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Ottawa
Ottawa
(/ˈɒtəwə/ ( listen) or /-wɑː/; French pronunciation: ​[ɔtawa]) is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa
Ottawa
borders Gatineau, Quebec; the two form the core of the Ottawa– Gatineau
Gatineau
census metropolitan area (CMA) and the National Capital Region (NCR).[12] As of 2016, Ottawa
Ottawa
had a city population of 934,243 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, and incorporated as Ottawa
Ottawa
in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada. Its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were ultimately replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which significantly increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa
Ottawa
River, the name of which is derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade".[13] Ottawa
Ottawa
has the most educated population among Canadian cities[14] and is home to a number of post-secondary, research, and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, and numerous national museums. Ottawa
Ottawa
has the highest standard of living in the nation and low unemployment. It ranked 2nd nationally and 24th worldwide in the quality of life index and is consistently rated the best place to live in Canada.[15][16][17]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Neighbourhoods and outlying communities

3 Demographics 4 Economy 5 Culture

5.1 Architecture 5.2 Museums and performing arts 5.3 Historic and heritage sites 5.4 Sports

5.4.1 Current professional teams

6 Government 7 Transportation

7.1 Ottawa
Ottawa
Public Transportation Statistics

8 Education 9 Media 10 Twin towns – sister cities 11 Notable people 12 See also 13 Footnotes 14 References

14.1 Notes

15 Bibliography 16 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Ottawa See also: Timeline of Ottawa
Ottawa
history With the draining of the Champlain Sea
Champlain Sea
around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley
Ottawa Valley
became habitable.[18] Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, hunting, fishing, trade, travel, and camps for over 6500 years. The Ottawa
Ottawa
river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads, pottery, and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years.[19] The Algonquins called the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River".[20][21][22][23]

Camp used by soldiers and labourers of the Rideau Canal, on the south side of the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
in 1826. The building of the canal attracted many land speculators to the area.

Étienne Brûlé, widely regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa
Ottawa
River, passed by Ottawa
Ottawa
in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes.[21] Three years later, Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain
wrote about the waterfalls of the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, who had been using the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
for centuries.[24] Many missionaries would later follow the early explorers and traders. The first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe ("to trade", used in reference to the area's importance to First Nations traders), to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa
Ottawa
in Hull.[25][26] He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers,[20] set about to create an agricultural community[27] called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa
Ottawa
Valley timber trade (soon to be the area's most significant economic activity) by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley
Ottawa Valley
to Quebec
Quebec
City.[28] Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were immediately constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location.[29][30] The following year, the town would soon be named after British military engineer Colonel John By who was responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway
Rideau Waterway
construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal
Montreal
and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a particularly vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River
St. Lawrence River
bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario easily exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812.[31] Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill. He also laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada
Canada
and Lower Canada namesakes, historically 'Upper Town' was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas 'Lower Town' was predominantly French, Irish and Catholic.[32] Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal
Rideau Canal
was being completed in 1832.[33][34] Bytown
Bytown
encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War
Shiners' War
from 1835 to 1845[35] and political dissension that was evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot.[36] In 1855 Bytown
Bytown
was renamed Ottawa
Ottawa
and incorporated as a city.[37] William Pittman Lett
William Pittman Lett
was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. [38]

View of Ottawa
Ottawa
in 1859, prior to the start of construction on Parliament Hill. Two years prior, Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
selected the city as the permanent capital of the Province of Canada.

On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada.[39] In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald
John A. Macdonald
had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.[40] The 'Queen's choice' turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa
Ottawa
for two main reasons:[41] Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack.[42][43] Secondly, Ottawa
Ottawa
was located approximately midway between Toronto
Toronto
and Kingston (in Canada
Canada
West) and Montreal
Montreal
and Quebec City (in Canada
Canada
East). Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal
Montreal
over the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it also had a modern all season Bytown
Bytown
and Prescott Railway that carried passengers, lumber and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
and beyond.[20][42] Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals.[44] The government already owned the land that would eventually become Parliament Hill
Parliament Hill
which they thought would be an ideal location for building the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa
Ottawa
was the only settlement of any substantial size that was already located directly on the border of French populated former Lower Canada
Canada
and English populated former Upper Canada
Canada
thus additionally making the selection an important political compromise.[45] Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
made her "Queen's choice" very quickly just before welcoming in the New Year. Starting in the 1850s, entrepreneurs known as lumber barons began to build large sawmills, which became some of the largest mills in the world.[46] Rail lines built in 1854 connected Ottawa
Ottawa
to areas south and to the transcontinental rail network via Hull and Lachute, Quebec in 1886.[47] The original Parliament buildings which included the Centre, East and West Blocks were constructed between 1859 and 1866 in the Gothic Revival style.[48] At the time, this was the largest North American construction project ever attempted and Public Works Canada and its architects were not initially well prepared. The Library of Parliament and Parliament Hill
Parliament Hill
landscaping would not be completed until 1876.[49] By 1885 Ottawa
Ottawa
was the only city in Canada
Canada
whose downtown street lights were powered entirely by electricity.[50] In 1889 the Government developed and distributed 60 'water leases' (still currently in use) to mainly local industrialists which gave them permission to generate electricity and operate hydroelectric generators at Chaudière Falls.[51] Public transportation
Public transportation
began in 1870 with a horsecar system,[52] overtaken in the 1890s by a vast electric streetcar system that lasted until 1959.

Lebreton Flats
Lebreton Flats
after the 1900 Hull– Ottawa
Ottawa
fire. The fire destroyed one-fifth of Ottawa, and two-thirds of neighbouring Hull, Quebec.

The Hull– Ottawa
Ottawa
fire of 1900 destroyed two-thirds of Hull, including 40 per cent of its residential buildings and most of its largest employers along the waterfront.[53] The fire also spread across the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
and destroyed about one fifth of Ottawa
Ottawa
from the Lebreton Flats south to Booth Street
Booth Street
and down to Dow's Lake.[54] On 1 June 1912 the Grand Trunk Railway
Grand Trunk Railway
opened both the Château Laurier
Château Laurier
hotel and its neighbouring downtown Union Station.[55][56] On 3 February 1916 the Centre Block
Centre Block
of the Parliament buildings was destroyed by a fire.[57] The House of Commons and Senate was temporarily relocated to the then recently constructed Victoria Memorial Museum, now the Canadian Museum of Nature[58] until the completion of the new Centre Block
Centre Block
in 1922, the centrepiece of which is a dominant Gothic revival styled structure known as the Peace Tower.[59] The current location of what is now known as Confederation Square
Confederation Square
was a former commercial district centrally located in a triangular area downtown surrounded by historically significant heritage buildings which includes the Parliament buildings. It was redeveloped as a ceremonial centre in 1938 as part of the City Beautiful Movement
City Beautiful Movement
and became the site of the National War Memorial in 1939 and designated a National Historic Site in 1984.[60] A new Central Post Office (currently the Privy Council of Canada) was constructed in 1939 beside the War Memorial because the original post office building located on the proposed Confederation Square grounds had to be demolished.

The Queensway looking west, overlooking the half completed Carling Avenue interchange in 1961. Construction of the Queensway was driven by the Greber Plan.

