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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to knowledge: Knowledge
Knowledge
– familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, and/or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic.[1]

Contents

1 Types of knowledge

1.1 By form 1.2 By scope

2 Structure of knowledge 3 Types of bodies of recorded knowledge 4 Specific bodies of recorded knowledge, by type 5 Epistemology
Epistemology
(philosophy of knowledge) 6 Management of knowledge

6.1 Obtaining knowledge 6.2 Knowledge
Knowledge
storage 6.3 Knowledge
Knowledge
retrieval 6.4 Imparting knowledge

7 History of the knowledge of humanity 8 Knowledge
Knowledge
and society

8.1 Economics of knowledge 8.2 Politics of knowledge 8.3 Sociology of knowledge

9 Knowledge
Knowledge
technology 10 Knowledge
Knowledge
of humanity 11 Organizations 12 Publications

12.1 Books 12.2 Journals

13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Types of knowledge[edit] By form[edit]

A priori and a posteriori knowledge – these terms are used with respect to reasoning (epistemology) to distinguish necessary conclusions from first premises...

A priori knowledge or justification – knowledge that is independent of experience, as with mathematics (3+2=5), tautologies ("All bachelors are unmarried"), and deduction from pure reason (e.g., ontological proofs).[3] A posteriori knowledge or justification – knowledge dependent on experience or empirical evidence, as with most aspects of science and personal knowledge.

Descriptive knowledge – also called declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, it is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions (e.g., "Albert is fat", or "It is raining"). This is distinguished from what is commonly known as "know-how" or procedural knowledge (the knowledge of how, and especially how best, to perform some task), and "knowing of", or knowledge by acquaintance (the knowledge of something's existence). Experience – knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.[4]

Empirical evidence – also referred to as empirical data, empirical knowledge, and sense experience, it is a collective term for the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses, particularly by observation and experimentation.[5] After Immanuel Kant, it is common in philosophy to call the knowledge thus gained a posteriori knowledge. This is contrasted with a priori knowledge, the knowledge accessible from pure reason alone. Experiential knowledge

Explicit knowledge – knowledge that can be readily articulated, codified, accessed and verbalized.[6] It can be easily transmitted to others. Most forms of explicit knowledge can be stored in certain media. The information contained in encyclopedias and textbooks are good examples of explicit knowledge. Extelligence – term coined by Ian Stewart and Jack Cohen in their 1997 book Figments of Reality. They define it as the cultural capital that is available to us in the form of external media (e.g. tribal legends, folklore, nursery rhymes, books, videotapes, CD-ROMs, etc.). Knowledge
Knowledge
by acquaintance – according to Bertrand Russell, knowledge by acquaintance is obtained through a direct causal (experience-based) interaction between a person and the object that person is perceiving. Sense-data from that object are the only things that people can ever become acquainted with; they can never truly KNOW the physical object itself. The distinction between "knowledge by acquaintance" and "knowledge by description" was promoted by Russell (notably in his 1905 paper On Denoting). Russell was extremely critical of the equivocal nature of the word "know", and believed that the equivocation arose from a failure to distinguish between the two fundamentally different types of knowledge. Libre knowledge – knowledge released in such a way that users are free to read, listen to, watch, or otherwise experience it; to learn from or with it; to copy, adapt and use it for any purpose; and to share the work (unchanged or modified). Whilst shared tacit knowledge is regarded as implicitly libre, (explicit) libre knowledge is defined as a generalisation of the libre software definition. Procedural knowledge – also known as imperative knowledge, it is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. Commonly referred to as "know-how". Tacit knowledge – kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it. For example, that London is in the United Kingdom is a piece of explicit knowledge that can be written down, transmitted, and understood by a recipient. However, the ability to speak a language, knead dough, play a musical instrument or design and use complex equipment requires all sorts of knowledge that is not always known explicitly, even by expert practitioners, and which is difficult or impossible to explicitly transfer to other users.

