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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Orléans
Orléans
(UK: /ɔːrˈliːənz/;[1] French pronunciation: ​[ɔʁleɑ̃][1]) is a city in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 mi) southwest of Paris. It is the capital of the Loiret
Loiret
department and of the Centre-Val de Loire region. Orléans
Orléans
is located on the Loire River
Loire River
where the river curves south towards the Massif Central. New Orleans
New Orleans
(French: La Nouvelle-Orléans), in Louisiana, United States, is named for the city.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 The Loire
Loire
and navigation 1.2 Climate

2 History

2.1 Prehistory and Roman Empire 2.2 Early Middle Ages 2.3 High Middle Ages 2.4 1453 to 1699 2.5 1700–1900 2.6 1900 to present 2.7 Heraldry 2.8 Motto

3 Transport

3.1 Public transport 3.2 Roads and highway 3.3 Railway

4 People 5 Culture

5.1 Historical and secular landmarks 5.2 Museums 5.3 Parks 5.4 Media 5.5 Music 5.6 Sport

6 International relations 7 Education 8 See also 9 References

9.1 Notes

10 Bibliography 11 External links

Geography[edit] Orléans
Orléans
is located in the northern bend of the Loire, which crosses from east to west. Orléans
Orléans
belongs to the vallée de la Loire
Loire
sector between Sully-sur- Loire
Loire
and Chalonnes-sur-Loire, which was in 2000 inscribed by UNESCO
UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site. The capital of Orléanais, 120 kilomètres south-south-west of Paris, is bordered to the north by the Beauce
Beauce
region and the forêt d'Orléans, and the Orléans-la-Source neighbourhood and the Sologne
Sologne
region to the south.

Pont George-V

The Loire
Loire
river - Orléans

Five bridges in the city cross the river :

Pont de l'Europe Pont du Maréchal Joffre (also called pont Neuf) Pont George-V (also called pont Royal), carrying the commune tramway Pont René-Thinat Pont de Vierzon
Vierzon
(rail bridge)

To the north of the Loire
Loire
(on the "rive droite") is to be found a small hill (102 m (335 ft) at the pont Georges-V, 110 m (360 ft) at the place du Martroi) which gently rises to 125 m (410 ft) at la Croix Fleury, at the limits of Fleury-les-Aubrais. Conversely, the south (on the "rive gauche") has a gentle depression to about 95 m (312 ft) above sea level (at Saint-Marceau) between the Loire
Loire
and the Loiret, designated a "zone inondable" (flood-risk zone). At the end of the 1960s, the Orléans-la-Source quarter was created, 12 kilometres (7 mi)to the south of the original commune and separated from it by the Val d' Orléans
Orléans
and the Loiret
Loiret
River (whose source is in the Parc Floral de la Source). This quarter's altitude varies from about 100 to 110 m (330 to 360 ft). The Loire
Loire
and navigation[edit]

The Loire
Loire
bursting its banks at Orléans

In Orléans, the Loire
Loire
is separated by a submerged dike known as the dhuis into the Grande Loire
Loire
to the north, no longer navigable, and the Petite Loire
Loire
to the south. This dike is just one part of a vast system of construction that previously allowed the Loire
Loire
to remain navigable to this point. The Loire
Loire
was formerly an important navigation and trading route. With the increase in size of ocean-going ships, large ships can now navigate the estuary only up to about Nantes. Boats on the river were traditionally flat-bottomed boats, with large but foldable masts so the sails could gather wind from above the river banks, but the masts could be lowered in order to allow the boats to pass under bridges. these vessels are known as gabarre, futreau, and so on, and may be viewed by tourists near pont Royal. The river's irregular flow strongly limits traffic on it, in particular at its ascent, though this can be overcome by boats being given a tow. An Inexplosible-type paddle steamer owned by the mairie was put in place in August 2007, facing Place de la Loire
Loire
and containing a bar. Every two years, the Festival de Loire
Loire
recalls the role played by the river in the commune's history. On the river's north bank, near the town centre, is the Canal d'Orléans, which connects to the Canal du Loing
Canal du Loing
and the Canal de Briare
Briare
at Buges near Montargis. The canal is no longer used along its whole length. Its route within Orléans
Orléans
runs parallel to the river, separated from it by a wall or muret, with a promenade along the top. Its last pound was transformed into an outdoor swimming pool in the 1960s, then filled in. It was reopened in 2007 for the "fêtes de Loire." There are plans to revive use of the canal for recreation and install a pleasure-boat port there. Climate[edit] Orléans
Orléans
experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb), similar to much of central France.

