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Olsztyn
Olsztyn
([ˈɔlʂtɨn] ( listen); English: /ˈɒlʃtɪn/; German: Allenstein ( listen); Old Polish: Holstin; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini or Alnestabs; Lithuanian: Alnaštynas, Alnštynas, Alštynas (historical) and Olštynas (modern)) is a city on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland. Olsztyn
Olsztyn
is the capital of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, and is a city with county rights. Founded as Allenstein in the 14th century, Olsztyn
Olsztyn
was under the control and influence of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
until 1466, when it was incorporated into the Polish Crown.[1] For centuries the city was an important centre of trade, crafts, science and administration in the Warmia
Warmia
region linking Warsaw
Warsaw
with Königsberg.[2] Following the First Partition of Poland
Poland
in 1772 Warmia
Warmia
was annexed by Prussia
Prussia
and ceased to be the property of the clergy. In the 19th century the city changed its status completely, becoming the most prominent economic hub of the southern part of Eastern Prussia. The construction of a railway and early industrialization greatly contributed to Olsztyn's significance. Following World War II, the city returned to Poland
Poland
in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement. Since 1999 Olsztyn
Olsztyn
has been the capital city of the Warmia-Masuria. In the same year, the University of Warmia
Warmia
and Masuria
Masuria
was founded from the fusion of three other local universities. Today, the Castle of Warmian Bishops houses a museum and is a venue for concerts, art exhibitions, film shows and other cultural events, which make Olsztyn a popular tourist destination.[3][4] The most important sights of the city include the medieval Old Town and the Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Cathedral, which dates back more than 600 years. The picturesque market square is part of the European Route of Brick Gothic and the cathedral is regarded as one of the greatest monuments of Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
in Poland.[5] Olsztyn, for a number of years, has been ranked very highly in quality of life, income, employment and safety. It currently is one of the best places in Poland
Poland
to live and work.[6][7] It is also one of the happiest cities in the country.[7]

Contents

1 History 2 Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Castle 3 Jewish
Jewish
community 4 Geography

4.1 Greenbelt 4.2 Lakes

5 Demographics 6 Administrative division 7 Culture

7.1 Theatres 7.2 Cinemas 7.3 Museums 7.4 Architecture 7.5 Music

8 Economy 9 Transport 10 Education 11 Sports 12 Politics 13 Notable residents 14 International relations

14.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

15 Notes 16 References 17 External links

History[edit]

Historical affiliations

Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
1353–1466 Kingdom of Poland
Poland
1466–1569 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1569–1772 Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
1772–1871 German Empire
German Empire
1871–1918 Weimar Germany
Weimar Germany
1918–1933 Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
1933–1945 People's Republic of Poland
Poland
1945–1989  Republic of Poland
Poland
1989–present

Old Town Hall on the Market Square

In 1346, the forest was cleared at a location on the Alle River (now Łyna River) for a new settlement in Prussian Warmia
Warmia
(former German Ermland). The following year, Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
began the construction of an Ordensburg
Ordensburg
castle as a stronghold against the Old Prussians.[8] The German name "Allenstein" refers to a stronghold on the Alle River – which became known in Polish transliteration as Olsztyn. Allenstein received municipal rights in October 1353,[9] and the castle was completed in 1397.[10] The town was captured by the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
during the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War in 1410, and again in 1414 during the Hunger War, but it was returned to the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
after hostilities ended. Allenstein joined the Prussian Confederation
Prussian Confederation
in 1440 and rebelled against the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in 1454 upon the outbreak of the Thirteen Years' War. Although the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
recaptured the town the following year, it was retaken by Polish troops in 1463. The Second Peace of Thorn in 1466 designated Allenstein and the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia
Warmia
as part of Royal Prussia
Prussia
under the sovereignty of the Polish Crown.[11]

St. James's Cathedral

From 1516 to 1521, Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
lived at the castle as administrator of both Olsztyn
Olsztyn
and Melzak (now Pieniężno). Copernicus was in charge of the Polish defense of Olsztyn
Olsztyn
during the Polish-Teutonic War of 1519–21.[12] Olsztyn
Olsztyn
was sacked by Swedish troops in both 1655 and 1708 during the Polish-Swedish wars, and the town's population was nearly wiped out in 1710 by epidemics of bubonic plague and cholera. The town became part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
in 1772 after the First Partition of Poland. Poles became subject to extensive Germanisation policies. A Prussian census recorded a population of 1,770 people, predominantly farmers, and Allenstein was administered within the newly created Province of East Prussia. It was visited by Napoleon Bonaparte[13] in 1807 after his victories over the Prussian Army
Prussian Army
at Jena and Auerstedt. By 1825, the town was inhabited by 1341 Germans and 1266 Poles.[14] The first German-language newspaper, the Allensteiner Zeitung, began publishing in 1841. The town hospital was founded in 1867.

