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Oromia (spelled Oromiyaa in the Oromo language; Amharic: ኦሮሚያ) is one of the nine ethnically based regional states of Ethiopia, covering 284,538 square kilometers.[2] It is bordered by the Somali Region to the east; the Amhara Region, the Afar Region
Afar Region
and the Benishangul-Gumuz Region
Benishangul-Gumuz Region
to the north; South Sudan, Gambela Region, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
to the west; and Kenya
Kenya
to the south. The 2007 census reported Oromia Region population is 26,993,933; making it the largest state in population and area. Oromia includes the former Arsi Province
Arsi Province
along with portions of the former Bale, Hararghe, Illubabor, Kaffa, Shewa, Sidamo, and Welega provinces. Important cities and towns included in Oromia are: Adama, Ambo, Asella, Bishoftu, Chiro, Dembidolo, Fiche, Gimbi, Robe, Goba, Dello Buna, Jimma, Metu, Negele Boran, Moyale, Nekemte, Shashamane, Haramaaya and Waliso.

Contents

1 History 2 Demographics

2.1 Ethnic groups 2.2 Religion

2.2.1 Religion in entire region 2.2.2 Religion in urban areas

2.3 Languages

3 Economy 4 Presidents of the Executive Committee 5 Administrative zones 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

8.1 Media

History[edit] The Oromia Region
Oromia Region
was inhabited by non-Oromo ethnic communities for centuries. The earliest people to live in Oromia Region
Oromia Region
were the Muslim Gurage people
Gurage people
from southern Ethiopia, under the kingdom of Sultanate of Showa.[3] The Sultanate of Ifat, Adal Sultanate, Sultanate of Showa, Kingdom of Damot, Kingdom of Ennarea, Ganz province, Sultanate of Bale, Maya, Hadiya Sultanate, Sultanate of Dawaro, Fatagar, Gumar, Gidim, Werjih, Gurage, Gafat were some of the kingdoms and peoples in the area before the 16th century Oromo expansion. Most of these ancient Kingdoms situated in present-day Oromia Region
Oromia Region
were semi-autonomous provinces of Ethiopian Empire.[4] After the brutal conquest of these region by the Oromo people, the indigenous inhabitants were reduced to Gabaros (serfs) and were Oromized through collective adoption process known as Gudifacha and Mogasa. The affiliated groups were given new genealogies and started counting their putative ancestors in the same way as their adoptive kinsmen.[5] The native ancient names of the territories were replaced by the name of the Oromo clans who conquered it.[4][5] Before 2000, the regional capital of Oromia was Addis Ababa, also known as "Finfinne" (in the Oromo language). The relocation of the regional capital to Finfinne
Finfinne
sparked considerable controversy, and this forced the government to bring back the capital to Addis Ababa. Critics of the move believed the Ethiopian government wished to de-emphasize Addis Ababa's location within Oromia.[6][7] On the other hand, the government maintained that Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
"has been found inconvenient from the point of view of developing the language, culture and history of the Oromo people."[8] On 10 June 2005, the Oromo People's Democratic Organization, part of the ruling coalition, officially announced plans to move the state capital back to Finfinne.[9] Oromia shares a boundary with almost every region of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
except for the Tigray Region. This boundary has been disputed with Oromia's neighbors in a number of cases, most notably between Oromia and the Somali Region. One attempt to resolve the dispute between the two regions was the October 2004 referendum held in about 420 kebeles in 12 woredas across five zones of the Somali Region. According to the official results of the referendum, about 80% of the disputed areas have fallen under Oromia administration, though there were allegations of voting irregularities in many of them.[10] The results led over the following weeks to minorities in these kebeles being pressured to leave. In Oromya, estimates based on figures given by local woreda and kebele authorities suggest that 21,520 people have been displaced in border woredas, namely Mieso, Doba, and Erer
Erer
in the Mirab and Misraq Hararghe
Hararghe
Zones. Federal authorities believe that this number may be overstated by as much as 11,000. In Doba, the Ministry of Federal Affairs put the number of IDPs at 6,000. There are also more than 2,500 displaced persons in Mieso.[11] In addition, there were reports of people being displaced in the border area of Moyale
Moyale
and Borena zones due to this conflict.[12] On 5 August 2016 protests broke out across Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and centered around the Oromia Region. Dozens of protesters were killed in the first days of the protests and internet service was cut to many parts of the region. Demographics[edit] Based on the 2007 census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(CSA), Oromia Region
Oromia Region
has a total population of 26,993,933, consisting of 13,595,006 men and 13,398,927 women; urban inhabitants number 3,370,040 or 11.3% of the population. With an estimated area of 353,006.81 square kilometers, this region has an estimated population density of 76.93 people per square kilometer. For the entire region 5,590,530 households were counted, which results in an average for the region of 4.8 persons to a household, with urban households having on average 3.8 and rural households 5.0 people. In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the region's population was reported to be 17,088,136; urban inhabitants number 621,210 or 14% of the population. According to the CSA, as of 2004[update], 32% of the population had access to safe drinking water, of whom 23.7% were rural inhabitants and 91.03% were urban.[13] Values for other reported common indicators of the standard of living for Oromia as of 2005[update] include the following: 19.9% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile; adult literacy for men is 61.5% and for women 29.5%; and the regional infant mortality rate is 76 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, which is about the same as the nationwide average of 77; at least half of these deaths occurred in the infants' first month of life.[14] Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic group 1994 Census 2007 Census