Climate data for Orléans
Orléans
(1981–2010 averages)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.6 (61.9) 21.4 (70.5) 26.5 (79.7) 29.8 (85.6) 32.7 (90.9) 36.9 (98.4) 40.3 (104.5) 39.9 (103.8) 33.8 (92.8) 30.1 (86.2) 21.8 (71.2) 18.6 (65.5) 40.3 (104.5)

Average high °C (°F) 6.7 (44.1) 7.9 (46.2) 12.1 (53.8) 15.2 (59.4) 19.1 (66.4) 22.6 (72.7) 25.4 (77.7) 25.2 (77.4) 21.3 (70.3) 16.4 (61.5) 10.4 (50.7) 7.0 (44.6) 15.8 (60.4)

Average low °C (°F) 1.1 (34) 0.9 (33.6) 3.0 (37.4) 4.8 (40.6) 8.6 (47.5) 11.5 (52.7) 13.3 (55.9) 13.2 (55.8) 10.5 (50.9) 7.9 (46.2) 4.0 (39.2) 1.7 (35.1) 6.7 (44.1)

Record low °C (°F) −19.8 (−3.6) −16.4 (2.5) −12.9 (8.8) −4.5 (23.9) −3.0 (26.6) 0.8 (33.4) 3.7 (38.7) 4.2 (39.6) −0.8 (30.6) −4.5 (23.9) −15.3 (4.5) −16.5 (2.3) −19.8 (−3.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 52.3 (2.059) 44.4 (1.748) 46.4 (1.827) 49.4 (1.945) 64.2 (2.528) 44.8 (1.764) 59.9 (2.358) 50.0 (1.969) 50.5 (1.988) 64.4 (2.535) 58.0 (2.283) 58.2 (2.291) 642.5 (25.295)

Average precipitation days 10.7 9.4 9.8 9.7 10.6 7.6 7.5 6.9 8.2 10.5 10.5 10.7 112.0

Average relative humidity (%) 89 85 79 74 76 74 72 72 77 84 89 90 80.1

Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.4 87.3 140.5 176.2 207.0 216.6 221.3 224.6 179.2 121.1 70.6 56.6 1,767.3

Source #1: Météo France[2][3]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, 1961–1990)[4]

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Orléans Prehistory and Roman Empire[edit]

See also Cenabum, Aureliana Civitas.

Cenabum was a Gallic stronghold, one of the principal towns of the tribe of the Carnutes
Carnutes
where the Druids held their annual assembly. The Carnutes
Carnutes
were massacred and the city was destroyed by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 52 BC,[5] then a new city was built on its ruins under the Roman Empire. The emperor Aurelian
Aurelian
possibly built urbs Aurelianorum, or civitas Aurelianorum, "city of the Aurelii" (cité des Auréliens),[6] which evolved into Orléans.[7] In 442 Flavius Aetius, the Roman commander in Gaul, requested Goar, head of the Iranian tribe of Alans
Alans
in the region to come to Orleans and control the rebellious natives and the Visigoths. Accompanying the Vandals, the Alans
Alans
crossed the Loire
Loire
in 408. One of their groups, under Goar, joined the Roman forces of Flavius Aetius
Flavius Aetius
to fight Attila when he invaded Gaul in 451, taking part in the Battle of Châlons under their king Sangiban. Goar established his capital in Orléans. His successors later took possession of the estates in the region between Orléans
Orléans
and Paris. Installed in Orléans
Orléans
and along the Loire, they were unruly (killing the town's senators when they felt they had been paid too slowly or too little) and resented by the local inhabitants. Many inhabitants around the present city have names bearing witness to the Alan presence – Allaines. Also many places in the region bear names of Alan origin.[8] Early Middle Ages[edit] In the Merovingian
Merovingian
era, the city was capital of the Kingdom of Orléans
Orléans
following Clovis I's division of the kingdom, then under the Capetians it became the capital of a county then duchy held in appanage by the house of Valois-Orléans. The Valois- Orléans
Orléans
family later acceded to the throne of France
France
via Louis XII
Louis XII
then Francis I. In 1108, one of the few consecrations of a French monarch to occur outside of Reims
Reims
occurred at Orléans, when Louis VI of France
France
was consecrated in Orléans cathedral
Orléans cathedral
by Daimbert, archbishop of Sens. High Middle Ages[edit]

Orléans
Orléans
in September 1428, the time of the Siege of Orléans.

The city was always a strategic point on the Loire, for it was sited at the river's most northerly point, and thus its closest point to Paris. There were few bridges over the dangerous river Loire, but Orléans
Orléans
had one of them, and so became – with Rouen
Rouen
and Paris
Paris
– one of medieval France's three richest cities.

