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Groupe PSA (2017–present) General Motors
General Motors
(1929–2017) [1]

Divisions Opel
Opel
Performance Center[5]

Subsidiaries Opel
Opel
Eisenach Opel
Opel
Special
Special
Vehicles[6](Exhibit 21) Vauxhall

Website opel.com

Opel
Opel
(Opel, pronounced [ˈoːpl̩]) is a German automobile manufacturer part of the French Groupe PSA
Groupe PSA
since August 2017. Opel
Opel
traces its roots to a sewing machine manufacturer founded by Adam Opel
Opel
in 1862 in Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
am Main. The company began manufacturing bicycles in 1886 and produced its first automobile in 1899. After listing on the stock market in 1929, General Motors
General Motors
took a majority stake in Opel
Opel
and then a full control in 1931, establishing the American reign over the German carmaker for nearly 90 years.[1] In March 2017, Groupe PSA
Groupe PSA
agreed to acquire Opel
Opel
from General Motors for €2.2 billion, making the French carmaker the second biggest after VW.[7] Opel
Opel
is headquartered in Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
am Main, Hesse, Germany. The company designs, engineers, manufactures and distributes Opel-branded passenger vehicles, light commercial vehicles, and vehicle parts and together with its British sister brand Vauxhall they are present in over 50 countries around the world.[8]

Contents

1 History

1.1 1862–1920 1.2 1920–1939 1.3 World War II 1.4 1945–1970 1.5 1970–present 1.6 Sale to PSA

2 Company

2.1 Leadership 2.2 Plants

3 Marketing

3.1 Logo 3.2 Clubs 3.3 Slogans 3.4 Sponsorships

4 World presence

4.1 North America

4.1.1 United States 4.1.2 Buick Regal
Buick Regal
(fifth generation, since 2009) 4.1.3 Buick Cascada 4.1.4 Buick LaCrosse 4.1.5 Saturn Astra
Saturn Astra
(2008–2009) 4.1.6 Saturn L-Series
Saturn L-Series
(2000-2005) 4.1.7 Cadillac
Cadillac
Catera (1997–2001) 4.1.8 Africa 4.1.9 South Africa

4.2 Oceania 4.3 Asia

4.3.1 China 4.3.2 Japan 4.3.3 Singapore 4.3.4 Malaysia

4.4 South America 4.5 Europe

4.5.1 United Kingdom 4.5.2 Ireland

5 European Car of the Year

5.1 Shortlisted models

6 Nomenclature 7 Current model range

7.1 Light commercial vehicles 7.2 OPC models

8 Discontinued models 9 Motorsports 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit]

Advertisement for the Opel
Opel
Perfecta sewing machines (1901)

Opel
Opel
safety bicycle

1862–1920[edit] The company was founded in Rüsselsheim, Hesse, Germany, on 21 January 1862, by Adam Opel. In the beginning, Opel
Opel
produced sewing machines. In 1888, production was relocated from a cowshed to a more spacious building in Rüsselsheim. Opel[9] launched a new product in 1886: he began to sell high-wheel bicycles, also known as penny-farthings. Opel's two sons participated in high-wheel bicycle races, thus promoting this means of transportation. The production of high-wheel bicycles soon exceeded the production of sewing machines.[10] At the time of Opel's death in 1895, he was the leader in both markets. The first cars were produced in 1899 after Opel's wife Sophie and their two eldest sons entered into a partnership with Friedrich Lutzmann, a locksmith at the court in Dessau
Dessau
in Saxony-Anhalt, who had been working on automobile designs for some time.[11][12] These cars were not very successful and the partnership was dissolved after two years, following which Opel
Opel
signed a licensing agreement in 1901 with the French Automobiles
Automobiles
Darracq France to manufacture vehicles under the brand name Opel
Opel
Darracq. These cars consisted of Opel
Opel
bodies mounted on Darracq chassis, powered by two-cylinder engines. The company first showed cars of its own design at the 1902 Hamburg Motor Show, and started manufacturing them in 1906, with Opel
Opel
Darracq production being discontinued in 1907.[13][14] In 1909, the Opel
Opel
4/8 PS model, known as the Doktorwagen ("Doctor's Car") was produced. Its reliability and robustness were appreciated by physicians, who drove long distances to see their patients back when hard-surfaced roads were still rare. The Doktorwagen sold for only 3,950 marks, about half as much as the luxury models of its day. In 1911, the company's factory was virtually destroyed by fire and a new one was built with more up-to-date machinery. 1920–1939[edit]

Opel Admiral
Opel Admiral
convertible (1937–1939)

Opel Kapitän
Opel Kapitän
(1938-1940)

In the early 1920s, Opel
Opel
became the first German car manufacturer to incorporate a mass-production assembly line in the building of their automobiles. In 1924, they used their assembly line to produce a new open two-seater called the Laubfrosch (Tree frog). The Laubfrosch was finished exclusively in green lacquer. The car sold for an expensive 4,500 marks (expensive considering the less expensive manufacturing process), but by the 1930s, this type of vehicle would cost a mere 1,990 marks – due in part to the assembly line, but also due to the skyrocketing demand for cars. Adam Opel
Adam Opel
led the way for motorised transportation to become not just a means for the rich, but also a reliable way for people of all classes to travel. Opel
Opel
had a 37.5% market share in Germany
Germany
and was also the country's largest automobile exporter in 1928. The "Regent" – Opel's first eight-cylinder car – was offered. The RAK 1 and RAK 2 rocket-propelled cars made sensational record-breaking runs. In March 1929, General Motors
General Motors
(GM), impressed by Opel's modern production facilities, bought 80% of the company, increasing this to 100% in 1931. The Opel
Opel
family gained $33.3 million from the transaction. Subsequently, during 1935, a second factory was built at Brandenburg for the production of "Blitz" light trucks. In 1935, Opel
Opel
became the first German car manufacturer to produce over 100,000 vehicles a year. This was based on the popular Opel
Opel
"P4" model. The selling price was a mere 1,650 marks and the car had a 23 hp (17 kW) 1.1 L four-cylinder engine and a top speed of 85 km/h (53 mph). Opel
Opel
also produced the first mass-production vehicle in Germany
Germany
with a self-supporting ("unibody") all-steel body, closely following the 1934 Citroën
Citroën
Traction Avant. This was one of the most important innovations in automotive history.[15] They called the car, launched in 1935, the Olympia. With its small weight and aerodynamics came an improvement in both performance and fuel consumption. Opel
Opel
received a patent on this technology.[citation needed] The 1930s was a decade of growth, and by 1937, with 130,267 cars produced, Opel's Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
plant was Europe's top car plant in terms of output, while ranking seventh worldwide.[16] 1939 saw the presentation of the highly successful Kapitän. With a 2.5 L six-cylinder engine, all-steel body, front independent suspension, hydraulic shock absorbers, hot-water heating (with electric blower), and central speedometer. 25,374 Kapitäns left the factory before the intensification of World War II
World War II
brought automotive manufacturing to a temporary stop in the Autumn of 1940, by order of the government. World War II[edit]

Assembly of the Opel Blitz
Opel Blitz
at Opelwerk Brandenburg
Opelwerk Brandenburg
(1936)

Military version of Opel Blitz
Opel Blitz
in Italy (1944)

