Coordinates: 21°15′S 165°18′E / 21.25°S 165.30°E /
Flags of New Caledonia
Motto: "Terre de parole, terre de partage"
"Land of speech, land of sharing"
Anthem: Soyons unis, devenons frères
Sui generis special collectivity
and largest city
22°16′S 166°28′E / 22.267°S 166.467°E / -22.267;
Recognised regional languages
and 35 other native languages
• Presidential Head of State
• President of the Government of New Caledonia
• High Commissioner
• Annexed by France
• Overseas territory
18,576 km2 (7,172 sq mi)
18,275 km2 (7,056 sq mi)
• Aug. 2014 census
14.5/km2 (37.6/sq mi) (200th)
• Per capita
CFP franc (XPF)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Caledonia (French: Nouvelle-Calédonie)[nb 1] is a special
France in the southwest Pacific Ocean, 1,210 km
(750 mi) east of
Australia and 20,000 km (12,000 mi)
from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia
subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty
Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the
Belep archipelago, the Isle of
Pines, and a few remote islets. The
Chesterfield Islands are in the
Coral Sea. Locals refer to Grande Terre as Le Caillou ("the
Caledonia has a land area of 18,576 km2
(7,172 sq mi). Its population of 268,767 (Aug. 2014
census) consists of a mix of
Kanak people (the original inhabitants
of New Caledonia), people of European descent (Caldoches and
Metropolitan French), Polynesian people (mostly Wallisians), and
Southeast Asian people, as well as a few people of
Pied-Noir and North
African descent. The capital of the territory is Nouméa.
1.1 French dependency
1.2 French overseas territory
2.1 Customary authority
3 Administrative divisions
6.1 Ethnic groups
11 In popular culture
12 See also
15 Further reading
16 External links
The earliest traces of human presence in New
Caledonia date back to
Lapita period c. 1600 BCE to c. 500 BCE. The
Lapita were highly
skilled navigators and agriculturists with influence over a large area
of the Pacific.
Kanak warriors posing with penis gourds and spears, around 1880
British explorer Captain
James Cook was the first European to sight
New Caledonia, on 4 September 1774, during his second voyage. He
named it "New Caledonia", as the northeast of the island reminded him
of Scotland. The west coast of Grande Terre was approached by
Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse
Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse in 1788, shortly before
his disappearance, and the
Loyalty Islands were first visited between
1793 and 1796 when Mare, Lifou, Tiga, and Ouvea were mapped by William
Raven. The American whaler encountered the island named then
Britania, and today known as Mar (Loyalty Is.) in November 1793.
From 1796 until 1840, only a few sporadic contacts with the
archipelago were recorded. About fifty American whalers (identified by
Robert Langsom from their log books) have been recorded in the region
(Grande Terre, Loyalty Is., Walpole and Hunter) between 1793 and
1887. Contacts became more frequent after 1840, because of the
interest in sandalwood.
As trade in sandalwood declined, it was replaced by a new business
enterprise, "blackbirding", a euphemism for taking
Western Pacific Islanders from New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, New
Hebrides, New Guinea, and the
Solomon Islands into indentured or
forced labour in the sugar cane plantations in
various methods of trickery and deception.
practiced by both French and British-Australian traders, but in New
Caledonia's case, the trade in the early decades of the twentieth
century involved relocating children from the Loyalty islands to the
Grand Terre for labour in plantation agriculture. New Caledonia's
primary experience with black birding revolved around a trade from the
New Hebrides (now Vanuatu) to the Grand Terre for labour in plantation
agriculture, mines, as well as guards over convicts and in some public
works. The historian Dorothy Shineberg's milestone study, The People
Trade, discusses this 'migration'. In the early years of the trade,
coercion was used to lure
Melanesian islanders onto ships; in later
years indenture systems were developed, however, when it came to the
French slave trade, which took place between its
of the New Hebrides and New Caledonia, very few regulations were
implemented. This represented a departure from the British experience,
since increased regulations were developed to mitigate the abuses of
black birding and 'recruitment' strategies on the coast lines.
The first missionaries from the
London Missionary Society
London Missionary Society and the
Marist Brothers arrived in the 1840s. In 1849, the crew of the
American ship Cutter was killed and eaten by the Pouma clan.
Cannibalism was widespread throughout New Caledonia.
On 24 September 1853, under orders from Napoleon III, Admiral Febvrier
Despointes took formal possession of New
Caledonia and Port-de-France
(Nouméa) was founded on 25 June 1854. A few dozen free settlers
settled on the west coast in the following years. New Caledonia
became a penal colony, and from the 1860s until the end of the
transportations in 1897, about 22,000 criminals and political
prisoners were sent to New Caledonia. The Bulletin de la Société
générale des prisons for 1888 indicates that 10,428 convicts,
including 2,329 freed ones, were on the island as of 1 May 1888, by
far the largest number of convicts detained in overseas
penitentiaries. Among the convicts were many
after the failed Paris Commune, including Henri de Rochefort and
Louise Michel. Between 1873 and 1876, 4,200 political prisoners
were "relegated" in New Caledonia. Only 40 of them settled in the
colony; the rest returned to
France after being granted amnesty in
1879 and 1880.
Chief "King Jacques" and his Queen
In 1864, nickel was discovered on the banks of the
Diahot River and
with the establishment of the Société Le
Nickel in 1876, mining
began in earnest. The French imported labourers to work in the
mines from neighbouring islands and the New Hebrides, and later from
Japan, the Dutch East Indies, and French Indochina. The French
government also attempted to encourage European immigration, without
The indigenous population or
Kanak were excluded from the French
economy and from mining work, ultimately confined to reservations.