15th-century depiction of the French troops attacking an English fort at the siege of Orléans

On the south bank the "châtelet des Tourelles" protected access to the bridge. This was the site of the battle on 8 May 1429 which allowed Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
to enter and lift the siege of the Plantagenets during the Hundred Years' War, with the help of the royal generals Dunois and Florent d'Illiers. The city's inhabitants have continued to remain faithful and grateful to her to this day, calling her "la pucelle d'Orléans" (the maid of Orléans), offering her a middle-class house in the city, and contributing to her ransom when she was taken prisoner.

Statue of Joan of Arc, Place du Martroi

1453 to 1699[edit]

Aurelia Franciae civitas ad Ligeri flu. sita (1581)

The Renaissance
Renaissance
Hôtel Groslot

Once the Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
was over, the city recovered its former prosperity. The bridge brought in tolls and taxes, as did the merchants passing through the city. King Louis XI
Louis XI
also greatly contributed to its prosperity, revitalising agriculture in the surrounding area (particularly the exceptionally fertile land around Beauce) and relaunching saffron farming at Pithiviers. Later, during the Renaissance, the city benefited from its becoming fashionable for rich châtelains to travel along the Loire
Loire
valley (a fashion begun by the king himself, whose royal domains included the nearby châteaus at Chambord, Amboise, Blois, and Chenonceau). The University of Orléans
University of Orléans
also contributed to the city's prestige. Specializing in law, it was highly regarded throughout Europe. John Calvin was received and accommodated there (and wrote part of his reforming theses during his stay), and in return Henry VIII of England (who had drawn on Calvin's work in his separation from Rome) offered to fund a scholarship at the university. Many other Protestants were sheltered by the city. Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, better known by his pseudonym Molière, also studied law at the University, but was expelled for attending a carnival contrary to university rules. From 13 December 1560 to 31 January 1561, the French States-General after the death of Francis II of France, the eldest son of Catherine de Médicis and Henry II. He died in the Hôtel Groslot in Orléans, with his queen Mary at his side. The cathedral was rebuilt several times. The present structure had its first stone laid by Henry IV, and work on it took a century. It thus is a mix of late Renaissance
Renaissance
and early Louis XIV styles, and one of the last cathedrals to be built in France. 1700–1900[edit] When France
France
colonised America, the territory it conquered was immense, including the whole Mississippi River
Mississippi River
(whose first European name was the River Colbert), from its mouth to its source at the borders of Canada. Its capital was named la Nouvelle- Orléans
Orléans
in honour of Louis XV's regent, the duke of Orléans, and was settled with French inhabitants against the threat from British troops to the north-east. The Dukes of Orléans
Orléans
hardly ever visited their city since, as brothers or cousins of the king, they took such a major role in court life that they could hardly ever leave. The duchy of Orléans
Orléans
was the largest of the French duchies, starting at Arpajon, continuing to Chartres, Vendôme, Blois, Vierzon, and Montargis. The duke's son bore the title duke of Chartres. Inheritances from great families and marriage alliances allowed them to accumulate huge wealth, and one of them, Philippe Égalité, is sometimes said to have been the richest man in the world at the time. His son, Louis-Philippe I, inherited the Penthièvre and Condé family fortunes. 1852 saw the creation of the Compagnies ferroviaires Paris-Orléans and its famous gare d'Orsay in Paris. In the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
of 1870, the city again became strategically important thanks to its geographical position, and was occupied by the Prussians on 13 October that year. The armée de la Loire
Loire
was formed under the orders of General d'Aurelle de Paladines and based itself not far from Orléans at Beauce. 1900 to present[edit]

