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Nevado Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
is a stratovolcano located in the Andes mountain range, in the Atacama Region, Chile. The mountain itself lies entirely within Chile, immediately west of Chile's border with Argentina and it's the highest active volcano in the world at 6,893 m (22,615 ft). It is also the second highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
and Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
and the highest in Chile. It is located about 600 km (370 mi) north of Aconcagua, the highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
at 6,961 m (22,838 ft). Due to its location near the Atacama Desert, the mountain has very dry conditions with snow usually only remaining on the peak during winter, though heavy storms can cover the surrounding area with a few feet of snow even in summer. Despite the generally dry conditions, there is a permanent crater lake about 100 m (330 ft) in diameter at an elevation of 6,390 m (20,960 ft) on the eastern side of the mountain.[3] This is most likely the highest lake of any kind in the world. The ascent of Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
is mostly a hike except for the final section to the summit which is a difficult scramble that may require ropes. The first ascent was made in 1937 by Jan Alfred Szczepański and Justyn Wojsznis, members of a Polish expedition in the Andes. Its name, meaning roughly "Eyes of the Salty One" in Spanish, comes from the enormous deposits of salt that, in the form of lagoons or “eyes”, appear in its glaciers.[4] An international highway between Chile
Chile
and Argentina runs north of the mountain.[5]

Contents

1 Geology and geomorphology

1.1 Regional 1.2 Local 1.3 Composition

2 Elevation 3 Motorized partial ascent 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Geology and geomorphology[edit] Regional[edit] Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
along with several other high volcanoes such as El Muerto, El Solo, Nevado Incahuasi
Incahuasi
and Nevado Tres Cruces
Nevado Tres Cruces
lies at the southern end of the Central Volcanic Zone
Central Volcanic Zone
of the Andes.[6] Volcanic activity in the region commenced 26 million years ago in the Cordillera Claudio Gay, at the same time as the neighbouring Maricunga Belt volcanoes were active. Starting 18 million years ago, local subduction of the Nazca Plate
Nazca Plate
beneath the South America Plate
South America Plate
became increasingly shallower and this caused volcanism to shift from the Maricunga Belt to the Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
region.[7] The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
basement crops out only northwest of Nevado Tres Cruces. Other geologic units in the region are Oligocene
Oligocene
sedimentary units and volcanic rocks ranging from Oligocene
Oligocene
age to less than 1.5 million years old.[8] The area is part of a tectonic boundary between a volcanically active region north of the boundary and a less volcanically active region south of the boundary, which is also characterized by geographical differences, e.g the presence of transverse valleys.[9] Local[edit] Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
like other major neighbouring mountains is a complex of lava domes and lava flows, with the main summit surrounded by peripheral domes such as El Solo and El Fraile[10] and many other lateral centres.[11] Fumaroles are encountered at the summit of Ojos del Salado within a depression.[12] Potassium-argon dating has yielded ages of 1.2 ± 0.3 million years ago and less than 1 million years ago from rocks north of Ojos del Salado.[13] There are glaciers on the mountain, in the crater and in the form of penitentes[14] which reach heights of 8–5 metres (26–16 ft).[15] Other reports indicate the absence of glaciers on Ojos del Salado. Permafrost
Permafrost
exists on the mountain and its melting nourishes several lakes; one lake fed by a creek lies at 6,500 metres (21,300 ft) altitude.[16] Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
is an active volcano, but the question of whether it should be considered currently (or "historically") active is arguable. According to the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program,[2] the most recent known eruption was about 1,300 years ago, with a large margin of uncertainty. However, there is also some evidence for a minor ash emission in 1993, which would definitely qualify the volcano as historically active. The presence of fumaroles high on the mountain and recent-looking lava flows, albeit of uncertain age, also argues in favor of a categorization as "active." By these definitions, Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
is the highest historically active volcano on Earth. If the older date is accepted, the title of "highest historically active volcano" might reside instead with the somewhat lower Llullaillaco
Llullaillaco
volcano, which certainly has erupted in historic times (most recently in 1877) and is considered active. Composition[edit] Salado's rock is predominantly potassium-rich dacite and rhyodacite. Its lavas are high in biotite, hornblende, plagioclase, and opaques, with lower levels of augite, quartz, and hypersthene.[17] Elevation[edit] The elevation of Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
has been the subject of debate. The mountain is hidden behind other peaks and thus its height was not appreciated in early research until 1937, when the mountain was climbed by Polish climbers.[18] A 2006 article in Andes
Andes
Magazine offered that Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
may be higher than Aconcagua, although the argument was premised on older, less accurate altitude surveys. The results of these older surveys assigned Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
an elevation of 7,057 m (23,153 ft), which would have made it nearly 100 m (330 ft) higher than Aconcagua. As early as 1955, an estimate was made that the elevation of Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
was 7,100 m (23,300 ft), but that was "simply [...] based on the altitude of the final camp, and the hours of ascent to the summit."[19] In 1956 the first Chilean expedition led by the retired lieutenant René Gajardo measured the height of Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
as 7,084 m (23,241 ft) with a pocket pressure altimeter. Apart from being an inexact method, the height shown by the altimeter was far too high as air pressure is generally lower in the afternoon, the time at which the team reached the summit.[20] An expedition to the area in the 90s claimed that nearby Monte Pissis was even higher than Ojos del Salado. Later measurements using more precise equipment showed that Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
is about 100 m (330 ft) higher than Pissis. Furthermore, in 2007 a Chilean–Argentine–European expedition organized by Andes
Andes
Magazine and Azimut 360 performed a survey on both Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
and Monte Pissis using more accurate instruments. It found the former to be 6,891 m (22,608 ft) and the latter 6,793 m (22,287 ft)[21] Although this fits within recent handheld GPS surveys, which have estimated the mountain to be between 6,880 m (22,570 ft) and 6,910 m (22,670 ft), the vertical error margin of the expedition's equipment, 10 m (33 ft),[21] leaves uncertainty as to the mountain's more precise altitude. Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
has two summits, one in Argentina and the other in Chile
Chile
(the border between the two countries runs between the two summits). The difference in elevation of the two summits is less than 1 m (3 ft 3 in) Motorized partial ascent[edit]