World War II
World War II
brought to Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
the only year in the history of Opel
Opel
– 1945 – in which it produced fewer vehicles since that first Lutzmann-authored Opel
Opel
was made in 1899. Before the conflict broke out, the Adam Opel
Adam Opel
AG had established itself as the largest motor vehicle manufacturer in Europe. The combination of Opel
Opel
know-how with GM resources had produced outstanding results. In spite of stifling red tape, the economic atmosphere in Germany
Germany
in the 1930s had powerfully fertilised the growth of this and other auto companies, but in the case of Opel, at least, the expansion of this industrial machine clearly was not directed in any way toward military objectives. Opel's relationship to GM in America during the war has been disputed. Alfred P. Sloan's memoir indicates that when the war started, as Germany
Germany
nationalised many foreign-owned industrial assets, GM's contact with Opel
Opel
was broken and remained that way for the rest of the war. Other writers have alleged that even after June 1940, official connections between Opel
Opel
and America were not broken, and monetary gain by Americans continued throughout the war. During the 1930s, the Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
plant was never given a major role in Germany's war preparations. Neither was Ford's plant in Cologne considered trustworthy enough for a big assignment, such as tank manufacture, in view of their earlier foreign associations. Initially, of course, the war was thought to be a short one settled in Germany's favour. Auto plants were shut down, to conserve resources, but not converted to other jobs. When in 1942 it became clearer that the fighting would go on for a while, car and truck factories were switched to war work in a modest way, Opel
Opel
taking up the production of aircraft parts and tanks. Only at the Brandenburg plant did truck manufacture roar ahead at full speed. From the end of 1938 onward, the big Opel Blitz
Opel Blitz
trucks had been powered by the same basic 3.6 L engine used in the Opel
Opel
Admiral. To meet the growing demands of wartime, 3 short tons (2.7 t) trucks of Opel
Opel
design were built under license by Daimler-Benz at the former Benz factory at Mannheim. One of the most versatile small German military vehicles, the Kettenkrad, a blend of a tractor and a motorcycle, was powered with a 1.4 L Olympia four-cylinder engine. Produced by NSU, it had motorcycle-type front-wheel steering for gentle turns and negotiated tight corners with brakes on the propelling caterpillar tracks. The Kettenkrad
Kettenkrad
towed antitank guns and transported troops and signal gear in several theatres of war. NSU continued to make it after the war for use in mines and forests. It was one of the few vehicles that could do jobs formerly performed by horses for which, owing to the shortage of oats, even less fuel was available than for motor vehicles. As the war progressed, military authorities placed greater stress on the development of air-cooled engines, which they felt had more immunity to damage from weather, shellfire, and misuse. To meet this demand, Opel
Opel
engineers developed an unusual variation on normal cooling for the 3.6 L truck engine. It was called "air-oil cooling", and used engine oil to take heat away from the jackets around the cylinder barrels. The heads were directly cooled by air, there being three separate aluminium finned heads, each serving two cylinders. Of this interesting engine, which developed 72 hp (54 kW; 73 PS) at 3,000 rpm on 74-octane fuel, only three examples were built. Other special jobs were undertaken at the Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
factory. One that was too exotic to be typical was the construction of an intercooler for the supercharger of the famous Junkers Jumo aircraft engine. Special
Special
methods had to be developed to fabricate this vital assembly from very thin sheets of aluminium. With work like this going on, Germany's enemies naturally took note of the various Opel
Opel
plants, and starting in August 1944, began attacking them by air. Destruction was heavy at both Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
and Brandenburg from the attacks by Allied bombers. Never was the outlook bleaker at Adam Opel
Adam Opel
AG than in the first months of 1945. Opel
Opel
had been transformed and rebuilt before. Beyond the efforts of the company's staff, very little was functioning in the factories and plants. Many of the tools with which they once had worked were gone. The Brandenburg truck plant fell into the Russian zone of a divided postwar Germany. It did not stay there long. All the machinery and equipment – right down to the window frames and bathroom fixtures – were dismantled and shipped to a site near the Ural mountains. Cars and truck production lines were lost by Opel. As reparations for war destruction, under plans of the Allied Forces, the Soviet Union asked the Allied military government for the tools, jigs, dies, fixtures, and drawings for the Kadett. This, they said, they would use to begin auto production at an Opel
Opel
subsidiary in Russian-occupied Leipzig. The equipment was duly delivered to the Soviets in June 1946, and that was the last Opel
Opel
was to see of it – but not of the Kadett. Just a year later, a new Soviet car, the Moskvitch 400, rolled off a Moscow
Moscow
assembly line. It seemed to be the Opel Kadett
Opel Kadett
in every detail, with only the name changed (various sources provide contradictory information; see the respective article). By late 1950, the Russians were exporting these Kremlin Kadetts to Belgium, stressing in their promotion that spare parts could easily be obtained from Germany. A Moskvitch model that bore no trace of Opel
Opel
engineering was not introduced until 1959, and by that time, Opel
Opel
was just about ready to introduce a new Kadett of its own. Only the strong resistance of the American government within whose zone of occupation Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
was located prevented the total dismantling of the entire Opel
Opel
plant as reparations in Russia. GM had no say in these discussions and was not sure just what posture to take toward its subsidiary. GM's Alfred Sloan recalled: "(Opel) had been seized by the German government soon after the war began. In 1942, our entire investment in Opel
Opel
amounted to about $35 million, and under a ruling which the Treasury Department had made concerning assets in enemy hands, we were allowed to write off the investment against current taxable income. But this ruling did not end our interest in, or responsibility for, the Opel
Opel
property. As the end of the war drew near, we were given to understand that we were still considered the owners of the Opel
Opel
stock; and we were also given to understand that as the owners, we might be obliged to assume responsibility for the property." It was a responsibility that Sloan and his associates were not at all sure was worth the risk in the chaos of postwar Europe. One resource that did not appear on the books of General Motors
General Motors
or on the rolls of the occupying authorities was most responsible for the recovery of Opel
Opel
in 1945, the collaborative nature of its workers. They were not itinerant hires who had looked on their work at Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
as just another job.[citation needed] They were men and women who had, for the most part, come from that immediate area, many from the country, and had literally grown up with the Adam Opel
Adam Opel
AG. The fate of Opel
Opel
was important to its workers, for its collapse would mean the loss of the most important employer for the people of Rüsselsheim, who were finding their way home from the chaos of war. Just at war's end, a small skeleton crew began clearing the rubble from the plant. By May 1945, this work had advanced enough to allow the beginning of production of desperately needed Opel
Opel
parts. Getting the materials for them was more dependent on barter and black markets than it was on normal sources of supply, which had all but ceased to exist. 1945–1970[edit]

One of the administration buildings in Rüsselsheim.

Opel
Opel
product of the 1940s: "Frigidaire" refrigerator

Opel Rekord
Opel Rekord
P1 (1957–1960)