Ottawa's former industrial appearance was vastly altered by the 1950 Greber Plan. Prime Minister Mackenzie King
Mackenzie King
hired French architect-planner Jacques Greber
Jacques Greber
to design an urban plan for managing development in the National Capital Region, to make it more aesthetically pleasing and thus more befitting a location serving as Canada's political centre.[61][62] Greber's plan included the creation of the National Capital Greenbelt, the Parkway, the Queensway highway system, the relocation of downtown Union Station (now the Government Conference Centre) to the suburbs, the removal of the street car system, the decentralization of selected government offices, the relocation of industries and removal of substandard housing from the downtown and the creation of the Rideau Canal
Rideau Canal
and Ottawa
Ottawa
River pathways to name just a few of its recommendations.[61][63][64] In 1958 the National Capital Commission
National Capital Commission
was established as a Crown Corporation from the passing of the National Capital Act to implement the Greber Plan
Greber Plan
recommendations-which it successfully accomplished during the 1960s and 1970s. In the previous 50 years, other commissions, plans and projects had failed to implement plans to improve the capital such as the 1899 Ottawa
Ottawa
Improvement Commission (OIC), The Todd Plan in 1903, The Holt Report in 1915 and The Federal District Commission (FDC) established in 1927.[65] In 1958 a new City Hall opened on Green Island near Rideau falls where urban renewal had recently transformed this former industrial location into green space.[66] Until then, City Hall had temporarily been located for 27 years (1931–1958) at the Transportation Building adjacent to Union Station and now part of the Rideau Centre. In 2001, Ottawa
Ottawa
City Hall moved back downtown to a relatively new building (1990) on 110 Laurier Avenue West, the prior home of the now defunct Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton. This new downtown location was very close to Ottawa's first (1849–1877) and second (1877–1931) City Halls. This new city hall complex also contained an adjacent 19th century restored heritage building formerly known as the Ottawa
Ottawa
Normal School.[66]

The John G. Diefenbaker Building
John G. Diefenbaker Building
was Ottawa's fourth city hall. Opened in 1958, it was the seat of local government until the City Council moved to its present location in 2001.

From the 1960s until the 1980s, the National Capital Region experienced a building boom, [67] which was followed by large growth in the high-tech industry during the 1990s and 2000s.[68] Ottawa became one of Canada's largest high tech cities and was nicknamed Silicon Valley North. By the 1980s, Bell Northern Research (later Nortel) employed thousands, and large federally assisted research facilities such as the National Research Council contributed to an eventual technology boom. The early adopters led to offshoot companies such as Newbridge Networks, Mitel
Mitel
and Corel. Ottawa's city limits had been increasing over the years, but it acquired the most territory on 1 January 2001, when it amalgamated all the municipalities of the Regional Municipality of Ottawa–Carleton into one single city.[69] Regional Chair Bob Chiarelli
Bob Chiarelli
was elected as the new city's first mayor in the 2000 municipal election, defeating Gloucester mayor Claudette Cain. The city's growth led to strains on the public transit system and on road bridges. On 15 October 2001, a diesel-powered light rail transit (LRT) line was introduced on an experimental basis. Known today as the Trillium Line, it was dubbed the O-Train
O-Train
and connected downtown Ottawa
Ottawa
to the southern suburbs via Carleton University. The decision to extend the O-Train, and to replace it with an electric light rail system was a major issue in the 2006 municipal elections where Chiarelli was defeated by businessman Larry O'Brien. After O'Brien's election transit plans were changed to establish a series of light rail stations from the east side of the city into downtown, and for using a tunnel through the downtown core. Jim Watson, the last mayor of Ottawa
Ottawa
prior to amalgamation, was re-elected in the 2010 election.[70] In October 2012, City Council
City Council
approved the final Lansdowne Park
Lansdowne Park
plan, an agreement with the Ottawa
Ottawa
Sports and Entertainment Group that saw a new stadium, increased green space, and housing and retail added to the site.[71][72] In December 2012, City Council
City Council
voted unanimously to move forward with the Confederation Line, a 12.5 km light rail transit line, to be fully operational by 2018.[73] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Ottawa

Downtown Ottawa
Downtown Ottawa
is situated on the south bank of the Ottawa
Ottawa
River. Gatineau
Gatineau
may be seen in the background, across the river.

Ottawa
Ottawa
is situated on the south bank of the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
and contains the mouths of the Rideau River
Rideau River
and Rideau Canal.[74] The older part of the city (including what remains of Bytown) is known as Lower Town, and occupies an area between the canal and the rivers. Across the canal to the west lies Centretown
Centretown
and Downtown Ottawa, which is the city's financial and commercial hub and home to the Parliament of Canada
Canada
and numerous federal government department headquarters, notably the Privy Council Office. On 29 June 2007, the Rideau Canal, which stretches 202 km (126 mi) to Kingston, Fort Henry and four Martello towers in the Kingston area, was recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[75] Located within the major, yet mostly dormant Western Quebec
Quebec
Seismic Zone,[76] Ottawa
Ottawa
is occasionally struck by earthquakes. Examples include the 2000 Kipawa earthquake,[77] a magnitude-4.5 earthquake on 24 February 2006,[78] the 2010 Central Canada
Canada
earthquake,[79] and a magnitude-5.2 earthquake on 17 May 2013.[80] Ottawa
Ottawa
sits at the confluence of three major rivers: the Ottawa
Ottawa
River, the Gatineau
Gatineau
River and the Rideau River.[81] The Ottawa
Ottawa
and Gatineau rivers were historically important in the logging and lumber industries and the Rideau as part of the Rideau Canal
Rideau Canal
system for military, commercial and, subsequently, recreational purposes.[81] The Rideau Canal
Rideau Canal
(Rideau Waterway) first opened in 1832 and is 202 km long. It connects the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
on Lake Ontario
Ontario
at Kingston to the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
near Parliament Hill. It was able to bypass the unnavigable sections of the Cataraqui and Rideau rivers and various small lakes along the waterway due to flooding techniques and the construction of 47 water transport locks.The Rideau River
Rideau River
got its name from early French explorers who thought that the waterfalls located at the point where the Rideau River
Rideau River
empties into the Ottawa
Ottawa
River resembled a 'curtain'. Hence they began naming the falls and river 'rideau' which is the French equivalent of the English word for curtain.[82][24] During part of the winter season the Ottawa
Ottawa
section of the canal forms the world's largest skating rink, thereby providing both a recreational venue and a 7.8 kilometres (4.8 mi) transportation path to downtown for ice skaters (from Carleton University and Dow's Lake
Dow's Lake
to the Rideau Centre and National Arts Centre).[83] Across the Ottawa
Ottawa
River, which forms the border between Ontario
Ontario
and Quebec, lies the city of Gatineau, itself the result of amalgamation of the former Quebec
Quebec
cities of Hull and Aylmer together with Gatineau.[84] Although formally and administratively separate cities in two separate provinces, Ottawa
Ottawa
and Gatineau
Gatineau
(along with a number of nearby municipalities) collectively constitute the National Capital Region, which is considered a single metropolitan area. One federal crown corporation, the National Capital Commission, or NCC, has significant land holdings in both cities, including sites of historical and touristic importance. The NCC, through its responsibility for planning and development of these lands, is an important contributor to both cities. Around the main urban area is an extensive greenbelt, administered by the NCC for conservation and leisure, and comprising mostly forest, farmland and marshland.[85] Climate[edit] Ottawa
Ottawa
has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb)[86] with four distinct seasons and is between Zones 5a and 5b on the Canadian Plant Hardiness Scale.[87] The average July maximum temperature is 26.6 °C (80 °F). The average January minimum temperature is −14.4 °C (6.1 °F)

Skating on the Rideau Canal. Snow and ice is common for the region during the winter.

