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Opole
Opole
[ɔˈpɔlɛ] ( listen) (German: Oppeln, Silesian German: Uppeln, Silesian: Uopole, Czech: Opolí) is a city located in southern Poland
Poland
on the Oder River
Oder River
(Odra). With a population of approximately 127,792 (January 2017), it is the capital of the Opole Voivodeship and, also the seat of Opole
Opole
County. With it long history dating back to the 9th century, Opole
Opole
is considered to be one of the oldest towns in Poland. The origins of the first settlement are connected with the town being granted Magdeburg Rights in 1217 by Casimir I of Opole,[1] the great-grandson of Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. During the Medieval Period
Medieval Period
and the Renaissance
Renaissance
the city was known as a centre of commerce due to its position on the intersection of several main trade routes, which helped to generate steady profits from transit trade. The rapid development of the town was also caused by the establishment of a seat of regency in Opole
Opole
in 1816. The first railway connection between Opole, Brzeg
Brzeg
and Wrocław
Wrocław
was opened in 1843 and the first manufacturing plants were constructed in 1859, which greatly contributed to the city's regional significance.[2] During its existence Opole
Opole
belonged to Poland, Bohemia, Prussia
Prussia
and Germany. Prior to World War II
World War II
it was located in eastern Germany
Germany
and was one of the largest centres of Polish minority in the entire country. In 1945 the region fell into the Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany. They subsequently assigned it to Poland. It fell under no legal agreement. Many German Upper Silesians and Poles
Poles
of German ancestry still live in the Opole
Opole
region; in the city itself, however, ethnic Germans
Germans
today make up less than 3% of the population following the 1945-6 expulsions. It was also the capital of the former German region of Upper Silesia. Today there are four higher education establishments in the city: The Opole
Opole
University, Opole University
Opole University
of Technology, a Medical College and the private Higher College of Management and Administration. The National Festival of Polish Song has been held here annually since 1963 and each year new regular events, fairs, shows and competitions take place.[3] Opole
Opole
is sometimes referred to as "Polish Venice",[4] because of its picturesque Old Town and several canals and bridges connecting parts of the city.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 In Medieval Poland 2.2 In the Habsburg Monarchy 2.3 In Prussian Silesia 2.4 After World War I 2.5 In modern Poland

3 Historical population 4 German minority 5 Main sights 6 Geography 7 Education 8 Politics 9 Economy 10 Famous residents 11 International relations

11.1 Twin towns - Sister cities

12 Gallery 13 References 14 External links

Name[edit] The name "Opole" likely originated from the medieval Slavic term for a group of settlements.[5] History[edit] In Medieval Poland[edit] Opole's history begins in the 8th century. At this time, according to the archeological excavations,[6] the first Slavic settlement was founded on the Ostrówek - the northern part of the Pasieka Island in the middle of the Oder river. In the early 10th century it developed into one of the main gróds of the Slavic Opolanie. At the end of the century Silesia
Silesia
became part of Poland
Poland
and was ruled by the Piast dynasty; the land of the pagan Opolanie was conquered by Duke Mieszko I in 992. From the 11th-12th centuries it was also a castellany. After the death of Duke Władysław II the Exile, Silesia
Silesia
was divided in 1163 between two Piast
Piast
lines- the Wrocławska line in Lower Silesia and the Opolsko-Raciborska of Upper Silesia. Opole
Opole
would become a duchy in 1172 and would share much in common with the Duchy of Racibórz, with which it was often combined. In 1281 Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
was divided further between the heirs of the dukes. The Duchy of Opole
Duchy of Opole
was temporarily reestablished in 1290.

