1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers
> 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river
2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes
(e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Orléans (UK: /ɔːrˈliːənz/; French
pronunciation: [ɔʁleɑ̃]) is a city in north-central
France, about 111 kilometres (69 mi) southwest of Paris. It is
the capital of the
Loiret department and of the Centre-Val de Loire
Orléans is located on the
Loire River where the river curves south
towards the Massif Central.
New Orleans (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans), in Louisiana, United
States, is named for the city.
Loire and navigation
2.1 Prehistory and Roman Empire
2.2 Early Middle Ages
2.3 High Middle Ages
2.4 1453 to 1699
2.6 1900 to present
3.1 Public transport
3.2 Roads and highway
5.1 Historical and secular landmarks
6 International relations
8 See also
11 External links
Orléans is located in the northern bend of the Loire, which crosses
from east to west.
Orléans belongs to the vallée de la
Loire and Chalonnes-sur-Loire, which was in 2000
UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The capital of
Orléanais, 120 kilomètres south-south-west of Paris, is bordered to
the north by the
Beauce region and the forêt d'Orléans, and the
Orléans-la-Source neighbourhood and the
Sologne region to the south.
Loire river - Orléans
Five bridges in the city cross the river :
Pont de l'Europe
Pont du Maréchal Joffre (also called pont Neuf)
Pont George-V (also called pont Royal), carrying the commune tramway
Vierzon (rail bridge)
To the north of the
Loire (on the "rive droite") is to be found a
small hill (102 m (335 ft) at the pont Georges-V, 110 m
(360 ft) at the place du Martroi) which gently rises to
125 m (410 ft) at la Croix Fleury, at the limits of
Conversely, the south (on the "rive gauche") has a gentle depression
to about 95 m (312 ft) above sea level (at Saint-Marceau)
Loire and the Loiret, designated a "zone inondable"
At the end of the 1960s, the Orléans-la-Source quarter was created,
12 kilometres (7 mi)to the south of the original commune and
separated from it by the Val d'
Orléans and the
Loiret River (whose
source is in the Parc Floral de la Source). This quarter's altitude
varies from about 100 to 110 m (330 to 360 ft).
Loire and navigation
Loire bursting its banks at Orléans
In Orléans, the
Loire is separated by a submerged dike known as the
dhuis into the Grande
Loire to the north, no longer navigable, and the
Loire to the south. This dike is just one part of a vast system
of construction that previously allowed the
Loire to remain navigable
to this point.
Loire was formerly an important navigation and trading route. With
the increase in size of ocean-going ships, large ships can now
navigate the estuary only up to about Nantes.
Boats on the river were traditionally flat-bottomed boats, with large
but foldable masts so the sails could gather wind from above the river
banks, but the masts could be lowered in order to allow the boats to
pass under bridges. these vessels are known as gabarre, futreau, and
so on, and may be viewed by tourists near pont Royal.
The river's irregular flow strongly limits traffic on it, in
particular at its ascent, though this can be overcome by boats being
given a tow.
An Inexplosible-type paddle steamer owned by the mairie was put in
place in August 2007, facing Place de la
Loire and containing a bar.
Every two years, the Festival de
Loire recalls the role played by the
river in the commune's history.
On the river's north bank, near the town centre, is the Canal
d'Orléans, which connects to the
Canal du Loing
Canal du Loing and the Canal de
Buges near Montargis. The canal is no longer used along its
whole length. Its route within
Orléans runs parallel to the river,
separated from it by a wall or muret, with a promenade along the top.
Its last pound was transformed into an outdoor swimming pool in the
1960s, then filled in. It was reopened in 2007 for the "fêtes de
Loire." There are plans to revive use of the canal for recreation and
install a pleasure-boat port there.
Orléans experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate
classification Cfb), similar to much of central France.
Climate data for
Orléans (1981–2010 averages)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Météo France
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, 1961–1990)
See also: Timeline of Orléans
Prehistory and Roman Empire
See also Cenabum, Aureliana Civitas.
Cenabum was a Gallic stronghold, one of the principal towns of the
tribe of the
Carnutes where the Druids held their annual assembly. The
Carnutes were massacred and the city was destroyed by
Julius Caesar in
52 BC, then a new city was built on its ruins under the Roman
Empire. The emperor
Aurelian possibly built urbs Aurelianorum, or
civitas Aurelianorum, "city of the Aurelii" (cité des Auréliens),
which evolved into Orléans.