US Army medics in Orléans, 1944

During the Second World War, the German army made the Orléans Fleury-les-Aubrais
Fleury-les-Aubrais
railway station one of their central logistical rail hubs. The Pont Georges V was renamed "pont des Tourelles".[9] A transit camp for deportees was built at Beaune-la-Rolande. During the Liberation, the American Air Force heavily bombed the city and the train station, causing much damage. The city was one of the first to be rebuilt after the war: the reconstruction plan and city improvement initiated by Jean Kérisel and Jean Royer was adopted as early as 1943, and work began as early as the start of 1945. This reconstruction in part identically reproduced what had been lost, such as Royale and its arcades, but also used innovative prefabrication techniques, such as îlot 4 under the direction of the architect Pol Abraham.[10] The big city of former times is today an average-sized city of 250,000 inhabitants. It is still using its strategically central position less than an hour from the French capital to attract businesses interested in reducing transport costs. Heraldry[edit] According to Victor Adolphe Malte-Brun
Victor Adolphe Malte-Brun
in La France
France
Illustrée, 1882, Orléans's arms are "gules, three caillous in cœurs de lys argent, and on a chief azure, three fleurs de lys Or." Charle Grandmaison, in the Dictionnaire Héraldique of 1861, states that it is "Or, with three hearts in gules", without the chief of France. Sometimes, in faulty designs, we find it described "gules, three fleurs de lys argent, and on a chief azure three fleurs de lys Or."[11] It is to be noted that the design shown left shows 3 "cœurs de lys" (heart of a lily), seen from above. This "cœurs de lys" is therefore not a true lily, which would have 6 tepals, but a hypothetical aerial view of a symbolic lily. It has probably also been stylised more and more in heraldry, as in the heart in a pack of cards. Certain authors solve the problem by calling this symbol a "tiercefeuille", defined as a stemless clover leaf, with one leaf at the top and two below, thus making this coat of arms "gules, with three reversed tiercefeuilles in argent, etc". Motto[edit] "Hoc vernant lilia corde" (granted by Louis XII, then duke of Orléans), meaning "It is by this heart that lilies flourish" or "This heart makes lilies flourish", referring to the fleur de lys, symbol of the French royal family. Transport[edit]

Orléans
Orléans
tram

Public transport[edit] TAO manages buses and tram lines in Orléans. The first tram line was inaugurated 20 November 2000. The second was inaugurated 30 June 2012[12] 2 SNCF stations : Fleury les Aubrais and Orléans
Orléans
Centre Roads and highway[edit] Orléans
Orléans
is an autoroute intersection : the A10 (linking Paris
Paris
to Bordeaux) links to the commune outskirts, and A71 (whose bridge over the Loire
Loire
is outside the commune limits) begins here, heading for the Mediterranean via Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(where it becomes the A75).

A10 Highway From Paris
Paris
to Bordeaux A71 Highway From Orléans
Orléans
to Bourges A19 Highway From Sens
Sens
to Artenay National Road 20 From Paris
Paris
to Spain

Railway[edit] Orléans
Orléans
is served by two main railway stations: the central Gare d' Orléans
Orléans
and the Gare des Aubrais-Orléans, in the northern suburbs. Most long-distance trains call only at the Les Aubrais-Orléans station, which offers connections to Paris, Lille, Tours, Brive-la-Gaillarde, Nevers, and several regional destinations. People[edit] Orléans
Orléans
is the birthplace of:

Sophie Adriansen (1982–), French writer Patrick Barul, football player Joelly Belleka, basketball player Raoul Blanchard (1877–1965), geographer Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery
Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery
(1797-1849), anatomist Philippe Chanlot, football player Marion Cotillard, actress, not born in Orléans, but she grew up in this town Gilles Delouche (1948), linguist Étienne Dolet
Étienne Dolet
(1509–1546), scholar and printer Jean-Louis Ferrary (1948–), historian Albert Gombault
Albert Gombault
(1844-1904), neurologist Jacques Guillemeau
Jacques Guillemeau
(1550–1613), physician Gaston d'Illiers
Gaston d'Illiers
(1876–1932), sculptor Isaac Jogues
Isaac Jogues
(1607–1646), Jesuit missionary Stanislas Julien
Stanislas Julien
(1797–1873), orientalist Gustave Lanson
Gustave Lanson
(1857–1934), historian Anatole Loquin (1834–1903), writer and musicologist Yven Moyo, football player Charles Péguy
Charles Péguy
(1873–1914), poet and essayist Antoine Petit
Antoine Petit
(1722-1794), physician Lamine Sambe, basketball player Yacine Sene, basketball player Jean Zay
Jean Zay
(1904–1944), jurist and politician

Culture[edit] Historical and secular landmarks[edit]

