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Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
(Urdu: آزاد جموں و کشمیر‬‎ Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir[2]), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing[1][2] polity administered by Pakistan. The territory lies west of the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir, and was previously part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
is part of the greater Kashmir
Kashmir
region, which is the subject of a long-running conflict between Pakistan
Pakistan
and India. The territory shares a border with Gilgit-Baltistan, together with which it is referred to by the United Nations
United Nations
and other international organisations as "Pakistan-administered Kashmir".[note 1] Azad Kashmir is one-sixth of the size of Gilgit-Baltistan.[10] The territory also borders Pakistan's Punjab province to the south and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to the west. To the east, Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
is separated from the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
by the Line of Control, the de facto border between India
India
and Pakistan. Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
has a total area of 13,297 square kilometres (5,134 sq mi), and a total population of 4,045,366 as per the 2017 Census. The territory has a parliamentary form of government modeled after the Westminster system, with its capital located at Muzaffarabad. The President
President
is the constitutional head of state, while the Prime Minister, supported by a Council of Ministers, is the chief executive. The unicameral Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
Legislative Assembly elects both the Prime Minister and President. The state has its own Supreme Court and a High Court, while the Government of Pakistan's Ministry of Kashmir
Kashmir
Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan
serves as a link with Azad Kashmir's government, although Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
is not represented in the Parliament of Pakistan. The 2005 earthquake killed 100,000 people and left another three million people displaced, with widespread devastation. Since then, with help from the Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
and foreign donors, reconstruction of infrastructure is underway. Azad Kashmir's economy largely depends on agriculture, services, tourism, and remittances sent by members of the British Mirpuri community. Nearly 87% of the households own farms in Azad Kashmir,[11] while the region has a literacy rate of approximately 72% and has the highest school enrollment in Pakistan.[12]

Contents

1 History 2 Government 3 Development 4 Administrative divisions 5 Geography and climate 6 Ethnic groups 7 Languages 8 Economy 9 Education

9.1 Universities

9.1.1 Cadet College Pallandri

9.2 Medical colleges

9.2.1 Private medical colleges

10 Sports 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

History Main articles: History of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
and 1947 Poonch Rebellion

Map of the entire Kashmir
Kashmir
region

At the time of the Partition of India
Partition of India
in 1947, the British abandoned their suzerainty over the princely states, which were left with the options of joining India
India
or Pakistan
Pakistan
or remaining independent. Hari Singh, the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, wanted his state to remain independent.[13][14] Muslims in Western Jammu province (current day Azad Kashmir) and the Frontier Districts Province (current day Gilgit-Baltistan) had wanted to join Pakistan.[15] In Spring 1947, an uprising against the Maharaja
Maharaja
broke out in Poonch, an area bordering the Rawalpindi division
Rawalpindi division
of West Punjab. Maharaja's administration is said to have started levying punitive taxes on the peasantry which provoked a local revolt and the administration resorted to brutal suppression. The area's population, swelled by recently demobilised soldiers following World War II, rebelled against the Maharaja's forces and gained control of almost the entire district. Following this victory, the pro- Pakistan
Pakistan
chieftains of the western districts of Muzaffarabad, Poonch and Mirpur proclaimed a provisional Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
government in Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
on October 3, 1947.[16][note 2] Khwaja Ghulam Nabi Gilkar, under the assumed name "Mr. Anwar," issued a proclamation in the name of the provisional government in Muzaffarabad. However, this government quickly fizzled out with the arrest of Anwar in Srinagar.[18] On October 24, a second provisional government of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
was established at Palandri under the leadership of Sardar Ibrahim.[19] On October 21, several thousand Pashtun tribesmen from North-West Frontier Province poured into Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
to liberate it from the Maharaja's rule. They were led by experienced military leaders and were equipped with modern arms. The Maharaja's crumbling forces were unable to withstand the onslaught. The raiders captured the towns of Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
and Baramulla, the latter 20 miles (32 km) northwest of the state capital Srinagar. On October 24, the Maharaja
Maharaja
requested military assistance from India, which responded that it was unable to help him unless he acceded to India. Accordingly, on October 26, 1947, Maharaja
Maharaja
Hari Singh
Hari Singh
signed an Instrument of Accession, handing over control of defence, external affairs and communications to the Government of India
India
in return for military aid.[20] Indian troops were immediately airlifted into Srinagar.[21] Pakistan
Pakistan
intervened subsequently.[14] Fighting ensued between the Indian and Pakistani armies, with the two areas of control more or less stabilised around what is now known as the "Line of Control".[22] India
India
later approached the United Nations, asking it to resolve the dispute, and resolutions were passed in favour of the holding of a plebiscite with regard to Kashmir's future. However, no such plebiscite has ever been held on either side, since there was a precondition which required the withdrawal of the Pakistani Army along with the non-state elements and the subsequent partial withdrawal of the Indian Army.[23] from the parts of Kashmir
Kashmir
under their respective control – a withdrawal that never took place.[24] In 1949, a formal cease-fire line separating the Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of Kashmir
Kashmir
came into effect. Following the 1949 cease-fire agreement with India, the government of Pakistan
Pakistan
divided the northern and western parts of Kashmir
Kashmir
that it occupied at the time of cease-fire into the following two separately-controlled political entities:

Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
(AJK) – the narrow, southern part, 250 miles (400 km) long, with a width varying from 10 to 40 miles (16 to 64 km). Gilgit–Baltistan
Gilgit–Baltistan
formerly called the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA) – the much larger political entity to the north of AJK with an area of 72,496 square kilometres (27,991 sq mi).

At one time under Pakistani control, Kashmir's Shaksgam tract, a small region along the northeastern border of Gilgit–Baltistan, was provisionally ceded by Pakistan
Pakistan
to the People's Republic of China in 1963 and now forms part of China's Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uygur Autonomous Region. In 1972, the then current border between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of Kashmir
Kashmir
was designated as the "Line of Control". This line has remained unchanged[25] since the 1972 Simla Agreement, which bound the two countries "to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations". Some political experts claim that, in view of that pact, the only solution to the issue is mutual negotiation between the two countries without involving a third party such as the United Nations.[citation needed] The 1974 Interim Constitution Act was passed by the 48-member Azad Jammu and Kashmir unicameral assembly.[26] Government See also: Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Kashmir
Legislative Assembly and Prime Minister of Azad Jammu And Kashmir

Districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Districts of Azad Kashmir

Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
(AJK) is a self-governing state under Pakistani control, but under Pakistan's constitution the state is informally part of the country. Pakistan
Pakistan
is administering the region as a self-governing territory rather than incorporating it in the federation since the UN-mandated ceasefire.[4][27] Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
has its own elected President, Prime Minister, Legislative Assembly, High Court, with Azam Khan as its present chief justice, and official flag.[28] Azad Kashmir's financial matters, i.e., budget and tax affairs, are dealt with by the Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Council rather than by Pakistan's Central Board of Revenue. The Azad Jammu and Kashmir Council is a supreme body consisting of 14 members, 8 from the government of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
and 6 from the government of Pakistan. Its chairman/chief executive is the prime minister of Pakistan. Other members of the council are the president and the prime minister of Azad Kashmir(or and individual nominated by her/him) and 6 members of the AJK Legislative Assembly.[28][4][27] Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
Day is celebrated in Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
on October 24, which is the day that the Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
government was created in 1947. Pakistan
Pakistan
has celebrated Kashmir
Kashmir
Solidarity Day on February 5 of each year since 1990 as a day of protest against India's de facto sovereignty over its State of Jammu and Kashmir.[29] That day is a national holiday in Pakistan.[30] Kashmiris
Kashmiris
in Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
observe the Kashmir
Kashmir
Black Day on October 27 of each year since 1947 as day of protest against military occupation in Indian controlled Jammu and Kashmir. Brad Adams the Asia director at the U.S. based NGO
NGO
Human Rights Watch has said in 2006; "Although 'azad' means 'free,' the residents of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
are anything but, the Pakistani authorities govern Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
government with tight controls on basic freedoms."[31] Scholar Christopher Snedden has observed that despite tight controls the people of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
have generally accepted whatever Pakistan
Pakistan
has done to them, which in any case has varied little from how most Pakistanis have been treated (by Pakistan). According to Christopher Snedden one of the reasons for this was that the people of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
had always wanted to be a part of Pakistan.[32] Consequently, having little to fear from a pro- Pakistan
Pakistan
population devoid of options,[32] Pakistan
Pakistan
imposed its will through the Federal Ministry of Kashmir
Kashmir
Affairs and failed to empower the people of Azad Kashmir, allowing genuine self-government for only a short period in the 1970s. The Interim Constitution of the 1970s only allows the political parties that pay allegiance to Pakistan: "No person or political party in Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
shall be permitted... activities prejudicial or detrimental to the State's accession to Pakistan."[32] The pro-independence Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Liberation Front has never been allowed to contest elections in Azad Kashmir.[33] While the Interim Constitution does not give them a choice, the people of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
have not considered any option other than joining Pakistan.[32] Except in the legal sense, Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
has been fully integrated into Pakistan.[32] Development According to the project report by the Asian Development Bank, the bank has set out development goals for Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
in the areas of health, education, nutrition, and social development. The whole project is estimated to cost US$76 million.[34] Germany, between 2006 and 2014, has also donated $38 million towards the AJK Health Infrastructure Programme.[35] Administrative divisions