In 442 Flavius Aetius, the Roman commander in Gaul, requested Goar,
head of the Iranian tribe of
Alans in the region to come to Orleans
and control the rebellious natives and the Visigoths. Accompanying the
Alans crossed the
Loire in 408. One of their groups,
under Goar, joined the Roman forces of
Flavius Aetius to fight Attila
when he invaded Gaul in 451, taking part in the Battle of Châlons
under their king Sangiban.
Goar established his capital in Orléans.
His successors later took possession of the estates in the region
Orléans and Paris. Installed in
Orléans and along the Loire,
they were unruly (killing the town's senators when they felt they had
been paid too slowly or too little) and resented by the local
inhabitants. Many inhabitants around the present city have names
bearing witness to the Alan presence – Allaines. Also many places in
the region bear names of Alan origin.
Early Middle Ages
Merovingian era, the city was capital of the Kingdom of
Orléans following Clovis I's division of the kingdom, then under the
Capetians it became the capital of a county then duchy held in
appanage by the house of Valois-Orléans. The Valois-
later acceded to the throne of
Louis XII then Francis I. In
1108, one of the few consecrations of a French monarch to occur
Reims occurred at Orléans, when Louis VI of
Orléans cathedral by Daimbert, archbishop of Sens.
High Middle Ages
Orléans in September 1428, the time of the Siege of Orléans.
The city was always a strategic point on the Loire, for it was sited
at the river's most northerly point, and thus its closest point to
Paris. There were few bridges over the dangerous river Loire, but
Orléans had one of them, and so became – with
one of medieval France's three richest cities.
15th-century depiction of the French troops attacking an English fort
at the siege of Orléans
On the south bank the "châtelet des Tourelles" protected access to
the bridge. This was the site of the battle on 8 May 1429 which
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc to enter and lift the siege of the Plantagenets
during the Hundred Years' War, with the help of the royal generals
Dunois and Florent d'Illiers. The city's inhabitants have continued to
remain faithful and grateful to her to this day, calling her "la
pucelle d'Orléans" (the maid of Orléans), offering her a
middle-class house in the city, and contributing to her ransom when
she was taken prisoner.
Statue of Joan of Arc, Place du Martroi
1453 to 1699
Aurelia Franciae civitas ad Ligeri flu. sita (1581)
Renaissance Hôtel Groslot
Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War was over, the city recovered its former
prosperity. The bridge brought in tolls and taxes, as did the
merchants passing through the city. King
Louis XI also greatly
contributed to its prosperity, revitalising agriculture in the
surrounding area (particularly the exceptionally fertile land around
Beauce) and relaunching saffron farming at Pithiviers. Later, during
the Renaissance, the city benefited from its becoming fashionable for
rich châtelains to travel along the
Loire valley (a fashion begun by
the king himself, whose royal domains included the nearby châteaus at
Chambord, Amboise, Blois, and Chenonceau).
University of Orléans
University of Orléans also contributed to the city's prestige.
Specializing in law, it was highly regarded throughout Europe. John
Calvin was received and accommodated there (and wrote part of his
reforming theses during his stay), and in return Henry VIII of England
(who had drawn on Calvin's work in his separation from Rome) offered
to fund a scholarship at the university. Many other Protestants were
sheltered by the city. Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, better known by his
pseudonym Molière, also studied law at the University, but was
expelled for attending a carnival contrary to university rules.
From 13 December 1560 to 31 January 1561, the French States-General
after the death of Francis II of France, the eldest son of Catherine
de Médicis and Henry II. He died in the Hôtel Groslot in Orléans,
with his queen Mary at his side.
The cathedral was rebuilt several times. The present structure had its
first stone laid by Henry IV, and work on it took a century. It thus
is a mix of late
Renaissance and early Louis XIV styles, and one of
the last cathedrals to be built in France.
France colonised America, the territory it conquered was immense,
including the whole
Mississippi River (whose first European name was
the River Colbert), from its mouth to its source at the borders of
Canada. Its capital was named la Nouvelle-
Orléans in honour of Louis
XV's regent, the duke of Orléans, and was settled with French
inhabitants against the threat from British troops to the north-east.