Summers are warm and humid in Ottawa. On average 11 days of the three summer months have temperatures exceeding 30 °C (86 °F), or 37 days if the humidex is considered. Average relative humidity averages 54% in the afternoon and 84% by morning. Snow and ice are dominant during the winter season. On average Ottawa receives 224 centimetres (88 in) of snowfall annually but maintains an average 22 centimetres (9 in) of snowpack throughout the three winter months. An average 16 days of the three winter months experience temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F), or 41 days if the wind chill is considered.[88] Spring and fall are variable, prone to extremes in temperature and unpredictable swings in conditions. Hot days above 30 °C (86 °F) have occurred as early as April[89] or as late as October.[90][88] Annual precipitation averages around 940 millimetres (37 in). Ottawa
Ottawa
experiences about 2,130 hours of average sunshine annually (46% of possible). Winds in Ottawa
Ottawa
are generally Westerlies
Westerlies
averaging 13 km/h but tend to be slightly more dominant during the winter.[88] The highest temperature ever recorded in Ottawa
Ottawa
was 37.8 °C (100 °F) on 4 July 1913, 1 August 1917 and 11 August 1944.[88][91] The coldest temperature ever recorded was −38.9 °C (−38 °F) on 29 December 1933.[88]

Climate data for Ottawa
Ottawa
(Central Experimental Farm), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1872–present[a]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.6 (60.1) 12.7 (54.9) 26.7 (80.1) 31.2 (88.2) 35.2 (95.4) 36.7 (98.1) 37.8 (100) 37.8 (100) 36.7 (98.1) 29.4 (84.9) 23.3 (73.9) 17.2 (63) 37.8 (100)

Average high °C (°F) −5.8 (21.6) −3.1 (26.4) 2.4 (36.3) 11.4 (52.5) 19.0 (66.2) 24.1 (75.4) 26.6 (79.9) 25.4 (77.7) 20.5 (68.9) 12.8 (55) 5.5 (41.9) −2.0 (28.4) 11.4 (52.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) −10.2 (13.6) −7.9 (17.8) −2.2 (28) 6.5 (43.7) 13.5 (56.3) 18.7 (65.7) 21.2 (70.2) 19.9 (67.8) 15.3 (59.5) 8.4 (47.1) 2.0 (35.6) −5.6 (21.9) 6.6 (43.9)

Average low °C (°F) −14.4 (6.1) −12.5 (9.5) −6.8 (19.8) 1.5 (34.7) 8.0 (46.4) 13.3 (55.9) 15.7 (60.3) 14.5 (58.1) 10.1 (50.2) 4.0 (39.2) −1.5 (29.3) −9.2 (15.4) 1.9 (35.4)

Record low °C (°F) −37.8 (−36) −38.3 (−36.9) −36.7 (−34.1) −20.6 (−5.1) −7.2 (19) 0.0 (32) 3.3 (37.9) 1.1 (34) −4.4 (24.1) −12.8 (9) −30.6 (−23.1) −38.9 (−38) −38.9 (−38)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 62.9 (2.476) 49.7 (1.957) 57.5 (2.264) 71.1 (2.799) 86.6 (3.409) 92.7 (3.65) 84.4 (3.323) 83.8 (3.299) 92.7 (3.65) 85.9 (3.382) 82.7 (3.256) 69.5 (2.736) 919.5 (36.201)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 23.0 (0.906) 17.9 (0.705) 28.8 (1.134) 63.2 (2.488) 86.6 (3.409) 92.7 (3.65) 84.4 (3.323) 83.8 (3.299) 92.7 (3.65) 83.1 (3.272) 67.5 (2.657) 31.9 (1.256) 755.5 (29.744)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 44.3 (17.44) 34.7 (13.66) 29.1 (11.46) 7.2 (2.83) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 2.9 (1.14) 16.0 (6.3) 41.3 (16.26) 175.4 (69.06)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 16.0 11.7 11.5 13.2 14.5 12.4 11.6 11.2 12.9 14.9 15.2 15.6 160.7

Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 3.7 3.5 5.5 11.5 14.4 12.4 11.6 11.2 12.9 14.6 11.6 5.5 118.3

Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 14.1 9.7 7.4 2.7 0.08 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.81 5.1 12.2 52.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours 99.3 131.3 167.1 189.8 229.8 254.2 279.0 249.3 177.6 139.4 84.3 82.6 2,083.7

Percent possible sunshine 35.0 44.9 45.3 46.9 49.9 54.3 58.9 57.1 47.1 41.0 29.4 30.3 45.0

Source: Environment Canada[91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99]

Climate data for Ottawa
Ottawa
International Airport, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1938–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high humidex 13.9 15.1 30.0 35.1 41.8 44.0 46.0 47.0 42.5 33.9 26.1 18.4 47.0

Record high °C (°F) 12.9 (55.2) 12.4 (54.3) 27.4 (81.3) 31.1 (88) 35.8 (96.4) 36.1 (97) 36.7 (98.1) 37.8 (100) 35.1 (95.2) 27.8 (82) 23.9 (75) 17.9 (64.2) 37.8 (100)

Average high °C (°F) −5.8 (21.6) −3.4 (25.9) 2.5 (36.5) 11.6 (52.9) 19.0 (66.2) 24.1 (75.4) 26.5 (79.7) 25.3 (77.5) 20.4 (68.7) 12.7 (54.9) 5.4 (41.7) −2.3 (27.9) 11.3 (52.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) −10.3 (13.5) −8.1 (17.4) −2.3 (27.9) 6.3 (43.3) 13.3 (55.9) 18.5 (65.3) 21.0 (69.8) 19.8 (67.6) 15.0 (59) 8.0 (46.4) 1.5 (34.7) −6.2 (20.8) 6.4 (43.5)

Average low °C (°F) −14.8 (5.4) −12.7 (9.1) −7.0 (19.4) 1.0 (33.8) 7.5 (45.5) 12.9 (55.2) 15.5 (59.9) 14.3 (57.7) 9.6 (49.3) 3.3 (37.9) −2.4 (27.7) −10.1 (13.8) 1.4 (34.5)

Record low °C (°F) −35.6 (−32.1) −36.1 (−33) −30.6 (−23.1) −16.7 (1.9) −5.6 (21.9) −0.1 (31.8) 5.0 (41) 2.6 (36.7) −3.0 (26.6) −8.0 (17.6) −21.7 (−7.1) −34.4 (−29.9) −36.1 (−33)

Record low wind chill −47.8 −47.6 −42.7 −26.3 −10.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 −6.4 −13.3 −29.5 −44.6 −47.8

Average precipitation mm (inches) 65.4 (2.575) 54.3 (2.138) 64.4 (2.535) 74.5 (2.933) 80.3 (3.161) 92.8 (3.654) 91.9 (3.618) 85.5 (3.366) 90.1 (3.547) 86.1 (3.39) 81.9 (3.224) 76.4 (3.008) 943.4 (37.142)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 25.0 (0.984) 18.7 (0.736) 31.1 (1.224) 63.0 (2.48) 80.1 (3.154) 92.8 (3.654) 91.9 (3.618) 85.5 (3.366) 90.1 (3.547) 82.2 (3.236) 64.5 (2.539) 33.5 (1.319) 758.2 (29.85)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 53.9 (21.22) 43.3 (17.05) 38.3 (15.08) 11.3 (4.45) 0.2 (0.08) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 3.7 (1.46) 20.2 (7.95) 52.5 (20.67) 223.5 (87.99)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 16.6 13.1 12.7 12.4 13.4 13.2 11.9 11.0 12.3 14.3 15.2 17.4 163.6

Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.4 3.9 6.7 10.9 13.4 13.2 11.9 11.0 12.3 13.7 11.0 6.0 118.4

Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 16.1 12.1 8.8 3.5 0.17 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 6.8 14.7 63.3

Average relative humidity (%) 67.5 61.3 56.6 50.2 49.9 53.1 53.7 55.0 59.1 61.6 68.1 72.2 59.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours 122.4 114.1 168.5 187.5 210.5 274.0 301.4 231.9 211.5 148.8 92.4 68.8 2,131.7

Percent possible sunshine 43.1 39.0 45.7 46.3 45.7 58.6 63.7 53.1 56.1 43.7 32.2 25.2 46.0

Source: Environment Canada[88][100][101][102][103]

Neighbourhoods and outlying communities[edit] Further information: List of neighbourhoods in Ottawa

Map of Ottawa
Ottawa
showing urban areas and names of historic communities.

