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Eight-thousander
The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation (UIAA) recognises eight-thousanders as the 14 mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a hill, typically rising at least ...s that are more than in height above sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquial, ordinary language, an average is a single number taken as representative of a list of numbers, usually the sum of the numbers divided by how many numbers are in th ..., and are considered to be sufficiently independent from neighbouring peaks. However, there is no precise definition of the criteria used to assess independence, and, since 2012, the UIAA has been involved in a process to consider whether the list should be expanded to 20 mountains. All eight-thousanders are located in the Him ...
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Manaslu
Manaslu ( ne, मनास्लु, also known as Kutang) is the eighth-highest mountain in the world at above sea level. It is in the Mansiri Himal Mansiri Himal is a small, high subrange of the Himalayas in north-central Nepal, about northwest of Kathmandu. The Marsyangdi River separates the Mansiri from the Annapurnas to the southwest, then an upper tributary ''Dudh Khola'' separates ''Peri ..., part of the Nepalese Himalayas, in the west-central part of Nepal. The name Manaslu means "mountain of the spirit" and is derived from the Sanskrit word ''manasa'', meaning "intellect" or "soul". Manaslu was first climbed on May 9, 1956, by Toshio Imanishi and Gyalzen Norbu, members of a Japanese expedition. It is said that, given the many unsuccessful attempts by the British to climb Mount Everest, Everest before New Zealander Edmund Hillary, Edmund Hilary, "just as the British consider Everest their mountain, Manaslu has always been a Japanese mountain".Mayhew, p. 326 Manaslu is ...
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Shishapangma
Shishapangma, also called Gosainthān, is the 14th highest mountain in the world at above sea level. It was the last 8,000 metre peak to be climbed, due to its location entirely within Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa people, Monpa, Tamang people, Tamang, Qia ... and the restrictions on visits by foreign travelers to the region imposed by authorities of the Government of China The Government of the People's Republic of China () is collectively the state authority in the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of ... and of the Tibet Autonomous Region The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, often shortened to Tibet or Xizang, is a province A province is almo ...
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Nanga Parbat
Nanga Parbat (; ), known locally as Diamer (), is the ninth-highest mountain on Earth, its summit at above sea level. Lying immediately southeast of the northernmost bend of the Indus river The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these rivers, including t ... in the Gilgit-Baltistan Gilgit-Baltistan (; , : རྒྱལ་སྐྱིད་ སྦལྟི་ཡུལ།), formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a region administered by as an administrative territory, and constitutes the northern portion of the larger ... region of Pakistan-administered Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr () is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also kn ...
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Everest
Mount Everest (Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...: 珠穆朗玛峰, Pinyin: Zhumulangma Feng; ; Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...: ''Chomolungma'' ) is Earth's highest mountain above sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquial, ordinary language, an average is a single number taken as representative of a list of numbers, usually the sum of the numbers divided by how many numbers are in th ..., located in the Mahalangur Himal Mahālangūr Himāl ( ne, महालङ्ग ...
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Dhaulagiri
Dhaulagiri is the seventh highest mountain in the world at above sea level, and the highest mountain within the borders of a single country (Nepal). It was first climbed on 13 May 1960 by a Swiss/Austrian/Nepali expedition. Annapurna I Annapurna (; Sanskrit, Nepali language, Nepali, Newar language, Newar: अन्नपूर्ण) is a massif in the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes one peak over , thirteen peaks over , and sixteen more over . The massif is lon ... () is east of Dhaulagiri. The Kali Gandaki River The Gandaki River, also known as the Narayani and the Gandak, is one of the major rivers in Nepal and a :wikt:left bank, left bank tributary of the Ganges in India. Its total catchment area amounts to , most of it in Nepal. In the Nepal Himala ... flows between the two in the Kaligandaki Gorge The Kali Gandaki Gorge or Andha Galchi is the Canyon, gorge of the Kali Gandaki (or Gandaki River) in the Himalayas in Nepal. By some definitions, it ...
