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Ostend (Dutch: Oostende [oːstˈɛndə]; French: Ostende [ɔstɑ̃d]; German: Ostende [ʔɔstˈʔɛndə])[2] is a Belgian coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders. It comprises the boroughs of Mariakerke, Raversijde, Stene and Zandvoorde, and the city of Ostend
Ostend
proper – the largest on the Belgian coast.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origin to Middle Ages 1.2 Fifteenth to eighteenth century 1.3 19th century 1.4 20th century

2 Sights 3 Museums 4 Climate 5 Transport 6 Gallery 7 Notable residents 8 Sport clubs 9 In popular culture 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] Origin to Middle Ages[edit]

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In earlier times, Ostend
Ostend
was a small village built on the east-end (oost-einde) of an island (originally called Testerep) between the North Sea
North Sea
and a beach lake. Although small, the village rose to the status of "town" around 1265 when the inhabitants were allowed to hold a market and to build a market hall. The major source of income for the inhabitants was fishing. The North Sea coastline has always been rather unstable and in 1395 the inhabitants decided to build a new Ostend
Ostend
behind large dikes and further away from the always-threatening sea. Fifteenth to eighteenth century[edit]

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Ostend
Ostend
on the Ferraris map
Ferraris map
(around 1775)

St Petrus and St Paulus Church

Beach, seafront and Europacenter building

The strategic position on the North Sea
North Sea
coast had major advantages for Ostend
Ostend
as a harbour but also proved to be a source of trouble. The town was frequently taken, ravaged, ransacked and destroyed by conquering armies. The Dutch rebels, the Gueuzen, took control of the town. The Siege of Ostend, 1601 to 1604, of which it was said that "the Spanish assailed the unassailable and the Dutch defended the indefensible", cost a combined total of more than 80,000 dead or wounded, making it the single bloodiest battle of the Eighty Years' War. This shocking event set in motion negotiations that led to a truce several years later. When the truce broke down, it became a Dunkirker base. After this era, Ostend
Ostend
was turned into a harbour of some importance. In 1722, the Dutch again closed off the entrance to the world's biggest harbour of Antwerp, the Westerschelde. Therefore, Ostend
Ostend
rose in importance because the town provided an alternative exit to the sea. The Belgium
Belgium
Austriacum had become part of the Austrian Empire. The Austrian Emperor Charles VI granted the town the trade monopoly with Africa and the Far-East. The Oostendse Compagnie
Oostendse Compagnie
(the "Ostend trade company") was allowed to found colonies overseas. However, in 1727 the Oostendse Compagnie
Oostendse Compagnie
was forced to stop its activities because of Dutch and British pressure. The Netherlands and Britain would not allow competitors on the international trade level. Both nations regarded international trade as "their" privilege. 19th century[edit] On 19 September 1826 the local artillery magazine exploded. At least 20 people were killed and a further 200 injured. The affluent quarter of d'Hargras was levelled and scarcely a building in the city escaped damage. Disease followed the devastation leading to further deaths.[3] The harbour of Ostend
Ostend
continued to expand because the harbour dock, as well as the traffic connections with the hinterland, were improved. In 1838, a railway connection with Brussels
Brussels
was constructed.[citation needed] Ostend
Ostend
became a transit harbour to England in 1846 when the first ferry sailed to Dover.[citation needed] Very important for the image of the town was the attention it started to receive from the Belgian kings Leopold I and Leopold II. Both liked to spend their holidays in Ostend. Important monuments and villas were built to please the Royal Family, including the Hippodrome Wellington
Hippodrome Wellington
horse racing track and the Royal Galleries. The rest of aristocratic Belgium followed and soon Ostend
Ostend
became known as "The Queen of the Belgian sea-side resorts". In 1866, Ostend
Ostend
was the venue for a crucial meeting of exile Spanish Liberals and Republicans which laid the framework for a major uprising in their country[citation needed], culminating in Spain's Glorious Revolution two years later. 20th century[edit] Ostend
Ostend
(in common with nearly the entirety of the country) was occupied by German forces and used as an access point to the sea for submarines and other light naval forces for much of the duration of World War I. As a consequence the port was subjected to two naval assaults by the Royal Navy. The town hosted all of the sailing events for the 1920 Summer Olympics for Antwerp.[4] Only the finals of the 12 foot dinghy
12 foot dinghy
were sailed in Amsterdam. Ostend
Ostend
also hosted the polo events.[5] World War II
World War II
involved a second occupation of the town by Germany within a period of little more than twenty years; an occupation which it shared this time with most of northern Europe. Both conflicts brought significant destruction to Ostend. In addition, other opulent buildings which had survived the wars were later replaced with structures in the modernist architecture style. Sights[edit] Ostend
Ostend
is famous for its sea-side esplanade, including the Royal Galleries of Ostend, pier, and fine-sand beaches. Ostend
Ostend
is visited by many day-trippers heading to the beaches, especially during July and August. Tourists from inland Belgium
Belgium
and foreigners mostly arrive by train (day trips) and head for the closest beach area, the Klein Strand, located next to the pier. The locals and other residents in Belgium
Belgium
usually occupy the larger beach (het Groot Strand). Near the beach is a well-preserved section of the fortified Atlantic Wall, open to the public as the Atlantic Wall
Atlantic Wall
Open Air Museum located in Raversijde. one can walk through the little streets around Het Vissersplein. At certain times, there are local markets in the neighbourhood streets and in the summer the Vissersplein has music festivals. The Vissersplein (Bonenstraat/Kadzandstraat) is a car free zone with many brasseries where patrons can sit outside and have a drink. Towards the port side there are many little fish outlets, and beyond that the ferries can be observed docking. Notable sites include:

the Casino
Casino
and Fort Napoleon, Ostend. Oostende railway station. The Mercator, the ex training sailing ship for Belgian merchant navy officers, now open to the public to view. Hippodrome Wellington, horse racing venue. St Petrus and St Paulus Church, Ostend
St Petrus and St Paulus Church, Ostend
(Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk), built in Neo Gothic
Neo Gothic
style.

Museums[edit] The James Ensor
James Ensor
museum can be visited in the house where the artist lived from 1917 until 1949. The Mu.Zee
Mu.Zee
(a new museum after the fusion of the Provinciaal Museum voor de Moderne Kunst-Aan-Zee and the "Museum voor Schone Kunsten"), the museum of modern art from the 1830s to the present, displays works of noted local painters such as James Ensor, Leon Spilliaert, Constant Permeke and the revolutionary post-war Belgian COBRA movement amongst others.

Ostend
Ostend
beach and the promenade pier – panoramic view

Climate[edit] Ostend
Ostend
has a maritime temperate climate, influenced by winds from the North Sea, making summers cooler than inland Europe. 24-hour average temperatures below the freezing point is a rare occurrence. According to the Köppen Climate Classification
Köppen Climate Classification
system, Ostend
Ostend
has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps.[6]

Climate data for Ostend

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.1 (43) 6.5 (43.7) 9.2 (48.6) 11.4 (52.5) 15.3 (59.5) 17.7 (63.9) 20.3 (68.5) 20.9 (69.6) 18.3 (64.9) 14.5 (58.1) 9.7 (49.5) 7.1 (44.8) 13.08 (55.55)

Average low °C (°F) 1.1 (34) 0.5 (32.9) 2.3 (36.1) 4.1 (39.4) 7.9 (46.2) 10.7 (51.3) 12.8 (55) 12.5 (54.5) 10.2 (50.4) 7.1 (44.8) 4.0 (39.2) 2.3 (36.1) 6.29 (43.33)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 62.6 (2.465) 44.5 (1.752) 55.0 (2.165) 45.5 (1.791) 56.2 (2.213) 66.7 (2.626) 59.2 (2.331) 57.3 (2.256) 79.9 (3.146) 78.1 (3.075) 83.9 (3.303) 73.2 (2.882) 762.1 (30.005)

Average precipitation days 13 9 11 10 10 10 8 8 11 11 13 13 127

Source: World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation
(UN)[7]

Transport[edit] Ostend–Bruges International Airport
Ostend–Bruges International Airport
located 5km from Ostend
Ostend
is primarily a freight airport but offers passenger flights to leisure destinations in Southern Europe
Europe
and Turkey. Jetairfly
Jetairfly
has its headquarters in Ostend.[8] TAAG Angola Airlines's Ostend
Ostend
offices are on the grounds of Ostend
Ostend
Airport.[9] The Ostend railway station
Ostend railway station
is a major hub on the National Railway Company of Belgium
Belgium
network with frequent InterCity trains serving Brugge railway station, Gent-Sint-Pieters, Brussels
Brussels
South and Liège-Guillemins on Belgian railway line 50A. Ostend
Ostend
formerly had busy ferry routes to Dover
Dover
and Ramsgate, but the last of these services ended with the failure of TransEuropa Ferries in 2013.[10] Gallery[edit]

Casino
Casino
Kursaal

Pier

Museumship, the barquentine Mercator''