Oldest known general view of Opole
Opole
seen from southeast, circa 1535

In the early 13th century, Duke Casimir I of Opole
Casimir I of Opole
decided to move the settlement from the Pasieka Island into the right shore of the Oder river (since the 17th century it is the old stream bed of Oder known as Młynówka). All of the inhabitants had to be moved in order to make place for the castle that was eventually built in the place of the old city.[7] Former inhabitants of Ostrówek together with German merchants that immigrated here from the West, received first town rights probably as early as around 1217, although this date is disputed.[8] Opole
Opole
received German town law
German town law
in 1254, which was expanded with Neumarkt law in 1327. Opole
Opole
developed during the rule of duke Bolko I of Opole. In this time the castle was finally completed and new buildings, including the city walls and the Holy Cross Church, were constructed. Along with most of Silesia, in 1327 the Duchy of Opole
Opole
came under the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Bohemia, itself part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1521 the Duchy of Racibórz (Ratibor) was inherited by the Duchy of Opole, by then also known by its German equivalent - Oppeln. The second castle of Opole
Opole
was probably founded in the 14th century by duke Vladislaus II, though some sources claim that it was originally a wooden stronghold of Opole's castellan dating into 12th century.[9] In the Habsburg Monarchy[edit] With the death of King Ludvík II of Bohemia
Bohemia
at the Battle of Mohács, Silesia
Silesia
was inherited by Ferdinand I, placing Opole
Opole
under the sovereignty of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
of Austria. The Habsburgs took control of the region in 1532 after the last Piast
Piast
duke of Opole
Opole
- Jan II the Good died. In those days the city was still mainly Polish-speaking (around 63%), with other nationalities represented mainly by Germans, Czechs and Jews. The last two dukes of Opole, Nicholas II and Janusz II the Good, did not master the German language.[10]

Cathedral of Opole

Beginning in 1532 the Habsburgs pawned the duchy to different rulers including several monarchs of Poland
Poland
(see Dukes of Opole). With the abdication of King John II Casimir
John II Casimir
of Poland
Poland
as the last Duke of Opole in 1668, the region passed to the direct control of the Habsburgs. At the beginning of the 18th century the German population of Opole
Opole
was estimated at around 20%.[11] In Prussian Silesia[edit] King Frederick II of Prussia
Prussia
conquered most of Silesia
Silesia
from Austria
Austria
in 1740 during the Silesian Wars; Prussian control was confirmed in the Peace of Breslau
Peace of Breslau
in 1742. During the Prussian rule the ethnic structure of the city began to change. In the early 20th century the number of Polish and bilingual citizens of Opole, according to the official German statistics, varied from only 25% to 31%.[12] From 1816–1945 Opole
Opole
was the capital of Regierungsbezirk
Regierungsbezirk
Oppeln within Prussia. The city became part of the German Empire
German Empire
during the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871. After World War I[edit] After the defeat of Imperial Germany
Germany
in World War I, a plebiscite was held on 20 March 1921 in Oppeln to determine if the city would be in the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
or become part of the Second Polish Republic. 20,816 (94.7%) votes were cast for Germany, 1,098 (5.0%) for Poland, and 70 (0.3%) votes were declared invalid. Voter participation was 95.9%. Results of the plebiscite in the Oppeln-Land county were different, with 30% of population voting for Poland. Oppeln was the administrative seat of the Province of Upper Silesia from 1919–1939. With the defeat of Poland
Poland
in the invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II
World War II
in 1939, formerly Polish Eastern Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
was re-added to the Province of Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
and Oppeln lost its status as provincial capital to Katowice
Katowice
(renamed Kattowitz).