Ottawa
Ottawa
is bounded on the east by the United Counties of Prescott and Russell; by Renfrew County
County
and Lanark County
County
in the west; on the south by the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville
United Counties of Leeds and Grenville
and the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry; and on the north by the Regional County
County
Municipality of Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais and the City of Gatineau.[104] Modern Ottawa
Ottawa
is made up of eleven historic townships, ten of which are from Carleton County
County
and one from Russell.[105] The city has a main urban area but many other urban, suburban and rural areas exist within the modern city's limits.[106] The main suburban area extends a considerable distance to the east, west and south of the centre,[106] and it includes the former cities of Gloucester, Nepean and Vanier, the former village of Rockcliffe Park (a high-income neighbourhood which is adjacent to the Prime Minister's official residence at 24 Sussex and the Governor General's residence), and the communities of Blackburn Hamlet and Orléans.[107] The Kanata suburban area includes the former village of Stittsville to the southwest.[107] Nepean is another major suburb which also includes Barrhaven.[107] The communities of Manotick and Riverside South are located on the other side of the Rideau River, and Greely, southeast of Riverside South.[107] A number of rural communities (villages and hamlets) lie beyond the greenbelt but are administratively part of the Ottawa
Ottawa
municipality.[106] Some of these communities are Burritts Rapids; Ashton; Fallowfield; Kars; Fitzroy Harbour; Munster; Carp; North Gower; Metcalfe; Constance Bay and Osgoode and Richmond.[107] Several towns are located within the federally defined National Capital Region but outside the city of Ottawa
Ottawa
municipal boundaries,[106] these include the urban communities of Almonte, Carleton Place, Embrun, Kemptville, Rockland, and Russell.[107]

Ottawa
Ottawa
above the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
in May, left to right— Alexandra Bridge · National Gallery of Canada · Byward Market · Fairmont Château Laurier · Rideau Canal Locks · Parliament Hill
Parliament Hill
with Library of Parliament
Library of Parliament
and Peace Tower · Downtown Ottawa
Downtown Ottawa
towers · Supreme Court of Canada

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Ottawa

Historic Population

Year Pop. ±%

1901 101,102 —    

1911 123,417 +22.1%

1921 152,868 +23.9%

1931 174,056 +13.9%

1941 206,367 +18.6%

1951 246,298 +19.3%

1956 287,244 +16.6%

1961 358,410 +24.8%

1966 413,695 +15.4%

1971 471,931 +14.1%

1976 520,533 +10.3%

1981 546,849 +5.1%

1986 606,639 +10.9%

1991 678,147 +11.8%

1996 721,136 +6.3%

2001[b] 774,072 +7.3%

2006 812,129 +4.9%

2011 883,391 +8.8%

2016 934,243 +5.8%

Note: Population figures are extrapolated for current municipal boundaries Sources:[108][109][110][111][112][113][4] Chart format

In 2011, the populations of the City of Ottawa
City of Ottawa
and the Ottawa– Gatineau
Gatineau
census metropolitan area (CMA) were 883,391 and 1,236,324 respectively.[115][116] The city had a population density of 316.6 persons per km2 in 2006, while the CMA had a population density of 196.6 persons per km2.[115][116] It is the second-largest city in Ontario, fourth-largest city in the country, and the fourth-largest CMA in the country.

Distribution map from the 2001 census showcasing the percentage of individuals whose mother tongue is French.

Ottawa's median age of 39.2 is both below the provincial and national averages as of 2011[update].[115][117][118] Youths under 15 years constituted 16.8% of the total population as of 2011[update], while those of retirement age (65 years and older) made up13.2%.[115] In 2011, females made up 51.5% of the amalgamated Ottawa
Ottawa
population.[115] Between 1987 and 2002, 131,816 individuals relocated to the city, which represents 75% of the population growth for that period.[119] Over 20 percent of the city's population is foreign-born, with the most common non-Canadian countries of origin being the United Kingdom (8.8% of those foreign-born), China
China
(8.0%), and Lebanon (4.8%). About 6.1% of residents are not Canadian citizens.[120] Members of visible minority groups (non-white/European) constitute 23.7%, while those of Aboriginal origin make up 2.1% of the total population. The largest visible minority groups are: Black Canadians: 5.7%, Chinese Canadians: 4.0%, South Asians: 3.9%, and Arabs: 3.7%. Smaller groups include Latin Americans, Southeast Asians, Filipinos, and West Asians.[120] Around 65% of Ottawa
Ottawa
residents describe themselves as Christian as of 2011[update], with Catholics accounting for 38.5% of the population and members of Protestant churches 25%. Non-Christian religions are also very well established in Ottawa, the largest being Islam
Islam
(6.7%), Hinduism
Hinduism
(1.4%), Buddhism
Buddhism
(1.3%), and Judaism
Judaism
(1.2%). Those with no religious affiliation represent 22.8%.[120] Bilingualism became official policy for the conduct of municipal business in 2002,[121] and 37% of the population can speak both languages as of 2006[update],[113] making it the largest city in Canada
Canada
with both English and French as co-official languages.[122] Those who identify their mother tongue as English constitute 62.4 percent, while those with French as their mother tongue make up 14.2 percent of the population. In terms of respondents' knowledge of one or both official languages, 59.9 percent and 1.5 percent of the population have knowledge of English only and French only, respectively; while 37.2 percent have knowledge of both official languages. The overall Ottawa– Gatineau
Gatineau
census metropolitan area (CMA) has a larger proportion of French speakers than Ottawa
Ottawa
itself, since Gatineau
Gatineau
is overwhelmingly French speaking. An additional 20.4 percent of the population list languages other than English and French as their mother tongue. These include Arabic (3.2%), Chinese (3.0%), Spanish (1.2%), Italian (1.1%), and many others.[120] Economy[edit] See also: Economy of Ontario

Developed in the early 1950s, Tunney's Pasture
Tunney's Pasture
is an area that holds a number of federal government buildings. The federal government is the city's largest employer.