This sparked a violent reaction in 1878 as High Chief Atal of La Foa
managed to unite many of the central tribes and launched a guerrilla
war which cost 200 Frenchmen and 1,000 Kanaks their lives. A
second guerrilla war took place in 1917, with Catholic missionaries
Maurice Leenhardt functioning as witnesses to the events of this
war. Leenhardt would pen a number of ethnographic works on the Kanak
of New Caledonia. Noel of Tiamou led the 1917 rebellion, which created
a number of orphans, one of which was taken into the care of
Protestant Missionary Alphonse Rouel; Wenceslas Thi who would become
the father of Jean-Marie Tjibaou.
The Europeans brought new diseases such as smallpox and measles. Many
people died as a result of these diseases. The
declined from around 60,000 in 1878 to 27,100 in 1921, and their
numbers did not increase again until the 1930s.
In June 1940, after the fall of France, the Conseil General of New
Caledonia voted unanimously to support the
Free French government, and
in September the pro-Vichy governor was forced to leave for
Indochina. In March 1942, with the assistance of Australia,
the territory became an important Allied base, and
headquarters of the
United States Navy
United States Navy and Army in the South
Pacific. The fleet that turned back the Japanese navy in the
Battle of the
Coral Sea in May 1942 was based at Nouméa. American
troops numbered as many as 50,000, the equivalent of the contemporary
French overseas territory
In 1946, New
Caledonia became an overseas territory. By 1953,
French citizenship had been granted to all New Caledonians, regardless
The European and Polynesian populations gradually increased in the
years leading to the nickel boom of 1969–1972, and the Melanesians
became a minority, though they were still the largest ethnic
Between 1976 and 1988, conflicts between French government actions and
Kanak independence movement saw periods of serious violence and
disorder, culminating in 1988 with a bloody hostage-taking in
Ouvéa. In 1983 a statute of "enlarged autonomy" for the territory,
proposed a five-year transition period and a referendum in 1989. In
March 1984, the
Kanak resistance, Front Indépendantiste, seized farms
and the Front de Libératíon
Kanak Socialiste (FLNKS) formed a
provisional government. In January 1985 the French Socialist
government offered sovereignty to the Kanaks and legal protection for
European settlers. The plan faltered as violence escalated. The
government declared a state of emergency, however regional elections
went ahead, and the FLNKS won control of three out of four provinces.
The Conservative Party government elected in
France in March 1986
began eroding the arrangements established under the Socialists,
redistributing lands mostly without consideration of native land
claims, resulting in over two thirds going to Europeans and less than
a third to the Kanaks. By the end of 1987 roadblocks, gun battles, and
the destruction of property culminated in a dramatic hostage crisis on
the eve of the presidential elections in France. Pro-independence
militants on Ouvea killed four gendarmes and took 27 hostage. The
military response resulted in nineteen
Kanak deaths and another three
deaths in custody.
The Matignon Agreements, signed on 26 June 1988, ensured a decade of
Nouméa Accord signed 5 May 1998, set the groundwork
for a 20-year transition that will gradually transfer competences to
the local government.
Following the timeline set by the
Nouméa Accord that stated a vote
must take place by the end of 2018, the groundwork was laid for a
referendum on full independence from
France at a meeting chaired by
the French Prime Minister
Édouard Philippe on 2 November 2017, to be
held by November 2018. Voter list eligibility had been a subject of a
long dispute, but the details have since been resolved. On March
20 2018, it was announced that the independence referendum will be
held on 4 November 2018.
Main article: Politics of New Caledonia
Logo of the Territorial Congress
Caledonia is a territory sui generis to which
France has gradually
transferred certain powers. It is governed by a 54-member
Territorial Congress, a legislative body composed of members of three
provincial assemblies. The French State is represented in the
territory by a High Commissioner. At a national level, New
Caledonia is represented in the
French Parliament by two deputies and
two senators. At the 2012 French presidential election, the voter
turnout in New
Caledonia was 61.19%.
For 25 years, the party system in New
Caledonia was dominated by the
anti-independence The Rally–UMP. This dominance ended with the
emergence of a new party, Avenir Ensemble, also opposed to
independence, but considered more open to dialogue with the Kanak
movement, which is part of the
Kanak and Socialist National
Liberation Front, a coalition of several pro-independence groups.
Kanak society has several layers of customary authority, from the
4,000–5,000 family-based clans to the eight customary areas (aires
coutumières) that make up the territory.
Clans are led by clan
chiefs and constitute 341 tribes, each headed by a tribal chief. The
tribes are further grouped into 57 customary chiefdoms (chefferies),
each headed by a head chief, and forming the administrative
subdivisions of the customary areas.
Jean Lèques during a ceremony honoring U.S. service members who
helped ensure the freedom of New
Caledonia during World War II
The Customary Senate is the assembly of the various traditional
councils of the Kanaks, and has jurisdiction over the law proposals
Kanak identity. The Customary Senate is composed of
16 members appointed by each traditional council, with two
representatives per each customary area. In its advisory role, the
Customary Senate must be consulted on law proposals "concerning the
Kanak identity" as defined in the
Nouméa Accord. It also has a
deliberative role on law proposals that would affect identity, the
civil customary statute, and the land system. A new president is
appointed each year in August or September, and the presidency rotates
between the eight customary areas.
Kanak people have recourse to customary authorities regarding civil
matters such as marriage, adoption, inheritance, and some land
issues. The French administration typically respects decisions
made in the customary system. However, their jurisdiction is
sharply limited in penal matters, as some matters relating to the
customary justice system, including the use of corporal punishment,
are seen as clashing with the human rights obligations of France.