Oostende railway station, 2010

Municipal park

Hippodrome Wellington

The Peperbusse – local name for an old church tower of a burned down church

Fisherman's house from 1729 (Kapucijnenstraat)

Notable residents[edit] References to these notable citizens of Ostend
Ostend
can be found on the oostende.be website.[11]

Lilian Baels, princess Auguste Marie Francois Beernaert, Prime Minister of Belgium
Belgium
and Nobel Peace Prize recipient Alfred Belpaire, locomotive engineer Gerard Brackx, tourism John Crombez, politician Cesar De Paepe, syndicalist James Ensor, painter Marvin Gaye, musician Johannes Gysius, historian[12] Arno Hintjens, lead-singer of TC Matic Karel Jonckheere, writer Mimi Lamote, businesswoman Stefaan Maene, backstroke swimmer August Michiels, sculptor, painter, engraver Hubert Minnebo, sculptor Marie-José of Belgium, princess, then last queen of Italy Divock Origi, footballer born in the city but did not grow up there. Louise of Orléans, first queen of the Belgians Constant Permeke, expressionist painter Roger Remaut, painter Raoul Servais, filmmaker Gustaaf Sorel, painter Leon Spilliaert, painter Henri Storck, author, film-maker, and maker of documentaries Robert Triffin, economist Robert Van De Walle, judoka Bart van den Bossche, singer, actor, and radio/TV presenter Peter Van Heirseele, aka Herr Seele, cartoonist (Cowboy Henk), painter and performer Johan Vande Lanotte, politician Rudolf Vanmoerkerke Katrien Vermeire, artist

Sport clubs[edit]

BC Oostende
BC Oostende
(basketball) Hermes Volley Oostende
Hermes Volley Oostende
(volleyball) K.V. Oostende
K.V. Oostende
(football) Wellington Golf Oostende
Wellington Golf Oostende
(Golf) Zwaantjes rollerclub Zandvoorde (Inline speed skating) Ostend
Ostend
pirates (American Football)

In popular culture[edit] Ostend
Ostend
has been used as a film location by numerous directors. The movies Place Vendôme with Catherine Deneuve; Daughters of Darkness[13] with Delphine Seyrig
Delphine Seyrig
as Countess Bathory; Armaguedon[14] with Alain Delon; Camping Cosmos
Camping Cosmos
with Lolo Ferrari; and Ex Drummer based on the novel by Herman Brusselmans
Herman Brusselmans
were partially shot in Ostend. The comic Le Bal du rat mort (fr) about a dreadful invasion of rats, is set in Ostend. See also[edit]

Greenbridge science park Ostend
Ostend
Manifesto Port of Ostend

References[edit]

^ Population per municipality as of 1 January 2017 (XLS; 397 KB) ^ Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, pp. 598 and 603, ISBN 9783411040667  ^ The Explosion at Ostend, The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer, 30 September 1826 ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
sailing". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 22 April 2011.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
polo". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 22 April 2011.  ^ "Climate Summary for Ostend, Belgium". Weatherbase.com. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ "World Weather Information Service – Ostend". United Nations. Retrieved 19 January 2011.  ^ "TUIfly Academy Brussels." Jetairfly. Retrieved 23 October 2009. ^ "TAAG Offices Archived 29 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.." TAAG Angola Airlines. Retrieved 23 January 2010. ^ "[1].". Retrieved 1 April 2017. ^ "Oostendse biografieën". Archief.oostende.be. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ Kranenborg, J.B. "Ancestors of Cornelis Leendert de Groot". Ninth Generation. Retrieved 25 August 2013.  ^ Daughters of Darkness
Daughters of Darkness
on IMDb ^ "Armaguedon". French.imdb.com. 1 May 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

Hendy, John (1991). The Dover– Ostend
Ostend
Line. Staplehurst, Kent: Ferry Publications. ISBN 095135065X.  Pattheeuws, Stephen (2015). The Ostend
Ostend
Ferry: from start to finish. Ramsey, Isle of Man: Ferry Publications. ISBN 9781906608804. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ostend.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ostend.

 "Ostend". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). 1911.  (in Dutch) Official website, limited information available in French, English and German. Toerisme Oostende – English edition – extensive.