Former City Hall and Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
statue

16th/17th buildings found rue de l'Escure, in front of the Hôtel Groslot

15th century city hall tower

View from the public park, rue d'Alsace-Lorraine

View of the Cathedral and the Hotel Groslot, from the Hotel public parc

View from the public park of the palace

The Gallo-Roman town-wall on the north side of the cathedral (4th century AD) and along the rue de la Tour-Neuve The Hôtel Groslot, built between 1550 and 1555 for Jacques Groslot, "bailli d'Orléans" by Jacques Ier Androuet du Cerceau. King François II of France
France
died there in 1560. Kings Charles IX, Henri III of France and Henri IV of France
France
stayed there. The "Hôtel" was restored in 1850. The building became the town Hall of Orléans
Orléans
in 1790 (weddings are still celebrated inside). The hôtel de la Vieille Intendance (early 15th century) (otherwise named hôtel Brachet, formerly « The King's house »), real gothic-renaissance style château made of bricks.[13] Nowadays housing the Administrative Court of Orléans. One can admire its frontage from the entrance in the rue de la Bretonnerie. Yet, the building - which sheltered the highest figures of the kingtom passing by the city, and maybe some kings themselves (Henri IV, Louis XIII, Louis XIV of France) - can easily be observed from its gardens, opened to the public (entrance rue d'Alsace-Lorraine). The hôtel de la Motte-Sanguin (18th century) and its gardens, manor built at the behest of Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Duke of Orléans
(1747–1793), cousin of the King Louis XVI. He was surnamed « Philippe Égalité » / "equality" referring to his support to the 1789 revolutionaries. Nicknamed "the richest man on earth" he voted in favor of the death penalty against his own cousin the king Louis XVI. This is a classic style princely residence (and even royal, since Philippe Égalité's heir accessed the throne of France
France
under the name of Louis-Philippe Ier). It's part of a public park opened to the public (via the Solférino street). The school of artillery, next to the Hôtel de la Motte-Sanguin which it is often confused with, formerly housing a military school, it was built in the 19th century near the Loire
Loire
river.[14] Remains of the University of Orléans
University of Orléans
(a 15th-century building housing the thesis room), founded in 1306 by pope Clement V, in which, among many other great historical figures, the Protestant John Calvin studied and taught. The University was so famous that it attracted students from all over Europe, particularly Germany. The city of Orléans
Orléans
is one of the cradles of Protestantism. The House of Louis XI
Louis XI
(end of the 15th century), on Saint-Aignan square. Built at the behest of the king, who particularly revered Saint Aignan.[15] The House of Joan of Arc, where she stayed during the Siege of Orléans
Orléans
(this is actually an approximate reconstitution, the original building being bombed in 1940 during the Battle of France) Place du Martroi, heart of the city, with the equestrian statue of Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
at its center, made by Denis Foyatier. This statue was damaged during the Second World War, then repaired by Paul Belmondo, father of the famous 1950s to 1980s French actor. Duke of Orléans' Chancellerie (XVIIIe), located next to the Place du Matroi, also bombed during the Second world war, only the frontage resisted. The Bannier gate-house, discovered in 1986 under the statue of Joan of Arc (Place du Martroi). It was built in the 14th century. It can be seen through a window in the subterranean car-park under the square, or visited under certain conditions. The rue de Bourgogne and surrounding streets, Orléans' main street since the Antiquity, it's the former Roman decumanus, crossing the city from east to west. Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
entered the city in 1429 by the "Bourgogne" gatehouse situated at its Easter end. Until today it is still giving access to the "Prefecture", where the "Prefet" (officer who represents the French State in the Region) lives, many pubs, night clubs, restaurants and shops such as the "Galeries Lafayette". It is more than a mile long. One can admire many medieval houses on its sides. The Tour Blanche / White Tower, it is one of the only medieval defensive towers remaining in the city (still in use at the time of the Siege of Orléans). It nowadays houses city's archeological department. The Docks, (Port of Orléans) once the most important inland port of France
France
(18th century). While boats could not sail on the river Seine because of the windings, they could sail to Orléans
Orléans
on the Loire river with the wind in their back. Then the merchandises where brought to Paris
Paris
by road ways. Wine, and sugar from the colonies, were shipped to Orléans
Orléans
where they were stored and refined. Vinegar is still a city' speciality due to the lapsing of wine stocks during the shipment. One can admire the old pavement of the docks (18th and 19th centuries) on the north bank of the river in the city and on the island in the middle, that was used to channel the water The Hôpital Madeleine (former hospital), built by King Louis XIV (18th century) and his successors (notably an important part of the 18th century). Saint-Charles chapel, located within the gounds of the Madeleine Hospital, it was built in 1713 by Jacques V Gabriel, one of Louis XIV architects. The Hôtel Cabu, otherwise named house of Diane de Poitiers, built at the behest of Philippe Cabu, barrister, in 1547, famous architect Jacques Ier Androuet du Cerceau providing the plans. The Hôtel Hatte, 16th century. Today's Charles-Péguy Center. The Hôtel Toutin, 16th century The Hôtel Pommeret d'Orléans, 16th century The Hôtel Ducerceau, 16th century The maison de la coquille, 16th century The Hôtel des Créneaux, former city hall, flanked by its bell tower (15th century). It nowadays houses the city's school of music. This is a magnificent piece of late gothic secular architecture (15th century) that reminds the famous and much more recent Parisian city hall. The House of Jean Dalibert, 16th century The Study of Jacques Bouchet (16th century), which can be admired from the public square "Jacques Bouchet" The mansions, rue d'Escure (17th and 18th centuries) The "Préfecture" : former Benedictine monastery, built in 1670 and housing the "Préfecture du Loiret" since 1800. The Pont de l'Europe, designed by Santiago Calatrava, is an inclined bow-string ark bridge particularly original. The Pont Royal / George V Royal bridge, the oldest bridge of the city. Built between 1751 and 1760, at the request of Daniel-Charles Trudaine, administrator and civil engineer. It was renamed in honour of King George V
King George V
after the World War II
World War II
out of respect of Britain's role in the war. The Pont des Tourelles, built in 1140 and demolished in 1760, was the first stone-made bridge of Orléans. When the river Loire
Loire
is low, one can see remains of it in the water The Palais épiscopal d'Orléans, former Bishop's Palace. It was built between 1635 and 1641. Napoléon stayed there. It is nowadays housing the international center for research, part of University of Orléans. The courthouse (18th to 20th centuries) The "salle de l'Institut", located on the "place Sainte Croix", is a small concert hall which can be converted in a ball room. Its acoustincs is remarkable Mansions, rue de la Bretonnerie. This street concentrates many particular mansions, of all styles and ages (15th to 20th centuries). High society members, politicians, barristers, doctors... continue to live there. Mansions, rue d'Alsace-Lorraine, 19th century bourgeoisie style houses. Statue La Baigneuse by Paul Belmondo, aside the rue Royale (1955). Statue of Calvin, by Daniel Leclercq, facing the Calvinist temple (2009).[16] The FRAC Centre building named "Les turbulences", an advanced piece of architecture covered with L.E.Ds.