The Armed Forces of New
Caledonia (French: Forces armées de
Nouvelle-Calédonie) FANC, include about 2,000 soldiers, mainly
deployed in Koumac, Nandaï, Tontouta, Plum, and Nouméa. The land
forces consist of a regiment of the Troupes de marine, the Régiment
d'infanterie de marine du Pacifique. The naval forces include two
P400-class patrol vessels, a BATRAL, and a patrol boat of the Maritime
Gendarmerie. The air force is made up of three Casa transport
aircraft, four Puma helicopters and a Fennec helicopter, based in
Tontouta. In addition, 760 gendarmes are deployed on the
Since 1986, the
United Nations Committee on Decolonization
United Nations Committee on Decolonization has
Caledonia on the
United Nations list of
Non-Self-Governing Territories. An independence referendum was
held the following year, but independence was rejected by a large
Nouméa Accord, signed in 1998 following a period of
secessionist unrest in the 1980s and approved in a referendum, New
Caledonia is to hold a second referendum on independence between 2014
and 2018. The official date of the referendum has been set for
November 4, 2018, the year the
Nouméa Accord expires.
The official name of the territory, Nouvelle-Calédonie, could be
changed in the near future due to the accord, which stated that "a
name, a flag, an anthem, a motto, and the design of banknotes will
have to be sought by all parties together, to express the Kanak
identity and the future shared by all parties." To date, however,
there has been no consensus on a new name for the territory. New
Caledonia has increasingly adopted its own symbols, choosing an
anthem, a motto, and a new design for its banknotes. In July 2010,
Caledonia adopted the
Kanak flag, alongside the existing French
tricolor, as dual official flags of the territory. The adoption
Caledonia one of the few countries or territories in the
world with two official national flags. The decision to use two
flags has been a constant battleground between the two sides and led
the coalition government to collapse in February 2011.
Main article: Administrative divisions of New Caledonia
Pyramid graph illustrating administration of New Caledonia
The institutional organization is the result of the organic law and
ordinary law passed by the Parliament on 16 February 1999.
The archipelago is divided into three provinces:
South Province (province Sud). Provincial capital: Nouméa. Area
9,407 km2. Population: 183,007 inhabitants (2009); 208,756 in
North Province (province Nord). Provincial capital: Koné. Area:
7,348 km2. Population: 45,137 inhabitants (2009); 68,278 in 2015.
Loyalty Islands Province (province des îles Loyauté). Provincial
capital: Lifou. Area: 1,981 km2. Population: 17,436 inhabitants
(2009); 43,451 in 2015.
Caledonia is further divided into 33 municipalities: One
commune, Poya, is divided between two provinces. The northern half of
Poya, with the main settlement and most of the population, is part of
the North Province, while the southern half of the commune, with only
127 inhabitants in 2009, is part of the South Province. The communes,
with 2015 populations in brackets, and administrative centres, are as
Thio (3,287) Thio
Yaté (2,683) Yaté
L'Île-des-Pins (2,921) Vao
Le Mont-Dore (27,939) Mont-Dore
Dumbéa (32,290) Dumbéa
Païta (21,583) Païta
Boulouparis (3,300) Boulouparis
La Foa (4,035) La Foa
Sarraméa (856) Sarraméa
Farino (636) Farino
Moindou (869) Moindou
Bourail (6,448) Bourail
Poya (southern part)
14 Poya (northern part) (3,541) Poya
Pouembout (2,872) Pouembout
16 Koné (8,331) Koné *
Voh (3,813) Voh
Kaala-Gomen (2,530) Kaala-Gomen
Koumac (4,766) Koumac
Poum (2,069) Poum
Belep (1,601) Waala
Ouégoa (3,198) Ouégoa
Pouébo (4,036) Pouébo
Hienghène (3,897) Hienghène
Touho (3,112) Touho
Poindimié (6,358) Poindimié
Ponérihouen (4,153) Ponérihouen
Houaïlou (6,273) Houaïlou
Kouaoua (1,859) Kouaoua
Canala (5,869) Canala
Loyalty Islands Province
Ouvéa (8,302) Fayaoué
Maré (12,424) Tadine
Notes: * provincial capital. The population of the southern part of
Poya commune is included in that for the northern part.
Caledonia from space
Main article: Geography of New Caledonia
Caledonia is part of Zealandia, a fragment of the ancient Gondwana
super-continent. It is speculated that New
Caledonia separated from
Australia roughly 66 million years ago, subsequently drifting in a
north-easterly direction, reaching its present position about 50
million years ago.
The mainland is divided in length by a central mountain range whose
highest peaks are
Mont Panié (1,629 metres (5,344 ft)) in the
north and Mont Humboldt (1,618 m (5,308 ft)) in the
southeast. The east coast is covered by a lush vegetation. The
west coast, with its large savannahs and plains suitable for farming,
is a drier area. Many ore-rich massifs are found along this coast.
Diahot River is the longest river of New Caledonia, flowing for
some 100 kilometres (62 mi). It has a catchment area of
620 km2 (240 sq mi) and opens north-westward into the
Baie d'Harcourt, flowing towards the northern point of the island
along the western escarpment of the Mount Panié. Most of the
island is covered by wet evergreen forests, while savannahs dominate
the lower elevations. The New Caledonian lagoon, with a total area
of 24,000 square kilometres (9,300 sq mi) is one of the
largest lagoons in the world. It is surrounded by the New Caledonia
The climate is tropical, with a hot and humid season from November to
March with temperatures between 27 °C and 30 °C, and a
cooler, dry season from June to August with temperatures between
20 °C and 23 °C, linked by two short interstices.
The tropical climate is strongly moderated by the oceanic influence
and the trade winds that attenuate humidity, which can be close to
80%. The average annual temperature is 23 °C, with
historical extremes of 2.3 °C and 39.1 °C.