Ottawa
Ottawa
has a high standard of living, low unemployment,[123][124] and the fourth highest GDP growth rate among major Canadian cities in 2007 at 2.7%, which exceeded the Canadian average of 2.4%.[125] The region of Ottawa- Gatineau
Gatineau
has the third highest income of all major Canadian cities.[125] The average gross income in the region amounted to $40,078, an increase of 4.9% compared to the previous year.[125] The annual cost of living rate in 2007 grew 1.9%.[125] Mercer ranks Ottawa with the third highest quality of living of any large city in the Americas, and 16th highest in the world.[126] It is also rated the second cleanest city in Canada, and third cleanest city in the world.[127] In 2012, the city was ranked for the third consecutive year as the best community in Canada
Canada
to live in by MoneySense.[128] Ottawa's primary employers are the Public Service of Canada
Canada
and the high-tech industry, although tourism and healthcare also represent increasingly sizeable economic activities. The Federal government is the city's largest employer, employing over 110,000 individuals from the National Capital region.[129] The national headquarters for many federal departments are located in Ottawa, particularly throughout Centretown
Centretown
and in the Terrasses de la Chaudière
Terrasses de la Chaudière
and Place du Portage complexes in Hull. The National Defence Headquarters located in Ottawa is the main command centre for the Canadian Armed Forces
Canadian Armed Forces
and hosts the Department of National Defence.[130] The Ottawa
Ottawa
area includes CFS Leitrim, CFB Uplands, and the former CFB Rockcliffe. During the summer, the city hosts the Ceremonial Guard, which performs functions such as the Changing the Guard.[131] As the national capital of Canada, tourism is an important part of Ottawa's economy, particularly after the 150th anniversary of Canada
Canada
which was centred in Ottawa. The lead-up to the festivities saw much investment in civic infrastructure, upgrades to tourist infrastructure and increases in national cultural attractions. The National Capital Region annually attracts an estimated 7.3 million tourists, who spend about 1.18 billion dollars.[132]

Kanata Research Park
Kanata Research Park
is home to many companies, mostly high-tech industries.

In addition to the economic activities that come with being the national capital, Ottawa
Ottawa
is an important technology centre; in 2015, its 1800 companies employed approximately 63,400 people.[133] The concentration of companies in this industry earned the city the nickname of "Silicon Valley North".[68] Most of these companies specialize in telecommunications, software development and environmental technology. Large technology companies such as Nortel, Corel, Mitel, Cognos, Halogen Software, Shopify
Shopify
and JDS Uniphase
JDS Uniphase
were founded in the city.[134] Ottawa
Ottawa
also has regional locations for Nokia, 3M, Adobe Systems, Bell Canada, IBM
IBM
and Hewlett-Packard.[135] Many of the telecommunications and new technology are located in the western part of the city (formerly Kanata). The "tech sector" was doing particularly well in 2015/2016.[136][119]

The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario
Ontario
(CHEO) is a major children's and teaching hospital. The health sector is another major employer in Ottawa.

Another major employer is the health sector, which employs over 18,000 people.[137] Four active general hospitals are in the Ottawa
Ottawa
area: Queensway-Carleton Hospital, The Ottawa
Ottawa
Hospital, Montfort Hospital, and Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. Several specialized hospital facilities are also present, such as the University of Ottawa Heart Institute and the Royal Ottawa
Ottawa
Mental Health Centre.[138] Nordion, i-Stat and the National Research Council of Canada
Canada
and OHRI are part of the growing life science sector.[139][140] Business, finance, administration, and sales and service rank high among types of occupations.[113] Approximately ten percent of Ottawa's GDP is derived from finance, insurance and real estate whereas employment in goods-producing industries is only half the national average.[141] The City of Ottawa
City of Ottawa
is the second largest employer[142][143] with over 15,000 employees.[143][144] In 2006, Ottawa
Ottawa
experienced an increase of 40,000 jobs over 2001 with a five-year average growth that was relatively slower than in the late 1990s.[125] While the number of employees in the federal government stagnated, the high-technology industry grew by 2.4%. The overall growth of jobs in Ottawa- Gatineau
Gatineau
was 1.3% compared to the previous year, down to sixth place among Canada's largest cities.[125] The unemployment rate in Ottawa- Gatineau
Gatineau
was 5.2% (only in Ottawa: 5.1%),[145] which was below the national average of 6.0%.[125] The economic downturn resulted in an increase in the unemployment rate between April 2008 and April 2009 from 4.7 to 6.3%. In the province, however, this rate increased over the same period from 6.4 to 9.1%.[146] Culture[edit] See also: List of festivals in Ottawa

Byward Market
Byward Market
has been a focal point for culture in Ottawa.

Traditionally the ByWard Market
ByWard Market
(in Lower Town), Parliament Hill
Parliament Hill
and the Golden Triangle (both in Centretown
Centretown
– Downtown) have been the focal points of the cultural scenes in Ottawa.[147] Modern thoroughfares such as Wellington Street, Rideau Street, Sussex Drive, Elgin Street, Bank Street, Somerset Street, Preston Street, Richmond Road in Westboro, and Sparks Street
Sparks Street
are home to many boutiques, museums, theatres, galleries, landmarks and memorials in addition to eating establishments, cafes, bars and nightclubs.[148]

People on ice slides during Winterlude, an annual winter festival held in Ottawa.

Ottawa
Ottawa
hosts a variety of annual seasonal activities—such as Winterlude, the largest festival in Canada,[149] and Canada
Canada
Day celebrations on Parliament Hill
Parliament Hill
and surrounding downtown area, as well as Bluesfest, Canadian Tulip Festival, Ottawa
Ottawa
Dragon Boat Festival, Ottawa
Ottawa
International Jazz Festival, Fringe Festival and Folk Music Festival, that have grown to become some of the largest festivals of their kind in the world.[150][151] In 2010, Ottawa's Festival industry received the IFEA "World Festival and Event City Award" for the category of North American cities with a population between 500,000 and 1,000,000.[152] As Canada's capital, Ottawa
Ottawa
has played host to a number of significant cultural events in Canadian history, including the first visit of the reigning Canadian sovereign—King George VI, with his consort, Queen Elizabeth—to his parliament, on 19 May 1939.[153] VE Day was marked with a large celebration on 8 May 1945,[154] the first raising of the country's new national flag took place on 15 February 1965,[155] and the centennial of Confederation was celebrated on 1 July 1967.[156] Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
was in Ottawa
Ottawa
on 17 April 1982, to issue a royal proclamation of the enactment of the Constitution Act.[157] In 1983, Prince Charles
Prince Charles
and Diana Princess of Wales
Diana Princess of Wales
came to Ottawa
Ottawa
for a state dinner hosted by then Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau.[158] In 2011, Ottawa
Ottawa
was selected as the first city to receive Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge
during their tour of Canada. Architecture[edit]

Completed in 1913, the Connaught Building, was constructed in a Gothic Revival style. In the following decades, buildings built for the government would abandon the style, in favour of formal and functional styles.

Main article: Architecture of Ottawa Influenced by government structures, much of the city's architecture tends to be formalistic and functional; however, the city is also marked by Romantic and Picturesque
Picturesque
styles of architecture such as the Parliament Buildings' gothic revival architecture.[159] Ottawa's domestic architecture is dominated by single family homes, but also includes smaller numbers of semi-detached houses, rowhouses, and apartment buildings. Many domestic buildings are clad in brick, with small numbers covered in wood, stone, or siding of different materials; variations are common, depending on neighbourhoods and the age of dwellings within them. The skyline has been controlled by building height restrictions originally implemented to keep Parliament Hill
Parliament Hill
and the Peace Tower
Peace Tower
at 92.2 metres (302 ft) visible from most parts of the city.[160] Today, several buildings are slightly taller than the Peace Tower, with the tallest located on Albert Street being the 29-storey Place de Ville (Tower C) at 112 metres (367 ft).[161] Federal buildings in the National Capital Region are managed by Public Works Canada, while most of the federal land in the region is managed by the National Capital Commission; its control of much undeveloped land gives the NCC a great deal of influence over the city's development.[162] Museums and performing arts[edit]

The Canadian Museum of Nature
Canadian Museum of Nature
is natural history and natural science museum. The institution is one of several national museums located in Ottawa.

