The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to knowledge:
KNOWLEDGE – familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts , information , descriptions , and/or skills acquired through experience or education . It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic.
* 1 Types of knowledge
* 1.1 By form * 1.2 By scope
* 2 Structure of knowledge
* 3 Types of bodies of recorded knowledge
* 4 Specific bodies of recorded knowledge, by type
* 6 Management of knowledge
* 7 History of the knowledge of humanity
* 8.1 Economics of knowledge * 8.2 Politics of knowledge * 8.3 Sociology of knowledge
* 12 Publications
* 12.1 Books * 12.2 Journals
* 13 See also * 14 References * 15 External links
TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE
* A priori and a posteriori knowledge – these terms are used with respect to reasoning (epistemology ) to distinguish necessary conclusions from first premises...
* A priori knowledge or justification – knowledge that is independent of experience , as with mathematics (3+2=5), tautologies ("All bachelors are unmarried"), and deduction from pure reason (e.g., ontological proofs ). * A posteriori knowledge or justification – knowledge dependent on experience or empirical evidence , as with most aspects of science and personal knowledge .
* Descriptive knowledge – also called declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, it is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions (e.g., "Albert is fat", or "It is raining"). This is distinguished from what is commonly known as "know-how" or procedural knowledge (the knowledge of how, and especially how best, to perform some task), and "knowing of", or knowledge by acquaintance (the knowledge of something's existence).
* Experience – knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
* Empirical evidence – also referred to as empirical data, empirical knowledge, and sense experience, it is a collective term for the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses, particularly by observation and experimentation. After Immanuel Kant, it is common in philosophy to call the knowledge thus gained a posteriori knowledge. This is contrasted with a priori knowledge, the knowledge accessible from pure reason alone. * Experiential knowledge –
Explicit knowledge – knowledge that can be readily articulated,
codified, accessed and verbalized. It can be easily transmitted to
others. Most forms of explicit knowledge can be stored in certain
media. The information contained in encyclopedias and textbooks are
good examples of explicit knowledge.
Extelligence – term coined by Ian Stewart and Jack Cohen in
their 1997 book Figments of Reality. They define it as the cultural
capital that is available to us in the form of external media (e.g.
tribal legends, folklore, nursery rhymes, books, videotapes, CD-ROMs,
* Common knowledge – knowledge that is known by everyone or nearly everyone, usually with reference to the community in which the term is used. * Customer knowledge – knowledge for, about, or from customers. * Domain knowledge – valid knowledge used to refer to an area of human endeavour, an autonomous computer activity, or other specialized discipline. * General knowledge – "culturally valued knowledge communicated by a range of non-specialist media" and encompassing a wide subject range. This definition excludes highly specialized learning that can only be obtained with extensive training and information confined to a single medium. General knowledge is an important component of crystallized intelligence and is strongly associated with general intelligence , and with openness to experience . * Metaknowledge – knowledge about knowledge. Bibliographies are a form of metaknowledge. Patterns within scientific literature is another. * Mutual knowledge – * Self-knowledge – information that an individual draws upon when finding an answer to the question "What am I like?".
* Traditional knowledge – knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities. Traditional knowledge includes types of knowledge about traditional technologies of subsistence (e.g. tools and techniques for hunting or agriculture), midwifery, ethnobotany and ecological knowledge, traditional medicine, celestial navigation, ethnoastronomy, the climate, and others. These kinds of knowledge, crucial for subsistence and survival, are generally based on accumulations of empirical observation and on interaction with the environment.
STRUCTURE OF KNOWLEDGE
* Types of subject taxonomies
* Specific taxonomies of knowledge
* Figurative System of Human
TYPES OF BODIES OF RECORDED KNOWLEDGE
* Academic disciplines – branch of knowledge that is taught and
researched as part of higher education. A scholar's discipline is
commonly defined and recognized by the university faculties and
learned societies to which he or she belongs and the academic journals
in which he or she publishes research. However, no formal criteria
exist for defining an academic discipline.