Muzaffarabad, the capital city of Azad Kashmir

Bagh City

The state is administratively divided into three divisions which, in turn, are divided into ten districts.[36]

Division District Area (km²) Population (2017 Census) Headquarters

Mirpur Mirpur 1,010 456,200 New Mirpur City

Kotli 1,862 774,194 Kotli

Bhimber 1,516 420,624 Bhimber

Muzaffarabad Muzaffarabad 1,642 650,370 Muzaffarabad

Jhelum Valley 854 230,529 Jhelum Valley

Neelam Valley 3,621 191,251 Athmuqam

Poonch Poonch 855 500,571 Rawalakot

Haveli 600 152,124 Forward Kahuta

Bagh 768 371,919 Bagh

Sudhanoti 569 297,584 Palandri

Total 10 districts 13,297 4,045,366 Muzaffarabad

Kotla, Bagh District

Dhirkot
Dhirkot
Park, Bagh District

Geography and climate

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2010)

Landscape of Azad Kashmir

The northern part of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
encompasses the lower part of the Himalayas, including Jamgarh Peak (15,531 feet [4,734 meters]). However, Sarwali peak in the Neelum Valley
Neelum Valley
is the highest peak in the state.[37] Fertile, green, mountainous valleys are characteristic of Azad Kashmir's geography, making it one of the most beautiful regions on the subcontinent.[4] The southern parts of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
including Bhimber, Mirpur and Kotli districts has extremely hot weather in summers and moderate cold weather in winters. It receives rains mostly in monsoon weather.

Paddy field in Leepa valley

In the central and northern parts of state weather remains moderate hot in summers and very cold and chilly in winter. Snow fall also occurs there in December and January. This region receives rainfall in both winters and summers. Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
and Pattan are among the wettest areas of the state. Throughout most of the region, the average rainfall exceeds 1400 mm, with the highest average rainfall occurring near Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
(around 1800 mm). During summer, monsoon floods of the Jhelum and Leepa rivers are common, due to high rainfall and melting snow. Ethnic groups Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
has an almost entirely Muslim population. Most residents of the region are not ethnic Kashmiris.[38] The majority of people in Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
are ethnically Punjabi.[39] The main communities living in this region are:[40]

Gurjar
Gurjar
– They are an agricultural tribe and are estimated to be the largest community living in Azad Jammu and Kashmir.[40][41][42] Jat – They are one of the larger community of AJK and primarily inhabit the Districts of Mirpur, Bhimber
Bhimber
and Kotli. A large Mirpuri population lives in the UK and it is estimated that more people of Mirpuri origins are now residing in the UK than in Mirpur district. The district Mirpur retains strong ties with the UK.[40][43] Awan – A clan with significant numbers found in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, living mainly in the Bagh Poonch, Jhelum Valley and Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
districts. Besides Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
they also reside in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
in large numbers.[40][41][42] Abbasi- They are a large clan in Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
and mostly live in Bagh, Jhelum Valley and Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
districts. Besides Azad Kashmir, they also inhabit, Abbottabad and upper Potohar Punjab in large numbers.[40][41][42] Sudhan – They are a large clan living in Poonch, Sudhanoti, Bagh and Kolti
Kolti
districts.[40][41] Kashmiris
Kashmiris
– Ethnic Kashmiri populations are found in Neelam Valley and Leepa Valley.[44]

