucratic channels, leading to considerable delays in help getting to the most needy. Hundreds of people continued to live in tents long after the earthquake. A land-use plan for the city of Muzaffarabad was prepared by the Japan International Cooperation Agency
Japan International Cooperation Agency
.

Kashmir
Kashmir
as a whole is the one of the most beautiful regions in the world. Some well-known and popular tourist destinations are the following:

* MUZAFFARABAD , the capital city of Azad Kashmir, is located on the banks of the Jhelum and Neelum rivers. It is 138 kilometres (86 mi) from Rawalpindi and Islamabad
Islamabad
. Well-known tourist spots near Muzaffarabad are the Red Fort , Pir Chinassi , Patika, Subri Lake and Awan Patti . * The NEELAM VALLEY is situated to the north and northeast of Muzaffarabad, The gateway to the valley. The main tourist attractions in the valley are Athmuqam , Kutton , Keran , Changan , Sharda , Kel , Arang Kel and Taobat
Taobat
. * SUDHANOTI is one of the eight districts of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
in Pakistan. Sudhanoti is located 90 km away from Islamabad, the Capital of Pakistan. It is connected with Rawalpindi and Islamabad
Islamabad
through Azad Pattan road. * RAWALAKOT city is the headquarters of Poonch District and is located 122 kilometres (76 mi) from Islamabad. Tourist attractions in Poonch District are Banjosa Lake , Devi Gali , Tatta Pani , and Toli Pir . * BAGH city, the headquarters of Bagh District, is 205 kilometres (127 mi) from Islamabad
Islamabad
and 100 kilometres (62 mi) from Muzaffarabad. The principal tourist attractions in Bagh District
Bagh District
are Bagh Fort, Dhirkot , Sudhan Gali , Ganga Lake , Ganga Choti , Kotla Waterfall , Neela Butt , Danna , Panjal Mastan National Park, and Las Danna . * The LEEPA VALLEY is located 105 kilometres (65 mi) southeast of Muzaffarabad. It is the most charming and scenic place for tourists in Azad Kashmir. * NEW MIRPUR CITY is the headquarters of Mirpur District. The main tourist attractions near New Mirpur City are the Mangla Lake and Ramkot Fort
Ramkot Fort
.

EDUCATION

The literacy rate in Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
was 62% in 2004, higher than in any region in Pakistan. However, only 2.2% were graduates, compared to the average of 2.9% for Pakistan.

UNIVERSITIES

The following is a list of universities recognised by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan
Pakistan
(HEC): Mirpur University of Science and Technology

UNIVERSITY LOCATION(S) ESTABLISHED TYPE SPECIALIZATION WEBSITE

Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur Mirpur 1980 (2008)* Public Engineering & Technology

University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
Muzaffarabad 1980 Public General

University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
(Neelam Campus) Neelum 2013 Public General

University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
(Jhelum Valley Campus) Jhelum Valley District 2013 Public General

Al-Khair University Mirpur 1994 (2011*) Private General

Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University Nerian Sharif 2000 Private General

University of Poonch (Rawlakot Campus) Rawalakot 1980 (2012)* Public General

University of Poonch ( SM Campus, Mong, Sudhnoti District) Sudhnoti District 2014 Public General

University of Poonch ( Kahuta Campus, Haveli District) Haveli District 2015 Public General

Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
Bagh Bagh 2013 Public General

University of Management Sciences and Information Technology Kotli
Kotli
2014 Public General

Mirpur University of Science and Technology ( Bhimber Campus) Bhimber 2013 Public Science border:solid #aaa 1px">

* Geography portal * Asia portal * South Asia portal * Pakistan
Pakistan
portal * Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
portal

* Kashmir
Kashmir
* 1941 Census of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
* Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict * Human rights abuses in Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
* Separatist movements of Pakistan
Pakistan