The rainfall records show that precipitation differs greatly within
the island. The 3,000 millimetres (120 in) of rainfall recorded
in Galarino are three times the average of the west coast. There are
also dry periods, because of the effects of El Niño. Between
December and April, tropical depressions and cyclones can cause winds
to exceed a speed of 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph), with gusts
of 250 kilometres per hour (160 mph) and very abundant
rainfall. The last cyclone affecting New
Caledonia was Cyclone
Cook, in January 2017.
See also: Biodiversity of New Caledonia
Landscape, south of New Caledonia
Caledonia has many unique taxa, especially birds and plants.
It has the richest diversity in the world per square kilometre. In
its botany not only species but entire genera and even families are
unique to the island, and survive nowhere else. The biodiversity is
caused by Grande Terre's central mountain range, which has created a
variety of niches, landforms and micro-climates where endemic species
Bruno Van Peteghem was in 2001 awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize
for his efforts on behalf of the Caledonian ecological protection
movement in the face of "serious challenges" from Jacques Lafleur's
RPCR party. Progress has been made in a few areas in addressing
the protection of New Caledonia's ecological diversity from fire,
industrial and residential development, unrestricted agricultural
activity and mining (such as the judicial revocation of INCO's mining
license in June 2006 owing to claimed abuses).
Amborella, the world's oldest living lineage of flowering plant
Araucaria columnaris, New Caledonia
New Caledonia's fauna and flora derive from ancestral species isolated
in the region when it broke away from
Gondwana many tens of millions
of years ago. Not only endemic species have evolved here, but
entire genera and even families are unique to the islands.
More of tropical gymnosperm species are endemic to New
to any similar region on Earth. Of the 44 indigenous species of
gymnosperms, 43 are endemic, including the only known parasitic
gymnosperm (Parasitaxus usta). Also, of the 35 known species of
Araucaria, 13 are endemic to New Caledonia. New
Caledonia also has
the world's most divergent lineage of flowering plant, Amborella
trichopoda which is at, or near, the base of the clade of all
The world's largest extant species of fern,
Cyathea intermedia, also
is endemic to New Caledonia. It is very common on acid ground, and
grows about one meter (yard) per year on the east coast, usually on
fallow ground or in forest clearings. There also are other species of
Caledonia also is one of five regions on the planet where species
of southern beeches (Nothofagus) are indigenous; five species are
known to occur here.
Caledonia has its own version of maquis (maquis minier) occurring
on metalliferous soils, mostly in the south. The soils of
ultramafic rocks (mining terrains) have been a refuge for many native
flora species because they are toxic and their mineral content is
poorly suited to most foreign species of plants.
Main article: List of birds of New Caledonia
The kagu, an endemic flightless bird
Caledonia is home to the New Caledonian crow, a bird noted for its
tool-making abilities, which rival those of primates. These crows
are renowned for their extraordinary intelligence and ability to
fashion tools to solve problems, and make the most complex tools of
any animal yet studied apart from humans.
The endemic kagu, agile and able to run quickly, is a flightless
bird, but it is able to use its wings to climb branches or glide. It
is the surviving member of monotypic family Rhynochetidae, order
There are 11 endemic fish species and 14 endemic species of decapod
crustaceans in the rivers and lakes of New Caledonia. Some, such as
Neogalaxias, exist only in small areas. The nautilus, considered a
living fossil and related to the ammonites which became extinct at the
end of the Mesozoic era, occurs in Pacific waters around New
Caledonia. There is a large diversity of marine fish in the
surrounding waters, which are within the extents of the Coral Sea.
Several species of New
Caledonia are remarkable for their size: Ducula
goliath is the largest extant species of pigeon; Rhacodactylus
leachianus, the largest gecko in the world;
Phoboscincus bocourti the
largest skink in the world, thought to be extinct but rediscovered in
Main article: Demographics of New Caledonia
At the last census in 2014 New
Caledonia had a population of
268,767. Of these, 17,436 live in the
Loyalty Islands Province,
45,137 in the North Province, and 183,007 in the South Province.
Population growth has slowed down since the 1990s, but remains strong
with a yearly increase of 1.7% between 1996 and 2009.
Natural growth is responsible for 85% of the population growth, while
the remaining 15% is attributable to net migration. The population
growth is strong in South Province (2.3% per year between 1996 and
2009), moderate in North Province (0.7%), but negative in the Loyalty
Islands, which are losing inhabitants (−1.3%).
Over 40% of the population is under 20, although the ratio of older
people on the total population is increasing. Two residents of New
Caledonia out of three live in Greater Nouméa. Three out of four
were born in New Caledonia. The total fertility rate went from 3.2
children per woman in 1990 to 2.2 in 2007.
At the 2014 census, 39.1% of the population reported belonging to
Kanak community (down from 40.3% at the 2009 census), 27.2% to
the European (
Caldoche and Zoreille) community (down from 29.2% at the
2009 census), and 8.7% declared their community as "Caledonian" and
other (up from 6.0% at the 2009 census). Most of the people who
self-identified as "Caledonian" are thought to be ethnically
The other self-reported communities were Wallisians and Futunians
(8.2% of the total population, down from 8.7% at the 2009 census),
Tahitians (2.1% of the total population, up from 2.0% at the 2009
census), Indonesians (1.4% of the total population, down from 1.6% at
the 2009 census), Ni-
Vanuatu (1.0%, up from 0.9% at the 2009 census),
Vietnamese (0.9%, down from 1.0% at the 2009 census), and other Asians
(essentially ethnic Chinese) (0.4% of the total population, down from
0.8% at the 2009 census).
Finally 8.6% of the population reported belonging to multiple
communities (mixed race) (up from 8.3% at the 2009 census), and 2.5%
refused to report any community (up from 1.2% at the 2009 census). The
question on community belonging, which had been left out of the 2004
census, was reintroduced in 2009 under a new formulation, different
from the 1996 census, allowing multiple choices (mixed race) and the
possibility to clarify the choice "other".