OPPELN after the plebiscite, under international ruling in August 1921

On 15 February 1941 and 26 February 1941, two deportation transports with 2,003 Jewish men, women and children on board left Vienna
Vienna
Aspang Station for the ghetto which had been set up in Oppeln. By March 1941, 8,000 Jews were deported to Oppeln. From May 1941, 800 men capable of work were deployed as forced labourers in Deblin. The "Liquidation" of the Oppeln ghetto began in the spring 1942. A transport to Belzec extermination camp left on 31 March 1942 and deportations to Sobibor followed in May and October 1942. Of the 2,003 Viennese Jews, only twenty-eight are known to have survived. In modern Poland[edit] After the end of the Second World War in 1945, Oppeln was transferred from Germany
Germany
to Poland
Poland
according to the Potsdam
Potsdam
Conference, and given its original Slavic name of Opole. Opole
Opole
became part of the Katowice Voivodeship from 1946–1950, after which it became part of the Opole Voivodeship. Unlike other parts of the so-called Recovered Territories, Opole
Opole
and the surrounding region's indigenous population remained and was not forcibly expelled as elsewhere. Over 1 million Silesians who considered themselves Poles
Poles
or were treated as such by the authorities due to their language and customs were allowed to stay after they were verified as Poles
Poles
in a special verification process. It involved declaring Polish nationality and an oath of allegiance to the Polish nation.[13] In the later years however many of them left to West Germany
Germany
to flee the communist Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
(see Emigration from Poland
Poland
to Germany after World War II). Today Opole, along with the surrounding region, is known as a centre of the German minority in Poland
Poland
that recruits mainly from the descendants of the positively verified autochthons. In the city itself however only 2.46% of the inhabitants declared German nationality according to the last national census of 2002.[14] On January 1, 2017, Borki, Chmielowice, Czarnowąsy, Krzanowice, Sławice, Świerkle, Winów, Wrzoski, Żerkowice as well as parts of Brzezie, Dobrzeń Mały
Dobrzeń Mały
and Karczów became a part of Opole, enlargening its population by about 9,500, and its area by over 5,300 ha, despite the protests of inhabitants.[15][16] Historical population[edit] In the early 20th century the number of Polish and bilingual citizens of Opole, according to the official German statistics, varied from 25 to 31%.[12]

City hall on the Main Market Square

Water canal along the Old Town

Year Population

1533 ¹ 1,420

1691 1,191

1700 1,150

1746 1,161

1750 2,450

1787 2,802

1800 3,073

1816 4,050

1819 4,896

1825 5,987

1834 6,496

Year Population

1850 8,280

1858 ² 8,877

1875 12,694

1890 19,000

1905 30,112

1910 ³ 33,907

1924 43,000

1932 45,532

1936 50,561

17 May 1939 50,540

24 March 1945 170

Year Population

July 1945 13,000

1946 40,000

1950 50,300

1956 56,400

1960 63,500

1965 70,000

1971 87,800

1973 92,600

31 December 1989 127,653

Census
Census
1992 129,552

Census
Census
2002 129,946

30 June 2004 125,992

¹ First census of the city ² 8,320 German nationality (93.7%) and 557 Polish nationality (6.3%) ³ 80% German-speaking, 16% Polish-speaking, and 4% bilingual Polish-German-speaking

Opole
Opole
- a view of the city centre

German minority[edit]

General view of Opole

Alongside German and Polish, many citizens of Opole-Oppeln before 1945 used a strongly German-influenced Silesian dialect (sometimes called wasserpolnisch or wasserpolak). Because of this, the post-war Polish state administration after the annexation of Silesia
Silesia
in 1945 did not initiate a general expulsion of all former inhabitants of Opole, as was done in Lower Silesia, for instance, where the population almost exclusively spoke the German language. Because they were considered "autochthonous" (Polish), the Wasserpolak-speakers instead received the right to remain in their homeland after declaring themselves as Poles. Some German speakers took advantage of this decision, allowing them to remain in their Oppeln, even when they considered themselves to be of German nationality. The city surroundings currently contain the largest German and Upper Silesian minorities in Poland. However, Opole
Opole
itself is only 2.46% German.[14] (See also Germans
Germans
of Poland.) Main sights[edit]

Piast
Piast
tower, built under Bolko I of Opole, circa 1300

Opole
Opole
hosts the annual National Festival of Polish Song. The city is also known for its 10th-century Church of St. Adalbert and the 14th-century Church of the Holy Cross. There is a zoo, the Ogród Zoologiczny w Opolu. Structures and buildings

Piast
Piast
tower on the island (only part that remained of Piast
Piast
castle) a 14th-century Franciscan
Franciscan
church, a Piast
Piast
mausoleum a 19th-century Town Hall the Church of our Lady of Sorrows and St. Adalbert (Kościół Matki Boskiej Bolesnej i św. Wojciecha) the 14th-century Holy Cross Cathedral (Bazylika katedralna Podwyższenia Krzyża Świętego) The art nouveau Penny Bridge (Most Groszowy), currently named Green Bridge (Zielony Mostek) Opole
Opole
Main Station, an eclectic building from early 20th century.