Oromo 85% 87.8%

Amhara 9.1% 7.22%

Gurage
Gurage
(some of Sebat Bet Gurage, Soddo Gurage, and Silt'e) 0.98% 0.93%

other ethnic groups 4.6% 4%

Figures of full ethnic background are disputed, since many ethnically mixed Ethiopians are difficult to categorize.[citation needed] Particularly, Shewa
Shewa
Oromos and urban Oromos are known to have assimilated with ethnic Amhara and others, while southwestern Oromos have mixed with the Sidama and other ethnicities.[citation needed] The census and the general system of governance has remained controversial and related to the politics of the country.[citation needed] For instance, mixed Ethiopians with an Oromo father and Amhara mother are registered into the census using only their father's ethnic label. Similarly, Ethiopians with an Amhara father (or from another ethnic background) and Oromo mother are registered using only their father's ethnic label.[citation needed] Religion[edit] Religion in entire region[edit]

Religion 1994 Census 2007 Census[15]

Muslim 44.3% 47.6%

Orthodox Christians 41.3% 30.4%

Protestant Christians 8.6% 17.7%

traditional religions 4.2% 3.3%

other religious groups 1.6% 1%

Religion in urban areas[edit]

Religion 1994 Census 2007 Census[15]

Orthodox Christians 67.8% 51.2%

Muslim 24.0% 29.9%

Protestant Christians 7% 17.5%

other religious groups – 1.5%

Languages[edit] Oromo (afaan oromoo), which is written with Latin characters, is the most commonly spoken language, spoken by 83.5% of the population. Other major languages are Amharic
Amharic
(11%) (especially in eastern Welega and northern Shewa), Gurage
Gurage
languages (Sebat Bet Gurage, Soddo, Silt'e), Hadiya, Gedeo (0.98%), especially in western and eastern Shewa; and Tigrigna (0.25%). Omotic
Omotic
languages are spoken by significant minorities in Jimma, Illubabor and western Welega; and some Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
languages (including Komo, Majang, Gumuz, and Berta) are spoken in communities scattered in the west. Economy[edit] The CSA reported that for 2004–2005 115,083 tons of coffee were produced in Oromia, based on inspection records from the Ethiopian Coffee and Tea Authority. This represents 50.7% of the total production in Ethiopia. Farmers in the Region had an estimated total of 17,214,540 cattle (representing 44.4% of Ethiopia's total cattle), 6,905,370 sheep (39.6), 4,849,060 goats (37.4%), 959,710 horses (63.25%), 63,460 mules (43.1%), 278,440 asses (11.1%), 139,830 camels (30.6%), 11,637,070 poultry of all species (37.7%), and 2,513,790 beehives (57.73%).[16] According to a March 2003 World Bank
World Bank
publication, the average rural household has 1.14 hectares of land compared to the national average of 1.01 hectares, 24% of the population is in non-farm related jobs compared to the national average of 25%.[17] Presidents of the Executive Committee[edit]

Hassan Ali (1992 – 1995) Kuma Demeksa (OPDO) (1995 – 24 July 2001) Junedin Sado (28 October 2001 – 6 October 2005) Abadula Gemeda (6 October 2005 – September 2010) Alemayehu Atomsa
Alemayehu Atomsa
OPDO (September 2010 – February 2014) Muktar Kedir OPDO (March 2014 – 2016)[18] Lemma Megersa (June 2016 – )

Administrative zones[edit] The Oromia is subdivided into 20 administrative zones:

Arsi Bale Bedele Borena East Hararghe East Shewa East Welega Guji West Guji Horo Gudru Welega Illubabor Jimma Kelem Welega North Shewa South West Shewa West Arsi West Hararghe West Shewa West Welega Adama
Adama
(special zone) Jimma
Jimma
(special zone) Oromia- Finfinne
Finfinne
(special zone)

See also[edit]

Black Gold, film Ethiopian Ministry of Culture and Tourism List of woredas of the Oromia Region

References[edit]