Kanak people, part of the
Melanesian group, are indigenous to New
Caledonia. Their social organization is traditionally based around
clans, which identify as either "land" or "sea" clans, depending on
their original location and the occupation of their ancestors.
According to the 2009 census, the
Kanak constitute 94% of the
population in the
Loyalty Islands Province, 74% in the North Province
and 27% in the South Province. The
Kanak tend to be of lower
socio-economic status than the Europeans and other settlers.
Europeans first settled in New
France established a
penal colony on the archipelago. Once the prisoners had completed
their sentences, they were given land to settle. According to the
2009 census, of the 71,721 Europeans in New
Caledonia 32,354 were
native-born, 33,551 were born in other parts of France, and 5,816 were
born abroad. The Europeans are divided into several groups: the
Caldoches are usually defined as those born in New
Caledonia who have
ancestral ties that span back to the early French settlers. They
often settled in the rural areas of the western coast of Grande Terre,
where many continue to run large cattle properties.
Rodeos (here at the annual fair of Bourail) are part of Caldoche
Distinct from the Caldoches are those were born in New
families that had settled more recently, and are called simply
Caledonians. The Metropolitan French-born migrants who come to New
Caledonia are called Métros or Zoreilles, indicating their origins in
metropolitan France. There is also a community of about 2,000
pieds noirs, descended from European settlers in France's former North
African colonies; some of them are prominent in anti-independence
politics, including Pierre Maresca, a leader of the RPCR.
A 2015 documentary by
Al Jazeera English
Al Jazeera English asserted that up to
10%[dubious – discuss] of New Caledonia's population is descended
from around 2,000 Arab-Berber people deported from
French Algeria in
the late 19th century to prisons on the island in reprisal for the
Mokrani Revolt in 1871. After serving their sentences, they were
released and given land to own and cultivate as part of colonisation
efforts on the island. As the overwhelming majority of the Algerians
imprisoned on New
Caledonia were men, the community was continued
through intermarriage with women of other ethnic groups, mainly French
women from nearby women's prisons. Despite facing both assimilation
into the Euro-French population and discrimination for their ethnic
background, descendants of the deportees have succeeded in preserving
a common identity as Algerians, including maintaining certain cultural
practices (such as Arabic names) and Islamic religion. They commonly
travel to Algeria as a rite of passage, though obtaining Algerian
citizenship is often a difficult process. The largest population of
Algerian-Caledonians lives in the commune of
Bourail (particularly in
the Nessadiou district, where there is an Islamic cultural centre and
cemetery), with smaller communities in Nouméa, Conné, Blambut, and
Main article: Languages of New Caledonia
French language began to spread with the establishment of French
settlements, and French is now spoken even in the most secluded
villages. The level of fluency, however, varies significantly across
the population as a whole, primarily due to the absence of universal
access to public education before 1953, but also due to immigration
and ethnic diversity. At the 2009 census, 97.3% of people aged 15
or older reported that they could speak, read and write French,
whereas only 1.1% reported that they had no knowledge of French.
Other significant language communities among immigrant populations are
Javanese language speakers.
Kanak languages spoken in New
Caledonia are part of the Oceanic
group of the Austronesian family.
Kanak languages are taught from
kindergarten (four languages are taught up to the bachelor's degree)
and an academy is responsible for their promotion. The four most
widely spoken indigenous languages are
Drehu (spoken in Lifou),
Nengone (spoken on Maré) and
Paicî (northern part of Grande
Terre). Others include Iaai (spoken on Ouvéa). At the 2009
census, 35.8% of people aged 15 or older reported that they could
speak (but not necessarily read or write) one of the indigenous
Melanesian languages, whereas 58.7% reported that they had no
knowledge of any of them.
The predominant religion is Christianity; half of the population is
Roman Catholic, including most of the Europeans, Uveans, and
Vietnamese and half of the
Melanesian and Polynesian minorities.
Roman Catholicism was introduced by French colonists. The island also
Protestant churches, of which the Free Evangelical Church
and the Evangelical Church in New
Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands
have the largest number of adherents; their memberships are almost
entirely Melanesian. Protestantism gained ground in the late 20th
century and continues to expand. There are also numerous other
Christian groups and small numbers of Muslims. See
Islam in New
Caledonia and Bahá'í Faith in New Caledonia.
Education in New
Caledonia is based on the French curriculum and
delivered by both French teachers and French–trained teachers. Under
the terms of the 1998
Nouméa Accord, primary education is the
responsibility of the three provinces. As of 2010, secondary education
was in the process of being transferred to the provinces. The
majority of schools are located in
Nouméa but some are found in the
islands and the north of New Caledonia. When students reach high
school age, most are sent to
Nouméa to continue their secondary
education. Education is compulsory from the age of six
New Caledonia's main tertiary education institution is the University
Caledonia (Université de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), which was
founded in 1993 and comes under the supervision of the Ministry of
Higher Education, Research and Innovation. It is based in
offers a range of vocational, Bachelor, MA, and PhD programmes and
courses. The University of New
Caledonia consists of three academic
departments, one institute of technology, one PhD school, and one
teacher's college. As of 2013, the University has approximately 3,000
students, 107 academics, and 95 administrative and library
staff. Many New Caledonian students also pursue scholarships
to study in metropolitan France. As part of the
process, there is a Cadre Avenir which provides scholarships for Kanak
professionals to study in France.