The culture of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
has many similarities to that of northern Punjabi (Potohar) culture in Punjab province. The traditional dress of the women is the shalwar kameez in Pahari style. The shalwar kameez is commonly worn by both men and women. Women use shawl to cover their head and upper body. Languages The official language of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
is Urdu,[45][note 3] while English is used in higher domains. The majority of the population, however, speak dialects of the Pahari-Pothwari
Pahari-Pothwari
language complex. These are also spoken across the Line of Control
Line of Control
in neighbouring areas of Indian Jammu and Kashmir, and are closely related both to Punjabi to the south and Hinko to the northwest. The language variety in the southern districts of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
is known by a variety of names – including Mirpuri, Pothwari and Pahari – and is closely related to the Pothwari proper spoken to the east in the Pothohar region of Punjab. The dialect(s) of the central districts are occasionally referred to in the literature as Chibhali or Punchi, but the speakers themselves usually call them Pahari, an unfortunately ambiguous name that is also used for several unrelated languages of the Lower Himalayas. Going north, the speech forms gradually change into Hindko. Already in Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
District the preferred local name for the language is Hindko, although it is still apparently more closely related to the core dialects of Pahari.[46] Further north in the Neelam Valley, the dialect, locally known as Parmi, is more unambiguously subsumed under Hindko.[47] Another major language of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
is Gujari. It is spoken by several hundred thousand[note 4] people among the traditionally nomadic Gujars, many of whom are nowadays settled. Not all ethnic Gujars
Gujars
speak Gujari, the proportion of those who have shifted to other languages is probably higher in southern Azad Kashmir.[48] Gujari is most closely related to the Rajasthani languages
Rajasthani languages
(particularly Mewati), although it also shares features with Punjabi.[49] It is dispersed over large areas in northern Pakistan
Pakistan
and India. Within Pakistan, the Gujari dialects of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
are more similar, in terms of shared basic vocabulary and mutual intelligibility, to the Gujar varieties of the neighbouring Hazara region
Hazara region
than to the dialects spoken further to the northwest in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and north in Gilgit.[50] There are scattered communities of Kashmiri speakers,[51] notably in the Neelam Valley, where they form the second-largest language group after speakers of Hindko.[52] There have been calls for the teaching of Kashmiri (particularly in order to counter India's claim of promoting the culture of Kashmir), but the limited attempts at introducing the language at the secondary school level have not been successful, and it is Urdu, rather than Kashmiri, that Kashmiri Muslims have seen as their identity symbol.[53] There is an ongoing process of gradual shift to larger local languages,[45] but at least in the Neelam Valley
Neelam Valley
there still exist communities for whom Kashmiri is the sole mother tongue.[54] In the northernmost district of Neelam there are pockets of other languages: Shina, with two distinct varieties spoken in three villages, Pashto, the language of two villages on the Line of Control, and the endangered Kundal Shahi, spoken by some of the inhabitants of the eponymous village and the only language not found outside Azad Kashmir.[55] Economy Main article: Economy of Azad Kashmir

Neelum valley is a popular tourist destination in Azad Kashmir.

Historically the economy of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
has been agricultural which meant that land was the main source or mean of production. This means that all food for immediate and long term consumption was produced from land. The produce included various crops, fruits, vegetables etc. Land was also the source of other livelihood necessities such as wood, fuel, grazing for animals which then turned into dairy products. Because of this land was also the main source of revenue for the governments whose primary purpose for centuries was to accumulate revenue.[56] Agriculture is a major part of Azad Kashmir's economy. Low-lying areas that have high populations grow crops like barley, mangoes, millet, corn (maize), and wheat, and also raise cattle. In the elevated areas that are less populated and more spread-out, forestry, corn, and livestock are the main sources of income. There are mineral and marble resources in Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
close to Mirpur and Muzaffarabad. There are also graphite deposits at Mohriwali. There are also reservoirs of low-grade coal, chalk, bauxite, and zircon. Local household industries produce carved wooden objects, textiles, and dhurrie carpets.[4] There is also an arts and crafts industry that produces such cultural goods as namdas, shawls, pashmina, pherans, Papier-mâché, basketry copper, rugs, wood carving, silk and woolen clothing, patto, carpets, namda gubba, and silverware. Agricultural goods produced in the region include mushrooms, honey, walnuts, apples, cherries, medicinal herbs and plants, resin, deodar, kail, chir, fir, maple, and ash timber.[4][27][57]

