Oromia (spelled Oromiyaa in the Oromo language; Amharic: ኦሮሚያ)
is one of the nine ethnically based regional states of Ethiopia,
covering 284,538 square kilometers. It is bordered by the Somali
Region to the east; the Amhara Region, the
Afar Region and the
Benishangul-Gumuz Region to the north; South Sudan, Gambela Region,
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region to the west;
Kenya to the south. The 2007 census reported Oromia Region
population is 26,993,933; making it the largest state in population
Oromia includes the former
Arsi Province along with portions of the
former Bale, Hararghe, Illubabor, Kaffa, Shewa, Sidamo, and Welega
provinces. Important cities and towns included in Oromia are: Adama,
Ambo, Asella, Bishoftu, Chiro, Dembidolo, Fiche, Gimbi, Robe, Goba,
Dello Buna, Jimma, Metu, Negele Boran, Moyale, Nekemte, Shashamane,
Haramaaya and Waliso.
2.1 Ethnic groups
2.2.1 Religion in entire region
2.2.2 Religion in urban areas
4 Presidents of the Executive Committee
5 Administrative zones
6 See also
8 External links
Oromia Region was inhabited by non-Oromo ethnic communities for
centuries. The earliest people to live in
Oromia Region were the
Gurage people from southern Ethiopia, under the kingdom of
Sultanate of Showa. The Sultanate of Ifat, Adal Sultanate,
Sultanate of Showa, Kingdom of Damot, Kingdom of Ennarea, Ganz
province, Sultanate of Bale, Maya, Hadiya Sultanate, Sultanate of
Dawaro, Fatagar, Gumar, Gidim, Werjih, Gurage, Gafat were some of the
kingdoms and peoples in the area before the 16th century Oromo
expansion. Most of these ancient Kingdoms situated in present-day
Oromia Region were semi-autonomous provinces of Ethiopian Empire.
After the brutal conquest of these region by the Oromo people, the
indigenous inhabitants were reduced to Gabaros (serfs) and were
Oromized through collective adoption process known as Gudifacha and
Mogasa. The affiliated groups were given new genealogies and started
counting their putative ancestors in the same way as their adoptive
kinsmen. The native ancient names of the territories were replaced
by the name of the Oromo clans who conquered it.
Before 2000, the regional capital of Oromia was Addis Ababa, also
known as "Finfinne" (in the Oromo language). The relocation of the
regional capital to
Finfinne sparked considerable controversy, and
this forced the government to bring back the capital to Addis Ababa.
Critics of the move believed the Ethiopian government wished to
de-emphasize Addis Ababa's location within Oromia. On the other
hand, the government maintained that
Addis Ababa "has been found
inconvenient from the point of view of developing the language,
culture and history of the Oromo people."
On 10 June 2005, the Oromo People's Democratic Organization, part of
the ruling coalition, officially announced plans to move the state
capital back to Finfinne.
Oromia shares a boundary with almost every region of
for the Tigray Region. This boundary has been disputed with Oromia's
neighbors in a number of cases, most notably between Oromia and the
Somali Region. One attempt to resolve the dispute between the two
regions was the October 2004 referendum held in about 420 kebeles in
12 woredas across five zones of the Somali Region. According to the
official results of the referendum, about 80% of the disputed areas
have fallen under Oromia administration, though there were allegations
of voting irregularities in many of them. The results led over the
following weeks to minorities in these kebeles being pressured to
leave. In Oromya, estimates based on figures given by local woreda and
kebele authorities suggest that 21,520 people have been displaced in
border woredas, namely Mieso, Doba, and
Erer in the Mirab and Misraq
Hararghe Zones. Federal authorities believe that this number may be
overstated by as much as 11,000. In Doba, the Ministry of Federal
Affairs put the number of IDPs at 6,000. There are also more than
2,500 displaced persons in Mieso. In addition, there were reports
of people being displaced in the border area of
Moyale and Borena
zones due to this conflict.
On 5 August 2016 protests broke out across
Ethiopia and centered
around the Oromia Region. Dozens of protesters were killed in the
first days of the protests and internet service was cut to many parts
of the region.
Based on the 2007 census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency
Oromia Region has a total population of 26,993,933,
consisting of 13,595,006 men and 13,398,927 women; urban inhabitants
number 3,370,040 or 11.3% of the population. With an estimated area of
353,006.81 square kilometers, this region has an estimated population
density of 76.93 people per square kilometer. For the entire region
5,590,530 households were counted, which results in an average for the
region of 4.8 persons to a household, with urban households having on
average 3.8 and rural households 5.0 people.
In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the region's population was
reported to be 17,088,136; urban inhabitants number 621,210 or 14% of
According to the CSA, as of 2004[update], 32% of the population had
access to safe drinking water, of whom 23.7% were rural inhabitants
and 91.03% were urban. Values for other reported common indicators
of the standard of living for Oromia as of 2005[update] include the
following: 19.9% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth
quintile; adult literacy for men is 61.5% and for women 29.5%; and the
regional infant mortality rate is 76 infant deaths per 1,000 live
births, which is about the same as the nationwide average of 77; at
least half of these deaths occurred in the infants' first month of
Gurage (some of Sebat Bet Gurage,
Soddo Gurage, and Silt'e)
other ethnic groups
Figures of full ethnic background are disputed, since many ethnically
mixed Ethiopians are difficult to categorize.
Shewa Oromos and urban Oromos are known to have
assimilated with ethnic Amhara and others, while southwestern Oromos
have mixed with the
Sidama and other ethnicities. The
census and the general system of governance has remained controversial
and related to the politics of the country. For
instance, mixed Ethiopians with an Oromo father and Amhara mother are
registered into the census using only their father's ethnic label.