Total GDP, nominal,
2011 (billion US$)
GDP per capita, nominal,
Papua New Guinea
Main article: Economy of New Caledonia
Caledonia has one of the largest economies in the South Pacific,
with a GDP of US$9.89 billion in 2011. The nominal GDP per capita
was US$38,921 (at market exchange rates) in 2011. It is higher than
New Zealand's, though there is significant inequality in income
distribution, and long-standing structural imbalances between the
economically dominant South Province and the less developed North
Province and Loyalty Islands. The currency in use in New Caledonia
is the CFP franc, pegged to the euro at a rate of 1,000 CFP to 8.38
euros. It is issued by the Institut d'Emission d'Outre-Mer.
Real GDP grew by 3.8% in 2010 and 3.2% in 2011, boosted by rising
worldwide nickel prices and an increase in domestic demand due to
rising employment, as well as strong business investments. In 2011,
exports of goods and services from New
Caledonia amounted to
2.11 billion US dollars, 75.6% of which were mineral products and
alloys (mainly nickel ore and ferronickel). Imports of goods and
services amounted to 5.22 billion US dollars. 22.1% of the
imports of goods came from Metropolitan
France and its overseas
departments, 16.1% from other countries in the European Union, 14.6%
from Singapore (essentially fuel), 9.6% from Australia, 4.5% from the
United States, 4.2% from New Zealand, 2.0% from Japan, and 27.0% from
other countries. The trade deficit in goods and services stood at
3.11 billion US dollars in 2011.
Financial support from
France is substantial, representing more than
15% of the GDP, and contributes to the health of the economy.
Tourism is underdeveloped, with 100,000 visitors a year, compared to
400,000 in the
Cook Islands and 200,000 in Vanuatu. Much of the
land is unsuitable for agriculture, and food accounts for about 20% of
imports. According to FAOSTAT, New
Caledonia is one of world's
largest producers of: yams (33rd); taro (44th); plantains (50th);
coconuts (52nd). The exclusive economic zone of New Caledonia
covers 1.4 million square kilometres (0.54 million square
miles). The construction sector accounts for roughly 12% of GDP,
employing 9.9% of the salaried population in 2010. Manufacturing
is largely confined to small-scale activities such as the
transformation of foodstuffs, textiles and plastics.
Nickel mining in New Caledonia
A creek in southern New Caledonia. Red colors reveal the richness of
the ground in iron oxides and nickel.
New Caledonian soils contain about 25% of the world's nickel
resources. The late-2000s recession has gravely affected the
nickel industry, as the sector faced a significant drop in nickel
prices (−31.0% year-on-year in 2009) for the second consecutive
year. The fall in prices has led a number of producers to reduce
or stop altogether their activity, resulting in a reduction of the
global supply of nickel by 6% compared to 2008.
This context, combined with bad weather has forced the operators in
the sector to revise downwards their production target. Thus, the
activity of mineral extraction has declined by 8% in volume year on
year.[when?] The share of the nickel sector as a percentage of GDP
fell from 8% in 2008 to 5% in 2009. A trend reversal and a
recovery in demand, have been recorded early in the second half of
2009, allowing a 2.0% increase in the local metal production.
Historically, nickel was transported by wire ropeway to ships waiting
Caldoches, white people born in New Caledonia
Wood carving, especially of the houp (Montrouziera cauliflora), is a
contemporary reflection of the beliefs of the traditional tribal
society, and includes totems, masks, chambranles, or flèche
faîtière, a kind of arrow which adorns the roofs of Kanak
Basketry is a craft widely practiced by tribal women, creating
objects of daily use.
Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Centre, designed by Italian architect
Renzo Piano and opened in 1998, is the icon of the
The Kaneka is a form of local music, inspired by reggae and
originating in the 1980s.
The Mwâ Ka is a 12m totem pole commemorating the French annexation of
New Caledonia, and was inaugurated in 2005.
Les Nouvelles Calédoniennes is the only daily newspaper in the
archipelago. A monthly publication, Le Chien bleu, parodies
the news from New Caledonia.
There are five radio stations: the public service broadcaster RFO
radio Nouvelle-Calédonie, Océane FM (the collectivity's newest
station), the youth-oriented station NRJ, Radio Djiido (established by
Jean-Marie Tjibaou), and Radio Rythmes Bleus. The last two
stations are primarily targeted to the various
Kanak groups who are
indigenous to New
Caledonia ("Djiido" is a term from the Fwâi
language, spoken in
Hienghène in the North Province, denoting a metal
spike used to secure straw thatching to the roof of a traditional
As for television, the public service broadcaster
operates a local channel, Réseau Outre-Mer 1re, along with
France 24 and Arte. Canal
Plus Calédonie carries 17 digital channels in French, including
Canal+ and TF1. Analogue television broadcasts ended in September
2011, completing the digital television transition in New
Caledonia. Bids for two new local television stations, NCTV and
NC9, were considered by the French broadcasting authorities. NCTV
was launched in December 2013.
The media are considered to be able to operate freely, but Reporters
Without Borders raised concerns in 2006 about "threats and
intimidation" of RFO staff by members of a pro-independence group.
The largest sporting event to be held in New
Caledonia is a round of
FIA Asia Pacific Rally Championship (APRC).
Caledonia football team began playing in 1950, and was
admitted into FIFA, the international association of football leagues,
in 2004. Prior to joining FIFA, New
Caledonia held observer status
Oceania Football Confederation, and became an official member
of the OFC with its
FIFA membership. They have won the South Pacific
Games five times, most recently in 2007, and have placed third on two
occasions in the OFC Nations Cup.
Christian Karembeu is a prominent
New Caledonian former footballer. The under-17 team qualified for the
FIFA under 17 World Cup in 2017.
Horse racing is also very popular in New Caledonia, as are women's
Rugby league team participated in the
Pacific Cup in 2004.