Museums

Diocesan Museum (Muzeum Diecezjalne) Opole
Opole
Regional Museum (Muzeum Śląska Opolskiego) Opole
Opole
Village Museum (Muzeum Wsi Opolskiej)

Cemeteries

The Jewish Cemetery in Opole
Opole
was established in 1822, and it is a peculiar pantheon of the Jews of Opole.[17][18]

Geography[edit] Opole
Opole
is one of the warmest cities in Poland. The national all time heat record was measured in Prószków, near Opole.

Climate data for Opole

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.8 (60.4) 19.3 (66.7) 25.0 (77) 28.2 (82.8) 32.6 (90.7) 35.5 (95.9) 38.0 (100.4) 39.0 (102.2) 35.4 (95.7) 26.2 (79.2) 21.9 (71.4) 16.1 (61) 39.0 (102.2)

Average high °C (°F) 1.9 (35.4) 3.7 (38.7) 8.4 (47.1) 15.7 (60.3) 20.0 (68) 23.1 (73.6) 25.6 (78.1) 24.7 (76.5) 19.9 (67.8) 14.0 (57.2) 8.5 (47.3) 2.8 (37) 14.0 (57.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.5 (31.1) 0.6 (33.1) 4.2 (39.6) 10.1 (50.2) 14.4 (57.9) 17.7 (63.9) 19.9 (67.8) 19.1 (66.4) 14.8 (58.6) 10.0 (50) 5.6 (42.1) 0.6 (33.1) 9.7 (49.5)

Average low °C (°F) −2.9 (26.8) −2.3 (27.9) 0.0 (32) 4.4 (39.9) 8.9 (48) 12.3 (54.1) 14.4 (57.9) 13.5 (56.3) 9.5 (49.1) 5.9 (42.6) 2.8 (37) −1.6 (29.1) 5.4 (41.7)

Record low °C (°F) −25.2 (−13.4) −22.9 (−9.2) −15.6 (3.9) −6.8 (19.8) −4.4 (24.1) 1.8 (35.2) 5.0 (41) 1.0 (33.8) −1.5 (29.3) −6.7 (19.9) −12.9 (8.8) −22.5 (−8.5) −25.2 (−13.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 34 (1.34) 29 (1.14) 32 (1.26) 29 (1.14) 59 (2.32) 66 (2.6) 73 (2.87) 46 (1.81) 47 (1.85) 29 (1.14) 31 (1.22) 34 (1.34) 494 (19.45)

Average precipitation days 16 13 14 11 13 12 13 9 11 11 13 15 151

Average relative humidity (%) 83 81 76 71 72 73 72 74 78 79 83 84 77

Mean monthly sunshine hours 48 70 127 191 225 224 238 221 151 108 56 41 1,698

Source #1: [1]

Source #2: http://climatebase.ru/station/12530/?lang=en

Education[edit]

The building of Collegium Maius of Opole
Opole
University

state-run universities and colleges:

Opole University
Opole University
of Technology (Politechnika Opolska) University of Opole
University of Opole
(Uniwersytet Opolski) Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole
Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole
(Państwowa Medyczna Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Opolu)

privately run colleges:

Management and Administration College in Opole
Opole
(Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Administracji w Opolu) Bogdan Jański Academy (Szkoła Wyższa im. Bogdana Jańskiego) WSB Universities
WSB Universities
- WSB University in Wrocław,[19] departments of Economics

Politics[edit]

Opole
Opole
Główne Railway Station

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Opole
Opole
constituency

Danuta Jazłowiecka, PO Tadeusz Jarmuziewicz, PO Ryszard Knosala, PO Leszek Korzeniowski, PO Sławomir Kłosowski, PiS Teresa Ceglecka-Zielonka, PiS Mieczysław Walkiewicz, PiS Henryk Kroll, German minority Ryszard Galla, German minority Józef Stępkowski, Samoobrona Sandra Lewandowska, Samoobrona Tomasz Garbowski, SLD Marek Kawa, LPR

Economy[edit]

Opole
Opole
city budget income sources as of 2015.