Similarly, Ethiopians with an Amhara father (or from another ethnic
background) and Oromo mother are registered using only their father's
ethnic label.
Religion in entire region
other religious groups
Religion in urban areas
other religious groups
Oromo (afaan oromoo), which is written with Latin characters, is the
most commonly spoken language, spoken by 83.5% of the population.
Other major languages are
Amharic (11%) (especially in eastern Welega
and northern Shewa),
Gurage languages (Sebat Bet Gurage, Soddo,
Silt'e), Hadiya, Gedeo (0.98%), especially in western and eastern
Shewa; and Tigrigna (0.25%).
Omotic languages are spoken by
significant minorities in Jimma, Illubabor and western Welega; and
Nilo-Saharan languages (including Komo, Majang, Gumuz, and Berta)
are spoken in communities scattered in the west.
The CSA reported that for 2004–2005 115,083 tons of coffee were
produced in Oromia, based on inspection records from the Ethiopian
Coffee and Tea Authority. This represents 50.7% of the total
production in Ethiopia. Farmers in the Region had an estimated total
of 17,214,540 cattle (representing 44.4% of Ethiopia's total cattle),
6,905,370 sheep (39.6), 4,849,060 goats (37.4%), 959,710 horses
(63.25%), 63,460 mules (43.1%), 278,440 asses (11.1%), 139,830 camels
(30.6%), 11,637,070 poultry of all species (37.7%), and 2,513,790
According to a March 2003
World Bank publication, the average rural
household has 1.14 hectares of land compared to the national average
of 1.01 hectares, 24% of the population is in non-farm related jobs
compared to the national average of 25%.
Presidents of the Executive Committee
Hassan Ali (1992 – 1995)
Kuma Demeksa (OPDO) (1995 – 24 July 2001)
Junedin Sado (28 October 2001 – 6 October 2005)
Abadula Gemeda (6 October 2005 – September 2010)
Alemayehu Atomsa OPDO (September 2010 – February 2014)
Muktar Kedir OPDO (March 2014 – 2016)
Lemma Megersa (June 2016 – )
The Oromia is subdivided into 20 administrative zones:
Horo Gudru Welega
South West Shewa
Adama (special zone)
Jimma (special zone)
Finfinne (special zone)
Black Gold, film
Ethiopian Ministry of Culture and Tourism
List of woredas of the Oromia Region
^ "FDRE States: Basic Information, Oromia". The Federal Democratic
Republic of Ethiopia. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008.
Retrieved 29 May 2008.
^ 2011 National Statistics Archived 30 March 2013 at the Wayback
Machine. (accessed 7 May 2012).
^ Trimingham, J. Islam in Ethiopia. Routledge. p. 58. Retrieved 9
^ a b Richard Pankhurst The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional
History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. The Red Sea
Press (1997) pp. 35–300
^ a b Paul Trevor William Baxter, Jan Hultin, Alessandro Triulzi.
Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries.
Nordic Africa Institute (1996) pp. 253–256
^ Hameso, Seyoum and Tilahun Ayanou Nebo (2000). "Ethiopia: A New
Sidama Concern. Retrieved 25 February 2006.
^ Mosisa, Abraham T. (13 January 2004). "Letter to U.N.
Secretary-General". Oromo Studies Association. Retrieved 25 February
^ "Nazareth Selected as Oromiya's Capital". Walta Information Center.
13 July 2000. Archived from the original on 3 March 2006. Retrieved 25
^ "Chief Administrator of Oromia says decision to move capital city
based on study". Walta Information Center. 11 June 2005. Archived from
the original on 13 June 2005. Retrieved 25 February 2006. CS1
maint: Unfit url (link)
^ "Somali-Oromo border referendum of December 2004" Archived 30 April
2009 at the Wayback Machine., Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
website (accessed 11 February 2009)
^ "Regional Overview: Oromiya Region", Focus on Ethiopia[permanent
dead link] (April 2005), p. 5 (accessed 11 February 2009)
^ "Regional Update: Oromiya", Focus on
Ethiopia (May 2005), p. 5
(accessed 11 February 2009)
^ "Households by sources of drinking water, safe water sources" (PDF).
CSA Selected Basic Welfare Indicators. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 18 November 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
^ Macro International Inc.
Ethiopia Atlas of Key Demographic and
Health Indicators, 2005 (PDF). Calverton: Macro International, 2008.
2008. pp. 2, 3, 10. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
^ a b Census 2007 Tables:
Oromia Region Archived 2011-11-13 at the
Wayback Machine., Table 3.3.
^ "CSA 2005 National Statistics – Tables D.4 – D.7" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2008.
^ Klaus Deininger; et al. "Tenure Security and Land Related
Investment, WP-2991". Retrieved 23 March 2006.
^ Cahoon, Ben. "Ethiopian Regional States". www.worldstatesmen.org.
Retrieved 27 March 2018.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oromia Region.
Oromia Region at UN-OCHA (PDF file)
FDRE States: Basic Information – Oromia
Oromia Culture and Tourism Bureau
Oromia President office
Woredas of the Oromia Region
List of districts in the Oromia Region
Adami Tullu and
West Arsi Zone
Abuna Ginde Beret
Zones of the Oromia Region
West Arsi Zone
Special Zone Surrounding Finfinne
First-level administrative divisions of Ethiopia
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
(prior to 1995)
Members of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
District of Columbia
Chittagong Hill Tracts
Hungarians in Transilvania
Coordinates: 7°59′21″N 39°22′52″E / 7.9890616°N
39.3811798°E / 7.9