Caledonia also has a national synchronised swimming team which
The "Tour Cycliste de Nouvelle Caledonie" is a multi-day cycling stage
race that is held usually in October. The race is organised by the
Comite Cycliste New Caledonia. The race attracts riders from
Australia, New Zealand, France, Reunion,
Europe and Tahiti. Australian
Brendan Washington has finished last three times in the race between
2005–2009, and is known in New
Caledonia as "The Lanterne Rouge".
Handball team won the
Handball Nations Cup
in 2008 held in Wellington, New Zealand. They beat
Australia in the
Due to low levels of domestic horticulture, fresh tropical fruits
feature less highly in New Caledonian cuisine than in other Pacific
nations, instead relying on rice, fish and root vegetables such as
taro. One way this is frequently prepared is in a
buried-oven-style feast, known as Bougna. Wrapped in banana leaves,
the fish, taro, banana and other seafood are buried with hot rocks to
cook, then dug up and eaten.
Main article: Transport in New Caledonia
La Tontouta International Airport
La Tontouta International Airport is 50 km (31 mi) north of
Nouméa, and connects New
Caledonia with the airports of Paris, Tokyo,
Sydney, Auckland, Brisbane, Melbourne, Osaka, Papeete, Fiji, Wallis,
Port Vila, Seoul, and St. Denis. Most internal air services are
operated by the International carrier Aircalin. Cruise ships dock
at the Gare Maritime in Nouméa. The passenger and cargo boat
Havannah sails to Port Vila, Malicolo and Santo in
Vanuatu once a
New Caledonia's road network consists of:
Route territoriale 1, going from the exit from
Nouméa to the Néhoué
river, north of Koumac;
Route territoriale 2, on
Lifou Island and from the Wanaham airport to
the south of Wé;
Route territoriale 3, from the junction with the RT1 in Nandi up to
Route territoriale 4, from the junction with the RT1 near Muéo to the
In popular culture
The television series
McHale's Navy was set in the islands in the
area, with fleet headquarters being in New Caledonia, and so were the
episodes "New Blood" and "Cruel Sea" of the 1999 BBC television show
Walking with Dinosaurs.
Rebellion (French: L'Ordre et la Morale) was released in 2011 and is
based on the massacre by French military during the 1988
hostage taking in New
Caledonia as seen from the perspective of then
GIGN leader Capt. Philippe Legorjus.
In 2009, South Korean television drama Boys Over Flowers filmed
Episode 5 and Episode 6 at New
Caledonia as a vacation spot for the
richest of South Korea. With 10 million viewers, New
Caledonia and the
sights filmed in the show have led to increase interest in the Korean
population who see it as a possible honeymoon location.
Lists of islands
^ Previously known officially as the "Territory of New
Dependencies" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et
dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia"
(French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French
name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999,
article 222 IV — see ). The French courts often continue to
use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
^ a b "La Nouvelle-Calédonie se dote d'un hymne et d'une devise" (in
French). LeMonde.fr. 2010-08-18. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ a b c d "268 767 habitants en 2014". ISEE. Retrieved
^ a b c d e f g h i j "PIB GRANDS AGRÉGATS". ISEE. Archived from the
original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
^ a b c d "Présentation" (in French). Nouvelle-caledonie.gouv.fr.
Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved
^ a b "Présentation – L'Outre-Mer". Outre-mer.gouv.fr. Retrieved
^ David Stanley (1989). South Pacific Handbook. David Stanley.
p. 549. ISBN 978-0-918373-29-8.
^ a b "Histoire / La Nouvelle-Calédonie" (in French).
Nouvelle-caledonie.gouv.fr. 2012-11-20. Archived from the original on
30 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ a b c d Leanne Logan; Geert Cole (2001). New Caledonia. Lonely
Planet. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-86450-202-2.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Rapport annuel 2010" (PDF). IEOM
Nouvelle-Calédonie. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ Quanchi, Max; Robson, John (2005). Historical Dictionary of the
Discovery and Exploration of the Pacific Islands. Scarecrow Press.
^ a b "New
Caledonia and International Seaport History. The Maritime
Heritage Project". www.maritimeheritage.org. Retrieved
^ Frédéric Angleviel. "De Kanaka à Kanak: l'appropriation d'un
terme générique au profit de la revendication identitaire" (PDF).
Université de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ "Charting the Pacific – Places". Abc.net.au. 1998-10-13. Retrieved
^ a b Leanne Logan; Geert Cole (2001). New Caledonia. Lonely Planet.
p. 15. ISBN 978-1-86450-202-2.
^ Bruce M. Knauft (1999). From Primitive to Postcolonial in Melanesia
and Anthropology. University of Michigan Press. p. 103.
^ As compared to 4,053 convicts, including 1,176 freed ones, in French
Guiana at the same date. Bulletin de la Société générale des
prisons, Paris, 1888, p. 980
^ a b c d Robert Aldrich; John Connell (2006). France's Overseas
Frontier: Départements et territoires d'outre-mer. Cambridge
University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-521-03036-6.
^ a b c d e f David Stanley (1989). South Pacific Handbook. David
Stanley. pp. 549–. ISBN 978-0-918373-29-8.
^ Adrian Muckle
^ "Hasluck: Clearing A Way To Total War" (PDF). Retrieved 6 August
^ Gordon L. Rottman (2002). World War 2 Pacific Island Guide.
Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 71.
^ a b c d e New
Caledonia at Encyclopædia Britannica
^ "Land and Independence in New Caledonia". Retrieved
Caledonia sets date for independence referendum". The Guardian.
20 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
^ a b c "Présentation – L'Outre-Mer". Outre-mer.gouv.fr. Retrieved
^ a b c d e f "Concluding session,
Special Committee on Decolonization
approves two texts on New Caledonia, Tokelau; hears appeals to heed
criticism of its work". Un.org. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ "Les différentes élections" (in French).