By scope[edit]

Common knowledge – knowledge that is known by everyone or nearly everyone, usually with reference to the community in which the term is used. Customer knowledge – knowledge for, about, or from customers. Domain knowledge – valid knowledge used to refer to an area of human endeavour, an autonomous computer activity, or other specialized discipline. General knowledge
General knowledge
– "culturally valued knowledge communicated by a range of non-specialist media" and encompassing a wide subject range.[7] This definition excludes highly specialized learning that can only be obtained with extensive training and information confined to a single medium. General knowledge
General knowledge
is an important component of crystallized intelligence and is strongly associated with general intelligence, and with openness to experience.[8] Metaknowledge – knowledge about knowledge. Bibliographies are a form of metaknowledge. Patterns within scientific literature is another. Mutual knowledge – Self-knowledge – information that an individual draws upon when finding an answer to the question "What am I like?". Traditional knowledge
Traditional knowledge
– knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities. Traditional knowledge includes types of knowledge about traditional technologies of subsistence (e.g. tools and techniques for hunting or agriculture), midwifery, ethnobotany and ecological knowledge, traditional medicine, celestial navigation, ethnoastronomy, the climate, and others. These kinds of knowledge, crucial for subsistence and survival, are generally based on accumulations of empirical observation and on interaction with the environment.

Traditional ecological knowledge
Traditional ecological knowledge

Structure of knowledge[edit] Taxonomies –

Types of subject taxonomies

Document classification Library classification
Library classification
Taxonomy for search engines

Specific taxonomies of knowledge

Figurative System of Human Knowledge
Knowledge
Propædia – first of three parts of the 15th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, presenting its Outline of Knowledge. Tree of Knowledge
Knowledge
System –

Types of bodies of recorded knowledge[edit]

Academic disciplines – branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education. A scholar's discipline is commonly defined and recognized by the university faculties and learned societies to which he or she belongs and the academic journals in which he or she publishes research. However, no formal criteria exist for defining an academic discipline. Body of knowledge (BOK) – specialized term in knowledge representation meaning the complete set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the relevant learned society or professional association. Curriculi – plural of curriculum, which means the totality of student experiments that occur in the educational process.[9][10] The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of planned student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's instructional goals. Curricula may be tightly standardized, or may include a high level of instructor or learner autonomy.[11] Many countries have national curricula in primary and secondary education, such as the United Kingdom's National Curriculum. Encyclopedias – type of reference work or compendium holding a comprehensive summary of information from either all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge.[12] Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries, which are usually accessed alphabetically by article name.[13] Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
entries are longer and more detailed than those in most dictionaries.[13] Generally speaking, unlike dictionary entries, which focus on linguistic information about words, encyclopedia articles focus on factual information concerning the subject for which the article is named.[14][15][16][17] Knowledge
Knowledge
base –

Personal knowledge base

Knowledge
Knowledge
commons – Libraries – a library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.[18] It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both.[19] A library's collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items.

Specific bodies of recorded knowledge, by type[edit]

Specific BOKs (bodies of knowledge, in the context of the knowledge representation field)

A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge Canadian IT Body of Knowledge Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge Common Body of Knowledge Enterprise Architecture Body of Knowledge Geographic Information
Information
Science
Science
and Technology Body of Knowledge Project Management Body of Knowledge Software Engineering Body of Knowledge

Specific encyclopedias

Bibliography
Bibliography
of encyclopedias List of encyclopedias by branch of knowledge List of encyclopedias by language List of historical encyclopedias List of online encyclopedias

– largest encyclopedia in the world. It is a free, web-based, collaborative, multilingual encyclopedia project supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Its more than 20 million articles (over 5.04 million in English) have been written collaboratively by volunteers around the world. Almost all of its articles can be edited by anyone with access to the site,[20] and it has about 100,000 regularly active contributors.[21]

Specific knowledge bases

Knowledge
Knowledge
Vault – knowledge base created by Google. As of 2014, it contained 1.6 billion facts which had been collated automatically from the Internet.

Epistemology
Epistemology
(philosophy of knowledge)[edit] Epistemology
Epistemology
– philosophy of knowledge. It is the study of knowledge and justified belief. It questions what knowledge is and how it can be acquired, and the extent to which knowledge pertinent to any given subject or entity can be acquired. Much of the debate in this field has focused on the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification.