Further information: List of attractions in Ottawa Amongst the city's national museums and galleries is the National Gallery of Canada; designed by famous architect Moshe Safdie, it is a permanent home to the Maman sculpture.[163] The Canadian War Museum houses over 3.75 million artifacts and was moved to an expanded facility in 2005.[164] The Canadian Museum of Nature
Canadian Museum of Nature
was built in 1905, and underwent a major renovation between 2004 and 2010.[165] Across the Ottawa
Ottawa
river in Gatineau
Gatineau
is the most visited museum in Canada, the Canadian Museum of History.[166] Designed by Canadian Aboriginal architect Douglas Cardinal, the curving-shaped complex, built at a cost of 340 million USD, also houses the Canadian Children's Museum, the Canadian Postal Museum and a 3D IMAX theatre.[167] The city is also home to the Canada
Canada
Agriculture Museum, the Canada Aviation and Space Museum, the Canada
Canada
Science and Technology Museum, Billings Estate Museum, Bytown
Bytown
Museum, Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography, the Bank of Canada
Canada
Museum, and the Portrait Gallery of Canada.[168] The Ottawa
Ottawa
Little Theatre, originally called the Ottawa
Ottawa
Drama League at its inception in 1913, is the longest-running community theatre company in Ottawa.[169] Since 1969, Ottawa
Ottawa
has been the home of the National Arts Centre, a major performing arts venue that houses four stages and is home to the National Arts Centre
National Arts Centre
Orchestra, the Ottawa Symphony Orchestra and Opera Lyra Ottawa.[170] Established in 1975, the Great Canadian Theatre Company
Great Canadian Theatre Company
specializes in the production of Canadian plays at a local level.[171] Historic and heritage sites[edit]

The National War Memorial and Château Laurier
Château Laurier
are both designated as National Historic Site of Canada

Main articles: List of National Historic Sites of Canada
Canada
in Ottawa
Ottawa
and List of designated heritage properties in Ottawa The Rideau Canal
Rideau Canal
is the oldest continuously operated canal system in North America, and in 2007, it was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[172] In addition, 24 other National Historic Sites of Canada
Canada
are in Ottawa, including: the Central Chambers, the Central Experimental Farm, the Château Laurier, Confederation Square, the former Ottawa
Ottawa
Teachers' College, Office of the Prime Minister and Privy Council, Laurier House
Laurier House
and the Parliament Buildings. Many other properties of cultural value have been designated as having "heritage elements" by the City of Ottawa
City of Ottawa
under Part IV of the Ontario
Ontario
Heritage Act.[173] Sports[edit] Further information: Sport in Ottawa
Sport in Ottawa
and List of Ottawa
Ottawa
parks Sport in Ottawa
Sport in Ottawa
has a history dating back to the 19th century. Ottawa is currently home to four professional sports teams. The Ottawa Senators are a professional ice hockey team playing in the National Hockey League. The Senators play their home games at the Canadian Tire Centre.[174] The Ottawa Redblacks
Ottawa Redblacks
are a professional Canadian Football team playing in the Canadian Football League.[175] Professional soccer club Ottawa Fury FC
Ottawa Fury FC
play in the United Soccer
Soccer
League, the second division in North American pro soccer after Major League Soccer. Both Ottawa Fury FC
Ottawa Fury FC
and the Ottawa Redblacks
Ottawa Redblacks
play their home games at TD Place Stadium. The Ottawa Champions
Ottawa Champions
play professional baseball in the Can-Am League at Raymond Chabot Grant Thornton Park, following the departure of the Lynx International League franchise. Several non-professional teams also play in Ottawa, including the Ottawa
Ottawa
67's junior ice hockey team.[176] The city was previously home to a professional basketball team, the Ottawa
Ottawa
SkyHawks, of the National Basketball
Basketball
League of Canada

TD Place Stadium
TD Place Stadium
is an outdoor stadium and is home to the CFL's Ottawa Redblacks and the USL's Ottawa
Ottawa
Fury FC.

Collegiate teams in various sports compete in Canadian Interuniversity Sport. The Carleton Ravens
Carleton Ravens
are nationally ranked in basketball,[177] and the Ottawa Gee-Gees
Ottawa Gee-Gees
are nationally ranked in football and basketball. Algonquin College
Algonquin College
has also won numerous national championships. The city is home to an assortment of amateur organized team sports such as soccer, basketball, baseball, curling, rowing, hurling and horse racing.[178] Casual recreational activities, such as skating, cycling, hiking, sailing, golfing, skiing, and fishing/ice fishing are also popular.[178] Current professional teams[edit]

Professional Team League Sport Venue Established Championships

Ottawa
Ottawa
Senators National Hockey League
National Hockey League
(NHL) Ice hockey Canadian Tire Centre 1990 0[nb 1]

Ottawa
Ottawa
Redblacks Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
(CFL) Football TD Place Stadium 2010 1

Ottawa
Ottawa
Fury FC United Soccer League
United Soccer League
(USL) Soccer TD Place Stadium 2011 0

Ottawa
Ottawa
Champions Canadian American Association of Professional Baseball
Canadian American Association of Professional Baseball
(Can-Am) Baseball Raymond Chabot Grant Thornton Park 2014 1

Government[edit] Further information: List of Ottawa
Ottawa
municipal elections, Canadian federal election results in Ottawa, and List of embassies and high commissions in Ottawa

Ottawa City Hall
Ottawa City Hall
houses the seat of local government.

The City of Ottawa
City of Ottawa
is a single-tier municipality, meaning it is in itself a census division and has no county or regional municipality government above it.[179] As a single-tier municipality, Ottawa
Ottawa
has responsibility for all municipal services, including fire, emergency medical services, police, parks, roads, sidewalks, public transit, drinking water, storm water, sanitary sewage and solid waste. Ottawa is governed by the 24-member Ottawa
Ottawa
City Council
City Council
consisting of 23 councillors each representing one ward and the mayor, currently Jim Watson,[180] elected in a citywide vote. Along with being the capital of Canada, Ottawa
Ottawa
is politically diverse in local politics. Most of the city has traditionally supported the Liberal Party.[181] Perhaps the safest areas for the Liberals are the ones dominated by Francophones, especially in Vanier and central Gloucester.[181] Central Ottawa
Ottawa
is usually more left-leaning, and the New Democratic Party have won ridings there. Some of Ottawa's suburbs are swing areas, notably central Nepean and, despite its francophone population, Orléans.[181] The southern and western parts of the old city of Ottawa
Ottawa
are generally moderate and swing to the Conservative Party.[181] The farther one goes outside the city centre like to Kanata and Barrhaven and rural areas, the voters tend to be increasingly conservative, both fiscally and socially.[181] This is especially true in the former Townships of West Carleton, Goulbourn, Rideau and Osgoode, which are more in line with the conservative areas in the surrounding counties.[181] However, not all rural areas support the Conservative Party. Rural
Rural
parts of the former township of Cumberland, with a large number of Francophones, traditionally support the Liberal Party, though their support has recently weakened.[181] At present, Ottawa
Ottawa
is host to 130 embassies.[182] A further 49 countries accredit their embassies and missions in the United States to Canada.[182] Transportation[edit] See also: OC Transpo, List of airports in the Ottawa
Ottawa
area, List of Ottawa
Ottawa
roads, List of numbered roads in Ottawa, and List of bridges in Ottawa

An O-Train
O-Train
crossing the Rideau River. The O-Train
O-Train
is a light rail public transportation service provided by OC Transpo.