Places adjacent to Ostend

North Sea

North Sea

Ostend

Bredene, De Haan

Middelkerke Gistel Oudenburg

v t e

Belgian Coast Tram route

Knokke-Heist

Knokke Heist

Zeebrugge Blankenberge Wenduine De Haan Bredene Ostend Raversijde Middelkerke Westende Lombardsijde Nieuwpoort Oostduinkerke Koksijde De Panne

v t e

Municipalities in the Province of West Flanders, Flanders, Belgium

Bruges

Beernem Blankenberge Bruges/Brugge Damme Jabbeke Knokke-Heist Oostkamp Torhout Zedelgem Zuienkerke

Diksmuide

Diksmuide Houthulst Koekelare Kortemark Lo-Reninge

Kortrijk

Anzegem Avelgem Deerlijk Harelbeke Kortrijk Kuurne Lendelede Menen Spiere-Helkijn Waregem Wevelgem Zwevegem

Ostend

Bredene De Haan Gistel Ichtegem Middelkerke Oostende/Ostend Oudenburg

Roeselare

Hooglede Ingelmunster Izegem Ledegem Lichtervelde Moorslede Roeselare Staden

Tielt

Ardooie Dentergem Meulebeke Oostrozebeke Pittem Ruiselede Tielt Wielsbeke Wingene

Veurne

Alveringem De Panne Koksijde Nieuwpoort Veurne

Ypres

Heuvelland Ieper/Ypres Langemark-Poelkapelle Mesen Poperinge Vleteren Wervik Zonnebeke

v t e

Venues of the 1920 Summer Olympics

Antwerp Antwerp
Antwerp
Zoo Beerschot Tennis Club Beverloo Camp Brussels–Scheldt Maritime Canal Buiten Y (Amsterdam) Gardens of the Egmont Palace
Egmont Palace
(Brussels) Hoogboom Military Camp Jules Ottenstadion
Jules Ottenstadion
(Ghent) Nachtegalen Park Olympisch Stadion Ostend Palais de Glace d'Anvers Stade Joseph Marien
Stade Joseph Marien
(Brussels) Stade Nautique d'Antwerp Stadion Broodstraat Vélodrome d'Anvers Zuremborg

v t e

Olympic venues in sailing

1900: Meulan, Le Havre 1908: Ryde, Hunters Quay 1912: Nynäshamn 1920: Ostend, Buiten Y 1924: Le Havre, Meulan 1928: Buiten Y, Zuiderzee 1932: Los Angeles Harbor 1936: Kiel Bay 1948: Torbay 1952: Harmaja, Liuskasaari 1956: Port Phillip 1960: Gulf of Naples 1964: Enoshima 1968: Club de Yates de Acapulco 1972: Bay of Kiel 1976: Portsmouth Olympic Harbour 1980: Olympic Regatta in Tallinn 1984: Long Beach Shoreline Marina 1988: Busan Yachting Center 1992: Olympic Harbour 1996: Wassaw Sound 2000: Rushcutters Bay 2004: Agios Kosmas Olympic Sailing Centre 2008: Qingdao International Sailing Centre 2012: Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy 2016: Marina da Glória 2020: Enoshima 2024: Old Port of Marseille 2028: Belmont Veterans Memorial Pier

v t e

Olympic venues in discontinued events

Baseball

1984 (demonstration): Dodger Stadium 1988 (demonstration): Jamsil Baseball Stadium 1992: Camp Municipal de Beisbol de Viladecans, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat Baseball Stadium (final) 1996: Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium 2000: Blacktown Olympic Park, Sydney Baseball Stadium (final) 2004: Hellinikon Olympic Baseball Centre 2008: Wukesong Baseball Field 2020: Yokohama Stadium, Fukushima Azuma Baseball Stadium 2024: Stade Sébastien Charléty 2028: Dodger Stadium, Angel Stadium

Basque pelota

1900: Neuilly-sur-Seine 1992 (demonstration): Pavelló de la Vall d'Hebron

Cricket

1900: Vélodrome de Vincennes

Croquet

1900: Bois de Boulogne

Jeu de paume

1908: Queen's Club

Lacrosse

1904: Francis Field 1908: White City Stadium

Polo

1900: Bois de Boulogne 1908: Hurlingham Club 1920: Ostend 1924: Bagatelle, Saint-Cloud 1936: Mayfield

Rackets

1908: All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club

Roque

1904: Francis Field

Softball

1996: Golden Park 2000: Blacktown Olympic Park 2004: Hellinikon Olympic Softball Stadium 2008: Fengtai Softball Field 2020: Yokohama Stadium 2024: Stade Sébastien Charléty 2028: Dodger Stadium, Angel Stadium

Tug of war

1900: Bois de Boulogne 1904: Francis Field 1908: White City Stadium 1912: Stockholm Olympic Stadium 1920: Olympisch Stadion

Water motorsports

1908: Southampton Water

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312795295 LCCN: n79105666 ISNI: 0000 0004 0497 5745 GND: 4116805-7 BNF:

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