The Dukes of
Orléans hardly ever visited their city since, as
brothers or cousins of the king, they took such a major role in court
life that they could hardly ever leave. The duchy of
Orléans was the
largest of the French duchies, starting at Arpajon, continuing to
Chartres, Vendôme, Blois, Vierzon, and Montargis. The duke's son bore
the title duke of Chartres. Inheritances from great families and
marriage alliances allowed them to accumulate huge wealth, and one of
them, Philippe Égalité, is sometimes said to have been the richest
man in the world at the time. His son, Louis-Philippe I, inherited the
Penthièvre and Condé family fortunes.
1852 saw the creation of the Compagnies ferroviaires Paris-Orléans
and its famous gare d'Orsay in Paris. In the
Franco-Prussian War of
1870, the city again became strategically important thanks to its
geographical position, and was occupied by the Prussians on 13 October
that year. The armée de la
Loire was formed under the orders of
General d'Aurelle de Paladines and based itself not far from Orléans
1900 to present
US Army medics in Orléans, 1944
During the Second World War, the German army made the Orléans
Fleury-les-Aubrais railway station one of their central logistical
rail hubs. The Pont Georges V was renamed "pont des Tourelles". A
transit camp for deportees was built at Beaune-la-Rolande. During the
Liberation, the American Air Force heavily bombed the city and the
train station, causing much damage. The city was one of the first to
be rebuilt after the war: the reconstruction plan and city improvement
initiated by Jean Kérisel and Jean Royer was adopted as early as
1943, and work began as early as the start of 1945. This
reconstruction in part identically reproduced what had been lost, such
as Royale and its arcades, but also used innovative prefabrication
techniques, such as îlot 4 under the direction of the architect Pol
The big city of former times is today an average-sized city of 250,000
inhabitants. It is still using its strategically central position less
than an hour from the French capital to attract businesses interested
in reducing transport costs.
Victor Adolphe Malte-Brun
Victor Adolphe Malte-Brun in La
France Illustrée, 1882,
Orléans's arms are "gules, three caillous in cœurs de lys argent,
and on a chief azure, three fleurs de lys Or." Charle Grandmaison, in
the Dictionnaire Héraldique of 1861, states that it is "Or, with
three hearts in gules", without the chief of France. Sometimes, in
faulty designs, we find it described "gules, three fleurs de lys
argent, and on a chief azure three fleurs de lys Or."
It is to be noted that the design shown left shows 3 "cœurs de lys"
(heart of a lily), seen from above. This "cœurs de lys" is therefore
not a true lily, which would have 6 tepals, but a hypothetical aerial
view of a symbolic lily. It has probably also been stylised more and
more in heraldry, as in the heart in a pack of cards. Certain authors
solve the problem by calling this symbol a "tiercefeuille", defined as
a stemless clover leaf, with one leaf at the top and two below, thus
making this coat of arms "gules, with three reversed tiercefeuilles in
"Hoc vernant lilia corde" (granted by Louis XII, then duke of
Orléans), meaning "It is by this heart that lilies flourish" or "This
heart makes lilies flourish", referring to the fleur de lys, symbol of
the French royal family.
TAO manages buses and tram lines in Orléans. The first tram line was
inaugurated 20 November 2000. The second was inaugurated 30 June
2 SNCF stations : Fleury les Aubrais and
Roads and highway
Orléans is an autoroute intersection : the A10 (linking
Bordeaux) links to the commune outskirts, and A71 (whose bridge over
Loire is outside the commune limits) begins here, heading for the
Clermont-Ferrand (where it becomes the A75).
A10 Highway From
Paris to Bordeaux
A71 Highway From
Orléans to Bourges
A19 Highway From
Sens to Artenay
National Road 20 From
Paris to Spain
Orléans is served by two main railway stations: the central Gare
Orléans and the Gare des Aubrais-Orléans, in the northern suburbs.
Most long-distance trains call only at the Les Aubrais-Orléans
station, which offers connections to Paris, Lille, Tours,
Brive-la-Gaillarde, Nevers, and several regional destinations.
