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News broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio, or internet in the field of broadcast journalism. The content is usually either produced locally in a radio studio or television studio newsroom, or by a broadcast network. It may also include additional material such as sports coverage weather forecasts, traffic reports, commentary, and other material that the broadcaster feels is relevant to their audience.

Television news

Television news refers to disseminating current events via the medium of television. A "news bulletin" or a "newscast" are television programs lasting from seconds to hours that provide updates on international, national, regional, and/or local news events.

There are numerous providers of broadcast news content such as BBC News, NBC News, CNN, Fox News Channel, CNA, and Al Jazeera, as well as numerous programs that regularly provide this content such as NBC Nightly News. In addition to general news outlets, there are specialized news outlets, for example about sports ESPNews, Fox Sports News, and Eurosport News, as well as finances, including CNBC, Bloomberg Television, and Fox Business Network.

Television news is very visually-based, showing video footage of many of the events that are reported; still photography is also used in reporting news stories, although not as much in recent years as in the early days of broadcast television. Television channels may provide news bulletins as part of a regularly scheduled news program. Less often, television shows may be interrupted or replaced by breaking news reports ("news flashes") to provide news updates on events of great importance.

Radio news

Radio news is similar to television news, but is transmitted through the medium of the radio instead. It is based on the audio aspect rather than the visual aspect. Sound bites are captured through various reporters (generally through audio capture devices such as tape recorders) and played back through the radio. News updates occur more often on radio than on television – usually about once or twice an hour.

Structure, content, and style

Television

Newscasts, also known as bulletins or news program(me)s, differ in content, tone, and presentation style depending on the format of the channel/station on which they appear, and their timeslot. In most parts of the world, national television networks will have bulletins featuring national and international news. The top-rated shows will often air in the evening during "prime time", but there are also morning newscasts of two to three hours in length. Rolling news channels broadcast news content 24 hours a day. The advent of the internet has allowed the regular 24-hour-a-day presentation of many video and audio news reports, which are updated when additional information becomes available; many television broadcasters provide content originally provided on-air as well as exclusive or supplementary news content on their websites. Local news may be presented by standalone local television stations, stations affiliated with national networks or by local studios which "opt-out" of national network programming at specified points. Different news programming may be aimed at different audiences, depending on age, socio-economic group, or those from particular sections of society. "Magazine-style" television shows (or newsmagazines) may mix news coverage with topical lifestyle issues, debates, or entertainment content. Public affairs programs provide analysis of and interviews about political, social, and economic issues.

News programs feature one or two (sometimes, three) anchors (or presenters, the terminology varies around the world) segueing into news stories filed by a reporter (or correspondent) by describing the story to be shown; however, some stories within the broadcast are read by the presenter themselves; in the former case, the anchor "tosses" to the reporter to introduce the featured story; likewise, the reporter "tosses" back to the anchor once the taped report has concluded and the reporter provides additional information. Often in situations necessitating long-form reporting on a story (usually during breaking news situations), the reporter is interviewed by the anchor, known as a 'two-way', or a guest involved in or offering analysis on the story is interviewed by a reporter or anchor. There may also be breaking news stories which will present live rolling coverage.

Television news organizations employ several anchors and reporters to provide reports (as many as ten anchors, and up to 20 reporters for local news operations or up to 30 for national news organizations). They may also employ specialty reporters that focus on reporting certain types of news content (such as traffic or entertainment), meteorologists or weather anchors (the latter term often refers to weather presenters that do not have degrees in meteorology earned at an educational institution) who provide weather forecasts – more common in local news and on network morning programs – and sports presenters that report on ongoing, concluded, or upcoming Packages will usually be filmed at a relevant location and edited in an editing suite in a newsroom or a remote contribution edit suite in a location some distance from the newsroom. They may also be edited in mobile editing vans, or satellite vans or trucks (such as electronic news gathering vehicles), and transmitted back to the newsroom. Live coverage will be broadcast from a relevant location and sent back to the newsroom via fixed cable links, microwave radio, production truck, satellite truck, or via online streaming. Roles associated with television news include a technical director, floor director audio technician, and a television crew of operators running character graphics (CG), teleprompters, and professional video cameras. Most news shows are broadcast live.

Radio

Radio news broadcasts can range from as little as one minute to as much as the station's entire schedule, such as the case of all-news radio, or talk radio. Stations dedicated to news or talk content will often feature newscasts, or bulletins, usually at the top of the hour, usually between three and eight minutes in length. They can be a mix of local, regional, national, and international news, as well as sport, entertainment, weather, and traffic reports, or they may be incorporated into separate bulletins. There may also be shorter bulletins at the bottom of the hour, or three at 15-minute intervals, or two at 20-minute intervals. All-news radio stations exist in some countries (most commonly in North America), primarily located in major metropolitan areas such as Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and Toronto, which often broadcast local, national, and international news and feature stories on a set time schedule (sometimes known as a "wheel" format, which schedules the presentation of certain segments focused on a specific type of news content at a specific point each hour).

News broadcasting by country

Canada

Terrestrial television

Unlike in the United States, most Canadian television stations have license requirements (enforced by the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission) to offer locally produced newscasts (or any local programming, for that matter) in some form. Educational television stations are exempt from these requirements as are multicultural television stations, however some stations licensed as multicultural outlets do produce local newscasts in varied languages (such as the Omni Television station group). Canadian television stations normally broadcast newscasts between two and four times a day: usually at noon; 5:00, 5:30, and 6:00 p.m. in the evening, and 11:00 p.m. (there are some variations to this: stations affiliated with CTV usually air their late evening newscasts at 11:30 p.m., due to the scheduling of the network's national evening news program CTV National News at 11:00 p.m. in all time zones; most CBC Television-owned stations formerly carried a 10-minute newscast at 10:55 p.m., following The National, these were expanded to a half-hour and moved to 11:00 p.m. during the fall of 2012).