After the end of the war, with the Brandenburg plant dismantled and transported to the Soviet Union, and 47% of the buildings in Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
destroyed,[17] former Opel
Opel
employees began to rebuild the Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
plant. In response to the pressing need for new trucks in a Germany struggling to rebuild, the American authorities governing Rüsselsheim granted permission to the plant to produce a 1.5-short-ton (1.4 t) truck powered by the 2.5 L Kapitän engine. It was a minor miracle that even this was possible. By January 1946, the plant was ready to build trucks, but many of the almost 12,000 parts needed to make each one was lacking. Before the big firms could begin, the small ones had to get started, too. Illness and poor nutrition so crippled the staff of 6,000 workers that it was normal for 500 to be too sick to come to work and more than 400 to report sick during the day. Overcoming these and other obstacles, Opel
Opel
finally celebrated the completion of the first postwar Opel Blitz
Opel Blitz
truck on 15 July 1946 in the presence of United States Army
United States Army
General Geoffrey Keyes
Geoffrey Keyes
and other local leaders and press reporters.[17] Priced at 6600RM, the truck was designed to run either on gasoline or on wood gas, for which a gas generator could be supplied. With a ceremonial bouquet of flowers flying from its rear-view mirror, this historic Opel Blitz
Opel Blitz
left the factory gate bound for a buyer in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
on 26 July. Further production followed at a rate of 150 a month, and by the end of 1946, the production total was 839. Frigidaire
Frigidaire
refrigerators were also being made at Rüsselsheim, as were Olympia engines for the NSU Kettenkrad. The next step for Opel
Opel
was the resumption of passenger car production. It might have seemed easiest to bring back the Kapitän first since its engine was already in production for the truck, but occupation regulations restricted German civilians to cars of 1.5 L or less, which made the Olympia the obvious candidate. Under Dr Ing e.h. Karl Stief, who had been chief engineer at Opel
Opel
since 1934, useful changes were made to this tough little car. The Dubonnet front suspension was replaced by a conventional coil-and-wishbone layout and the steering was correspondingly rearranged. Announced in November 1947, production of the postwar Olympia, with austere painted hubcaps, began in December 1948 and allowed a modest return to export sales in that year. In October 1948, the Kapitän came back to the Opel
Opel
line-up, unchanged except for such details as the shape of the headlights and improvements in the leaf springs and dampers. Prices in 1948 were 9950 DM for the Kapitän and 6,785 DM for the Olympia (the Deutschmark having replaced the Reichsmark
Reichsmark
on 20 June 1948). Other events which would powerfully affect Opel's future were taking place in 1948. In February and March, a GM study group came to Germany to investigate every aspect of Europe's economic situation and Opel's special problems. On their return, they submitted a report on 26 March recommending that General Motors
General Motors
resume control of Opel. On 5 April, however, GM's financial policy committee concluded, "in view of the many uncertainties surrounding the operation of this property, the Corporation is not justified in resuming the responsibility for its operation at this time..." GM, it seemed, did not want Opel. Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., and Charles Wilson, GM's president, were considering the options. Later in April, Sloan sought to resolve the differences of opinion with a position paper that he hoped would set up conditions for resuming control of Opel
Opel
that would put at rest the doubts of GM's more conservative financial minds. Sloan suggested that GM take the helm of Opel
Opel
again for a two-year "probationary" period to see whether the economic conditions, then called "close to stagnation" in Germany, would improve. Sloan set other important goals: " General Motors
General Motors
should risk no additional capital in Opel. Credit facilities should be available. We should have complete freedom in personnel policies and administration. The products produced by Adam Opel
Adam Opel
AG should be solely within the jurisdiction of management, and if prices had to be approved by government authority, a reasonable return on the capital should be allowed." With these guidelines in mind, the Opel
Opel
question was put again on 3 May to the GM financial policy committee, which then withdrew its objections to a return to Rüsselsheim. Many details still had to be worked out, both within GM and in the US-occupied zone of Germany, before this could actually occur. At last, the official word was released on 1 November 1948; GM resumed management control of Adam Opel
Opel
AG. Edward W. Zdunek, formerly regional manager for Europe of General Motors
General Motors
Overseas Operations Division, was named managing director. The appointment of Zdunek to this post was a move of special significance. An experienced motor industry executive, he reportedly was most respected by those who worked for him. Ed Zdunek was regarded as the perfect choice to guide Opel
Opel
through this difficult environment of postwar Germany. He continued in that critical position until 1961. Changes in the Opel
Opel
cars under GM's management did not appear until January 1950, when a face-lifted Olympia was introduced. Front and rear fenders were elongated and a heavy horizontal chrome grille was added. A retrograde step was the replacement of the four-speed gearbox with a three-speed unit, with a column shift lever. Engine tuning emphasised high torque at low engine speeds so the extra ratio was not too sorely missed. The cabrio-coach model was returned to the Olympia range and a kombi was also offered, built by Karosserie Miesen. In February 1951, in preparation for the first postwar automobile show in Germany, the Olympia was dressed up further with a trunk compartment that enclosed the spare tire and 15-inch (38 cm) wheels instead of 16-inch (41 cm) wheels and tires. With minor further changes, this model lasted to March 1953. Detail improvements, such as a new dashboard and a steering-column shift, embellished the Kapitän line in May 1950. Bigger changes were saved for March 1951, to anticipate the opening of the doors of the Frankfurt show on 19 April for an 11-day run. Its earlier fast-back style was modified to a mild notch-back contour, and a new horizontal grille – not the prettiest in Opel
Opel
history – dominated the frontal view. With a higher compression ratio (still only 6.25:1), engine power was 58 bhp (43 kW; 59 PS) at 3,700 rpm and top speed was 80 mph (130 km/h). Output increased to 60 bhp (45 kW; 61 PS) during the further life of this model, which ended in July 1953. More or less by fait accompli, in the absence of the tools to build the Kadett, Opel
Opel
found itself in the middle-priced bracket in Germany's postwar auto market, sandwiched between Volkswagen
Volkswagen
and Mercedes-Benz. This position was familiar to both GM and Opel, and one in which it did amazingly well. In 1953, output rose above 100,000 units for the first time since the war, and in 1954, when the sprawling plant by the Main River was considered completely rebuilt, 24,270 were employed at Adam Opel
Adam Opel
AG and 167,650 vehicles were built, an all-time high. Opel
Opel
actually fully recovered from the consequences of the postwar era. 1970–present[edit] During the 1970s and 1980s, the Vauxhall and Opel
Opel
ranges were rationalised into one consistent range across Europe. By the 1970s, Opel
Opel
had emerged as the stronger of GM's two European brands; Vauxhall was the third-best selling brand in Great Britain after the British Motor Corporation (later British Leyland) but made only a modest impact elsewhere. The two companies were direct competitors outside of each other's respective home markets, but mirroring Ford's decision to merge its British and German subsidiaries in the late 1960s, GM followed the same precedent. Opel
Opel
and Vauxhall had loosely collaborated before, but serious efforts to merge the two companies' operations and product families into one did not start until the 1970s - which had Vauxhall's complete product line replaced by vehicles built on Opel-based platforms - the only exception to the rule being the Bedford CF
Bedford CF
panel van, the only solely Vauxhall design which was marketed as an Opel
Opel
on the Continent. By the turn of the 1980s, the two brands were in effect, one and the same. Opel's first turbocharged car was the Opel Rekord
Opel Rekord
2.3 TD, first shown at Geneva in March 1984.[18] In the 1990s, Opel
Opel
was considered to be GM's cash cow, with profit margins similar to that of Toyota. Opel's profit helped to offset GM's losses in North America and to fund GM's expansion into Asia.[19] Year 1999 was the last time when Opel
Opel
was profitable for the full year.[20] Following the 2008 global financial crisis, on 10 September 2009, GM agreed to sell a 55% stake in Opel
Opel
to the Magna group with the approval of the German government. The deal was later called off.[21] With ongoing restructuring plans, Opel
Opel
announced the closure of its Antwerp
Antwerp
plant in Belgium
Belgium
by the end of 2010.[22] In 2010, Opel
Opel
announced that it will invest around €11 billion in the next five years.[23] €1 billion of that is designated solely for the development of innovative and fuel-saving engines and transmissions.[24] On 29 February 2012, Opel
Opel
announced the creation of a major alliance with PSA Peugeot Citroen
PSA Peugeot Citroen
resulting in GM taking a 7% share of PSA, becoming PSA's second-largest shareholder after the Peugeot
Peugeot
family. The alliance was intended to enable $2 billion per year of cost savings through platform sharing, common purchasing, and other economies of scale.[25] In December 2013, GM sold its 7% interest in PSA for £250 million, after plans of cost savings were not as successful.[26] Opel
Opel
was said to be among Europe's most aggressive discounters in mass-market.[27] GM reported a 2016 loss of US$257 million from its European operations.[26] It is reported that GM has lost about US$20 billion in Europe since 1999.[28] Opel's plant in Bochum
Bochum
closed in December 2014, after 52 years of activity, due to overcapacity.[29] Opel
Opel
withdrew from China, where it had a network of 22 dealers, in early 2015[30] after General Motors
General Motors
decided to withdraw its Chevrolet brand from Europe starting in 2016.[31] Sale to PSA[edit] In March 2017, Groupe PSA
Groupe PSA
agreed to buy Opel, its British sister brand Vauxhall and their European auto lending business from General Motors for US$2.2 billion.[32][33] In return, General Motors
General Motors
will pay PSA US$3.2 billion for future European pension obligations and keep managing US$9.8 billion worth of plans for existing retirees. Furthermore, GM is responsible for paying about US$400 million annually for 15 years to fund the existing Great Britain and Germany
Germany
pension plans.[32] In June 2017, Michael Lohscheller, Opel's chief financial officer replaced Karl-Thomas Neumann as CEO.[34] Neumann remains a member of the management board until the closing of the sale to PSA. Company[edit]