Orléans is the birthplace of:
Sophie Adriansen (1982–), French writer
Patrick Barul, football player
Joelly Belleka, basketball player
Raoul Blanchard (1877–1965), geographer
Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery
Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849), anatomist
Philippe Chanlot, football player
Marion Cotillard, actress, not born in Orléans, but she grew up in
Gilles Delouche (1948), linguist
Étienne Dolet (1509–1546), scholar and printer
Jean-Louis Ferrary (1948–), historian
Albert Gombault (1844-1904), neurologist
Jacques Guillemeau (1550–1613), physician
Gaston d'Illiers (1876–1932), sculptor
Isaac Jogues (1607–1646), Jesuit missionary
Stanislas Julien (1797–1873), orientalist
Gustave Lanson (1857–1934), historian
Anatole Loquin (1834–1903), writer and musicologist
Yven Moyo, football player
Charles Péguy (1873–1914), poet and essayist
Antoine Petit (1722-1794), physician
Lamine Sambe, basketball player
Yacine Sene, basketball player
Jean Zay (1904–1944), jurist and politician
Historical and secular landmarks
Former City Hall and
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc statue
16th/17th buildings found rue de l'Escure, in front of the Hôtel
15th century city hall tower
View from the public park, rue d'Alsace-Lorraine
View of the Cathedral and the Hotel Groslot, from the Hotel public
View from the public park of the palace
The Gallo-Roman town-wall on the north side of the cathedral (4th
century AD) and along the rue de la Tour-Neuve
The Hôtel Groslot, built between 1550 and 1555 for Jacques Groslot,
"bailli d'Orléans" by Jacques Ier Androuet du Cerceau. King François
France died there in 1560. Kings Charles IX, Henri III of France
and Henri IV of
France stayed there. The "Hôtel" was restored in
1850. The building became the town Hall of
Orléans in 1790 (weddings
are still celebrated inside).
The hôtel de la Vieille Intendance (early 15th century) (otherwise
named hôtel Brachet, formerly « The King's house »), real
gothic-renaissance style château made of bricks. Nowadays housing
the Administrative Court of Orléans. One can admire its frontage from
the entrance in the rue de la Bretonnerie. Yet, the building - which
sheltered the highest figures of the kingtom passing by the city, and
maybe some kings themselves (Henri IV, Louis XIII, Louis XIV of
France) - can easily be observed from its gardens, opened to the
public (entrance rue d'Alsace-Lorraine).
The hôtel de la Motte-Sanguin (18th century) and its gardens, manor
built at the behest of Louis-Philippe,
Duke of Orléans
Duke of Orléans (1747–1793),
cousin of the King Louis XVI. He was surnamed « Philippe
Égalité » / "equality" referring to his support to the 1789
revolutionaries. Nicknamed "the richest man on earth" he voted in
favor of the death penalty against his own cousin the king Louis XVI.
This is a classic style princely residence (and even royal, since
Philippe Égalité's heir accessed the throne of
France under the name
of Louis-Philippe Ier). It's part of a public park opened to the
public (via the Solférino street).
The school of artillery, next to the Hôtel de la Motte-Sanguin which
it is often confused with, formerly housing a military school, it was
built in the 19th century near the
Remains of the
University of Orléans
University of Orléans (a 15th-century building housing
the thesis room), founded in 1306 by pope Clement V, in which, among
many other great historical figures, the Protestant John Calvin
studied and taught. The University was so famous that it attracted
students from all over Europe, particularly Germany. The city of
Orléans is one of the cradles of Protestantism.
The House of
Louis XI (end of the 15th century), on Saint-Aignan
square. Built at the behest of the king, who particularly revered
The House of Joan of Arc, where she stayed during the Siege of
Orléans (this is actually an approximate reconstitution, the original
building being bombed in 1940 during the Battle of France)
Place du Martroi, heart of the city, with the equestrian statue of
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc at its center, made by Denis Foyatier. This statue was
damaged during the Second World War, then repaired by Paul Belmondo,
father of the famous 1950s to 1980s French actor.
Duke of Orléans' Chancellerie (XVIIIe), located next to the Place du
Matroi, also bombed during the Second world war, only the frontage
The Bannier gate-house, discovered in 1986 under the statue of Joan of
Arc (Place du Martroi). It was built in the 14th century. It can be
seen through a window in the subterranean car-park under the square,
or visited under certain conditions.
The rue de Bourgogne and surrounding streets, Orléans' main street
since the Antiquity, it's the former Roman decumanus, crossing the
city from east to west.