DIKW pyramid
DIKW pyramid
– theoretical model of the relationship between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom Knowledge
Knowledge
neglect – Theory of knowledge (IB course)

Management of knowledge[edit] Knowledge
Knowledge
management –

Chief knowledge officer Knowledge
Knowledge
balance sheet – Knowledge
Knowledge
ecosystem – Knowledge
Knowledge
mobilization – Knowledge
Knowledge
organization (effort) –

Knowledge
Knowledge
organization system –

Knowledge
Knowledge
organization (company or agency) – Knowledge
Knowledge
transfer – Knowledge
Knowledge
worker –

Obtaining knowledge[edit] Methods of obtaining knowledge

Exploration
Exploration

Space exploration – Revelation
Revelation
Research
Research

Scientific method – Experimentation
Experimentation

Learning
Learning

Autodidactism
Autodidactism
– self-education; act of self-directed learning about a subject or subjects in which one has had little to no formal education. Reading – Studying – Knowledge
Knowledge
building –

Knowledge
Knowledge
building communities –

Knowledge
Knowledge
storage[edit] Knowledge
Knowledge
can be stored in:

Books – Knowledge
Knowledge
bases –

Ontology – formal naming and definition of the types, properties, and interrelationships of the entities that really or fundamentally exist for a particular domain of discourse.

Commonsense knowledge base – database containing all the general knowledge that most people possess, represented in a way that it is available to artificial intelligence programs that use natural language or make inferences about the ordinary world. Knowledge
Knowledge
graph – another name for ontology Knowledge
Knowledge
Graph – knowledge base used by Google to enhance its search engine's search results with semantic search information gathered from a wide variety of sources

Knowledge
Knowledge
representation (AI) –

Body of knowledge (BOK) – complete set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the relevant learned society or professional association

Libraries – Memory
Memory

Knowledge
Knowledge
retrieval[edit] Knowledge
Knowledge
retrieval – Stored knowledge can be retrieved by:

Knowledge
Knowledge
engine

Wolfram Alpha
Wolfram Alpha
– computational knowledge engine or answer engine developed by Wolfram Research Knowledge
Knowledge
Engine (Wikimedia Foundation) – search engine project by the Wikimedia Foundation Google Search
Google Search
– powered by:

Knowledge
Knowledge
Graph – knowledge base used by Google to enhance its search engine's search results with semantic search information gathered from a wide variety of sources

Knowledge
Knowledge
discovery – Reading –

Imparting knowledge[edit] Imparting knowledge means spreading or disseminating knowledge to others.

Communication – purposeful activity of information exchange between two or more participants in order to convey or receive the intended meanings through a shared system of signs and semiotic rules. The basic steps of communication are the forming of communicative intent, message composition, message encoding, transmission of signal, reception of signal, message decoding and interpretation of the message by the recipient. Examples of methods of communication used to impart knowledge include: Writing
Writing
and Publishing. Education
Education
– process of facilitating learning.

Educational methods:

Storytelling
Storytelling
Discussion
Discussion
Teaching
Teaching
Training
Training
– Directed research –

Knowledge
Knowledge
sharing – activity through which knowledge (namely, information, skills, or expertise) is exchanged among people, friends, families, communities (for example,), or organizations.[22][23][24]

Knowledge
Knowledge
café – Knowledge
Knowledge
transfer – Knowledge
Knowledge
translation –

History of the knowledge of humanity[edit]

Historiography
Historiography
(History of history) – History of exploration
History of exploration

History of space exploration
History of space exploration

History of invention
History of invention
History of libraries
History of libraries
History of philosophy
History of philosophy
History of science
History of science
Knowledge
Knowledge
deities – Taxes on knowledge
Taxes on knowledge

Knowledge
Knowledge
and society[edit] Economics of knowledge[edit]

Intellectual capital Knowledge
Knowledge
broker – Knowledge
Knowledge
Economic Index – Knowledge
Knowledge
economy – Knowledge
Knowledge
gap hypothesis – Knowledge
Knowledge
market –

Knowledge
Knowledge
services –

Knowledge
Knowledge
spillover – Knowledge
Knowledge
value – Monopolies of knowledge
Monopolies of knowledge

Politics of knowledge[edit]

Access to Knowledge
Knowledge
movement – Knowledge
Knowledge
assessment methodology – Knowledge
Knowledge
society – Local knowledge problem – Open access –

Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge
Knowledge
in the Sciences and Humanities –

Scientia potentia est
Scientia potentia est
– Latin for "knowledge is power". The Cost of Knowledge
Knowledge
protest – World Brain
World Brain

Sociology of knowledge[edit] Sociology of knowledge
Sociology of knowledge

Knowledge
Knowledge
community – Knowledge
Knowledge
space –

Knowledge
Knowledge
technology[edit]