• Many historical houses and mansions (hundreds) can still be admired in the city center which is one of the largest in France
France
due to the great importance of the city until the 20th century. The historical center dating back to the 15th century extends far beyond the limits of the pedestrian sector that has been extensively restored in the past few years. In fact it corresponds to the portion of the modern city which is enclosed by the Boulevards. Many historical monuments remain in the non pedestrian sectors of the city (for example, at rue Notre-Dame-de-Recouvrance, at rue des Carmes, at rue de la Bretonnerie, at Square Saint-Aignan ...) Museums[edit] Museums in Orléans:[17]

Musée des Beaux-Arts d'Orléans Charles Peguy
Charles Peguy
Centre Joan of Arc's House Fine Arts Museum City Historical and Archeological Museum Natural Science Museum

Parks[edit] Parks in Orléans:[18]

Parc Floral de la Source Motte Sanguin garden Charpenterie garden Botanic garden Anjorrant park Charbonnière park Moins Roux park Pasteur park

Media[edit]

TV network: Orléans
Orléans
TV Newspaper: La République du Centre (the Republic of the Centre)

Music[edit]

Burning Heads

Sport[edit]

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Orléans
Orléans
has a basketball team: Orléans
Orléans
Loiret
Loiret
Basket which is in the French first division. The club won the "Coupe de France" of basketball, its first major trophy, in the season 2009 - 2010. Orléans
Orléans
also has a football club, the US Orléans, which plays in Ligue 2. The city also has very well known clubs in karate, fencing and judo. In 2012, Orléans
Orléans
hosted a stage finish of Paris–Nice. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Orléans
Orléans
is twinned with:

Dundee,UK Scotland[19][20] Treviso, Italy Münster, Germany[21] Kristiansand, Norway Wichita, United States Tarragona, Spain

Saint-Flour, France Utsunomiya, Japan Lugoj, Romania Parakou, Benin Perm, Russia[22]

It has a partnership with:

Kraków
Kraków
in Poland[23]

Education[edit] The University campus is in the La Source area in southern part of the commune. See also[edit]

Council of Orléans House of Orléans Orléanist Roman Catholic Diocese of Orléans
Roman Catholic Diocese of Orléans
Bishopric of Orléans

References[edit]