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc entered the city in 1429 by the
"Bourgogne" gatehouse situated at its Easter end. Until today it is
still giving access to the "Prefecture", where the "Prefet" (officer
who represents the French State in the Region) lives, many pubs, night
clubs, restaurants and shops such as the "Galeries Lafayette". It is
more than a mile long. One can admire many medieval houses on its
The Tour Blanche / White Tower, it is one of the only medieval
defensive towers remaining in the city (still in use at the time of
the Siege of Orléans). It nowadays houses city's archeological
The Docks, (Port of Orléans) once the most important inland port of
France (18th century). While boats could not sail on the river Seine
because of the windings, they could sail to
Orléans on the Loire
river with the wind in their back. Then the merchandises where brought
Paris by road ways. Wine, and sugar from the colonies, were shipped
Orléans where they were stored and refined. Vinegar is still a
city' speciality due to the lapsing of wine stocks during the
shipment. One can admire the old pavement of the docks (18th and 19th
centuries) on the north bank of the river in the city and on the
island in the middle, that was used to channel the water
The Hôpital Madeleine (former hospital), built by King Louis XIV
(18th century) and his successors (notably an important part of the
Saint-Charles chapel, located within the gounds of the Madeleine
Hospital, it was built in 1713 by Jacques V Gabriel, one of Louis XIV
The Hôtel Cabu, otherwise named house of Diane de Poitiers, built at
the behest of Philippe Cabu, barrister, in 1547, famous architect
Jacques Ier Androuet du Cerceau providing the plans.
The Hôtel Hatte, 16th century. Today's Charles-Péguy Center.
The Hôtel Toutin, 16th century
The Hôtel Pommeret d'Orléans, 16th century
The Hôtel Ducerceau, 16th century
The maison de la coquille, 16th century
The Hôtel des Créneaux, former city hall, flanked by its bell tower
(15th century). It nowadays houses the city's school of music. This is
a magnificent piece of late gothic secular architecture (15th century)
that reminds the famous and much more recent Parisian city hall.
The House of Jean Dalibert, 16th century
The Study of Jacques Bouchet (16th century), which can be admired from
the public square "Jacques Bouchet"
The mansions, rue d'Escure (17th and 18th centuries)
The "Préfecture" : former Benedictine monastery, built in 1670
and housing the "Préfecture du Loiret" since 1800.
The Pont de l'Europe, designed by Santiago Calatrava, is an inclined
bow-string ark bridge particularly original.
The Pont Royal / George V Royal bridge, the oldest bridge of the city.
Built between 1751 and 1760, at the request of Daniel-Charles
Trudaine, administrator and civil engineer. It was renamed in honour
King George V
King George V after the
World War II
World War II out of respect of Britain's
role in the war.
The Pont des Tourelles, built in 1140 and demolished in 1760, was the
first stone-made bridge of Orléans. When the river
Loire is low, one
can see remains of it in the water
The Palais épiscopal d'Orléans, former Bishop's Palace. It was built
between 1635 and 1641. Napoléon stayed there. It is nowadays housing
the international center for research, part of University of Orléans.
The courthouse (18th to 20th centuries)
The "salle de l'Institut", located on the "place Sainte Croix", is a
small concert hall which can be converted in a ball room. Its
acoustincs is remarkable
Mansions, rue de la Bretonnerie. This street concentrates many
particular mansions, of all styles and ages (15th to 20th centuries).
High society members, politicians, barristers, doctors... continue to
Mansions, rue d'Alsace-Lorraine, 19th century bourgeoisie style
Statue La Baigneuse by Paul Belmondo, aside the rue Royale (1955).
Statue of Calvin, by Daniel Leclercq, facing the Calvinist temple
The FRAC Centre building named "Les turbulences", an advanced piece of
architecture covered with L.E.Ds.
• Many historical houses and mansions (hundreds) can still be
admired in the city center which is one of the largest in
to the great importance of the city until the 20th century. The
historical center dating back to the 15th century extends far beyond
the limits of the pedestrian sector that has been extensively restored
in the past few years. In fact it corresponds to the portion of the
modern city which is enclosed by the Boulevards. Many historical
monuments remain in the non pedestrian sectors of the city (for
example, at rue Notre-Dame-de-Recouvrance, at rue des Carmes, at rue
de la Bretonnerie, at Square Saint-Aignan ...)