Munda Gali, Leepa Valley

The migration to UK was accelerated and by the completion of Mangla Dam in 1967 the process of ‘chain migration’ became in full flow. Today, remittances from British Mirpuri community make a critical role in AJK's economy. In the mid-1950s various economic and social development processes were launched in Azad Kashmir. In the 1960s, with the construction of the Mangla Dam
Mangla Dam
in Mirpur District, the Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Government began to receive royalties from the Pakistani government for the electricity that the dam provided to Pakistan. During the mid-2000s, a multibillion-dollar reconstruction began in the aftermath of the 2005 Kashmir
Kashmir
earthquake.[58] In addition to agriculture, textiles, and arts and crafts, remittances have played a major role in the economy of Azad Kashmir. One analyst estimated that the figure for Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
was 25.1% in 2001. With regard to annual household income, people living in the higher areas are more dependent on remittances than are those living in the lower areas.[59] In the latter part of 2006, billions of dollars for development were mooted by international aid agencies for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of earthquake-hit zones in Azad Kashmir, though much of that amount was subsequently lost in bureaucratic channels, leading to considerable delays in help getting to the most needy. Hundreds of people continued to live in tents long after the earthquake.[58] A land-use plan for the city of Muzaffarabad was prepared by the Japan International Cooperation Agency. Some well-known and popular tourist destinations are the following:

Muzaffarabad, the capital city of Azad Kashmir, is located on the banks of the Jhelum and Neelum rivers. It is 138 kilometres (86 mi) from Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
and Islamabad. Well-known tourist spots near Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
are the Red Fort, Pir Chinassi, Patika, Subri Lake and Awan Patti. The Neelam Valley
Neelam Valley
is situated to the north and northeast of Muzaffarabad, The gateway to the valley. The main tourist attractions in the valley are Athmuqam, Kutton, Keran, Changan, Sharda, Kel, Arang Kel and Taobat. Sudhanoti
Sudhanoti
is one of the eight districts of Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
in Pakistan. Sudhanoti
Sudhanoti
is located 90 km away from Islamabad, the Capital of Pakistan. It is connected with Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
and Islamabad
Islamabad
through Azad Pattan road. Rawalakot
Rawalakot
city is the headquarters of Poonch District and is located 122 kilometres (76 mi) from Islamabad. Tourist attractions in Poonch District are Banjosa Lake, Devi Gali, Tatta Pani, and Toli Pir. Bagh city, the headquarters of Bagh District, is 205 kilometres (127 mi) from Islamabad
Islamabad
and 100 kilometres (62 mi) from Muzaffarabad. The principal tourist attractions in Bagh District
Bagh District
are Bagh Fort, Dhirkot, Sudhan Gali, Ganga Lake, Ganga Choti, Kotla Waterfall, Neela Butt, Danna, Panjal Mastan
Panjal Mastan
National Park, and Las Danna. The Leepa Valley
Leepa Valley
is located 105 kilometres (65 mi) southeast of Muzaffarabad. It is the most charming and scenic place for tourists in Azad Kashmir. New Mirpur City
New Mirpur City
is the headquarters of Mirpur District. The main tourist attractions near New Mirpur City
New Mirpur City
are the Mangla Lake and Ramkot Fort.

Education The literacy rate in Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
was 62% in 2004, higher than in any region in Pakistan.[60] However, only 2.2% were graduates, compared to the average of 2.9% for Pakistan.[61] Universities The following is a list of universities recognised by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan
Pakistan
(HEC):[62]

Mirpur University of Science and Technology

University Location(s) Established Type Specialization Website

Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur Mirpur 1980 (2008)* Public Engineering & Technology [1]

University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffarabad 1980 Public General [2]

University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
(Neelam Campus) Neelum 2013 Public General [3]

University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
(Jhelum Valley Campus) Jhelum Valley District 2013 Public General [4]

Al-Khair University Mirpur 1994 (2011*) Private General [5]

Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University Nerian Sharif 2000 Private General [6]

University of Poonch
University of Poonch
(Rawlakot Campus) Rawalakot 1980 (2012)* Public General [7]

University of Poonch
University of Poonch
( SM Campus, Mong, Sudhnoti District) Sudhnoti District 2014 Public General [8]

University of Poonch
University of Poonch
( Kahuta Campus, Haveli District) Haveli District 2015 Public General [9]

Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Bagh Bagh 2013 Public General [10]

University of Management Sciences and Information Technology Kotli 2014 Public General [11]

Mirpur University of Science and Technology
Mirpur University of Science and Technology
( Bhimber
Bhimber
Campus) Bhimber 2013 Public Science & Humanities [12]

* Granted university status. Cadet College Pallandri

Cadet College Palandri
Palandri
is situated in beautiful natural surroundings about 100 km from Islamabad

Medical colleges The following is a list of undergraduate medical institutions recognised by Pakistan
Pakistan
Medical and Dental Council (PMDC) as of 2013.[63]

Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College
Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College
in Mirpur Azad Jammu Kashmir
Kashmir
Medical College in Muzafarabad Poonch Medical College
Poonch Medical College
in Rawalakot

Private medical colleges

Mohi-ud-Din Islamic Medical College
Mohi-ud-Din Islamic Medical College
in Mirpur

Sports Football, cricket and volleyball are very popular in Azad Kashmir. Many tournaments are also held throughout the year and in the holy month of Ramazan night-time flood-lit tournaments are also organised. Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
has a T20 cricket team in Pakistan's T20 domestic tournament New Mirpur City
New Mirpur City
has a cricket stadium (Quaid-e-Azam Stadium) which has been taken over by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Cricket Board for renovation to bring it up to International standards. There is also a cricket stadium in Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
with the capacity of 8,000 people. This stadium has hosted 8 matches of Inter-District Under 19 Tournament 2013. There are also registered football clubs:

Pilot Football Club Youth Football Club Kashmir
Kashmir
National FC Azad Super FC

See also

Geography portal Asia portal South Asia portal Pakistan
Pakistan
portal Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
portal

Kashmir 1941 Census of Jammu and Kashmir Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict Human rights abuses in Azad Kashmir Separatist movements of Pakistan

Notes

^ The Indian government and Indian sources refer to Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
as "Pakistan-occupied Kashmir" ("PoK")[6] or "Pakistan-held Kashmir" (PHK),[7] sometimes in conjunction with other areas of Kashmir
Kashmir
under Pakistani control. "Pakistan-administered Kashmir" and "Pakistan-controlled Kashmir"[8][9] are used by neutral sources. Conversely, Pakistani sources call the territory under Indian control "Indian-Occupied Kashmir" ("IOK") or "Indian-Held Kashmir" ("IHK").[6] ^ Officially, Mirpur and Poonch districts were in the Jammu province of the state and Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
was in the Kashmir
Kashmir
province. All three provinces spoke languages related to Punjabi, not the Kashmiri language spoken in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley.[17] ^ Snedden (2013, p. 176): On p. 29, the census report states that Urdu
Urdu
is the official language of the Government of Azad Kashmir, with Kashmiri, Pahari, Gojri, Punjabi, Kohistani, Pushto and Sheena `frequently spoken in Azad Kashmir'. Yet, when surveyed about their `Mother Tongue', Azad Kashmiris' choices were limited to selecting from Pakistan's major languages: Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushto, Balochi, Saraiki and `Others'; not surprisingly, 2.18 million of Azad Kashmir's 2.97 million people chose `Others'. ^ Hallberg & O'Leary (1992, p. 96) report two rough estimates for the total population of Gujari speakes in Azad Kashmir: 200,000 and 700,000, both from the 1980s.