The two RMMV HX trucks currently attempting the altitude record for a wheeled vehicle

Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
has been a popular mountain for attempts to attain the highest altitude aboard a land vehicle. The current record altitude for a four-wheeled vehicle was set on 21 April 2007 by the Chilean duo of Gonzalo Bravo G. and Eduardo Canales Moya. Reaching an altitude of 6,688 meters (21,942 ft.) with a modified Suzuki Samurai, the duo beat the previous record of 6,646 m which had been set on 13 March 2007 by German Matthias Jeschke in a Jeep Wrangler
Jeep Wrangler
Unlimited Rubicon.[22] Jeschke currently holds the high altitude record for trucks reaching a height of 6,675 meters (21,899 ft) with a Mercedes-Benz Zetros truck on 6 March 2015. This is also a world record for a diesel-powered engine.[23] On 19 April 2015 Chilean Gianfranco Bianchi reached an altitude of 6,472 m (21,233 ft) with a Suzuki RMZ 450, setting the altitude record for a motorcycle. The latest publicized record attempt commenced on 6 November 2017 and again involved Matthias Jeschke. With two RMMV HX trucks Jeschke attempted to gain two world records, one for construction at altitude and the other by beating the current 6,688 m record.[24] A refuge hut was built at 6,100 m (a record), but on December 19 it was announced the altitude record attempt had been called off at a height of 6,150 m for a combination of factors including an insurmountable rock barrier and adverse weather conditions. A further attempt may be made in early 2018.[25] See also[edit]

Cerro El Muerto Cerro Solo Incapillo Incahuasi Laguna Verde List of volcanoes in Argentina List of volcanoes in Chile Lists of volcanoes Llullaillaco Nevado Tres Cruces Tipas Volcanic Seven Summits

References[edit]