Museums in Orléans:
Musée des Beaux-Arts d'Orléans
Charles Peguy Centre
Joan of Arc's House
Fine Arts Museum
City Historical and Archeological Museum
Natural Science Museum
Parks in Orléans:
Parc Floral de la Source
Motte Sanguin garden
Moins Roux park
Newspaper: La République du Centre (the Republic of the Centre)
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Orléans has a basketball team:
Loiret Basket which is in the
French first division. The club won the "Coupe de France" of
basketball, its first major trophy, in the season 2009 - 2010.
Orléans also has a football club, the US Orléans, which plays in
The city also has very well known clubs in karate, fencing and judo.
Orléans hosted a stage finish of Paris–Nice.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France
Orléans is twinned with:
Wichita, United States
It has a partnership with:
Kraków in Poland
The University campus is in the La Source area in southern part of the
Council of Orléans
House of Orléans
Roman Catholic Diocese of Orléans
Roman Catholic Diocese of Orléans Bishopric of Orléans
^ a b "Orléans". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September
^ "Données climatiques de la station de Orléans" (in French). Meteo
France. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
^ "Climat Centre-Val de Loire" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved
December 30, 2015.
^ "Normes et records 1961-1990:
Bricy (45) - altitude 125m"
(in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
^ "C. Julius Caesar, Gallic War, Book 7, chapter 28".
www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-16.
^ Merceron, Jacques (2006). La vieille carcas de Carcassonne:
florilège de l'humour et de l'imaginaire des noms de lieux en
France : légendes, jeux et calembours toponymiques des noms de
lieux en France : précédé d'un essai sur le sujet (in French).
Seuil. p. 447.
^ For an exact etymology, see Cenabum, Aurelianis,
Orléans de Jacques
Debal (Coll. Galliae civitates, Lyon, PUL, 1996)
^ marres.education. Accessed January 2016.
^ World-wide current events of 16 May 1941, available on the site of
the INA (direct link).
^ Joseph Abram, L'architecture moderne en France, du chaos à la
croissance, tome 2, éd. Picard, 1999, pp. 28 et 37–38
Grand Larousse encyclopédique in 10 volumes, 163
^ fr:Réseau TAO#Tramway
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 April 2014.
Retrieved 3 November 2014.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 April 2015.
Retrieved 3 November 2014.
^ J. DEBAL, Orléans : Une Ville, Une Histoire
^ Les Français érigent une statue de Calvin Archived 6 July 2011 at
the Wayback Machine., sur le site Bonnenouvelle.ch.
^ Patrice Gabin (13 October 2007). "
Orléans tourisme : musées
Orléans tourism: Museums in Orléans)". Web.archive.org.
Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 6 April
^ Patrice Gabin (13 October 2007). "Park and Gardens in Orléans".
Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
Retrieved 6 April 2011.
^ "British towns twinned with French towns [via WaybackMachine.com]".
Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July
2013. Retrieved 2013-07-20.
^ Chronicle of The City's Office Bearers, Chambers, Regalia, Castles
& Twin Cities; City promotes Emirates connection
^ "Portrait of Münster: Die Partnerstädte". Stadt Münster. Archived
from the original on 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
^ Embassy of
France in Moscow – sister cities Archived 12 December
2011 at the Wayback Machine.
Kraków - Miasta Partnerskie" [
Kraków -Partnership Cities].
Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny
Kraków (in Polish). Archived
from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
A Chronicle of The City's Office Bearers, Chambers, Regalia, Castles
& Twin Cities (PDF),
Dundee City Council, retrieved 25 April
See also: Bibliography of the history of Orléans
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Orléans.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Orléans.
Orléans commune official web site
France on WorldStatesmen
(in French) Tourism Office
(in French) official web site of Orléans
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Diocese of
Orléans". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
Prefectures of departments of France
La Rochelle (Charente-Maritime)
Le Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire)
Le Mans (Sarthe)
La Roche-sur-Yon (Vendée)
Belfort (Territoire de Belfort)
Cayenne (French Guiana)
Prefectures of the regions of France
Orléans (Centre-Val de Loire)
Strasbourg (Grand Est)
Nantes (Pays de la Loire)
Marseille (Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur)
Cayenne (French Guiana)
Communes of the