Historic building that was once the headquarters of Gazeta Olsztyńska ( Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Daily Newspaper)

In 1871, with the unification of Germany
Germany
under Prussian hegemony, Allenstein became part of the German Empire. Two years later, the city was connected by railway to Toruń. Its first Polish language newspaper, the Gazeta Olsztyńska, was founded in 1886. Allenstein's infrastructure developed[15] rapidly: gas was installed in 1890, telephones in 1892, public water supply in 1898, and electricity in 1907. In 1905, the city became the capital of Regierungsbezirk Allenstein, a government administrative region in East Prussia. From 1818 to 1910, the city was administered within the East Prussia Allenstein District, after which it became an independent city.

Kopernikusplatz (postcard, 1917)

Shortly after the outbreak of World War I
World War I
in 1914, Russian troops captured Allenstein, but it was recovered by the Imperial German Army in the Battle of Tannenberg. The battle took place closer to Allenstein than to Tannenberg (now Stębark), but the Germans, recalling their defeat in the 1410 Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
(German: Battle of Tannenberg), named it "Tannenberg II" for nationalistic reasons. After the defeat of Germany
Germany
in World War I, the East Prussian plebiscite was held in 1920 to determine whether the populace of the region, including Allenstein, wished to remain in German East Prussia or become part of Poland. In order to advertise the plebiscite, special postage stamps were produced by overprinting German stamps and sold on 3 April of that year. One kind of overprint read PLÉBISCITE / OLSZTYN / ALLENSTEIN, while the other read TRAITÉ / DE / VERSAILLES / ART. 94 et 95 inside an oval whose border gave the full name of the plebiscite commission. Each overprint was applied to 14 denominations ranging from 5 Pfennigs to 3 Marks. The plebiscite was held on 11 July, and produced 362,209 votes (97.8%) for Germany
Germany
and 7,980 votes (2.2%) for Poland. The football club SV Hindenburg Allenstein
SV Hindenburg Allenstein
played in Allenstein from 1921 to 1945. After the January 1933 Nazi seizure of power in Germany, Jews
Jews
in Allenstein were increasingly persecuted. Also anti-Polish sentiment became more visible. The Gazeta Olsztyńska
Gazeta Olsztyńska
was abolished by the German authorities, the newspaper's headquarters was demolished and the editor-in-chief Seweryn Pieniężny was arrested and executed in the Hohenbruch German concentration camp. In 1935, the German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
made the city the seat of the Allenstein Militärische Bereich. It was then home of the 11th and 217th infantry divisions and 11th Artillery Regiment.

Trams
Trams
in Olsztyn
Olsztyn
began operating in December 2015

On 12 October 1939, after the German invasion of Poland
Poland
that began World War II, the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
established an Area Headquarters for a military district that controlled the environs of Allenstein, including Lötzen
Lötzen
(now Giżycko), and Ciechanów
Ciechanów
in occupied Poland. Beginning in 1939, members of the Polish-speaking minority, especially members of the Union of Poles in Germany, were persecuted or deported back to Poland. On 22 January 1945, near the end of the war, Allenstein was plundered and burned by the conquering Soviet Red Army, and much of its German population fled.[16] On 2 August 1945, the city became part of Poland under border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference, and officially became the Polish "Olsztyn". In October 1945, the remnants of the German population were forcibly expelled.[17] A tire factory was founded in Olsztyn
Olsztyn
in 1967. Its subsequent names included OZOS, Stomil and Michelin.[18] In 1989 the former Gazeta Olsztyńska
Gazeta Olsztyńska
headquarters was rebuilt and re-opened as a museum. Olsztyn
Olsztyn
became the capital of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
in 1999. It was previously in the Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Voivodeship. Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Castle[edit]

Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Castle courtyard

Interior of the Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Castle

The castle was built between 1346–1353 and by then it had one wing on the north-east side of the rectangular courtyard. Access to the castle lead from the drawbridge over the river Łyna (Alle), surrounded by a belt of defensive walls and a moat. The south-west wing of the castle was built in the 15th century, the tower situated in the west corner of the courtyard, from the middle of the 14th century, was rebuilt in the early 16th century and had a round shape on a square base and was 40 meters high. At the same time the castle walls were raised to a height of 12 meters and a second belt of the lower walls was built. The castle walls were partly combined with city walls, which made the castle look like it had been a powerful bastion defending access to the city. The castle was owned by Warmia
Warmia
Chapter, which until 1454, together with the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, was under military protection of the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
and their Monastic State of Prussia. The castle had played a huge role in the Polish-Teutonic wars by then. After the Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
in 1410, the Poles took it after a few days siege. In the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66)
Thirteen Years' War (1454–66)
it was jumping from rule to rule. The Knights threatened the castle and the town in 1521, but the defence was very effective. They contained one failed assault. There is a connection between the history of the castle, the city of Olsztyn, and Nicolaus Copernicus. He prepared the defense of Olsztyn against the invasion of the Teutonic Knights. In the sixteenth century, there were two prince-bishops of Warmia
Warmia
that stayed there: Johannes Dantiscus
Johannes Dantiscus
– "the first sarmatian poet, endowed with the imperial laurel wreath for "Latin Songs" (1538, 1541) and Marcin Kromer, who wrote with equal ease in Latin and Polish scientific and literary works (1580). Kromer consecrated the chapel of St. Anna, which was built in the south-west wing of the castle. In the course of time both wings of the castle lost military importance, which for residential purposes has become very convenient. In 1779 Prince-Bishop Ignacy Krasicki
Ignacy Krasicki
stopped here as well. After the Royal Prussian annexation of Warmia
Warmia
in 1772, the castle became the property of the state board of estates (War and Domain Chamber, Kriegs- und Domänenkammer). In 1845 the bridge over the moat was replaced by a dam better connecting the castle with the city. In 1901–1911 a general renovation of the castle was performed, however several sections of the building were violated at the same time where they changed the original look of the castle e.g. putting on window frames in a cloister. The tower was crowned in 1921 and again in 1926 in the halls of the castle, became a museum. In 1945 the whole castle became home to the Masurian Museum, which today is called the Museum of Warmia
Warmia
and Masuria. In addition there are also popular events held within the frameworks of the Olsztyn Artistic Summer and so called "evenings of the castle" and "Sundays in the Museum". Jewish
Jewish
community[edit] Though Jews
Jews
did trade in the city fairs during medieval times, they were not allowed to trade freely in the villages surrounding the city.[19] In 1718, Bishop Teodor Andrzej Potocki
Teodor Andrzej Potocki
imposed a ban on Jewish
Jewish
trade.[20] Other bishops after him continued the ban, which apparently wasn't successful since the city population complained about Jews
Jews
dealing with animal leather and other products in 1742. Permanent Jews
Jews
were found in the city in 1780, and they were allowed to settle outside the city walls.[21] In 1814, the Simonson brothers opened the first Jewish
Jewish
store in town. In 1850, the city official authority announced that any citizen that hosted a wandering Jew
Jew
in his house, would be fined and imprisoned.[22]

Remains of the Jewish
Jewish
cemetery

The Jewish
Jewish
community of the city as a congregation was established in 1820. Shortly after, a prayer room was established on Richterstrasse. In 1877, the congregation bought a plot of land on Liebstädterstrasse and built a synagogue there.[23] A Jewish
Jewish
cemetery was built on Seestrasse (present-day Grundwalzka). While at its peak, the town's Jewish
Jewish
population was 448 Jews
Jews
in 1933. On Kristallnacht, the town synagogue was destroyed and later used as a bomb shelter.[24] Now, a sports club sits on the site of the synagogue.[25] By 1939, 135 Jews
Jews
were left in the city, after most others fled from the country. Those who lived in town in 1940 were deported to Nazi concentration camps.[26] In June 1946, 16 Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors settled in the city and in 1948, the congregation had 190 worshipers. Most of them emigrated to Israel
Israel
throughout the next few decades. There is no current trace of the Jewish
Jewish
cemetery.[27] The city was the birthplace of world-famous Jewish
Jewish
architect Erich Mendelsohn. In town, Mendelsohn planned the mourners' chapel (called the Mendelsohn house) next to the cemetery.[28] The building is currently restored.[29] In addition, it was the birthplace of German Socialist
Socialist
and SPD
SPD
leader Hugo Haase. Frieda Strohmberg, an Impressionist, lived and worked in the city from 1910 to 1927. Documentation of the Jewish
Jewish
owned shops in town exists.[30] Geography[edit]