Ottawa
Ottawa
is served by a number of airlines that fly into the Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport, as well as two main regional airports Gatineau- Ottawa
Ottawa
Executive Airport, and Ottawa/Carp Airport.[183] The city is also served by inter-city passenger rail service at the Ottawa Train Station
Ottawa Train Station
by Via Rail, located near the Alta Vista neighbourhood, and inter-city bus service operating out of the Ottawa
Ottawa
Bus Central Station.[183] OC Transpo, a department of the city, operates the public transit system.[184] An integrated hub-and-spoke system of services consists of: regular buses traveling on fixed routes in mixed traffic, typical of most urban transit systems;[184] a bus rapid transit (BRT) system which is a high-frequency bus service operating on the transitway (a network of mostly grade-separated dedicated bus lanes within their own right of way) and having full stations with Park & Ride facilities, further supported by on-road reserved bus lanes and priority traffic signal controls; a light rail transit (LRT) system known as the O-Train
O-Train
operating on one north-south route (the Trillium Line);[184] and a door-to-door bus service for the disabled known as ParaTranspo.[184] Both OC Transpo
OC Transpo
and the Quebec-based Société de transport de l'Outaouais (STO) operate bus services between Ottawa
Ottawa
and Gatineau. Construction is underway on the Confederation Line, a 12.5-kilometre (7.8 mi) light-rail transit line (LRT), which includes a 2.5-kilometre (1.6 mi) tunnel through the downtown area featuring three underground stations. The project broke ground in 2013, with operation scheduled to start in 2018.[185][186] A further 30 kilometers and 19 stations will be built by 2023, referred to as the Stage 2 plan.[187]

The Capital Pathway
Capital Pathway
is a multi-use trail interlinking many parks, waterways, and sites throughout the National Capital Region

The city is served by two freeway corridors. The primary corridor is east-west and consists of provincial Highway 417 (designated as The Queensway) and Ottawa-Carleton Regional Road 174
Regional Road 174
(formerly Provincial Highway 17); a north-south corridor, Highway 416 (designated as Veterans' Memorial Highway), connects Ottawa
Ottawa
to the rest of the 400-Series Highway network in Ontario
Ontario
at the 401. Highway 417 is also the Ottawa
Ottawa
portion of the Trans- Canada
Canada
Highway. The city also has several scenic parkways (promenades), such as Colonel By Drive, Queen Elizabeth Driveway, the Sir John A. Macdonald
John A. Macdonald
Parkway, Rockcliffe Parkway and the Aviation Parkway and has a freeway connection to Autoroute 5 and Autoroute 50, in Gatineau. In 2006, the National Capital Commission completed aesthetic enhancements to Confederation Boulevard, a ceremonial route of existing roads linking key attractions on both sides of the Ottawa
Ottawa
River.[188] Numerous paved multi-use trails wind their way through much of the city, including along the Ottawa
Ottawa
River, Rideau River, and Rideau Canal. These pathways are used for transportation, tourism, and recreation. Because many streets either have wide curb lanes or bicycle lanes, cycling is a popular mode of transportation throughout the year.[189] As of 31 December 2015, 900 km of cycling facilities are found in Ottawa, including 435 km of multi use pathways, 8 km of cycle tracks, 200 km of on-road bicycle lanes, and 257 km of paved shoulders.[190] 204 km of new cycling facilities were added between 2011 and 2014.[190] A downtown street that is restricted to pedestrians only, Sparks Street
Sparks Street
was turned into a pedestrian mall in 1966.[191] On Sundays (since 1960) and selected holidays and events additional avenues and streets are reserved for pedestrian and/or bicycle uses only.[192] In May 2011, The NCC introduced the Capital Bixi
Capital Bixi
bicycle-sharing system.[193] Ottawa
Ottawa
Public Transportation Statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Ottawa, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 84 min. 30.5% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 13 min, while 20.1% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8 km, while 18.% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[194] Education[edit]

Established in 1848, the University of Ottawa
University of Ottawa
is the oldest post-secondary institution in the city.

La Cité collégiale
La Cité collégiale
is the largest French-language college in Ontario.

Further information: List of schools in Ottawa Ottawa
Ottawa
is known as one of the most educated cities in Canada, with over half the population having graduated from college and/or university.[195] Ottawa
Ottawa
has the highest per capita concentration of engineers, scientists, and residents with PhDs in Canada.[196] The city has two main public universities:

The University of Ottawa
University of Ottawa
(originally named the "College of Bytown") was the first post-secondary institution established in the city in 1848. The university would eventually expand to become the largest English-French bilingual university in the world.[197] It is also a member of the U15, a group of highly respected research-intensive universities in Canada.[198] The university's campus is located in the Sandy Hill neighbourhood, just adjacent to the city's downtown core. Carleton University
Carleton University
was founded in 1942 to meet the needs of returning World War II veterans and later became Ontario's first private, non-denominational college. Over time, Carleton would make the transition to the public university that it is today. In recent years, Carleton has become ranked highly among comprehensive universities in Canada.[199] The university's campus sits between Old Ottawa South
Old Ottawa South
and Dow's Lake.

Ottawa
Ottawa
also has two main public colleges – Algonquin College
Algonquin College
and La Cité collégiale. It also has two Catholic universities – Dominican University College and Saint Paul University. Other colleges and universities in nearby areas (namely, the neighbouring city of Gatineau) include the University of Quebec
Quebec
en Outaouais, Cégep de l'Outaouais, and Heritage College. Four main public school boards exist in Ottawa: English, English-Catholic, French, and French-Catholic. The English-language Ottawa-Carleton District School Board
Ottawa-Carleton District School Board
(OCDSB) is the largest board with 147 schools,[200] followed by the English-Catholic Ottawa Catholic School Board with 85 schools.[201] The two French-language boards are the French-Catholic Conseil des écoles catholiques du Centre-Est with 49 schools,[202] and the French Conseil des écoles publiques de l'Est de l' Ontario
Ontario
with 37 schools.[203] Ottawa
Ottawa
also has numerous private schools which are not part of a board. The Ottawa Public Library
Ottawa Public Library
was created in 1906 as part of the famed Carnegie library
Carnegie library
system.[204] The library system had 2.3 million items as of 2008[update].[205] Media[edit] Further information: Media in Ottawa–Gatineau Three main daily local newspapers are printed in Ottawa: two English newspapers, the Ottawa Citizen
Ottawa Citizen
established as the Bytown
Bytown
Packet in 1845 and the Ottawa
Ottawa
Sun, with weekly circulation of 900,197 and 274,628, respectively, and one French newspaper, Le Droit.[206] Another free commuter daily paper, Metro Ottawa, was added in the 2000s. Several weekly and monthly community papers are also published, including the Kitchissippi Times. Multiple Canadian television broadcast networks and systems, and an extensive number of radio stations, broadcast in both English and French. In addition to the market's local media services, Ottawa
Ottawa
is home to several national media operations, including CPAC (Canada's national legislature broadcaster) and the parliamentary bureau staff of virtually all of Canada's major newsgathering organizations in television, radio and print. The city is also home to the head office of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, although it is not the primary production location of most CBC radio or television programming. Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Ottawa
Ottawa
is twinned with:

Beijing, China;[207] Cairo, Egypt;[208] Catania, Italy.[209]

Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Ottawa See also[edit]

Ottawa
Ottawa
portal Eastern Ontario
Ontario
portal

List of national capitals List of hospitals in Ottawa List of Ottawa
Ottawa
buildings List of Ottawa
Ottawa
churches List of Ottawa
Ottawa
mosques List of synagogues in Ottawa List of people from Ottawa List of francophone communities in Ontario

Footnotes[edit]

^ NHL Media Guide 2010. The original Senators (also known as the Ottawa
Ottawa
Hockey Club) organization won eleven Stanley Cups, not the current organization founded in 1990. Neither the NHL or the Senators claim the current Senators to be a continuation of the original organization or franchise. The awards, statistics and championships of both eras are kept separate and the NHL franchise founding date of the current Senators is in 1991.