^ a b "Orléans". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Orléans" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 30, 2015.  ^ "Climat Centre-Val de Loire" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 30, 2015.  ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Orléans
Orléans
- Bricy
Bricy
(45) - altitude 125m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved December 30, 2015.  ^ "C. Julius Caesar, Gallic War, Book 7, chapter 28". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-16.  ^ Merceron, Jacques (2006). La vieille carcas de Carcassonne: florilège de l'humour et de l'imaginaire des noms de lieux en France : légendes, jeux et calembours toponymiques des noms de lieux en France : précédé d'un essai sur le sujet (in French). Seuil. p. 447.  ^ For an exact etymology, see Cenabum, Aurelianis, Orléans
Orléans
de Jacques Debal (Coll. Galliae civitates, Lyon, PUL, 1996) ^ marres.education. Accessed January 2016. ^ World-wide current events of 16 May 1941, available on the site of the INA (direct link). ^ Joseph Abram, L'architecture moderne en France, du chaos à la croissance, tome 2, éd. Picard, 1999, pp. 28 et 37–38 ^ Grand Larousse encyclopédique in 10 volumes, 163 ^ fr:Réseau TAO#Tramway ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 April 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 April 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2014.  ^ J. DEBAL, Orléans : Une Ville, Une Histoire ^ Les Français érigent une statue de Calvin Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., sur le site Bonnenouvelle.ch. ^ Patrice Gabin (13 October 2007). " Orléans
Orléans
tourisme : musées à Orléans
Orléans
( Orléans
Orléans
tourism: Museums in Orléans)". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2011.  ^ Patrice Gabin (13 October 2007). "Park and Gardens in Orléans". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2011.  ^ "British towns twinned with French towns [via WaybackMachine.com]". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-20.  ^ Chronicle of The City's Office Bearers, Chambers, Regalia, Castles & Twin Cities; City promotes Emirates connection ^ "Portrait of Münster: Die Partnerstädte". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2013-08-07.  ^ Embassy of France
France
in Moscow – sister cities Archived 12 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Kraków
Kraków
- Miasta Partnerskie" [ Kraków
Kraków
-Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków
Kraków
(in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 

Notes[edit]

A Chronicle of The City's Office Bearers, Chambers, Regalia, Castles & Twin Cities (PDF), Dundee
Dundee
City Council, retrieved 25 April 2011 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Orléans External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Orléans.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Orléans.

(in French) Orléans
Orléans
commune official web site France
France
on WorldStatesmen (in French) Tourism Office (in French) official web site of Orléans  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Diocese of Orléans". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. 

v t e

Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Prefectures of the regions of France

Metropolitan France

Lyon
Lyon
(Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Dijon
Dijon
(Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) Rennes
Rennes
(Brittany) Orléans
Orléans
(Centre-Val de Loire) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corsica) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Grand Est) Lille
Lille
(Hauts-de-France) Paris
Paris
(Île-de-France) Rouen
Rouen
(Normandy) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Nouvelle-Aquitaine) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Occitanie) Nantes
Nantes
(Pays de la Loire) Marseille
Marseille
(Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur)

Overseas regions

Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte) Saint-Denis (Réunion)