Assembly plant in Eisenach

The Opel Vectra
Opel Vectra
C, in production from 2002 to 2008

Opel
Opel
operates 10 vehicle, powertrain, and component plants and four development and test centres in six countries, and employs around 35,000 people in Europe. The brand sells vehicles in more than 50 markets worldwide. Other plants are in Eisenach
Eisenach
and Kaiserslautern, Germany; Szentgotthárd, Hungary; Zaragoza, Spain; Gliwice, and Tychy, Poland; Saint Petersburg, Russia; Ellesmere Port, and Luton, UK.[35] The Dudenhofen Test Center is located near the company's headquarters and is responsible for all technical testing and vehicle validations. Around 6,250 people are responsible for the engineering and design of Opel/Vauxhall vehicles at the International Technical Development Center and European Design Center in Rüsselsheim.[36] All in all, Opel
Opel
plays an important role in the global GM corporate group. The company was responsible for primary engineering of the Epsilon (I) platform, Epsilon II platform, Delta (I) platform, Delta (II) platform, and Gamma platform, and played an important role in the development of especially the higher-end, more-refined version of the Gamma II platform. General Motors' new global platform D2xx is being mainly engineered by Opel, as well.[37] Opel
Opel
is in most cases fully responsible for the car architectures and technologies up to the Opel
Opel
Insignia/Buick Regal.[38] In particular, many of the future-oriented, modern, fuel-efficient GM architectures for compact vehicles are developed by Opel.[39][40] Even the idea and concept behind the Ampera was rooted in Opel
Opel
with Frank Weber, the former Global Vehicle Line Executive and Global Chief Engineer electric vehicle development, being originally an Opel employee who was moved to the United States to advance the development of this concept in GM's home country instead of the German outpost that is Opel. In 2009, Weber returned during the reorganisation of the Opel
Opel
leadership to Adam Opel
Adam Opel
GmbH as Vice-President Planning and Commercial Vehicle Operations for the company.[41] In 2011, Frank Weber left Opel
Opel
for BMW.[42] Opel
Opel
established the Opel Performance Center
Opel Performance Center
in 1997, which is responsible for the development of high-performance cars such as the Astra OPC, Corsa OPC, and Insignia OPC. The OPC name is also used in some motorsport activities. Opel Special Vehicles
Opel Special Vehicles
(OSV) is a wholly owned subsidiary that offers public authority and special-purpose vehicles. OSV developed in co-operation with the International Technical Development Center the Opel Zafira
Opel Zafira
B 1.6 CNG (compressed natural gas). Opel
Opel
Group GmbH is responsible for the operation of General Motors businesses in Europe.[43] Leadership[edit]

Dr. Karl-Thomas Neumann CEO of the Opel
Opel
Group from March 2013 to June 2017

Chairman/ CEO of Adam Opel
Adam Opel
AG/GmbH since 1948

Name From To

Edward W. Zdunek November 1948 February 1961

Nelson J. Stork February 1961 March 1966

L. Ralph Mason March 1966 1970

Alexander Cunningham 1970 January 1974

John P. McCormack February 1974 February 1976

James F. Waters March 1976 August 1980

Robert C. Stempel September 1980 February 1982

Ferdinand Beickler February 1982 February 1986

Horst W. Herke February 1986 March 1989

Louis Hughes April 1989 June 1992

David Herman July 1992 June 1998

Gary Cowger June 1998 October 1998

Robert Hendry October 1998 March 2001

Carl-Peter Forster April 2001 June 2004

Hans Demant June 2004 January 2010

Nick Reilly January 2010 March 2011

Karl-Friedrich Stracke[44] April 2011 July 2012

Thomas Sedran (interim chairman)[45] July 2012 February 2013

Dr. Karl-Thomas Neumann[46] March 2013 June 2017

Michael Lohscheller Since June 2017

Plants[edit] As contract of 2014 the Opel
Opel
Group GmbH has the function to be the central Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of Opel/Vauxhall. Adam Opel
Opel
AG has the function to be the main supplier (tier 1) for the OEM; all subsidiary companies with all controlled plants work as tier 2 suppliers. Opel
Opel
Group and Adam Opel
Adam Opel
as well are both first-tier subsidiaries of General Motors
General Motors
Holdings LLC. and second-tier subsidiaries of General Motors
General Motors
Corporation (GMC).[47]

Production site Image Production since Products Comments Employees

Rüsselsheim, Germany

1898

Insignia (saloon/sedan, hatchback, Sports Tourer (estate/wagon), Country Tourer (crossover estate/wagon)) Zafira Tourer C[48] GM F40 transmission

International Technical Development Center (ITDC) Headquarters of Opel
Opel
Automobile GmbH Dudenhofen Test Center

12.990

Kaiserslautern, Germany

1966

components engines

2.150

Kikinda, Serbia(*Ex-Yugoslavia)

1977 -1992

Car parts Opel
Opel
Kadett, Opel
Opel
Omega, Opel
Opel
Senator(also known as Opel
Opel
Kikinda), Opel
Opel
Vectra

IDA-Opel(Industry for car parts Opel)

?

Opel Eisenach
Opel Eisenach
GmbH Eisenach, Germany

1990

Corsa E (three-door) Adam[49][50]

1.420

Zaragoza, Spain

1982

Corsa E (three-, four-, and five-door) Meriva B Mokka[51]

5.120

Gliwice, Poland

1998

Opel Astra
Opel Astra
J (saloon/sedan, GTC three-door hatchback) Opel Astra
Opel Astra
K (5-door) Buick/Opel/Vauxhall Cascada[52]

2.920

GM Powertrain Poland[53] Tychy, Poland

1996

diesel engines

480

St. Gotthard, Hungary

1990

engines transmissions

810

Vauxhall Ellesmere Port Ellesmere Port, Great Britain

1962

Astra K Sports Tourer (estate/wagon)

1.630

IBC Vehicles
IBC Vehicles
Ltd Luton, Great Britain

1907

Vivaro B

headquarters of Vauxhall

1.140

GM Auto LLC Saint Petersburg, Russia

2008

Astra J (five-door, saloon/sedan)

880

Plant controlled as first-tier subsidiary of General Motors
General Motors
Europe Limited, second-tier subsidiary of GM CME Holdings CV and third-tier subsidiary of General Motors
General Motors
Corporation (GMC):[35]

Production site Image Production since Products Comments Employees

Opel Wien
Opel Wien
GmbH[35] Aspern, Austria

1982

Family 0 engines transmissions

Opel Wien
Opel Wien
in Austria also well known as its first name General Motors Austria[54] 1.480

Marketing[edit] Logo[edit]

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1862: Adam Opel's initials

The first Opel
Opel
logo contained the letters "A" and "O" – the initials of the company's founder, Adam Opel. The A was in bronze, the O kept in red. In 1866, Opel
Opel
expanded and started to produce bicycles. Around 1890, the logo was completely redesigned. The new logo also contained the words "Victoria Blitz" (referring to Lady Victory; they were certain of the triumph of their bicycles). The word "Blitz" (English: lightning) first appeared back then, but without a depiction.