Knowledge-based systems

Knowledge
Knowledge
acquisition – Knowledge
Knowledge
base – Knowledge
Knowledge
engineering –

Knowledge
Knowledge
engineer –

Knowledge
Knowledge
extraction – Knowledge
Knowledge
level – Knowledge
Knowledge
level modeling – Knowledge
Knowledge
modeling –

Knowledge
Knowledge
management (see above) – Natural language processing –

Knowledge
Knowledge
of humanity[edit] See also: Outline of academic disciplines The world's knowledge (knowledge possessed by human civilization)

Humanities and arts

Classics History Literature Performing arts

Dance Music Theatre

Philosophy Religion Visual arts

Media type Painting

Social sciences

Anthropology Economics

Trade

Education Geography Law

Jurisprudence

Linguistics / Language Political science Psychology Sociology

Science

Natural Sciences

Astronomy Biology Chemistry Earth Sciences Mathematics Physics

Engineering / Technology

Aerospace engineering Biotechnology / Biological engineering Biomedical engineering Chemical engineering Civil engineering Computer science / Computer engineering Electrical engineering Electronics engineering Environmental engineering Industrial engineering Marine engineering
Marine engineering
/ Naval architecture Materials science
Materials science
and engineering Mechanical engineering Nuclear science and engineering

Healthcare sciences

Dentistry and oral health Medicine and surgery Veterinary medicine
Veterinary medicine
/ Veterinary surgery

Business and management Architecture

Organizations[edit]

Institute of Knowledge
Knowledge
Transfer – International Society for Knowledge
Knowledge
Organization – Open Knowledge
Knowledge
International –

Publications[edit] Books[edit]

A Guide for the Perplexed
A Guide for the Perplexed
– critique of materialist scientism and an exploration of the nature and organization of knowledge. By E. F. Schumacher. Knowledge
Knowledge
and Its Limits –

Journals[edit]

Electronic Journal of Knowledge
Knowledge
Management – Journal of Information
Information
& Knowledge
Knowledge
Management – Journal of Information
Information
Science
Science
– Journal of Knowledge
Knowledge
Management – Journal of Knowledge
Knowledge
Management Practice – Journal of Web Semantics Knowledge
Knowledge
Management Research
Research
& Practice –

See also[edit]

Belief Data Information Truth Wisdom Knowledge
Knowledge
representation and reasoning Knowledge
Knowledge
building Knowledge
Knowledge
enterprise Empirical knowledge Simple Knowledge
Knowledge
Organization System Encyclopedic knowledge Knowledge
Knowledge
intensive business services Knowledge
Knowledge
entrepreneurship Institutional memory Omniscience Knowledge
Knowledge
environment Personal knowledge management Knowledge
Knowledge
management software Tribal knowledge Democratization of knowledge Open Knowledge
Knowledge
Base Connectivity Knowledge
Knowledge
integration Knowledge
Knowledge
triangle Curse of knowledge Knowledge
Knowledge
value chain Economics of scientific knowledge Specialization of knowledge Knowledge
Knowledge
ark Knowledge
Knowledge
building communities Knowledge
Knowledge
acquisition (philosophy) Knowledge-based theory of the firm Half-life of knowledge Forbidden knowledge Encapsulated knowledge Threshold knowledge History of knowledge Social knowledge management List of knowledge management concepts Knowledge
Knowledge
compilation

References[edit]