Some stations carry morning newscasts (usually starting at 5:30 or 6:00 a.m., and ending at 9:00 a.m.). Unlike in the United States, primetime newscasts in the 10:00 p.m. timeslot are relatively uncommon (three Global owned-and-operated stations in Manitoba and SaskatchewanCKND-DT, CFSK-DT, and CFRE-DT – and Victoria, British Columbia independent station CHEK-DT are the only television stations in the country carrying a primetime newscast); conversely, pre-5:00 a.m. local newscasts are also uncommon in Canada, Hamilton, Ontario independent station CHCH-DT, whose weekdaily programming consists largely of local news, is currently the only station in the country that starts its weekday morning newscasts before 5:30 a.m. (the station's morning news block begins at 4:00 a.m. on weekdays).

Like with U.S. television, many stations use varied titles for their newscasts; this is particularly true with owned-and-operated stations of Global and City (Global's stations use titles based on daypart such as News Hour for the noon and early evening newscasts and News Final for 11:00 p.m. newscasts, while all six City-owned broadcast stations produce morning news/talk programs under the umbrella title Breakfast Television and its flagship station CITY-DT/Toronto's evening newscasts are titled CityNews). Overall umbrella titles for news programming use the titling schemes "(Network or system name) News" for network-owned stations or "(Callsign) News" for affiliates not directly owned by a network or television system (although the latter title scheme was used on some network-owned stations prior to the early 2000s).

CBC Television, Global, and CTV each produce national evening newscasts (The National, Global National and CTV National News, respectively), which unlike the American network newscasts do not compete with one another in a common timeslot; while Global National airs at the same early evening time slot as the American evening network newscasts, The National's 10:00 p.m. Eastern Time slot competes against primetime entertainment programming on the private broadcast networks, while CTV National News airs against locally produced 11:00 p.m. newscasts on other stations. The National, which has aired on CBC Television since 1954, is the longest-running national network newscast in Canada. All three networks also produce weekly newsmagazines: CBC's The Fifth Estate (aired since 1975), Global's 16x9 (aired since 2008), and CTV's W5 (aired since 1966 and currently the longest-running network newsmagazine in Canada).

CTV's Canada AM, which has aired since 1975, is the sole national morning news program on broadcast television in Canada, although it has since been relegated to semi-national status as most CTV owned-and-operated stations west of the Ontario-Manitoba border dropped the program during the summer and fall of 2011 in favor of locally produced morning newscasts. The Sunday morning talk show is relatively uncommon on Canadian television; for many years, the closest program having similarities to the format was CTV's news and interview series Question Period; Global would eventually debut the political affairs show The West Block in November 2011, which closely follows the format.

Cable television

Canada is host to several 24-hour cable news channels, consisting of domestically-operated cable channels and news channels operated outside Canada or North America. Domestic national news channels include CTV News Channel and Sun News Network, which offer general news programming;

There are numerous providers of broadcast news content such as BBC News, NBC News, CNN, Fox News Channel, CNA, and Al Jazeera, as well as numerous programs that regularly provide this content such as NBC Nightly News. In addition to general news outlets, there are specialized news outlets, for example about sports ESPNews, Fox Sports News, and Eurosport News, as well as finances, including CNBC, Bloomberg Television, and Fox Business Network.

Television news is very visually-based, showing video footage of many of the events that are reported; still photography is also used in reporting news stories, although not as much in recent years as in the early days of broadcast television. Television channels may provide news bulletins as part of a regularly scheduled news program. Less often, television shows may be interrupted or replaced by breaking news reports ("news flashes") to provide news updates on events of great importance.

Radio news

Radio news is similar to television news, but is transmitted through the medium of the radio instead. It is based on the audio aspect rather than the visual aspect. Sound bites are captured through various reporters (generally through audio capture devices such as tape recorders) and played back through the radio. News updates occur more often on radio than on television – usually about once or twice an hour.

Structure, content, and style

Television

Newscasts, also known as bulletins or news program(me)s, differ in content, tone, and presentation style depending on the format of the channel/station on which they appear, and their timeslot. In most parts of the world, national television networks will have bulletins featuring national and i

There are numerous providers of broadcast news content such as BBC News, NBC News, CNN, Fox News Channel, CNA, and Al Jazeera, as well as numerous programs that regularly provide this content such as NBC Nightly News. In addition to general news outlets, there are specialized news outlets, for example about sports ESPNews, Fox Sports News, and Eurosport News, as well as finances, including CNBC, Bloomberg Television, and Fox Business Network.

Television news is very visually-based, showing video footage of many of the events that are reported; still photography is also used in reporting news stories, although not as much in recent years as in the early days of broadcast television. Television channels may provide news bulletins as part of a regularly scheduled news program. Less often, television shows may be interrupted or replaced by breaking news reports ("news flashes") to provide news updates on events of great importance.

Radio news is similar to television news, but is transmitted through the medium of the radio instead. It is based on the audio aspect rather than the visual aspect. Sound bites are captured through various reporters (generally through audio capture devices such as tape recorders) and played back through the radio. News updates occur more often on radio than on television – usually about once or twice an hour.

Structure, content, and style