Lake Ukiel

Lake Kortowskie

Lake Żbik

Olsztyn
Olsztyn
is located in the north-east part of Poland
Poland
in the region known as the "Thousand Lakes". Greenbelt[edit] More than half of the forests occupying 21.2% of the city area form a single complex of the Municipal Forest (1050 ha) used mainly for recreation and tourism purposes. Within the Municipal Forest area are situated two peat-land flora sanctuaries, Mszar and Redykajny. Municipal greenery (560 ha, 6.5% of the town area) developed in the form of numerous parks, green spots and three cemeteries over a century-old. The greenery includes 910 monuments of nature and groups of protected trees in the form of beech, oak, maple and lime-lined avenues. Lakes[edit] The city is situated in a lake region of forests and plains. There are 15 lakes inside the administrative bounds of the city (13 with areas greater than 1 ha). The overall area of lakes in Olsztyn
Olsztyn
is about 725 ha, which constitutes 8.25% of the total city area.

Lake Area (ha) Maximum depth (m)

Lake Ukiel
Lake Ukiel
(a.k.a. Jezioro Krzywe) 412 43

Lake Kortowskie 89.7 17.2

Lake Track (a.k.a. Trackie) 52.8 4.6

Lake Skanda 51.5 12

Lake Redykajny 29.9 20.6

Lake Długie 26.8 17.2

Lake Sukiel 20.8 25

Lake Tyrsko 18.6 30.6

Lake Stary Dwór 6.0 23.3

Lake Siginek 6.0 insufficient data

Lake Czarne approximately 1.3 insufficient data

Lake Żbik approximately 1.2 insufficient data

Lake Pereszkowo approximately 1.2 insufficient data

Lake Mummel approximately 0.3 insufficient data

Lake Modrzewiowe 0.25 insufficient data

Demographics[edit]

High Gate, part of the medieval fortifications of the Old Town

Olsztyn's population includes 3280 Germans and 1283 Ukrainians.[citation needed] Administrative division[edit]

City hall (built 1912–16)

Dajtki

Kortowo

Olsztyn
Olsztyn
is divided into 23 districts:

District Population Area Density

Brzeziny 1,456 2.25 km2 (0.87 sq mi) 647.1/km²

Dajtki (German: Deuthen) 5,863 7.5 km2 (2.9 sq mi) 781.7/km²

Generałów 6,500 no data no data

Grunwaldzkie 6,027 1.46 km2 (0.56 sq mi) 4,128.1/km²

Gutkowo (German: Göttkendorf) 2,256 7.2 km2 (2.8 sq mi) 313.3/km²

Jaroty 29,046 4.82 km2 (1.86 sq mi) 6,026.1/km²

Kętrzyńskiego 7,621 4.83 km2 (1.86 sq mi) 1,577.8/km²

Kormoran 16,166 1.1 km2 (0.4 sq mi) 14,696.4/km²

Kortowo (German: Kortau) 1,131 4.22 km2 (1.63 sq mi) 268/km²

Kościuszki 6,704 1.18 km2 (0.46 sq mi) 5,681.4/km²

Likusy (German: Likusen) 2,286 2.1 km2 (0.8 sq mi) 1,088.6/km²

Mazurskie 4,615 5.98 km2 (2.31 sq mi) 771.7/km²

Nad Jeziorem Długim 2,408 4.23 km2 (2 sq mi) 569.3/km²

Nagórki (German: Bergenthal) 12,538 1.69 km2 (0.65 sq mi) 7,418.9/km²

Pieczewo (German: Stolzenberg) 10,918 2.24 km2 (0.86 sq mi) 4,874.1/km²

Podgrodzie 11,080 1.35 km2 (0.52 sq mi) 8,207.4/km²

Podleśna 10,414 9.93 km2 (3.83 sq mi) 1,048.7/km²

Pojezierze 13,001 2.39 km2 (0.92 sq mi) 5,439.7/km²

Redykajny
Redykajny
(German: Redigkainen) 1,555 6.1 km2 (2.36 sq mi) 254.9/km²

Śródmieście 3,448 0.58 km2 (0.22 sq mi) 5,944.8/km²

Wojska Polskiego 6,759 5.03 km2 (2 sq mi) 1,343.7/km²

Zatorze 6,988 0.45 km2 (0.17 sq mi) 15,528.9/km²

Zielona Górka 1,015 6.44 km2 (2.49 sq mi) 157.6/km²

There are many smaller districts: Jakubowo (German: Jakobsberg), Karolin, Kolonia Jaroty, Kortowo II, Łupstych (German: Abstich), Niedźwiedź (German: Bärenbruch), Piękna Góra, Podlesie, Pozorty (German: Posorten), Skarbówka Poszmanówka, Słoneczny Stok, Stare Kieźliny, Stare Miasto, Stare Zalbki, Stary Dwór (German: Althof), Track. These do not have council representative assemblies. Culture[edit]

Stefan Jaracz Theatre (built 1925)

Museum of Nature

Theatres[edit]

Stefan Jaracz Theatre (est. 1925) the host of International Theatre Festival DEMOLUDY Puppet Theatre

Cinemas[edit]

Helios Multikino

Museums[edit]

Museum of Warmia
Warmia
and Mazury (Muzeum Warmii i Mazur) – Olsztyn's largest museum.

Gazeta Olsztyńska
Gazeta Olsztyńska
House (Dom „Gazety Olsztyńskiej”) Museum of Nature (Muzeum Przyrody)

Museum of Sports (Muzeum Sportu) Muzeum Nowoczesności

Architecture[edit]

Astronomical observatory

The Old Town The Gothic castle of the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia
Warmia
built during the 14th century. St. James's Cathedral (Polish: św. Jakuba, German: St. Jacob or St. Jakob). Old Town Hall on the Market Square – built in the mid-14th century. Gazeta Olsztyńska
Gazeta Olsztyńska
House at Fish Market. The town walls and the Upper Gate (since the mid-19th century known as the High Gate). Neogothic church of the Holy Heart of Jesus, built during the years 1901–1902 The New City Hall The Railway Bridge over the River Łyna gorge near Artyleryjska and Wyzwolenia streets, built during the years 1872–1873 The Jerusalem Chapel, built in 1565 Church of St. Lawrence, built during the late 14th century FM- and TV-mast Olsztyn-Pieczewo
FM- and TV-mast Olsztyn-Pieczewo
– 360 metres high, since the collapse of the Warsaw
Warsaw
radio mast the tallest structure in Poland

Music[edit] Death metal
Death metal
act Vader, regarded as one of the first Death metal
Death metal
bands from Poland. Economy[edit]

Michelin
Michelin
tyre company

Olsztyn-Mazury Airport

The Michelin
Michelin
tyre company (former Stomil Olsztyn) is the largest employer in the region of Warmia
Warmia
and Masuria.[31] Other important industries are food processing and furniture manufacturing. Transport[edit] There is a bus network with 33 bus lines, including 6 suburban lines and 2 night-time lines. An 11 kilometres (7 miles) tram network was built 2011–2015; 15 Tramino
Tramino
cars were ordered from Solaris in September 2012. Olsztyn
Olsztyn
has train connections to Warsaw, Gdańsk, Szczecin, Poznań, Bydgoszcz, Iława, Działdowo
Działdowo
and Ełk. Education[edit]

Main library building of the Olsztyn
Olsztyn
University

University of Warmia
Warmia
and Mazury in Olsztyn
Olsztyn
[1] University of Computer Science and Economics Olsztyńska Szkoła Wyższa im. Józefa Rusieckiego Olsztyńska Wyższa Szkoła Informatyki i Zarządzania im. Tadeusza Kotarbińskiego Wyższe Seminarium Duchowne HOSIANUM Masurian Institute (est. 1943)