^ a b " Andes
Andes
ultra-prominent peaks". Peaklist.  ^ a b "Ojos del Salado". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.  ^ " Andes
Andes
Website – Information about Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
volcano, a high mountain in South America and the World's highest volcano".  ^ "Los 6000 de Chile". Banco de Chile. Archived from the original on 2007-07-13.  ^ Carter 1957, p.242 ^ Mpodozis, C and Kay, Suzanne and Gardeweg, M and Coira, B, 1996, p.539 ^ Mpodozis, C and Kay, Suzanne and Gardeweg, M and Coira, B, 1996, p.539 ^ Mpodozis, C and Kay, Suzanne and Gardeweg, M and Coira, B, 1996, p.541 ^ P. E. BAKER, O. GONZALEZ-FERRAN and D. C. REX, 1987 p.85 ^ Mpodozis, C and Kay, Suzanne and Gardeweg, M and Coira, B, 1996, p.545 ^ Mpodozis, C and Kay, Suzanne and Gardeweg, M and Coira, B, 1996, p.546 ^ P. E. BAKER, O. GONZALEZ-FERRAN and D. C. REX, 1987 p.90 ^ Mpodozis, C and Kay, Suzanne and Gardeweg, M and Coira, B, 1996, p.542 ^ "Inventario de glaciares de los Andes
Andes
chilenos desde los 18º a los 32º de latitud sur". Revista Geografía Norte Grande (in Spanish). 2014-03-08. Retrieved 2018-03-06.  ^ Lliboitry, Louis (1954). "The Origin of Penitents". Journal of Glaciology. 2 (15): 334. doi:10.3189/S0022143000025181. ISSN 0022-1430.  ^ Aszalós, Júlia Margit; Krett, Gergely; Anda, Dóra; Márialigeti, Károly; Nagy, Balázs; Borsodi, Andrea K. (1 September 2016). "Diversity of extremophilic bacteria in the sediment of high-altitude lakes located in the mountain desert of Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
volcano, Dry-Andes". Extremophiles. 20 (5): 603–620. doi:10.1007/s00792-016-0849-3. ISSN 1431-0651.  ^ "Nevados Ojos del Salado". Volcano
Volcano
World. Oregon State University. 2011. Retrieved July 29, 2011.  ^ Carter 1957, pp.240-241 ^ American Alpine Journal, 1956, p. 134; quoting the "Boletin Informativo No. 16" (June 1955) of the Argentine Associación Tucumana de Andismo. ^ Lliboutry 1956. ^ a b "A la Búsqueda del Techo de América" (in Spanish). Phillipe Reuter: "El Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
es 100 metros más alto que el Pissis"  ^ "Matthias Jeschke Set New High Altitude World Record Aboard". Editorials. streetdirectory.com. Retrieved November 9, 2017.  ^ "Truck World Record". Truck World Record. Extreme Events. Retrieved November 9, 2017.  ^ Rheinmetall MAN High Altitude Truck Expedition ^ "Off-road expedition makes the world's tallest active volcano safer for climbers; attempt to set new world record temporarily thwarted". Rheinmetall. Retrieved December 19, 2017. 

Sources[edit]

Baker, P. E.; Gonzalez-Ferran, O.; Rex, D. C. (1 February 1987). "Geology and geochemistry of the Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
volcanic region, Chile". Journal of the Geological Society. 144 (1): 85–96. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.144.1.0085. ISSN 0016-7649.  Carter, Adams (1957). "The American Alpine Club Expedition to the Ojos del Salado". Geographical Review. 47 (2): 240–250. doi:10.2307/211595. JSTOR 211595.  Mpodozis, C and Kay, Suzanne and Gardeweg, M and Coira, B (1996). "Geología de la región de Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
( Andes
Andes
centrales, 27°S): Implicancias de la migración hacia el este del frente volcánico Cenozoico Superior". 13° Congreso Geológico Argentino (in Spanish). pp. 539–548 – via ResearchGate. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Bibliography[edit]