1910: the blue eye

Another redesign was commissioned in 1909. The new logo was much more spirited and contained only the company name Opel. It was placed on the motorcycles that they had started to produce in 1902, and on the first cars which were produced in 1909. In 1910, the logo was the shape of an eye, and it was surrounded by laurels, with the text "Opel" in the centre. From the mid-1930s to the 1960s, passenger cars carried a ring which was crossed by some kind of a flying thing pointing to the left, which in some form could be interpreted as a zeppelin, the same flying object being used also as a forward-pointing hood ornament. In some versions, it looked like an arrow; in others, like an aeroplane or a bird. Besides the hood ornament flying through the ring, Opel
Opel
also used a coat of arms in various forms, which mostly had a combination of white and yellow colours in it, a shade of yellow which is typical for Opel until today. One was oval, half white and half yellow. The Opel writing was black and in the middle of the oval symbol. The origin of the lightning in the 2012 Opel
Opel
logo lies in the truck Opel Blitz
Opel Blitz
(German Blitz = English "lightning"), which had been a commercial success, widely used also within the Wehrmacht, Nazi Germany's military. Originally, the logo for this truck consisted of two stripes arranged loosely like a lightning symbol with the words "Opel" and "Blitz" in them, in later, 1950s models simplified to the horizontal form of a lightning which appears in the current Opel
Opel
logo. The jag in the lightning always follows the original from the "Opel Blitz" text stripes, in the form of a horizontally stretched letter "Z". By the end of the 1960s, the two forms merged, and the horizontal lightning replaced the flying thing in the ring, giving way to the basic design which is used since then with variations. Through all its variations, this logo is simple and unique, and both easily recognisable and reproducible with just two strokes of a pen. In the 1964 version, the lightning with a ring was used in a yellow rectangle, with the Opel
Opel
writing below. The whole logo was again delimited by a black rectangle. The basic form and proportions of the Blitz logo has remained unchanged since the 1970 version, which made the lightning tails shorter so that the logo could fit proportionately within a yellow square, meaning it could be displayed next to the 'blue square' General Motors
General Motors
logo. In the mid 1970s, the Vauxhall "Griffin" logo was, in turn, resized and displayed within a corresponding red square, so that all three logos could be displayed together, thus signifying the unified GM Europe.

Evolution of hood ornament flying through ring

Hood ornament
Hood ornament
of the Opel Olympia
Opel Olympia
(1935–37)

1937: Hood ornament
Hood ornament
flying through the ring

Hood ornament
Hood ornament
of a 1937 Opel
Opel
car, typical for many other Opels at the time

Logo on spare wheel cover of a 1938 Kapitän

Logo on the rear of a 1951 Kapitän

1959 Opel
Opel
Kapitän

The lightning of the Opel Blitz
Opel Blitz
replacing the hood ornament

early 1950s Opel Blitz
Opel Blitz
with words in horizontal lightning

1961 Opel Blitz
Opel Blitz
with stylised horizontal lightning

Basic form of current logo on a 1968 Opel
Opel
Blitz

Lightning in ring on a 1969 Opel
Opel
Kapitän

The 1970-1987 version, the "Opel" script was dropped in 1981.

Opel
Opel
logo (2002–07)

2009-2017: Opel
Opel
logo with integrated lettering

Since 2017: Opel
Opel
logo

Clubs[edit] The SC Opel
Opel
Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
is a soccer club with over 450 members. RV 1888 Opel
Opel
Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
is a cycling club. Slogans[edit] Opel's corporate tagline as of June 2017 is The Future Is Everyone's (German: Die Zukunft Gehört Allen). Sponsorships[edit] Opel
Opel
sponsors many football clubs such as Bundesliga
Bundesliga
club Borussia Dortmund,[55] Eredivisie
Eredivisie
club Feyenoord, Liga I
Liga I
club Petrolul Ploiești,[56] and Süper Lig
Süper Lig
club Galatasaray. Opel
Opel
also sponsored Australian Rugby League
Rugby League
club the Sydney Roosters
Sydney Roosters
who play in the NRL and Australian rules football
Australian rules football
team the Melbourne Demons
Melbourne Demons
in the AFL.[57] [58][59] World presence[edit] The Opel
Opel
brand is present in the most of Europe, in parts of North Africa, in South Africa, the Middle East, in Chile
Chile
and in Singapore.[60] Their models have been rebadged and sold in other countries and continents, such as Vauxhall in the United Kingdom, Chevrolet
Chevrolet
in Latin America, Holden
Holden
in Australia and New Zealand, and previously, Saturn in the United States and Canada. Following the demise of General Motors
General Motors
Corporation's Saturn division in North America, Opel
Opel
cars are currently rebadged and sold in the United States, Canada, Mexico,[61] and China under the Buick name with models such as the Opel
Opel
Insignia/Buick Regal, Opel Astra
Opel Astra
sedan/Buick Verano(both which share underpinnings with the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Cruze), and Opel
Opel
Mokka/Buick Encore. GM confirmed plans of a "hybrid global brand" which includes Opel/Vauxhall and Buick to use more synergies between the brands.[62][63] North America[edit] United States[edit] Opel
Opel
cars appeared under their own name in the US from 1958 to 1975, when they were sold through Buick dealers as captive imports. The best-selling Opel
Opel
models in the US were the 1964 to 1972 Opel
Opel
Kadett, the 1971 to 1975 Opel
Opel
Manta, and the now-classic 1968 to 1973 Opel GT.[64][65] (The name "Opel" was also applied from 1976 to 1980 on vehicles manufactured by Isuzu
Isuzu
(similar to the " Isuzu
Isuzu
I-mark"), but mechanically those were entirely different cars). Historically, Opel
Opel
vehicles have also been sold at various times in the North American market as either heavily modified, or "badge engineered" models under the Chevrolet, Buick, Pontiac, Saturn, and Cadillac
Cadillac
brands - for instance the J-body platform, which was largely developed by Opel
Opel
- was the basis of North American models such as the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Cavalier and Cadillac
Cadillac
Cimarron. Below is a list of current or recent Opel
Opel
models which are sold under GM's North American brands. Buick Regal
Buick Regal
(fifth generation, since 2009)[edit] The Buick Regal
Buick Regal
is a rebadged Opel
Opel
Insignia.[66] The main differences are the modified radiator grill and the altered colour of the passenger compartment illumination (blue instead of red). The Regal GS is comparable to the Insignia OPC. It was first assembled alongside the Insignia at the Opel
Opel
plant in Rüsselsheim. Since the first quarter of 2011, it is now being built on the flexible assembly line at the GM plant in Oshawa, Canada.[67]

Opel
Opel
Insignia

Buick Regal

Buick Cascada[edit] The Buick Cascada is a rebadged Opel
Opel
Cascada, built in Poland and sold in the United States unchanged from the Opel
Opel
in all but badging.[68][69]

Opel
Opel
Cascada

Buick Cascada

Buick LaCrosse[edit] Unlike the vehicles listed above, the Buick LaCrosse
Buick LaCrosse
is not a rebadged version of an Opel
Opel
model. However, it is based on a long-wheelbase version of the Opel-developed Epsilon II-platform, so shares many key components with the Opel Insignia
Opel Insignia
and thereby the Buick Regal.

2014 Buick LaCrosse

Saturn Astra
Saturn Astra
(2008–2009)[edit] The Astra H was sold in the US as the Saturn Astra
Saturn Astra
for model years 2008 and 2009.

Opel Astra
Opel Astra
five-door

Saturn Astra
Saturn Astra
XE five-door

Saturn L-Series
Saturn L-Series
(2000-2005)[edit] The Saturn L-Series
Saturn L-Series
was a modified version of the Opel Vectra
Opel Vectra
B. Though the Saturn had different exterior styling and had plastic door panels, it shared the same body shape as the Opel. Both cars rode on the GM2900 platform. The Saturn also had a different interior, yet shared some interior parts, such as the inside of the doors.

Opel Vectra
Opel Vectra
B Sedan

Saturn L-Series
Saturn L-Series
Sedan

Cadillac
Cadillac
Catera (1997–2001)[edit] The Opel Omega
Opel Omega
B was sold in the US as the Cadillac
Cadillac
Catera.