Opole
Opole
is the Opole
Opole
Voivodeship's centre for commerce, banking, industrial complexes and other major service sector industries.[20][21][22] Prior to World War II, due to major limestone deposits in Opole's vicinity, the city developed as a centre for cement production in Germany, with the Cementownia "Odra" being active till this day. The French building materials company Lafarge is also active in the area, having its roofing division, Lafarge Roofing, together with its German subsidiary Schiedel (chimney manufacturing) based in Opole.[23] Other companies in the city include: the German valve manufacturer Kludi; the German men's fashion manufacturer Ahlers and the American automotive manufacturer Tower Automative. As is the case with the entire Opole
Opole
Voivodeship, there is a strong presence of food industry services in the city. The largest companies in the food sector include: Zott, the Dutch baby food and nutrition company Nutricia, part of the Danone
Danone
food-products corporation. Opole
Opole
has branches of all major banks, including: PKO, Pekao, Deutsche Bank and Raiffeisen Zentralbank. The retail sector in Opole
Opole
includes major Metro AG
Metro AG
brand stores: Metro Cash and Carry and Media-Saturn-Holding, as well as Real. The city has a plethora of other major supermarket chains, namely: the Polish supermarket chains Biedronka, Lidl, Aldi
Aldi
and Netto.[24] Other major brand stores include the shoe retailer Deichmann and Rossmann drugstores.[25] Furthermore, the city has three major shopping centres. The Solaris Center, with a total of 86 shops, opened in May 2009 and is located in the centre of Mikołaj Kopernik Square. In the city's suburbs, by Wrocławska Street (ul. Wrocławska) is the location of Karolinka Shopping Centre (Centrum Handlowe Karolinka). The shopping centre, which opened in September 2008, has a total area of 38,000 m², with a total of 99 stores, including fashion, hardware and electronics stores. To the east of the city, by the National Road 46, is the smallest of the three shopping centres, Turawa Park, with a total of 50 stores. Other shopping centres include Galeria Opolanin, built between 1974 and 1981 and upon its completion, was the largest shopping centre in Poland.[26] Famous residents[edit]

Burgher houses near the Main Market

Church of St. Adalbert, also known as the "Church on the Rock"

See also: Category:People from Opole.

Władysław Opolczyk, count palatine of Poland
Poland
1378 Edwin von Drenkmann (1826–1904), famous German lawyer Paul Kleinert
Paul Kleinert
(1837–1920), German theologian Emin Pasha
Emin Pasha
(born Eduard Schnitzer) (1840–1892), explorer and governor of Africa Jan Kasprowicz
Jan Kasprowicz
(1860–1926), poet Ferdinand von Prondzynski, 19th-century Prussian general, whose direct descendant Ferdinand von Prondzynski
Ferdinand von Prondzynski
is Principal and Vice-Chancellor of Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University
in Aberdeen, Scotland Bronisław Koraszewski (1863–1924), Polish activist, founder of Gazeta Opolska Oscar Slater
Oscar Slater
(1872–1948), German/Scottish victim of miscarriage of justice Jakub Kania (1872–1957), Polish poet and writer, soldier in the Silesian Uprisings Leo Baeck
Leo Baeck
(1873–1956), rabbi Szymon Koszyk (1891–1972), reporter, teacher and Polish activist from Opole Karol Musioł (1902–1983), president of Opole, founder of the National Festival of Polish Song in Opole Joachim Prinz
Joachim Prinz
(1902, Bierdzan – 1988), rabbi, born here Edmund Osmańczyk
Edmund Osmańczyk
(1913–1989), reporter, politician (6 times elected to the sejm and once to the senat) Rochus Misch (1917-2013), communications' chief of the Reichskanzlei and member of the Leibstandarte-SS Adolf Hitler Jerzy Grotowski
Jerzy Grotowski
(1933–1999), theater director Jerzy Buzek
Jerzy Buzek
(born 1940), academic and politician, President of the European Parliament, former Prime Minister of Poland Chester Marcol (born 1949), American football
American football
placekicker for the Green Bay Packers Bolesław Polnar (born 1952), graphic artist and painter Andrzej Jerzy Lech (born 1955), artist and photographer Anna Brzezińska (born 1971), fantasy writer Miroslav Klose
Miroslav Klose
(born 1978), football player (playing in the German national football team) Krzysztof Szramiak (born 1984), Polish weightlifter Marcin Pontus (born 1985), football player Karolina Wydra (born 1981), actress