NOTES

* ^ The Indian government and Indian sources refer to Azad Kashmir as "Pakistan-occupied Kashmir" ("PoK") or "Pakistan-held Kashmir" (PHK), sometimes in conjunction with other areas of Kashmir
Kashmir
under Pakistani control . "Pakistan-administered Kashmir" and "Pakistan-controlled Kashmir" are used by neutral sources. Conversely, Pakistani sources call the territory under Indian control "Indian-Occupied Kashmir" ("IOK") or "Indian-Held Kashmir" ("IHK"). * ^ Officially, Mirpur and Poonch districts were in the Jammu province of the state and Muzaffarabad was in the Kashmir
Kashmir
province. All three provinces spoke languages related to Punjabi , not the Kashmiri language spoken in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley . * ^ Snedden (2013 , p. 176): On p. 29, the census report states that Urdu
Urdu
is the official language of the Government of Azad Kashmir, with Kashmiri, Pahari, Gojri, Punjabi, Kohistani, Pushto and Sheena `frequently spoken in Azad Kashmir'. Yet, when surveyed about their `Mother Tongue', Azad Kashmiris' choices were limited to selecting from Pakistan's major languages: Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushto, Balochi, Saraiki and `Others'; not surprisingly, 2.18 million of Azad Kashmir's 2.97 million people chose `Others'.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Richard M. Bird; François Vaillancourt (December 4, 2008). Fiscal Decentralization in Developing Countries. Cambridge University Press. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-0-521-10158-5 . * ^ A B C Bose, Sumantra (2009), Contested Lands, Harvard University Press, p. 193, ISBN 978-0-674-02856-2 , Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
– "Free Kashmir," the more populated and nominally self-governing part of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir
Kashmir
* ^ "Territorial limits". Herald. May 7, 2015. Archived from the original on July 24, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2015. These are self-ruled autonomous regions. But restrictions apply. * ^ A B C D E F "Azad Kashmir" at britannica.com * ^ " Kashmir
Kashmir
profile". BBC. November 26, 2014. Archived from the original on July 24, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2015. * ^ A B Snedden 2013 , pp. 2-3. * ^ Chandra, Bipan; Mukherjee, Aditya; Mukherje, Mridula (2008). India
India
since Independence. Penguin Books India. p. 416. ISBN 0143104098 . * ^ Bose, Sumantra (2009). Contested lands: Israel-Palestine, Kashmir, Bosnia, Cyprus and Sri Lanka. Harvard University Press. p. 193. ISBN 0674028562 . * ^ Behera, Navnita Chadha (2007). Demystifying Kashmir. Pearson Education India. p. 66. ISBN 8131708462 . * ^ "Gilgit-Baltistan: Story of how region 6 times the size of PoK passed on to Pakistan". * ^ "Underdevelopment in AJK". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved June 18, 2016. * ^ "Education emergency: AJK leading in enrolment, lagging in quality - The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. March 26, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2016. * ^ "The J&K conflict: A Chronological Introduction". India Together. Retrieved June 5, 2010. * ^ A B Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. " Kashmir
Kashmir
(region, Indian subcontinent) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 5, 2010. * ^ Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298985 . Similarly, Muslims in Western Jammu Province, particularly in Poonch, many of whom had martial capabilities, and Muslims in the Frontier Districts Province strongly wanted J&K to join Pakistan. * ^ Bose 2003 , pp. 32-33. * ^ Behera, Navnita Chadha (2007), Demystifying Kashmir, Pearson Education India, p. 29, ISBN 8131708462 * ^ Snedden 2013 , p. 59. * ^ Snedden 2013 , p. 61. * ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/10537286 * ^ Bose 2003 , pp. 35-36. * ^ Prem Shankar Jha. "Grasping the Nettle". South Asian Journal. Archived from the original on May 16, 2010. * ^ "UN resolution 47". Retrieved September 11, 2012. * ^ "UNCIP Resolution of August 13, 1948 (S/1100) – Embassy of India, Washington, D.C.". Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. * ^ "UNMOGIP: United Nations
United Nations
Military Observer Group in India
India
and Pakistan". Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. * ^ "How free is Azad Kashsmir". * ^ A B C "Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
– Introduction". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2010. * ^ A B http://ajk.gov.pk/history.php * ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
to observe Kashmir
Kashmir
Solidarity Day today". The Hindu. February 5, 2007. Retrieved February 5, 2008. * ^ " Kashmir
Kashmir
Day being observed today". The News International . February 5, 2008. Retrieved February 5, 2008. * ^ Adams, Brad. "Pakistan: ‘Free Kashmir’ Far From Free". Human Rights Watch. * ^ Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. Harper Collins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298985 . Second, Azad Kashmiris had always wanted to be part of this nation. * ^ A B C D Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. Harper Collins Publishers India. ISBN 9789350298985 . * ^ Bose, Sumantra (2003), Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, Harvard University Press, p. 100, ISBN 0-674-01173-2 * ^ https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-document/69690/rrp-pak-38135.pdf * ^ http://www.un.org.pk/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Pakistan-Donor-Profile-and-Mapping-by-UN.pdf * ^ "Administrative Setup.". ajk.gov.pk. Archived from the original on April 9, 2010. Retrieved May 17, 2010. * ^ "Azad Kashmir". City Population. Retrieved May 6, 2015. * ^ http://www.pakistanalpine.com/sarwali-peak * ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir
Kashmir
and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781849046220 . Confusingly, the term 'Kashmiri' also has wider connotations and uses. Some people in Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
call themselves 'Kashmiris'. This is despite most Azad Kashmiris
Kashmiris
not being of Kashmiri ethnicity. * ^ Coakley, John (2 August 2004). The Territorial Management of Ethnic Conflict. Routledge. p. 153. * ^ http://www-01.sil.org/asia/ldc/parallel_papers/tariq_rahman.pdf * ^ A B C D E F G Snedden 2013 , Role of Biradaries (pp. 128-133) * ^ A B C D E http://www.erra.pk/Reports/KMC/RawlakotProfile200907.pdf * ^ A B C http://www.erra.pk/Reports/KMC/BaghProfile200907.pdf * ^ Moss, Paul (November 30, 2006). "South Asia The limits to integration". BBC News. Retrieved June 5, 2010. * ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir
Kashmir
and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781849046220 . * ^ Bukhari, Shujaat (June 14, 2011). "The other Kashmir". The Hindu. * ^ "Up North: Call for exploration of archaeological sites". Express Tribune. June 5, 2015. * ^ "History of Planning & Development Department in AJK". * ^ "Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Kashmir
– Tourism". Archived from the original on May 29, 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2010. * ^ A B Naqash, Tariq (October 1, 2006). "‘Rs1.25 trillion to be spent in Azad Kashmir’: Reconstruction in quake-hit zone". Dawn . Muzaffarabad. * ^ Abid Qaiyum Suleri; Kevin Savage. "Remittances in crises: a case study from Pakistan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2010. * ^ "\'Literacy Rate in Azad Kashmir
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Sources

* Bose, Sumantra (2003). Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01173-2 . * Snedden, Christopher (2013) , Kashmir: The Unwritten History, HarperCollins India, ISBN 9350298988

FURTHER READING

* Mathur, Shubh (2008). "Srinagar-Muzaffarabad-New York: A Kashmiri Family's Exile". In Roy, Anjali Gera; Bhatia, Nandi. Partitioned Lives: Narratives of Home, Displacement and Resettlement. Pearson Education India. ISBN 9332506205 . * Schoefield, Victoria (2003) .