Opel
Opel
Omega

Cadillac
Cadillac
Catera

Africa[edit] Opel
Opel
exports a variety of models to Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, and South Africa. South Africa[edit] Main article: General Motors
General Motors
South Africa The 2015 Opel
Opel
range in South Africa comprises the Opel
Opel
Adam, Opel Astra, Opel
Opel
Corsa, Opel
Opel
Meriva, Opel
Opel
Mokka, and Opel
Opel
Vivaro. No diesel versions are offered. From 1986 to 2003, Opel
Opel
models were produced by Delta Motor Corporation, a company created through a management buyout following of GM's divestment from apartheid South Africa. Delta assembled the Opel
Opel
Kadett, with the sedan version called the Opel
Opel
Monza. This was replaced by the Opel
Opel
Astra, although the Kadett name was retained for the hatchback and considered a separate model. A version of the Rekord Series E remained in production after the model had been replaced by the Omega in Europe, as was a Commodore model unique to South Africa, combining the bodyshell of the Rekord with the front end of the revised Senator. The Opel Corsa
Opel Corsa
was introduced in 1996, with kits of the Brazilian-designed sedan and pick-up (known in South African English as a bakkie) being locally assembled. Although GM's passenger vehicle line-up in South Africa consisted of Opel-based models by the late 1970s, these were sold under the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
brand name, with only the Kadett being marketed as an Opel when it was released in 1980. In 1982, the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
brand name was dropped, with the Ascona, Rekord, Commodore, and Senator
Senator
being rebadged as Opels. Oceania[edit] Many Opel
Opel
models or models based on Opel
Opel
architectures have been sold in Australia and New Zealand under the Holden
Holden
marque, such as the Holden
Holden
Barina (1994-2005), which were rebadged versions of the Opel Corsa, the Holden
Holden
Astra. a version of the Opel
Opel
Astra, and the Captiva 5, a version of the Opel
Opel
Antara. In New Zealand, the Opel Kadett
Opel Kadett
and Ascona were sold as niche models by General Motors
General Motors
New Zealand in the 1980s, while the Opel
Opel
brand was used on the Opel Vectra
Opel Vectra
until 1994. For the first time ever, the Opel
Opel
brand was introduced to Australia on 1 September 2012, including the Corsa, Astra, Astra GTC, and Insignia models.[70][71] On 2 August 2013, Opel
Opel
announced it was ending exports to Australia due to poor sales, with only 1,530 vehicles sold in the first ten months.[72][73] Now, after the Opel
Opel
Australia closure, Holden
Holden
will import newer Opel models again such as the Astra GTC (ceased 1 May 2017), Astra VXR (Astra OPC), Cascada (ceased 1 May 2017), and Insignia VXR
VXR
(Insignia OPC),(ceased 1 May 2017), under the Holden
Holden
badge.[74] The 2018 5th-gen Holden
Holden
Commodore ZB is a badge-engineered Opel
Opel
Insignia, replacing the Australian-made, rear-wheel drive Commodore with the German-made front-/all-wheel drive Insignia platform. Asia[edit] China[edit] Opel's presence in China recommenced in 2012 with the Antara, and added the Insignia estate in 2013.[75] Opel-derived models are also sold as Buick. On 28 March 2014, Opel
Opel
announced that it would leave China in 2015.[76] Japan[edit] See also: オペル (ja) Opel
Opel
was long General Motors' strongest marque in Japan, with sales peaking at 38,000 in 1996. However, the brand was withdrawn from the Japanese market in December 2006, with just 1,800 sales there in 2005. Since then, Opel
Opel
has not sold any cars or SUVs in Japan. Singapore[edit] A wide range of Opel
Opel
models are exported to Singapore. Malaysia[edit] Opel
Opel
was marketed in Malaysia
Malaysia
beginning from the 1970s, and early models exported were Kadett, Gemini, and Manta. Opel
Opel
had moderate sales from the 1980s until the early 2000s, when Malaysian car buyers favoured Japanese and Korean brand cars such as Toyota, Honda, Hyundai, and Kia, which offered more competitive prices. Sales of Opel cars in Malaysia
Malaysia
were dropped then, as Opel's prices were slightly higher than the same-segment Japanese, Korean, and local Proton cars, and they were hard to maintain, had bad aftersales services, and spare parts were not readily available. Opel
Opel
was withdrawn from Malaysian market in 2003, and the last models sold were the Zafira, Astra, and Vectra, and the rebadged Isuzu
Isuzu
MU as the Frontera, later replaced by Chevrolet. South America[edit] Several Opel
Opel
models were sold across Latin America
Latin America
for decades with Chevrolet
Chevrolet
badges, including the Corsa, Astra, Vectra, Meriva, and Zafira. In the 2010s, the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
line-up changed to adopt North American models such as the Spark, Sonic, and Cruze. Opel
Opel
exported a wide range of products to Chile
Chile
since 2011.[77] Europe[edit] United Kingdom[edit] Main article: Vauxhall Motors Ireland[edit] Two Opel-franchised assembly plants were in Ireland in the 1960s. One in Ringsend, Dublin, was operated by Reg Armstrong Motors, which also assembled NSU cars and motorcycles. Armstrong was an international competitor in motorcycle racing. The second assembly plant was based in Cork and operated by O'Shea's, which also assembled Škoda cars and Zetor
Zetor
tractors. The models assembled were the Kadett and the Rekord. From 1966, the Admiral
Admiral
was imported as a fully built unit and became a popular seller. European Car of the Year[edit] Opel
Opel
have produced five winners of the European Car of the Year competition:

1985: Opel Kadett
Opel Kadett
E 1987: Opel Omega
Opel Omega
A 2009: Opel
Opel
Insignia 2012: Opel
Opel
Ampera 2016: Opel Astra
Opel Astra
K

Shortlisted models[edit] Several models have been shortlisted, including the:

1980: Opel Kadett
Opel Kadett
D 1981: Opel Ascona
Opel Ascona
C 1989: Opel Vectra
Opel Vectra
A 1991: Opel
Opel
Calibra 1992: Opel Astra
Opel Astra
F 1995: Opel Omega
Opel Omega
B 1999: Opel Astra
Opel Astra
G 2000: Opel Zafira
Opel Zafira
A 2007: Opel Corsa
Opel Corsa
D 2010: Opel Astra
Opel Astra
J 2011: Opel Meriva
Opel Meriva
B

Nomenclature[edit] From the late 1930s to the 1980s, terms from the German Navy (Kapitän, Admiral, Kadett) and from other official sectors (Diplomat, Senator) were often used as model names. Since the late 1980s, the model names of Opel
Opel
passenger cars end with an a. As Opels were no longer being sold in the UK, no need remained to have separate model names for essentially identical Vauxhall and Opel
Opel
cars (although some exceptions were made to suit the UK market). The last series to be renamed across the two companies was the Opel
Opel
Kadett, being the only Opel
Opel
to take the name of its Vauxhall counterpart, as Opel
Opel
Astra. Although only two generations of Astra were built prior to the 1991 model, the new car was referred to across Europe as the Astra F, referring to its Kadett lineage. Until 1993, the Opel Corsa
Opel Corsa
was known as the Vauxhall Nova in the UK, as Vauxhall had initially felt that Corsa sounded too much like "coarse", and would not catch on. Exceptions to the nomenclature of ending names with an "a" include the under-licence built Monterey, the Speedster (also known as the Vauxhall VX220
Vauxhall VX220
in the UK), GT (which was not sold at all as a Vauxhall, despite the VX Lightning concept), the Signum, Karl, and the Adam. The Adam was initially supposed to be called, "Junior" as was its developmental codename and because the name 'Adam' had no history/importance to the Vauxhall marque. Similar to the passenger cars, the model names of commercial vehicles end with an o (Combo, Vivaro, Movano), except the Corsavan and Astravan for obvious reasons. Another unique aspect to Opel
Opel
nomenclature is its use of the "Caravan" (originally styled as 'Car-A-Van') name to denote its station wagon body configuration, (similar to Volkswagen's Variant or Audi's Avant designations), a practice the company observed for many decades, which finally ceased with the 2008 Insignia and 2009 Astra, where the name "Sports Tourer" is now used for the estate/station wagon versions. Current model range[edit] Main article: List of Opel
Opel
vehicles The following tables list current and announced Opel
Opel
production vehicles as of 2017:

Adam

City car

Hatchback

Ampera-e

All-electric subcompact car

Hatchback

Astra

family car

Hatchback Sports Tourer (Estate/Wagon)

Cascada

Mid-size car

Convertible

Combo Tour

Leisure activity vehicle

Van

Corsa

Supermini

Hatchback

Crossland X

Subcompact crossover

MPV/SUV

Grandland X

Compact crossover SUV

SUV

Insignia Grand Sport

Large family car

Grand Sport (Hatchback) Sports Tourer (Estate/Wagon) Country Tourer (AWD Estate/Wagon)

Karl

City car

Hatchback

Mokka X

Subcompact crossover SUV

SUV

Zafira

Large MPV

MPV

Light commercial vehicles[edit]

Corsavan

Car-derived van

Van

Combo

Panel van

Van

Vivaro

Light commercial vehicle

Van

Movano

Light commercial vehicle

Van Chassis cab Crew cab

OPC models[edit] Main article: Opel
Opel
Performance Center Opel
Opel
produces high-performance derivatives of their cars developed by OPC.

Astra OPC

Compact sports car

Hatchback

Corsa OPC

Supermini

Hatchback

Discontinued models[edit]

System Lutzmann

1899–1902

Darracq

1902–1907

Doktorwagen

1909–1910

Laubfrosch

1924–1931

Olympia

1935–1970

Kadett

1937–1940 1962–1991

Kapitän

1939–1970

Olympia Rekord

1953–1957

Rekord

1953–1986

Commodore

1967–1982

GT

1968–1973

Ascona

1970–1988

Manta

1970–1988

Senator

1978–1993

Omega

1986–2003

Vectra

1988–2009

Calibra

1989–1997

Signum

2003–2008

Meriva

2003-2017

Motorsports[edit]

Opel Adam
Opel Adam
R2 Rallye at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show

Opel Vectra
Opel Vectra
GTS V8 DTM of Phoenix Racing at Circuit Park Zandvoort
Circuit Park Zandvoort
in 2005

Opel Rally Team took part in World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
in the early 1980s with the Opel Ascona
Opel Ascona
400 and the Opel Manta
Opel Manta
400, developed in conjunction with Irmscher
Irmscher
and Cosworth. Walter Röhrl
Walter Röhrl
won the 1982 World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
drivers' title, and the 1983 Safari Rally
Safari Rally
was won by Ari Vatanen. In the late 1990s, Opel
Opel
took part in the International Touring Car Championship, and won the 1996 Championship with the Calibra. Opel took part in the German DTM race series between 2000 and 2005 with the Astra, and despite winning several races, it never won the DTM championship. Opel
Opel
returned to motorsport competition with the Adam in 2013.[78] In 2014, Opel
Opel
presented a road-legal sport version of the Adam R2 Rally Car - Opel Adam
Opel Adam
S[79] - powered by a 1.4 L turbocharged engine which generates 150 HP. The car makes 0–100 km/h in just 8.5 seconds. See also[edit]

Germany
Germany
portal Cars portal Cycling portal Companies portal

Fritz von Opel Rikky von Opel Wilhelm von Opel Irmscher Steinmetz Opel
Opel
Tuning IDA-Opel List of German cars

References[edit]