References[edit]

^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc (2014). Britannica Student Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-62513-172-0.  ^ a b Art Montague (2008). " Ottawa
Ottawa
Book of Everything" (PDF). MacIntyre Purcell Publishing. Retrieved 14 July 2011.  ^ a b Justin D. Edwards; Douglas Ivison (2005). Downtown Canada: Writing Canadian Cities. University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8020-8668-6.  ^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada
Canada
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Notes[edit]

^ Extreme high and low temperatures in the table below were recorded at Ottawa
Ottawa
from March 1872 to October 1889 and at Ottawa
Ottawa
CDA from November 1889 to present. ^ In early 2001, the Province of Ontario
Province of Ontario
dissolved the former City of Ottawa
Ottawa
by amalgamating it with eleven other municipalities to form a new City of Ottawa. The 1996 adjusted population of the amalgamated city published in the 2001 census was 721,136,[112] while the population of the dissolved former City of Ottawa
City of Ottawa
in 2001 was 337,031.[114]

Bibliography[edit]

Brault, Lucien (1946). " Ottawa
Ottawa
Old and New". Ottawa
Ottawa
Historical Information Institute. OCLC 2947504.  Hale, James (2011). Frommer's Ottawa. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-68158-9.  Keshen, Jeff; St-Onge, Nicole (2001). Ottawa—making a capital. University of Ottawa
University of Ottawa
Press. ISBN 978-0-7766-0521-0.  Lee, David (2006). Lumber kings & shantymen: logging and lumbering in the Ottawa
Ottawa
Valley. James Lorimer & Company. ISBN 978-1-55028-922-0.  Legget, Robert (1986). Rideau Waterway. University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. ISBN 0-8020-6591-0.  Martin, Carol (1997). Ottawa: a colourguide. Formac Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-88780-396-3.  Mika, Nick; Mika, Helma (1982). Bytown: The Early Days of Ottawa. Mika Publishing Company. ISBN 0-919303-60-9.  Taylor, John H. (1986). Ottawa: An Illustrated History. J. Lorimer. ISBN 978-0-88862-981-4.  Van de Wetering, Marion (1997). An Ottawa
Ottawa
album: glimpses of the way we were. Dundurn Press Ltd. ISBN 978-0-88882-195-9.  Woods, Shirley E. Jr. (1980). Ottawa: The Capital of Canada. Doubleday Canada. ISBN 0-385-14722-8. 

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Central Ontario Eastern Ontario Golden Horseshoe Southwestern Ontario

Northern Ontario

Northeastern Ontario Northwestern Ontario

Counties

Bruce Dufferin Elgin Essex Frontenac Grey Haliburton Hastings Huron Lambton Lanark Leeds and Grenville Lennox and Addington Middlesex Northumberland Perth Peterborough Prescott and Russell Renfrew Simcoe Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Wellington

Districts

Algoma Cochrane Kenora Manitoulin Nipissing Parry Sound Rainy River Sudbury Thunder Bay Timiskaming

Regional municipalities

Durham Halton Muskoka Niagara Oxford Peel Waterloo York

Single-tier municipalities

Brant Brantford Chatham-Kent Greater Sudbury Haldimand Hamilton Kawartha Lakes Norfolk Ottawa Prince Edward Toronto

Separated municipalities

Barrie Belleville Brockville Cornwall Gananoque Guelph Kingston London Orillia Pembroke Peterborough Prescott Quinte West Smiths Falls St. Marys St. Thomas Stratford Windsor

Ontario
Ontario
communities Ontario
Ontario
municipalities Ontario
Ontario
electoral districts Former counties of Ontario Geography of Ontario

Category:Ontario Portal:Ontario WikiProject: Ontario

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Provincial and territorial capitals of Canada

AB Edmonton

BC Victoria

MB Winnipeg

NB Fredericton

NL St. John's

NS Halifax

ON Toronto

PE Charlottetown

QC Quebec
Quebec
City

SK Regina

Territories:

NT  Yellowknife

NU  Iqaluit

YT  Whitehorse

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Census metropolitan areas (CMAs) in Canada
Canada
by size

Toronto, ON Montreal, QC Vancouver, BC Calgary, AB Ottawa-Gatineau, ON/QC Edmonton, AB Quebec
Quebec
City, QC Winnipeg, MB Hamilton, ON Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo, ON London, ON St. Catharines-Niagara, ON Halifax, NS Oshawa, ON Victoria, BC Windsor, ON Saskatoon, SK Regina, SK Sherbrooke, QC St. John's, NL Barrie, ON Kelowna, BC Abbotsford, BC Greater Sudbury, ON Kingston, ON Saguenay, QC Trois-Rivières, QC Guelph, ON Moncton, NB Brantford, ON Thunder Bay, ON Saint John, NB Peterborough, ON

v t e

Capitals of North America

Dependent territories are in italics

Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
(France) Basseterre, St. Kitts and Nevis Belmopan, Belize Bridgetown, Barbados Castries, St. Lucia Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands
Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands
(US) Cockburn Town, Turks and Caicos (UK) Fort-de-France, Martinique
Martinique
(France) George Town, Cayman Islands
George Town, Cayman Islands
(UK) Guatemala
Guatemala
City, Guatemala Gustavia, St. Barthélemy (France) Hamilton, Bermuda
Hamilton, Bermuda
(UK) Havana, Cuba Kingston, Jamaica Kingstown, St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Kralendijk, Bonaire
Bonaire
(Netherlands) Managua, Nicaragua Marigot, St. Martin (France) Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico Nassau, The Bahamas Nuuk, Greenland
Greenland
(Denmark) Oranjestad, Aruba
Oranjestad, Aruba
(Netherlands) Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius
Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius
(Netherlands) Ottawa, Canada Panama
Panama
City, Panama Philipsburg, Sint Maarten
Philipsburg, Sint Maarten
(Netherlands) Plymouth (de jure) • Brades
Brades
(de facto), Montserrat
Montserrat
(UK) Port-au-Prince, Haiti Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

Road Town, British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
(UK) Roseau, Dominica Saint-Pierre, St. Pierre and Miquelon (France) San José, Costa Rica San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan, Puerto Rico
(US) San Salvador, El Salvador Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic St. George's, Grenada St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda Tegucigalpa, Honduras The Bottom, Saba
Saba
(Netherlands) The Valley, Anguilla
The Valley, Anguilla
(UK) Washington, D.C., United States Willemstad, Curaçao
Curaçao
(Netherlands)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 238300567 LCCN: n79063073 GND: 4122012-2 BNF: cb11964046c (d

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