Darack, Ed (2001). Wild Winds: Adventures in the Highest Andes. Cordee / DPP. ISBN 978-1884980817.  Gonzales-Ferran, Oscar (1995). Volcanes de Chile
Chile
(in Spanish). Santiago, Chile: Instituto Geográfico Militar. p. 640. ISBN 956-202-054-1.  (Also includes volcanoes of Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru) De Silva, Shanaka L.; Francis, Peter (1991). Volcanoes of the Central Andes. Springer-Verlag. p. 216. ISBN 3-540-53706-6.  Biggar, John (2005). The Andes: A Guide for Climbers (3 ed.). Scotland: Andes
Andes
Publishing. p. 304. ISBN 0-9536087-2-7.  Lliboutry, Luis (1956). Nieves y Glaciares de Chile: Fundamentos de glaciología (in Spanish). 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ojos del Salado.

Complete description of Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
in Andeshandbook 1 December 2006 Star Trails at 19,000 Feet - NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day Andes
Andes
information Peak bagger Summit
Summit
post Peak list

v t e

Andean volcanoes

Northern Volcanic Zone (6° N–3° S)

Romeral Nevado del Ruiz Nevado del Tolima Nevado del Huila Puracé Doña Juana Galeras Cayambe Reventador Pichincha Antisana Aliso Soche Illiniza Cotopaxi Quilotoa Chimborazo Tungurahua Licto volcanic field Sangay

Central Volcanic Zone (14°–27° S)

Quimsachata Auquihuato Firura Sara Sara Solimana Coropuna Hualca Hualca Sabancaya Huambo volcanic field Ampato Andagua volcanic field Chachani Misti Ubinas Pichu Pichu Huaynaputina Ticsani Tutupaca Yucamane Casiri Tacora Taapaca Parinacota Lauca Tata Sabaya Isluga Irruputuncu Olca-Paruma Azufre Sairecabur Licancabur Pacana Lascar Chiliques Llullaillaco Lastarria Galán San Francisco Incahuasi Ojos del Salado

Southern Volcanic Zone (33°–46° S)

Tupungato Tupungatito Maipo Calabozos Descabezado Grande Cerro Azul Nevado de Longaví Nevados de Chillán Antuco Copahue Callaqui Lonquimay Llaima Sollipulli Villarrica Quetrupillán Lanín Mocho-Choshuenco Carrán-Los Venados Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Casablanca Osorno Calbuco Hornopirén Huequi Michinmahuida Chaitén Corcovado Mentolat Cerro de los Chenques Cay Macá Hudson

Austral Volcanic Zone (49°–55° S)

Lautaro Viedma Aguilera Reclus Burney Fueguino

Note: volcanoes are ordered by latitude from north to south

v t e

Seven Second Summits

Asia

K2 (8,611 m or 28,251 ft)

South America

Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
(6,893 m or 22,615 ft)

North America

Mount Logan
Mount Logan
(5,959 m or 19,551 ft)

Europe

Dykh-Tau
Dykh-Tau
(5,205 m or 17,077 ft) or Dufourspitze
Dufourspitze
(4,634 m or 15,203 ft)

Africa

Mount Kenya
Mount Kenya
(5,199 m or 17,057 ft)

Antarctica

Mount Tyree
Mount Tyree
(4,852 m or 15,919 ft)

Australia (continent)

Puncak Mandala
Puncak Mandala
(4,760 m or 15,617 ft)

Australia

Mount Townsend
Mount Townsend
(2,209 m or 7,247 ft)

v t e

Volcanic Seven Summits

South America

Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
(6,893 m or 22,615 ft)

Africa

Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
(5,895 m or 19,341 ft)

Europe

Mount Elbrus
Mount Elbrus
(5,642 m or 18,510 ft)

North America

Pico de Orizaba
Pico de Orizaba
(5,636 m or 18,491 ft)

Asia

Mount Damavand
Mount Damavand
(5,610 m or 18,406 ft)

Australia (continental shelf)

Mount Giluwe
Mount Giluwe
(4,367 m or 14,327 ft)

Antarctica

Mount Sidley
Mount Sidley
(4,285 m

.