^ "FDRE States: Basic Information, Oromia". The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  ^ 2011 National Statistics Archived 30 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. (accessed 7 May 2012). ^ Trimingham, J. Islam in Ethiopia. Routledge. p. 58. Retrieved 9 December 2016.  ^ a b Richard Pankhurst The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. The Red Sea Press (1997) pp. 35–300 ^ a b Paul Trevor William Baxter, Jan Hultin, Alessandro Triulzi. Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries. Nordic Africa Institute (1996) pp. 253–256 ^ Hameso, Seyoum and Tilahun Ayanou Nebo (2000). "Ethiopia: A New Start?". The Sidama Concern. Retrieved 25 February 2006.  ^ Mosisa, Abraham T. (13 January 2004). "Letter to U.N. Secretary-General". Oromo Studies Association. Retrieved 25 February 2006.  ^ "Nazareth Selected as Oromiya's Capital". Walta Information Center. 13 July 2000. Archived from the original on 3 March 2006. Retrieved 25 February 2006.  ^ "Chief Administrator of Oromia says decision to move capital city based on study". Walta Information Center. 11 June 2005. Archived from the original on 13 June 2005. Retrieved 25 February 2006. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "Somali-Oromo border referendum of December 2004" Archived 30 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre website (accessed 11 February 2009) ^ "Regional Overview: Oromiya Region", Focus on Ethiopia[permanent dead link] (April 2005), p. 5 (accessed 11 February 2009) ^ "Regional Update: Oromiya", Focus on Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(May 2005), p. 5 (accessed 11 February 2009) ^ "Households by sources of drinking water, safe water sources" (PDF). CSA Selected Basic Welfare Indicators. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2009.  ^ Macro International Inc. Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Atlas of Key Demographic and Health Indicators, 2005 (PDF). Calverton: Macro International, 2008. 2008. pp. 2, 3, 10. Retrieved 28 January 2009.  ^ a b Census 2007 Tables: Oromia Region
Oromia Region
Archived 2011-11-13 at the Wayback Machine., Table 3.3. ^ "CSA 2005 National Statistics – Tables D.4 – D.7" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2008.  ^ Klaus Deininger; et al. "Tenure Security and Land Related Investment, WP-2991". Retrieved 23 March 2006.  ^ Cahoon, Ben. "Ethiopian Regional States". www.worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 27 March 2018. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oromia Region.

Map of Oromia Region
Oromia Region
at UN-OCHA (PDF file) FDRE States: Basic Information – Oromia

Media[edit]

Oromia Culture and Tourism Bureau Oromia President office Sheger Times Oromia TV

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Woredas of the Oromia Region

List of districts in the Oromia Region

Arsi Zone

Amigna Aseko Asella
Asella
Town Bale Gasegar Chole Digeluna Tijo Diksis Dodota Enkelo Wabe Gololcha Guna Hitosa Jeju Limuna Bilbilo Lude Hitosa Merti Munesa Robe Seru Sire Sherka Sude Tena Tiyo Ziway
Ziway
Dugda

Bale Zone

Agarfa Berbere Dawe Kachen Dawe Serara Delo Menna Dinsho Gasera Ginir Goba Goba
Goba
Town Gololcha Goro Guradamole Harena Buluk Legehida Meda Welabu Raytu Robe
Robe
Town Seweyna Sinana

Borena Zone

Abaya Arero Bule Hora Dire Dugda Dawa Gelana Moyale Miyu Teltele Yabelo

East Hararghe
Hararghe
Zone

Bedeno Babille Chinaksen Deder Fedis Girawa Gola Oda Goro Gutu Gursum Haro Maya Jarso Kersa Kombolcha Kurfa Chele Malka Balo Meyumuluke Meta Midega Tola

East Shewa
Shewa
Zone

Ada'a Adama
Adama
Zuria Adami Tullu and Jido Kombolcha Bishoftu
Bishoftu
Town Bora Boset Dugda Fentale Gimbichu Liben Lome Ziway
Ziway
Town

East Welega
Welega
Zone

Bonaya Boshe Diga Gida Kiremu Gobu Seyo Gudeya Bila Guto Gida Haro Limmu Ibantu Jimma
Jimma
Arjo Leka Dulecha Limmu Nekemte
Nekemte
Town Nunu Kumba Sibu Sire Sasiga Wama Hagalo Wayu Tuka

Guji Zone

Adola Adola Town Ana Sora Bore Dima Girja Hambela Wamena Harenfema Kercha Liben Negele Town Odo Shakiso Uraga Wadera

Horo Guduru Welega
Welega
Zone

Abay Chomen Abe Dongoro Amuru Guduru Hababo Guduru Horo Jardega Jarte Jimma
Jimma
Genete Jimma
Jimma
Rare Shambu
Shambu
Town

Illubabor Zone

Ale Alge Sache Bedele
Bedele
Zuria Bedele
Bedele
Town Bicho Bilo Nopha Borecha Bure Chewaka Chora Dabo Hana Darimu Dega Didessa Didu Doreni Gechi Huka Halu Hurumu Mako Metu Zuria Metu Town Nono Sele Yayu