References

^ a b Richard M. Bird; François Vaillancourt (December 4, 2008). Fiscal Decentralization in Developing Countries. Cambridge University Press. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-0-521-10158-5.  ^ a b c Bose, Sumantra (2009), Contested Lands, Harvard University Press, p. 193, ISBN 978-0-674-02856-2, Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
– "Free Kashmir," the more populated and nominally self-governing part of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir  ^ "Territorial limits". Herald. May 7, 2015. Archived from the original on July 24, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2015. These are self-ruled autonomous regions. But restrictions apply.  ^ a b c d e f "Azad Kashmir" at britannica.com ^ " Kashmir
Kashmir
profile". BBC. November 26, 2014. Archived from the original on July 24, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2015.  ^ a b Snedden 2013, pp. 2–3. ^ Chandra, Bipan; Mukherjee, Aditya; Mukherje, Mridula (2008). India since Independence. Penguin Books India. p. 416. ISBN 0143104098.  ^ Bose, Sumantra (2009). Contested lands: Israel-Palestine, Kashmir, Bosnia, Cyprus and Sri Lanka. Harvard University Press. p. 193. ISBN 0674028562.  ^ Behera, Navnita Chadha (2007). Demystifying Kashmir. Pearson Education India. p. 66. ISBN 8131708462.  ^ "Gilgit-Baltistan: Story of how region 6 times the size of PoK passed on to Pakistan".  ^ "Underdevelopment in AJK". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved June 18, 2016.  ^ "Education emergency: AJK leading in enrolment, lagging in quality – The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. March 26, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2016.  ^ "The J&K conflict: A Chronological Introduction". India Together. Retrieved June 5, 2010.  ^ a b Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. " Kashmir
Kashmir
(region, Indian subcontinent) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 5, 2010.  ^ Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. HarperCollins Publishers India. p. 14. ISBN 978-93-5029-898-5. Similarly, Muslims in Western Jammu Province, particularly in Poonch, many of whom had martial capabilities, and Muslims in the Frontier Districts Province strongly wanted J&K to join Pakistan.  ^ Bose 2003, pp. 32–33. ^ Behera, Navnita Chadha (2007), Demystifying Kashmir, Pearson Education India, p. 29, ISBN 8131708462  ^ Snedden 2013, p. 59. ^ Snedden 2013, p. 61. ^ "Kashmir: Why India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
fight over it". November 23, 2016 – via www.bbc.com.  ^ Bose 2003, pp. 35–36. ^ Prem Shankar Jha. "Grasping the Nettle". South Asian Journal. Archived from the original on May 16, 2010. [unreliable source?] ^ "UN resolution 47". Retrieved September 11, 2012.  ^ "UNCIP Resolution of August 13, 1948 (S/1100) – Embassy of India, Washington, D.C." Archived from the original on October 13, 2007.  ^ "UNMOGIP: United Nations
United Nations
Military Observer Group in India
India
and Pakistan". Archived from the original on May 14, 2008.  ^ "How free is Azad Kashsmir".  ^ a b c "Azad Jammu and Kashmir – Introduction". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2010.  ^ a b "AJ&K Portal". ajk.gov.pk.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
to observe Kashmir
Kashmir
Solidarity Day today". The Hindu. February 5, 2007. Retrieved February 5, 2008.  ^ " Kashmir
Kashmir
Day being observed today". The News International. February 5, 2008. Retrieved February 5, 2008. [permanent dead link] ^ Adams, Brad. "Pakistan: 'Free Kashmir' Far From Free". Human Rights Watch.  ^ a b c d e Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir-The Untold Story. Harper Collins Publishers India. p. 93. ISBN 978-93-5029-898-5. Second, Azad Kashmiris
Kashmiris
had always wanted to be part of this nation.  ^ Bose, Sumantra (2003), Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, Harvard University Press, p. 100, ISBN 0-674-01173-2  ^ https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-document/69690/rrp-pak-38135.pdf ^ http://www.un.org.pk/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Pakistan-Donor-Profile-and-Mapping-by-UN.pdf ^ "Administrative Setup". ajk.gov.pk. Archived from the original on April 9, 2010. Retrieved May 17, 2010.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 10, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2015.  ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir
Kashmir
and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-84904-622-0. Confusingly, the term 'Kashmiri' also has wider connotations and uses. Some people in Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
call themselves 'Kashmiris'. This is despite most Azad Kashmiris
Kashmiris
not being of Kashmiri ethnicity.  ^ Coakley, John (2 August 2004). The Territorial Management of Ethnic Conflict. Routledge. p. 153. ISBN 9781135764425.  ^ a b c d e f Snedden 2013, Role of Biradaries (pp. 128–133) ^ a b c d http://www.erra.pk/Reports/KMC/RawlakotProfile200907.pdf ^ a b c http://www.erra.pk/Reports/KMC/BaghProfile200907.pdf ^ Moss, Paul (November 30, 2006). "South Asia The limits to integration". BBC News. Retrieved June 5, 2010.  ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir
Kashmir
and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-84904-622-0.  ^ a b Rahman 1996, p. 226. ^ The preceding paragraph is mostly based on Lothers & Lothers (2010). For further references, see the bibliograghy in Pahari-Pothwari. ^ Akhtar & Rehman 2007, p. 68. The conclusion is based on lexical similarity and the comparison is with the Hindko
Hindko
of the Kaghan Valley and with the Pahari of the Murre Hills. ^ Hallberg & O'Leary 1992, pp. 96, 98, 100. ^ Hallberg & O'Leary 1992, pp. 93–94. ^ Hallberg & O'Leary 1992, pp. 111–12, 126. ^ Rahman 2002, p. 449; Rahman 1996, p. 226 ^ Akhtar & Rehman 2007, p. 70. ^ Rahman 1996, p. 226; Rahman 2002, pp. 449–50. The discussion in both cases is in the broader context of Pakistan. ^ Akhtar & Rehman 2007, pp. 70, 75. ^ Akhtar & Rehman 2007. ^ "History of Planning & Development Department in AJK". Archived from the original on April 11, 2010.  ^ "Azad Jammu & Kashmir – Tourism". Archived from the original on May 29, 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2010.  ^ a b Naqash, Tariq (October 1, 2006). "'Rs1.25 trillion to be spent in Azad Kashmir': Reconstruction in quake-hit zone". Dawn. Muzaffarabad.  ^ Abid Qaiyum Suleri; Kevin Savage. "Remittances in crises: a case study from Pakistan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2010.  ^ "'Literacy Rate in Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
nearly 62 pc'". Pakistan
Pakistan
Times. MUZAFFARABAD (Azad Kashmir). September 27, 2004. Archived from the original on February 27, 2005.  ^ Hasan, Khalid (April 17, 2005). "Washington conference studies educational crisis in Pakistan". Daily Times. Washington. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Grace Clark told the conference that only 2.9% of Pakistanis had access to higher education.  ^ "Our Institutions". Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013.  ^ "Recognized medical colleges in Pakistan". Pakistan
Pakistan
Medical and Dental Council. Archived from the original on August 19, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2013. 