Sports[edit]

KOS Orlik - A public football field near the 18th Primary School

Indykpol AZS Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– men's volleyball team playing in the Polish Volleyball League (PLS, Polska Liga Siatkówki) OKS Stomil Olsztyn
OKS Stomil Olsztyn
– men's football team, (8 seasons in the Polish Ekstraklasa as Stomil Olsztyn) Warmia
Warmia
Traveland Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– men's handball team playing in the Seria A (Polish First League) AZS UWM Trójeczka Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– men's basketball team playing in the Polish Second League WMPD Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– men's rugby team, playing in the First Polish League Budowlani Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– a wrestling team Joanna Jedrzejczyk
Joanna Jedrzejczyk
– UFC women's Strawweight Champion Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Lakers – American football team

Politics[edit] Members of the Sejm elected from Olsztyn
Olsztyn
constituency in 2005:

Mieczysław Aszkiełowicz, Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) Beata Bublewicz, Civic Platform
Civic Platform
(PO, Platforma Obywatelska) Jerzy Gosiewski, Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(PiS, Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) Tadeusz Iwiński, Democratic Left Alliance
Democratic Left Alliance
(SLD, Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej) Edward Ośko, League of Polish Families
League of Polish Families
(LPR, Liga Polskich Rodzin) Adam Puza, Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(PiS, Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) Sławomir Rybicki, Civic Platform
Civic Platform
(PO, Platforma Obywatelska) Lidia Staroń, Civic Platform
Civic Platform
(PO, Platforma Obywatelska) Aleksander Marek Szczygło, Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(PiS, Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) Zbigniew Włodkowski, Polish Peasant Party (PSL, Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe)

Members of Senate elected from Olsztyn
Olsztyn
constituency in 2005:

Ryszard Józef Górecki, Civic Platform
Civic Platform
(PO, Platforma Obywatelska) Jerzy Szmit, Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(PiS, Prawo i Sprawiedliwość)

Notable residents[edit]

Statue of Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
in front of the castle

Plaque commemorating Feliks Nowowiejski
Feliks Nowowiejski
on his former home

Johannes von Leysen
Johannes von Leysen
(1310–1388), town founder Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
(1473–1543), astronomer, administrator, and town commander Johannes Knolleisen
Johannes Knolleisen
(+1511), German academic and provider of academic stipends Lucas David (1503–1583), German historian of Prussia Marcin Kromer
Marcin Kromer
(1512–1589), Polish cartographer, diplomat and historian, personal secretary of Kings of Poland, Bishop of Warmia Hugo Haase
Hugo Haase
(1863–1919), Jewish-German politician, jurist and pacifist Franz Justus Rarkowski (1873–1950), military bishop (1938–45) August Trunz (1875–1963), founder of the Prussica-Sammlung Trunz Feliks Nowowiejski
Feliks Nowowiejski
(1877–1946), Polish composer, conductor, concert organist Maximilian Kaller
Maximilian Kaller
(1880–1947) German prelate, bishop of Ermland
Ermland
in 1930–45 Erich Mendelsohn
Erich Mendelsohn
(1887–1953), German- Jewish
Jewish
architect who fled the Nazis Olga Desmond
Olga Desmond
(1891–1964), German dancer and actress Günter Wand (1912–2002), German conductor Kurt Baluses (1914–72) German football (soccer) player and manager Hans-Jürgen Wischnewski (1922–2005), German politician Curt Lowens (1925–2017), German actor Leonhard Pohl (1929–2014), German gymnast Józef Glemp
Józef Glemp
(1929–2013), Polish prelate, bishop of Warmia
Warmia
1979–81 Jörg Kuebart (1934–2018) German general of the German Air Force Karl-Heinz Hopp (1936–2007) German rower who competed in the 1960 Summer Olympics Wolf Lepenies (born 1941), German sociologist, political scientist and author Eugeniusz Geno Malkowski
Eugeniusz Geno Malkowski
(born 1942), Polish artist, painter and academic Ulrich Schrade
Ulrich Schrade
(1943–2009), German-Polish philosopher and pedagogue Marian Bublewicz
Marian Bublewicz
(1950–1993), Polish rally and race driver of the 80s and 90s Juliusz Machulski
Juliusz Machulski
(born 1955), Polish film director Izabela Trojanowska
Izabela Trojanowska
(born 1955), Polish actress and singer Andrzej Friszke (born 1956), Polish historian Krzysztof Hołowczyc
Krzysztof Hołowczyc
(born 1962), Polish rally driver Piotr "Peter" Wiwczarek
Piotr "Peter" Wiwczarek
(born 1965), Polish guitarist and vocalist Mamed Khalidov
Mamed Khalidov
(born 1980), Russian-Polish mixed martial artist Wojciech Grzyb
Wojciech Grzyb
(born 1981), Polish volleyball player Julia Marcell
Julia Marcell
(born 1982), Polish singer/songwriter and pianist Małgorzata Jasińska
Małgorzata Jasińska
(born 1984), Polish professional cyclist (retd.) Adrian Mierzejewski
Adrian Mierzejewski
(born 1986), Polish footballer Joanna Jędrzejczyk
Joanna Jędrzejczyk
(born 1987), Muay-Thai and MMA fighter, former UFC Women's Strawweight Champion.