See also: Dukes of Opole International relations[edit]

Signs showing direction of twin cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Twin towns - Sister cities[edit] Opole
Opole
is twinned with:[27]

Alytus
Alytus
in Lithuania
Lithuania
[27] Belgorod
Belgorod
in Russia
Russia
[27] Bruntál
Bruntál
in Czech Republic
Czech Republic
[27] Carrara
Carrara
in Italy
Italy
[27] Grasse
Grasse
in France
France
[27] Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
in Germany
Germany
[27]

Ivano-Frankivsk
Ivano-Frankivsk
in Ukraine
Ukraine
[27][28] Kuopio
Kuopio
in Finland
Finland
[27] Mülheim
Mülheim
in Germany
Germany
[27] Potsdam
Potsdam
in Germany
Germany
[27][29] Roanoke in United States
United States
[27] Székesfehérvár
Székesfehérvár
in Hungary
Hungary
[27][30]

Gallery[edit]

Green Bridge

The Church of the Holy Trinity

The Młynówka Canal (Little Venice)

Old Town

Solaris Centre

John Paul II
John Paul II
Library

References[edit]

^ " Opole
Opole
- description, location, history". Mapofpoland.net. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-09. Retrieved 2016-10-08.  ^ Witosławska, Agata. " Opole
Opole
- history and song festivals". Poland.travel. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ "- Studia w Opolu. Polska Wenecja może zaoferować Wam nie tylko wspaniałe widoki, ale także cudowną atmosferę". Studiowac.pl - wyszukiwarka uczelni i katalog kierunków studiów, matura z polskiego, poradniki maturalne. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ Opole, Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Tom VII, nakł. Filipa Sulimierskiego i Władysława Walewskiego, 1880-1914 ^ B. Gediga, Początki i rozwój wczesnośredniowiecznego ośrodka miejskiego na Ostrówku w Opolu, Slavia Antiqua t. 16, Wrocław
Wrocław
1970. ^ W. Dziewulski, F. Hawranek, Opole
Opole
- Monografia miasta, Instytut Śląski Opole
Opole
1975, p. 57. ^ This opinion is shared i.e. by W. Dziewulski, F. Hawranek, Opole
Opole
- Monografia miasta, Instytut Śląski Opole
Opole
1975, p. 57 and G. A. Stenzel, Geschichte Schlesiens, T1. 1, Breslau 1853, p. 41. The opposite opinion is presented i.e. by K. Buczek, Targi i miasta na prawie polskim (okres wczesnośredniowieczny), Wrocław
Wrocław
1964, p. 114. ^ W. Dziewulski, F. Hawranek, Opole
Opole
- Monografia miasta, Instytut Śląski Opole
Opole
1975, pp. 58-60. ^ W. Dziewulski, F. Hawranek, Opole
Opole
- Monografia miasta, Instytut Śląski Opole
Opole
1975, p.78. ^ W. Dziewulski, F. Hawranek, Opole
Opole
- Monografia miasta, Instytut Śląski Opole
Opole
1975, p.159. ^ a b W. Dziewulski, F. Hawranek, Opole
Opole
- Monografia miasta, Instytut Śląski Opole
Opole
1975, p. 263-268". ^ The Expulsion of 'German' Communities from Eastern Europe at the end of the Second World War, Steffen Prauser and Arfon Rees, European University Institute, Florense. HEC No. 2004/1. p.28 ^ a b "German minority in Poland
Poland
on the Ministry of Interior and Administration webpage". 2.mswia.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ "Rozporządzenie Rady Ministrów z dnia 19 lipca 2016 r. w sprawie ustalenia granic niektórych gmin i miast, nadania niektórym miejscowościom statusu miasta oraz zmiany nazwy gminy". isap.sejm.gov.pl. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ " Opole
Opole
się powiększa kosztem okolicznych wsi. Ich mieszkańcy protestują."To skok na kasę"". TVN24.pl. Retrieved 2017-10-04.  ^ "JEWISH CEMETERY IN OPOLE (GRANICZNA STREET)". Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich. Retrieved 20 October 2012.  ^ "OPOLE: Opolskie". International Jewish Cemetery Project. Retrieved 20 October 2012.  ^ WSB University in Wrocław
Wrocław
- WSB Universities ^ "Nowe firmy Opole
Opole
2016, 2015, 2014 r., nowo rejestrowane firmy w Opolu i województwie opolskim". Coig.com.pl. Retrieved 30 January 2017.  ^ "Zainwestowali". Invest in Opole
Opole
(in Polish). Retrieved 30 January 2017.  ^ "OPOLE Firmy i Instytucje". Info-net.com.pl. Retrieved 30 January 2017.  ^ "Historia Opola". Opole.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 30 January 2017.  ^ "Wyborcza.pl". opole.wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 30 January 2017.  ^ "Drogeria Rossmann - województwo opolskie". Rossmann.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 30 January 2017.  ^ "Galeria Opolanin Opole". Galeria-opolanin.pl. Retrieved 30 January 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Miasta Partnerskie Opola". Urzad Miasta Opola (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-01.  ^ Офіційний сайт міста Івано-Франківська. mvk.if.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 March 2010.  ^ "Die Partnerstädte der Landeshauptstadt Potsdam". www.potsdam.de (in German). Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ Bozsoki, Agnes. "Partnervárosok Névsora Partner és Testvérvárosok Névsora" [Partner and Twin Cities List]. City of Székesfehérvár
Székesfehérvár
(in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. "Opole". Columbia University Press. Accessed June 4, 2006.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Opole.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Opole.