Body of knowledge (BOK) – specialized term in knowledge
representation meaning the complete set of concepts, terms and
activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the
relevant learned society or professional association.
* Curriculi – plural of curriculum, which means the totality of
student experiments that occur in the educational process. The term
often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to
a view of planned student's experiences in terms of the educator's or
school's instructional goals. Curricula may be tightly standardized,
or may include a high level of instructor or learner autonomy. Many
countries have national curricula in primary and secondary education,
such as the United Kingdom's National Curriculum.
* Encyclopedias – type of reference work or compendium holding a
comprehensive summary of information from either all branches of
knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. Encyclopedias are
divided into articles or entries, which are usually accessed
alphabetically by article name.
SPECIFIC BODIES OF RECORDED KNOWLEDGE, BY TYPE
* Specific BOKs (bodies of knowledge , in the context of the knowledge representation field)
* A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of
* Specific encyclopedias
* – largest encyclopedia in the world. It is a free, web-based, collaborative, multilingual encyclopedia project supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Its more than 20 million articles (over 5.04 million in English) have been written collaboratively by volunteers around the world. Almost all of its articles can be edited by anyone with access to the site, and it has about 100,000 regularly active contributors.
* Specific knowledge bases
EPISTEMOLOGY (PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE)
MANAGEMENT OF KNOWLEDGE
* Space exploration –
* Scientific method – * Experimentation –
* Autodidactism – self-education; act of self-directed learning about a subject or subjects in which one has had little to no formal education. * Reading – * Studying –
* Books –
* Ontology – formal naming and definition of the types, properties, and interrelationships of the entities that really or fundamentally exist for a particular domain of discourse.
* Commonsense knowledge base – database containing all the general
knowledge that most people possess, represented in a way that it is
available to artificial intelligence programs that use natural
language or make inferences about the ordinary world.
* Body of knowledge (BOK) – complete set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the relevant learned society or professional association
* Libraries –
Imparting knowledge means spreading or disseminating knowledge to others.
* Communication – purposeful activity of information exchange
between two or more participants in order to convey or receive the
intended meanings through a shared system of signs and semiotic rules.
The basic steps of communication are the forming of communicative
intent, message composition, message encoding, transmission of signal,
reception of signal, message decoding and interpretation of the
message by the recipient. Examples of methods of communication used to
impart knowledge include:
* Educational methods:
HISTORY OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF HUMANITY
KNOWLEDGE AND SOCIETY
ECONOMICS OF KNOWLEDGE
POLITICS OF KNOWLEDGE
* Open access –
* Berlin Declaration on Open Access to
SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE
KNOWLEDGE OF HUMANITY
See also: Outline of academic disciplines
The world 's knowledge (knowledge possessed by human civilization)
* HUMANITIES AND ARTS
* Classics * History * Literature
* Performing arts
* Dance * Music * Theatre
* Philosophy * Religion
* Visual arts
* Media type * Painting
* SOCIAL SCIENCES
* Linguistics /
* Natural Sciences
* Earth Sciences
* Engineering / Technology
* Biotechnology /
* Healthcare sciences
* BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT * ARCHITECTURE
* Electronic Journal of
* ^ Sommers 2003
Galen Strawson has stated that an a priori argument is one in
which "you can see that it is true just lying on your couch. You don't
have to get up off your couch and go outside and examine the way
things are in the physical world. You don't have to do any science."
* ^ Compare various contemporary definitions given in the OED (2nd
edition, 1989): " 3. The actual observation of facts or events,
considered as a source of knowledge. 4. a. The fact of being
consciously the subject of a state or condition, or of being
consciously affected by an event. b. In religious use: A state of
mind or feeling forming part of the inner religious life; the mental
history (of a person) with regard to religious emotion. 6. What has
been experienced; the events that have taken place within the
knowledge of an individual, a community, mankind at large, either
during a particular period or generally. 7. a.