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Opel
History". Opel. 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.  ^ Opel
Opel
Corporate Communications (2014). "Year in Review 2014 - Facts & Figures" (PDF). Opel. Adam Opel
Adam Opel
AG. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 July 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.  ^ a b "Facts".  ^ "Statista". 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2018.  ^ Mihalascu, Dan (25 May 2013). "OPC Boss Volker Strycek Drives and Talks About the Astra OPC". Carscoops. Carscoop & Carscoops. Retrieved 13 August 2013.  ^ "Form 10-K Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2012 Commission File
File
Number 001-34960 General Motors
General Motors
Company" (PDF). General Motors. General Motors
General Motors
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Opel
turnaround as GM exits Europe". Reuters. 6 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2018.  ^ "Locations & Facts". Opel. 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.  ^ " Opel
Opel
Adam". Auto-power-girl.com. Retrieved 19 November 2014.  ^ "Informationen zu Opel". Autoscout24.de. Retrieved 1 October 2010.  ^ "Lutzmann". Cartype. Retrieved 13 June 2009.  ^ "History & Heritage - Our Company - GM.com". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ Europe, WIM OUDE WEERNINK Automotive News (21 June 1999). "OPEL: GERMAN ROOTS, GLOBAL REACH" (p. 24B). Automotive News. Retrieved 5 February 2018.  ^ "Opel". 6 December 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2016.  ^ Nieuwenhuis, Paul; Peter E. Wells (8 August 2003). The Automotive Industry and the Environment, 1st Edition. Woodhead Publishing. p. 109. ISBN 978-1855737136.  ^ Heinz Michaels (21 February 1964). ""...Mit einer Produktion von 130 267 Fahrzeugen waren sie im Jahre 1937 die größte Automobilfabrik Europas und die siebtgrößte der Welt". Der große Sprung nach vorn: Kann Opel
Opel
Deutschlands größter Autolieferant werden?. Die Zeit (online). Retrieved 13 September 2015.  ^ a b "Das Alte stürzt...Es aendert sich die Zeit......und neues Leben blüht aus den Ruinen". Das Auto. 1: Seite 2–3. December 1946.  ^ Mazzocchi, Gianni, ed. (April 1984). "Autonotizie: Anche la Opel
Opel
si dà al turbo" [Car News: Opel
Opel
too with turbo]. Quattroruote (in Italian). Milan, Italy: Editoriale Domus. 29 (342): 108.  ^ Phelan, Mark (9 March 2017). "Soul searching at GM after selling Opel". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 11 March 2017.  ^ Karaian, Jason. "After losing $20 billion over 17 dismal years, General Motors
General Motors
may finally quit Europe". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ "GM Decides to Keep Opel
Opel
After All, Cancels Sale with Magna". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ Harley, Michael. "GM announces plans to close Opel
Opel
Antwerp facility". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ "GM's Opel
Opel
Outlines 11 Billion- Euro
Euro
Investment as It Seeks Aid". Bloomberg L.P. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2011.  ^ "Autobauer: Opel-Betriebsrat begrüßt Elf-Milliarden-Investition von GM - Nachrichten - DerWesten" (in German). Derwesten.de. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2011.  ^ "GM and Peugeot
Peugeot
announce alliance". BBC News. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012.  ^ a b " Peugeot
Peugeot
in talks to buy GM's Vauxhall and Opel
Opel
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Peugeot
Owner PSA Explores Acquisition of GM's Opel
Opel
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Opel
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Bochum
- News - DW.COM - 05.12.2014". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ "Carmaker Opel
Opel
pulls out of China, to build Buicks for parent GM". Deutsche Welle. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ " General Motors
General Motors
to withdraw Chevrolet
Chevrolet
brand from Europe". BBC. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ a b Frost, Lawrence; Taylor, Edward (6 March 2017). "PSA targets Opel
Opel
turnaround as GM exits Europe". Reuters. Retrieved 10 March 2017.  ^ Welch, David (6 March 2017). "GM to Make Pension Payments for Years Just to Get Out of Europe". Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ Michael Lohscheller Appointed New CEO of Opel, media.opel.com, 12 June 2017 ^ a b c Note: The powertrain plant Opel Wien
Opel Wien
GmbH in Aspern/Vienna (Austria) is not a subsidiary of Adam Opel
Adam Opel
AG but a first-tier subsidiary of General Motors
General Motors
Europe Limited (GME) (99.5%) and of GM AUTOMOTIVE UK (GMAUK) (0.5%), see " Opel Wien
Opel Wien
GmbH, FN 110500a". FirmenABC Marketing GmbH. Retrieved 3 April 2017.  Both, GME and GMAUK, are located in Luton. GME Ltd. itself is a daughter company of GM CME Holdings CV, which is directly controlled by the General Motors Corporation (GMC), see "Name: GENERAL MOTORS EUROPE LIMITED, Company Number: 07556915". Company search, Made Simple Group Ltd. Retrieved 3 April 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.  ^ "2015 Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Cruze to ride on a new global platform - report". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ " Opel
Opel
/ Vauxhall - Wide Open Throttle (WOT)". Wot.motortrend.com. Retrieved 13 October 2012.  ^ "GM and Opel's Strange Love - Feature". Car and Driver. Retrieved 13 October 2012.  ^ Mark Wan. " General Motors
General Motors
Page". Autozine.org. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.  ^ "Frank Weber wird Chef der Opel-Produktplanung [Autokiste]". Autokiste.de. 27 November 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2010.  ^ " BMW
BMW
hires General Motors
General Motors
electric car expert". Reuters. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ " Opel
Opel
becomes more efficient and solid". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ Opel
Opel
bekommt neuen Chef. www.tagesschau.de: Pressemitteilung der Adam Opel
Adam Opel
AG. Retrieved 17 March 2011. ^ Trefis Team (18 April 2012). "GM Is Headed For $27.50 Unless Europe Bleeds More Cash". Forbes. Retrieved 13 October 2012.  ^ " Opel
Opel
Officially Appoints Dr. Karl-Thomas Neumann As Chairman, GM Europe President, GM Vice President". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ Opel
Opel
Group GmbH, Rüsselsheim: Jahresabschluss zum Geschäftsjahr vom 01.01.2015 bis zum 31.12.2015 (german). To retrieve at: Bundesanzeiger > Suchen > Opel
Opel
Group GmbH. Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. ^ " Opel Zafira
Opel Zafira
Tourer Production To Remain in Germany". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ " Opel Junior
Opel Junior
Opus 2: "REVELATION"". Ebook.gmeuropearchive.info. Archived from the original on 11 June 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ " Opel Junior
Opel Junior
to be made in Eisenach, Germany". Inautonews.com. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ " Opel
Opel
Announces Plan To Build Mokka in Spain Beginning 2014". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ "New Opel
Opel
Cascada: high class soft top convertible - Opel". Opel.com. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.  ^ "GM Purchases Remaining Shares in Tychy
Tychy
Plant". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ General Motors
General Motors
Austria Gesellschaft m.b.H. (GMA, founded 1963 as sales organisation; from 1979: Administration, Non-productive Departments an Sales) and General Motors
General Motors
Austria Werke Gesellschaft m.b.H. (GMAW founded 1979; Production). In November 1987 GMAW (Austrian Handelsregister, HRB 24.436) were merged into GMA (HRB 20.133b, actual Firmenbuch FN 110500a). ^ "GM's Steve Girsky Draws Parallels Between German Soccer
Soccer
Club & Opel". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ "FC Petrolul - Opel
Opel
Partnership". FC Petrolul Ploiești
FC Petrolul Ploiești
(in Romanian). 15 January 2014. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014.  ^ " Sydney Roosters
Sydney Roosters
Partner with Opel
Opel
Australia". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ "Galatasaray ile Opel
Opel
Sponsorluk Anlaşması İmzaladı". Galatasaray SK. Retrieved 17 April 2013.  ^ " Opel
Opel
Now Also Galatasaray Istanbul Partner". OPEL. Retrieved 17 April 2013.  ^ " Opel
Opel
International". Opel.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014.  ^ "Buick Launches Regal Turbo in Mexico". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ "Opel, Buick To Expand Product Sharing, Become A "Hybrid Global Brand"". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ "Tina Müller New Chief Marketing Officer and Opel
Opel
Board Member". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ " Opel
Opel
Motorsport
Motorsport
Club". Opel
Opel
Motorsport
Motorsport
Club. Retrieved 1 October 2010.  ^ " Opel
Opel
GT". Opel
Opel
GT. Retrieved 1 October 2010.  ^ "GM and Opel's Strange Love - Feature". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ "2011 Buick Regal
Buick Regal
Will be Built in Canada". Blog.caranddriver.com. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 13 October 2012.  ^ "Buick Cascada: Developed in Germany
Germany
and Built in Poland". media.gm.com. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ "2016 Buick Cascada Convertible: From Opel, with Love - Official Photos and Info". Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ "German article from heise online reporting that Opel
Opel
is going to enter outer-european markets". Heise.de. Retrieved 1 October 2010.  ^ GoAutoMedia (14 September 2010). " Opel
Opel
2011 Astra - Holden
Holden
eyes Opel". GoAuto. Retrieved 1 October 2010.  ^ Tschampa, Dorothee (9 August 2013). " Opel
Opel
to Exit Australia After 11-Month Effort Proves Unprofitable". Bloomberg. Retrieved 10 August 2013.  ^ "Jobs to go as Opel
Opel
abandons Australia". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ " Opel
Opel
to Build Vehicles for Holden
Holden
in Australia and New Zealand". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ "First Opel Insignia
Opel Insignia
Sports Tourer in China Delivered to Customer". Opel. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.  ^ " Opel
Opel
Invests 245 Million Euros in Ruesselsheim". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ " Opel
Opel
To Export To Chile, Other Expanding Markets". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ " Opel
Opel
returns to motor sport". Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ "150HP Opel Adam
Opel Adam
S". Auto-Power-Girl.com. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 

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Type 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

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City car

Agila A Agila B Karl

Adam

Supermini

Corsa A Corsa B Corsa C Corsa D Corsa E

Chevette

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Ampera Ampera-e

Large family car Ascona B Ascona C Vectra A Vectra B Vectra C / Signum Insignia A Insignia B

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Luxury car Senator
Senator
A Senator
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B

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Tigra A

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Cascada

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Speedster GT (Roadster)

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Meriva A

Crossland X

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Meriva B

Zafira A Zafira B

Large MPV

Sintra

Zafira Tourer C

Mini SUV

Mokka

Compact SUV

Frontera A Frontera B

Antara

Grandland X

Mid-size SUV

Monterey

Pick-up

Campo

LAV

Kadett Combo Combo B Combo C Combo D

LCV Bedford Blitz

Arena Vivaro A Vivaro B

Movano A Movano B

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Type 1919 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s

9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Small family car

4/12 PS

1.2 litre / P4

4/14 PS 4/16 PS 4/20 PS

1.0 litre 1.3 litre Kadett

Compact car

Olympia

Olympia

Large family car

7/34 & 8/40 1.8 litre 2.0 litre

Executive car

10/40

Super 6 Kapitän

Kapitän

Luxury Car

12/50 14/50

Regent

Admiral

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Class 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s

7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Small family car

Kadett A Kadett B Kadett C

Olympia

Olympia A

Large family car

Olympia Rekord Rekord P1 Rekord P2

Ascona A Ascona B

Rekord A Rekord B Rekord C Rekord D Rekord E

Executive car

Commodore A Commodore B Commodore C

Luxury vehicle Admiral Kapitan Diplomat Senator

Sports car

Manta A Manta B

GT

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i BMW
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Current

Canyon Cube Derby Cycle Diamant Focus Hase Kalkhoff Kettler Opel Prophete Riese und Müller ROSE Rixe Utopia

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Adler Brennabor Express Werke Hoffmann Industrieverband Fahrzeugbau NSU Simson TWN Victoria Wanderer

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 122152911 ISNI: 0000 0004 0524 2

.