v t e

Communes of the Loiret
Loiret
department

Adon Aillant-sur-Milleron Amilly Andonville Ardon Artenay Aschères-le-Marché Ascoux Attray Audeville Augerville-la-Rivière Aulnay-la-Rivière Autruy-sur-Juine Autry-le-Châtel Auvilliers-en-Gâtinais Auxy Baccon Le Bardon Barville-en-Gâtinais Batilly-en-Gâtinais Batilly-en-Puisaye Baule Bazoches-les-Gallerandes Bazoches-sur-le-Betz Beauchamps-sur-Huillard Beaugency Beaulieu-sur-Loire Beaune-la-Rolande Bellegarde Le Bignon-Mirabeau Boësses Boigny-sur-Bionne Boiscommun Boismorand Boisseaux Bondaroy Bonnée Bonny-sur-Loire Bordeaux-en-Gâtinais Les Bordes Bou Bougy-lez-Neuville Bouilly-en-Gâtinais Boulay-les-Barres Bouzonville-aux-Bois Bouzy-la-Forêt Boynes Bray-Saint Aignan Breteau Briare Briarres-sur-Essonne Bricy Bromeilles Bucy-le-Roi Bucy-Saint-Liphard La Bussière Cepoy Cercottes Cerdon Cernoy-en-Berry Césarville-Dossainville Chailly-en-Gâtinais Chaingy Châlette-sur-Loing Chambon-la-Forêt Champoulet Chanteau Chantecoq La Chapelle-Onzerain La Chapelle-Saint-Mesmin La Chapelle-Saint-Sépulcre La Chapelle-sur-Aveyron Chapelon Le Charme Charmont-en-Beauce Charsonville Châteauneuf-sur-Loire Château-Renard Châtenoy Châtillon-Coligny Châtillon-le-Roi Châtillon-sur-Loire Chaussy Chécy Chevannes Chevillon-sur-Huillard Chevilly Chevry-sous-le-Bignon Chilleurs-aux-Bois Les Choux Chuelles Cléry-Saint-André Coinces Combleux Combreux Conflans-sur-Loing Corbeilles Corquilleroy Cortrat Coudroy Coullons Coulmiers Courcelles Courcy-aux-Loges La Cour-Marigny Courtemaux Courtempierre Courtenay Cravant Crottes-en-Pithiverais Dadonville Dammarie-en-Puisaye Dammarie-sur-Loing Dampierre-en-Burly Darvoy Desmonts Dimancheville Donnery Dordives Douchy-Montcorbon Dry Échilleuses Égry Engenville Épieds-en-Beauce Erceville Ervauville Escrennes Escrignelles Estouy Faverelles Fay-aux-Loges Feins-en-Gâtinais Férolles Ferrières-en-Gâtinais La Ferté-Saint-Aubin Fleury-les-Aubrais Fontenay-sur-Loing Foucherolles Fréville-du-Gâtinais Gaubertin Gémigny Germigny-des-Prés Gidy Gien Girolles Givraines Gondreville Grangermont Greneville-en-Beauce Griselles Guigneville Guilly Gy-les-Nonains Huêtre Huisseau-sur-Mauves Ingrannes Ingré Intville-la-Guétard Isdes Jargeau Jouy-en-Pithiverais Jouy-le-Potier Juranville Laas Ladon Lailly-en-Val Langesse Léouville Ligny-le-Ribault Lion-en-Beauce Lion-en-Sullias Lombreuil Lorcy Lorris Loury Louzouer Le Malesherbois Marcilly-en-Villette Mardié Mareau-aux-Bois Mareau-aux-Prés Marigny-les-Usages Marsainvilliers Melleroy Ménestreau-en-Villette Mérinville Messas Meung-sur-Loire Mézières-en-Gâtinais Mézières-lez-Cléry Mignères Mignerette Montargis Montbarrois Montbouy Montcresson Montereau Montigny Montliard Mormant-sur-Vernisson Morville-en-Beauce Le Moulinet-sur-Solin Moulon Nancray-sur-Rimarde Nargis Nesploy Neuville-aux-Bois La Neuville-sur-Essonne Neuvy-en-Sullias Nevoy Nibelle Nogent-sur-Vernisson Noyers Oison Olivet Ondreville-sur-Essonne Orléans Ormes Orville Ousson-sur-Loire Oussoy-en-Gâtinais Outarville Ouvrouer-les-Champs Ouzouer-des-Champs Ouzouer-sous-Bellegarde Ouzouer-sur-Loire Ouzouer-sur-Trézée Pannecières Pannes Patay Paucourt Pers-en-Gâtinais Pierrefitte-ès-Bois Pithiviers Pithiviers-le-Vieil Poilly-lez-Gien Préfontaines Presnoy Pressigny-les-Pins Puiseaux Quiers-sur-Bézonde Ramoulu Rebréchien Rozoy-le-Vieil Rouvray-Sainte-Croix Rouvres-Saint-Jean Rozières-en-Beauce Ruan Saint-Aignan-le-Jaillard Saint-Ay Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire Saint-Brisson-sur-Loire Saint-Cyr-en-Val Saint-Denis-de-l'Hôtel Saint-Denis-en-Val Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Saint-Firmin-des-Bois Saint-Firmin-sur-Loire Saint-Florent Saint-Germain-des-Prés Saint-Gondon Saint-Hilaire-les-Andrésis Saint-Hilaire-Saint-Mesmin Saint-Hilaire-sur-Puiseaux Saint-Jean-de-Braye Saint-Jean-de-la-Ruelle Saint-Jean-le-Blanc Saint-Loup-de-Gonois Saint-Loup-des-Vignes Saint-Lyé-la-Forêt Saint-Martin-d'Abbat Saint-Martin-sur-Ocre Saint-Maurice-sur-Aveyron Saint-Maurice-sur-Fessard Saint-Michel Saint-Péravy-la-Colombe Saint-Père-sur-Loire Saint-Pryvé-Saint-Mesmin Saint-Sigismond Sandillon Santeau Saran Sceaux-du-Gâtinais Seichebrières La Selle-en-Hermoy La Selle-sur-le-Bied Semoy Sennely Sermaises Sigloy Solterre Sougy Sully-la-Chapelle Sully-sur-Loire Sury-aux-Bois Tavers Thignonville Thimory Thorailles Thou Tigy Tivernon Tournoisis Traînou Treilles-en-Gâtinais Triguères Trinay Vannes-sur-Cosson Varennes-Changy Vennecy Vieilles-Maisons-sur-Joudry Vienne-en-Val Viglain Villamblain Villemandeur Villemoutiers Villemurlin Villeneuve-sur-Conie Villereau Villevoques Villorceau Vimory Vitry-aux-Loges Vrigny Yèvre-la-Ville

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 139548210 LCCN: n80010348 GND: 4116785-5 BNF:

.