^ http://oxforddictionaries.com/view/entry/m_en_us1261368#m_en_us1261368 ^ Sommers 2003 ^ Galen Strawson has stated that an a priori argument is one in which "you can see that it is true just lying on your couch. You don't have to get up off your couch and go outside and examine the way things are in the physical world. You don't have to do any science."[2] ^ Compare various contemporary definitions given in the OED (2nd edition, 1989): "[...] 3. The actual observation of facts or events, considered as a source of knowledge.[...] 4. a. The fact of being consciously the subject of a state or condition, or of being consciously affected by an event. [...] b. In religious use: A state of mind or feeling forming part of the inner religious life; the mental history (of a person) with regard to religious emotion. [...] 6. What has been experienced; the events that have taken place within the knowledge of an individual, a community, mankind at large, either during a particular period or generally. [...] 7. a. Knowledge resulting from actual observation or from what one has undergone. [...] 8. The state of having been occupied in any department of study or practice, in affairs generally, or in the intercourse of life; the extent to which, or the length of time during which, one has been so occupied; the aptitudes, skill, judgement, etc. thereby acquired." ^ Pickett 2006, p. 585 ^ Helie, Sebastien; Sun, Ron (2010). "Incubation, Insight, and Creative Problem Solving: A Unified Theory and a Connectionist Model". Psychology Review. 117 (3): 994–1024. doi:10.1037/a0019532. PMID 20658861.  ^ Lynn, Richard; Irwing, P.; Cammock, T. (2002). "Sex differences in general knowledge". Intelligence. 30: 27–39. doi:10.1016/S0160-2896(01)00064-2.  ^ Bates, T. C.; Shieles, A. (2003). "Crystallized Intelligence as a product of Speed and Drive for Experience: The Relationship of Inspection Time and Openness to g and Gc". Intelligence. 31: 275–287. doi:10.1016/S0160-2896(02)00176-9.  ^ Kelly 2009, p. 13. ^ Wiles, Jon (2008). Leading Curriculum
Curriculum
Development. p. 2. ISBN 9781412961417.  ^ Adams 2003, pp. 33–34. ^ "Encyclopedia". Archived from the original on 2007-08-03.  Glossary of Library
Library
Terms. Riverside City College, Digital Library/ Learning
Learning
Resource Center. Retrieved on: November 17, 2007. ^ a b Hartmann, R. R. K.; James, Gregory; Gregory James (1998). Dictionary of Lexicography. Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 0-415-14143-5. Retrieved July 27, 2010.  ^ Béjoint, Henri (2000). Modern Lexicography, pp. 30–31. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829951-6 ^ "Encyclopaedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 27, 2010. An English lexicographer, H.W. Fowler, wrote in the preface to the first edition (1911) of The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English language that a dictionary is concerned with the uses of words and phrases and with giving information about the things for which they stand only so far as current use of the words depends upon knowledge of those things. The emphasis in an encyclopedia is much more on the nature of the things for which the words and phrases stand.  ^ Hartmann, R. R. K.; Gregory James (1998). Dictionary of Lexicography. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 0-415-14143-5. Retrieved July 27, 2010. In contrast with linguistic information, encyclopedia material is more concerned with the description of objective realities than the words or phrases that refer to them. In practice, however, there is no hard and fast boundary between factual and lexical knowledge.  ^ Cowie, Anthony Paul (2009). The Oxford History of English Lexicography, Volume I. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-415-14143-5. Retrieved August 17, 2010. An 'encyclopedia' (encyclopaedia) usually gives more information than a dictionary; it explains not only the words but also the things and concepts referred to by the words.  ^ " Library
Library
- Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". merriam-webster.com.  ^ " Library
Library
... collection of books, public or private; room or building where these are kept; similar collection of films, records, computer routines, etc. or place where they are kept; series of books issued in similar bindings as set."--Allen, R. E., ed. (1984) The Pocket Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: Clarendon Press; p. 421 ^ "Wikipedia's Jimmy Wales Speaks Out On China And Internet Freedom". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2011-09-24. Currently, Facebook and Twitter
Twitter
remain blocked in China  ^ "'Technology can topple tyrants': Jimmy Wales an eternal optimist". Sydney Morning Herald. 7 November 2011.  ^ Bukowitz, Wendi R.; Williams, Ruth L. (1999). The Knowledge Management Fieldbook. FT Press. ISBN 978-0273638827.  ^ Serban, Andreea M.; Luan, Jing (2002). "An Overview of Knowledge Management" (PDF). University of Kentucky. Retrieved 17 April 2013.  ^ Hasmath, Reza; Hsu, Jennifer Y. J. (2016). "Communities of Practice and the NGO Sector in China". International Society for Third Sector Research
Research
Conference (Stockholm, Sweden), June 28-July 1: 1. SSRN 2612686 . 

External links[edit]

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Learning
resources from Wikiversity

Diagrams of knowledge from throughout society and history Outline of knowledge at PhilPapers "Knowledge". Internet Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Philosophy.  Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "The Value of Knowledge". Stanford Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Philosophy.  Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "The Analysis of Knowledge". Stanford Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Philosophy.  Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). " Knowledge
Knowledge
by Acquaintance vs. Description". Stanford Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Philosophy.  Outline of knowledge at the Indiana Philosophy Ontology Project

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