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Olsztyn
Olsztyn
is twinned with:

Calpe, Alicante, Valencian Community, Spain Châteauroux, Indre, Centre-Val de Loire, France[32] Gelsenkirchen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany[33]

Kaliningrad, Russia Lutsk, Ukraine Offenburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Richmond, VA, United States Rovaniemi, Finland Bielsko-Biała, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland[34]

Olsztyn
Olsztyn
belongs to the Federation of Copernicus Cities, an association of cities where Copernicus lived and worked, such as Bologna, Frombork, Kraków, and Toruń. The main office of the federation is situated at Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Planetarium and Astronomical Observatory, located on St. Andrew's Hill (143 m) in a former water tower erected in 1897. Notes[edit]

^ " Olsztyn
Olsztyn
History". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "Local history – Information about the town – Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– Virtual Shtetl". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ o.o., Stay Poland
Poland
Sp. z. " Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– Tourism – Tourist Information – Olsztyn, Poland
Poland
-". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "Presentation of castle and museum trail, cultural – historical attractions of the Baltic Sea region". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ Budziłło, Elzbieta. " Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– Copernicus city with 15 lakes". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "W Olsztynie żyje się (prawie) najlepiej. W rankingu miast awansowaliśmy na czwarte miejsce". Retrieved 29 March 2017.  ^ a b "Ranking jakości miejskiego życia. W Olsztynie żyje się bardzo dobrze". Retrieved 29 March 2017.  ^ "Miasto Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– perła Warmii, największe miasto województwa warmińsko-mazurskiego". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "Zabytki Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Atrakcje Historii Zwiedzanie Miasta w Centrum". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "Historia". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "Historia Olsztyna". Retrieved 29 March 2017.  ^ Höhne, Manfred. "Historia Olsztyna – Prusy Wschodnie". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "Historia Olsztyna – Castles of Poland". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ Historia Pomorza: (1815–1850), Gerard Labuda, Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, page 157, 1993 ^ " Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– Gołębnik w środku miasta. Atrakcje turystyczne Olsztyna. Ciekawe miejsca Olsztyna". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ " Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– Barwna historia miasta – Zabawa.Mazury.pl". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ joanna. "Historia lokalna – Olsztyn
Olsztyn
rok 1945 i pierwsze lata powojenne". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ e.V., Christoph Pienkoss, DV – Deutscher Verband für Städtebau und Wohnungswesen. "EuRoB – Europäische Route der Backsteingotik – Strona internetowa – Miasta nad Szlaku – Polska – Olsztyn – Historia miasta". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ W. Knercer, Cmentarze i zabytki kultury żydowskiej w województwie olsztyńskim, "Borussia", no. 6, 1993, p. 53; vide K. Forstreuter, Die ersten Juden in Ostpreussen, "Altpreussische Forschungen", ch. 14, 1937, pp. 42–48. ^ "History – Jewish
Jewish
community before 1989 – Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– Virtual Shtetl". Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ J. Jasiński, Olsztyn
Olsztyn
w latach 1772 – 1918, in: Olsztyn
Olsztyn
"1353 – 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn
Olsztyn
2003, p. 228. ^ J. Jasiński, Olsztyn
Olsztyn
w latach 1772 – 1918, in: Olsztyn
Olsztyn
1353 – 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn
Olsztyn
2003, p. 229. ^ "Old synagogue – Synagogues, prayer houses and others – Heritage Sites – Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– Virtual Shtetl". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "Archive – east-prussia – Allenstein". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ " Jewish
Jewish
culture in Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– Virtual Shtetl". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ https://www.bundesarchiv.de/gedenkbuch/directory.html#frmResults (matches for "Allenstein", with marked: "Wohnort" and "Geburtsort"; (as of 25 March 2009); http://www.yadvashem.org/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_2KE?next_form=advanced_search (people living in Olsztyn
Olsztyn
before the war – matches for "Allenstein", with marked: "Before the War", (as of 25 March 2009); http://www.yadvashem.org/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_2KE?next_form=advanced_search (people born in Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– matches for "Allenstein", with marked: "Birth"; (as of 25 March 2009). ^ " Jewish
Jewish
Cemetery (Zyndrama z Maszkowic Street) – Cemeteries – Heritage Sites – Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– Virtual Shtetl". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "Family House of Erich Mendelsohn
Erich Mendelsohn
– 21 Podgórna Street (Oberstrasse, today's 10 Staromiejska) – Heritage sites – Heritage Sites – Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– Virtual Shtetl". Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "Mendelsohn's house will be renovated – Virtual Shtetl". Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "History – Jewish
Jewish
community before 1989 – Olsztyn
Olsztyn
– Virtual Shtetl". Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "100-milionowa opona w olsztyńskiej fabryce Michelin
Michelin
– Autoflesz.pl – Niezależny Portal
Portal
Motoryzacyjny". Autoflesz.pl. Retrieved 16 September 2011.  ^ "Le service municipal des jumelages" [ Châteauroux
Châteauroux
municipal twinning service]. Ville de Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(in French). Archived from the original on 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2013-08-04.  ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). 2009 Twins2010.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ " Bielsko-Biała
Bielsko-Biała
– Partner Cities". 2008 Urzędu Miejskiego w Bielsku-Białej. Retrieved 10 December 2008. 