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Annapurna
Annapurna (; Sanskrit, Nepali language, Nepali, Newar language, Newar: अन्नपूर्ण) is a massif in the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes one peak over , thirteen peaks over , and sixteen more over . The massif is long, and is bounded by the Kali Gandaki Gorge on the west, the Marshyangdi, Marshyangdi River on the north and east, and by Pokhara Valley on the south. At the western end, the massif encloses a high basin called the Annapurna Sanctuary. The highest peak of the massif, Annapurna I Main, is the List of highest mountains#List, tenth highest mountain in the world at above sea level. Maurice Herzog led a 1950 French Annapurna expedition, French expedition to its summit through the north face in 1950, making it the first of the eight-thousanders to be climbed and the only 8,000 meter-peak to be summited with a safe descent on the first try. The entire massif and surrounding area are protected within the Annapurna Conservation Area, the first a ...
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Cho Oyu
__NOTOC__ Cho Oyu (Nepali: चोयु; ; ) is the sixth-highest mountain in the world at above sea level. Cho Oyu means "Turquoise Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, duct ... Goddess" in Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec .... The mountain is the westernmost major peak of the ''Khumbu Khumbu (also known as the Everest Region) is a region of northeastern Nepal on the Nepalese side of Mount Everest. It is part of the Solukhumbu District, which in turn is part of Province No. 1.Bradley, Mayhew; "Trekking in the Nepal Himalaya"; ( ...'' sub-section of the ...
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Kangchenjunga
Kangchenjunga, also spelled Kanchenjunga, is the third highest mountain in the world. It rises with an elevation of in a section of the Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It ar ... called ''Kangchenjunga Himal'' delimited in the west by the Tamur River The Tamor River is a major river in eastern Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially Nepal, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country in South Asia. It is mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It ..., in the north by the Lhonak Chu and Jongsang La, and in the east by the Teesta River Teesta River is a long river that rises in the Pauhunri Mountain of eastern Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃsk ...
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Annapurna I
Annapurna (; Sanskrit, Nepali language, Nepali, Newar language, Newar: अन्नपूर्ण) is a massif in the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes one peak over , thirteen peaks over , and sixteen more over . The massif is long, and is bounded by the Kali Gandaki Gorge on the west, the Marshyangdi, Marshyangdi River on the north and east, and by Pokhara Valley on the south. At the western end, the massif encloses a high basin called the Annapurna Sanctuary. The highest peak of the massif, Annapurna I Main, is the List of highest mountains#List, tenth highest mountain in the world at above sea level. Maurice Herzog led a 1950 French Annapurna expedition, French expedition to its summit through the north face in 1950, making it the first of the eight-thousanders to be climbed and the only 8,000 meter-peak to be summited with a safe descent on the first try. The entire massif and surrounding area are protected within the Annapurna Conservation Area, the first a ...
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Maurice Herzog
Maurice André Raymond Herzog (15 January 191913 December 2012) was a French Mountaineering, mountaineer and administrator who was born in Lyon, France. He led the 1950 French Annapurna expedition that first climbed Eight-thousander, a peak over 8000m, Annapurna, in 1950, and reached the summit with Louis Lachenal. Upon his return, he wrote a best-selling book about the expedition, ''Annapurna (book), Annapurna''. Ascent of Annapurna I: a historic exploit On 3 June 1950, Herzog and Louis Lachenal became the first climbers in modern history to climb Eight-thousander, a peak over 8000m when, on the 1950 French Annapurna expedition, they summited the Himalayas, Himalayan mountain Annapurna I, the 10th-highest mountain in the world. The ascent was all the more remarkable because the peak was explored, reconnoitered and climbed all within one season; and was climbed without the use of supplemental oxygen. It is also the only 8000 meter summit that was reached at the first attempt. H ...
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Karakoram
The Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ..., India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ..., and Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ..., with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled ...
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Death Zone
In mountaineering Mountaineering, or alpinism, is the set of outdoor activities that involves ascending tall mountains. Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, skiing and traversing via ferratas. Indoor climbing, sport climbing ..., the death zone refers to altitudes above a certain point where the pressure of oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ... is insufficient to sustain human life for an extended time span. This point is generally tagged as , less than 356 millibars of atmospheric pressure). The concept was first conceived in 1953 by Edouard Wyss-Dunant Edouard Wyss-Dunant (17 April 1897 – 30 April 1983) was a Swiss physician and alpinist. He had a distinguished career in medicine Medicine is the science ...
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