Sources

Akhtar, Raja Nasim; Rehman, Khawaja A. (2007). "The Languages of the Neelam Valley". Kashmir
Kashmir
Journal of Language Research. 10 (1): 65–84. ISSN 1028-6640.  Bose, Sumantra (2003). Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01173-2.  Hallberg, Calinda E.; O'Leary, Clare F. (1992). "Dialect Variation and Multilingualism among Gujars
Gujars
of Pakistan". In O'Leary, Clare F.; Rensch, Calvin R.; Hallberg, Calinda E. Hindko
Hindko
and Gujari. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan
Pakistan
Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics. pp. 91–196. ISBN 969-8023-13-5.  Lothers, Michael; Lothers, Laura (2010). Pahari and Pothwari: a sociolinguistic survey (Report). SIL Electronic Survey Reports. 2010-012.  Rahman, Tariq (1996). Language and politics in Pakistan. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-577692-8.  Rahman, Tariq (2002). Language, ideology and power : language learning among the Muslims of Pakistan
Pakistan
and North India. Karachi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-579644-5.  Snedden, Christopher (2013) [first published as The Untold Story of the People of Azad Kashmir, 2012]. Kashmir: The Unwritten History. HarperCollins India. ISBN 9350298988. 

Further reading

Mathur, Shubh (2008). "Srinagar-Muzaffarabad-New York: A Kashmiri Family's Exile". In Roy, Anjali Gera; Bhatia, Nandi. Partitioned Lives: Narratives of Home, Displacement and Resettlement. Pearson Education India. ISBN 9332506205.  Schoefield, Victoria (2003) [First published in 2000]. Kashmir
Kashmir
in Conflict. London and New York: I. B. Taurus & Co. ISBN 1860648983. 

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