Opole
Opole
- Official Tourist Information Municipal website Urban development of Opole
Opole
in the Historical-Topographical Atlas of Silesian Towns Jewish Community in Opole
Opole
on Virtual Shtetl Webcam showing Krakowska Street in Opole
Opole
(in Polish) Culture: Amfiteart Opole Culture: KFPP Opole

v t e

Principal cities of Poland

1,000,000+

Warsaw

750,000+

Kraków

500,000+

Łódź Wrocław Poznań

200,000+

Gdańsk Szczecin Bydgoszcz Lublin Katowice Białystok Gdynia Częstochowa Radom Sosnowiec Toruń Kielce

100,000+

Gliwice Rzeszów Zabrze Olsztyn Bytom Bielsko-Biała Ruda Śląska Rybnik Tychy Dąbrowa Górnicza Gorzów Wielkopolski Płock Elbląg Opole Wałbrzych Zielona Góra Włocławek Tarnów Chorzów Koszalin Kalisz Legnica

v t e

Counties of Opole
Opole
Voivodeship

City county

Opole
Opole
(capital)

Land counties

Brzeg Głubczyce Kędzierzyn-Koźle Kluczbork Krapkowice Namysłów Nysa Olesno Opole Prudnik Strzelce

v t e

Opole
Opole
County

Seat (not part of the county): Opole

Urban-rural gminas

Gmina Niemodlin Gmina Ozimek Gmina Prószków

Rural gminas

Gmina Chrząstowice Gmina Dąbrowa Gmina Dobrzeń Wielki Gmina Komprachcice Gmina Łubniany Gmina Murów Gmina Popielów Gmina Tarnów
Tarnów
Opolski Gmina Tułowice Gmina Turawa

Coordinates: 50°40′N 17°56′E / 50.667°N 17.933°E / 50.667; 17.933

Authority control

GN

.