Jimma
Jimma
Zone

Agaro
Agaro
Town Chora Botor Dedo Gera Gomma Guma Kersa Limmu Sakka Limmu Kosa Mana Omo Nada Seka Chekorsa Setema Shebe Senbo Sigmo Sokoru Tiro Afeta

Kelam Welega
Welega
Zone

Anfillo Dale Sedi Dale Wabera Dembidolo
Dembidolo
Town Gawo Kebe Gidami Hawa Gelan Jimma
Jimma
Horo Lalo Kile Sayo Yemalogi Welele

North Shewa
Shewa
Zone

Abichuna Gne'a Aleltu Degem Debre Libanos Dera Fiche
Fiche
Town Gerar Jarso Hidabu Abote Jido Kembibit Kuyu Wara Jarso Wuchale Yaya Gulele

South West Shewa
Shewa
Zone

Amaya Becho Dawo Elu Goro Kersana Malima Seden Sodo Sodo Dacha Tole Waliso Waliso
Waliso
Town Wonchi

West Arsi Zone

Adaba Arsi Negele Dodola Gedeb Asasa Kofele Kokosa Kore Nensebo Seraro Shala Shashamene
Shashamene
Town Shashamene
Shashamene
Zuria

West Hararghe
Hararghe
Zone

Anchar Bedessa
Bedessa
Town Boke Chiro Town Chiro Zuria Darolebu Doba Gemechis Guba Koricha Habro Kuni Mesela Mieso Tulo

West Shewa
Shewa
Zone

Abuna Ginde Beret Adda Berga Ambo Town Ambo Zuria Bako Tibe Cheliya Dano Dendi Ejerie Elfata Ginde Beret Jeldu Jibat Meta Robi Midakegn Nono Tikur Enchini Toke Kutaye

West Welega
Welega
Zone

Ayra Babo Gambela Begi Boji Chokorsa Boji Dirmaji Genji Gimbi Gimbi
Gimbi
Town Guliso Haru Homa Jarso Kondala Kiltu Kara Lalo Asabi Mana Sibu Nejo Nole Kaba Sayo Nole Yubdo

Adama
Adama
Special
Special
Zone

Adama

Jimma
Jimma
Special
Special
Zone

Jimma

Oromia Special
Special
Zone Surrounding Finfinne

Akaki Bereh Burayu
Burayu
Town Holeta Town Mulo Sebeta
Sebeta
Hawas Sebeta
Sebeta
Town Sendafa
Sendafa
Town Sululta Walmara

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Zones of the Oromia Region

Arsi Zone Bale Zone Borena Zone East Hararghe
Hararghe
Zone East Shewa
Shewa
Zone East Welega
Welega
Zone Guji Zone Horo Gudru Welega
Welega
Zone Illubabor Zone Jimma
Jimma
Zone Kelem Welega
Welega
Zone North Shewa
Shewa
Zone South West Shewa
Shewa
Zone West Arsi Zone West Hararghe
Hararghe
Zone West Shewa
Shewa
Zone West Welega
Welega
Zone Adama
Adama
Special
Special
Zone Jimma
Jimma
Special
Special
Zone Oromia Special
Special
Zone Surrounding Finfinne

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First-level administrative divisions of Ethiopia

Regions

Afar Amhara Benishangul-Gumuz Gambela Harari Oromia Somali Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region Tigray

Chartered cities

Addis Ababa Dire Dawa

Provinces (prior to 1995)

Arsi Bale Begemder Gamu-Gofa Gojjam Hararghe Illubabor Kaffa Shoa Sidamo Tigray Welega Wollo

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Members of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization

Africa

  Afrikaners   Amazigh (Berberia)   Barotseland   Batwaland  Haratin   Ogaden   Ogoni   Oromia   Rehoboth   Somaliland   Southern Cameroons   Venda   Zanzibar

North America

  District of Columbia

South America

  Mapuche

Asia

  Aceh   Ahwazi (Arabistan)   Assyria   Iranian Azerbaijan   East Balochistan   West Balochistan   Chin   Chittagong Hill Tracts   Degar-Montagnards    Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan
(Balawaristan)   Hmong  Igorot (Cordillera)   Inner Mongolia   Khmer Krom   Kurdistan   South Moluccas   Moro   Nagaland   Sindh   Taiwan   Talysh-Mughan   Tibet   Iraqi Turkmens   East Turkestan   West Papua

Europe

  Abkhazia   Brittany   Circassia   Hungarians in Transilvania   Kosovo   Lezgiland   Crimean Tatars   Savoy   Trieste

Coordinates: 7°59′21″N 39°22′52″E / 7.9890616°N 39.3811798°E / 7.9

.