References[edit]

http://www.olsztyn.eu/ (in Polish) http://www.bezrobocie.net/stat_powiaty.php/ (in Polish) http://www.zamkigotyckie.org.pl/olsztyn.htm (in Polish) http://www.pascal.pl/atrakcja.php?id=25797 (in Polish)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Olsztyn.

Official website Olsztyn
Olsztyn
City Guide Kreisgemeinschaft Allenstein-Land e.V. Activities in Olsztyn News Olsztyn
Olsztyn
(in Polish) Jewish
Jewish
history of Olsztyn

v t e

Principal cities of Poland

1,000,000+

Warsaw

750,000+

Kraków

500,000+

Łódź Wrocław Poznań

200,000+

Gdańsk Szczecin Bydgoszcz Lublin Katowice Białystok Gdynia Częstochowa Radom Sosnowiec Toruń Kielce

100,000+

Gliwice Rzeszów Zabrze Olsztyn Bytom Bielsko-Biała Ruda Śląska Rybnik Tychy Dąbrowa Górnicza Gorzów Wielkopolski Płock Elbląg Opole Wałbrzych Zielona Góra Włocławek Tarnów Chorzów Koszalin Kalisz Legnica

v t e

Counties of Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship

City counties

Olsztyn
Olsztyn
(capital) Elbląg

Land counties

Bartoszyce Braniewo Działdowo Elbląg Ełk Giżycko Gołdap Iława Kętrzyn Lidzbark Mrągowo Nidzica Nowe Miasto Olecko Olsztyn Ostróda Pisz Szczytno Węgorzewo

v t e

Olsztyn
Olsztyn
County

Seat (not part of the county): Olsztyn

Urban-rural gminas

Gmina Barczewo Gmina Biskupiec Gmina Dobre Miasto Gmina Jeziorany Gmina Olsztynek

Rural gminas

Gmina Dywity Gmina Gietrzwałd Gmina Jonkowo Gmina Kolno Gmina Purda Gmina Stawiguda Gmina Świątki

Coordinates: 53°47′N 20°29′E / 53.783°N 20.483°E / 53.783; 20.483

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 243405975 GN

.