Nouvelle-caledonie.gouv.fr. 2011-05-27. Archived from the original on
2011-11-11. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ Minister of the Interior, Government of France. "Resultats de
l'election presidentielle — Nouvelle Caledonie" (in French).
^ a b c d e The situation of
Kanak people in New Caledonia, France.
– Country Reports – UNSR James Anaya, page 8
^ a b c d e "Sénat coutumier" (in French).
Nouvelle-caledonie.gouv.fr. Archived from the original on 30 October
2012. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ a b c d "Les Forces armées de Nouvelle-Calédonie" (in French).
Defense.gouv.fr. 2012-12-20. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories (1945–1999) United
^ a b "Sarkozy calls for dialogue over New
Caledonia violence". France
24. 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ "Paris meeting to prepare New
Caledonia independence vote". Radio
New Zealand. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
^ Government of New Caledonia. "Les accords de Nouméa" (PDF) (in
French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2008. Retrieved
11 August 2008.
^ RFO. "Société : La Nouvelle-Calédonie choisit un hymne et
une devise". Archived from the original on 27 June 2008. Retrieved 11
^ a b "Nouvelle-Calédonie: où en est le processus d'indépendance?"
(in French). LeMonde.fr. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ a b Malkin, Bonnie (20 July 2010). "New
Caledonia adopts second flag
in compromise over French rule". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 28
July 2010. New Caledonian Congress overwhelmingly voted to adopt the
emblem of the indigenous movement, which features red, blue and green
stripes with a yellow sun and black totem, as the nation's second
^ Boyer & Giribet 2007: 355
^ a b c d e f g "Données Géographiques" (in French).
Nouvelle-caledonie.gouv.fr. Archived from the original on 30 October
2012. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ a b
Diahot River at Encyclopædia Britannica
^ "The impacts of opencast mining in New Caledonia". The United
Nations University. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011.
Retrieved 9 June 2011.
^ a b Grandcolas, P; Murienne, J; Robillard, T; Desutter-Grandcolas,
L; Jourdan, H; Guilbert, E; Deharveng, L (2008). "New Caledonia: a
very old Darwinian island?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1508): 3309–3317.
doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0122. PMC 2607381 .
^ a b c d Leanne Logan; Geert Cole (2001). New Caledonia. Lonely
Planet. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-86450-202-2.
Bruno Van Peteghem Archived 1 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.,
Goldman Environmental Prize
Goldman Environmental Prize website
^ "Indigenous Kanaks Take On Inco in New Caledonia" Archived 13
October 2007 at the Wayback Machine., MiningWatch Canada, 19 July 2006
^ Collins, Alan S.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A. (August 2005). "Amalgamating
eastern Gondwana: The evolution of the Circum-Indian Orogens".
Earth-Science Reviews. 71 (3–4): 229–270.
doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2005.02.004. ISSN 0012-8252.
^ a b c "La flore de Nouvelle-Calédonie – Première partie".
Futura-sciences.com. 2004-08-18. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ "La flore de Nouvelle-Calédonie – Deuxième partie".
Futura-sciences.com. 2004-08-18. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ Weir, A.A.S.; Chappell, J.; Kacelnik, A. (2002). "Shaping of hooks
in New Caledonian crows". Science. 297 (5583): 981.
doi:10.1126/science.1073433. PMID 12169726.
^ Walker, Matt (2010-10-26). "Clever New Caledonian crows go to
parents' tool school". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ Attenborough, D. 1998 The Life of Birds BBC ISBN 0563-38792-0
^ "Kagu". Oiseaux-birds.com. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ a b c "La Biodiversité". endemia.nc. Archived from the original on
6 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
^ "Population des communes et provinces de la Nouvelle-Calédonie de
1956 à 2009". ISEE. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012.
^ a b c d e f g "Recensement de la population en Nouvelle-Calédonie
en 2009 – 50 000 habitants de plus en 13 ans" (in French). Institut
national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE.fr).
^ ISEE. "Prov2 – Principales caractéristiques des individus, par
province de résidence et genre" (XLS). Retrieved 2015-08-24.
^ ISEE. "Communauté d'appartenance –
INSEE – ISEE / Recensement
de la population de 2009 en Nouvelle-Calédonie" (XLS). Retrieved
^ a b c Leanne Logan; Geert Cole (2001). New Caledonia. Lonely Planet.
p. 39. ISBN 978-1-86450-202-2.
^ "Recensement de la population 2009" (PDF). ISEE.nc. Retrieved
^ a b c d e f The situation of
Kanak people in New Caledonia, France.
– Country Reports – UNSR James Anaya, page 5
^ DONNEES DE CADRAGE Archived 30 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine..
^ David A. Chappell (2005). "New Caledonia". The Contemporary Pacific.
17 (2): 435–448. doi:10.1353/cp.2005.0043.
Henry Kamm (26 July 1988). "Noumea Journal; On an Island in the
Pacific, but Far From at Peace". New York Times.
^ Mame, Abdelkader; Abid, Abdelaziz (14 September 2015). "Exile In New
Caledonia". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
^ "Situation linguistique en Nouvelle-Calédonie". Vice-Rectorat de
Nouvelle-Calédonie. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ a b Principales caractéristiques des individus de 15 ans et plus,
par province de résidence et sexe Archived 30 October 2012 at the
Wayback Machine.. isee.nc. Retrieved on 2013-02-28.
^ Académie des Langues
Kanak – Langues. alk.gouv.nc
^ a b "La Population De Nouvelle-Caledonie" (in French). La maison de
la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Archived from the original on 2009-04-26.
^ a b c "Emerging Pacific Leaders Dialogue 2010 New
(PDF). Commonwealth Study Conferences Australia. Retrieved 1 March
^ "What is education like in New Caledonia?". New
Retrieved 1 March 2018.
^ "Presentation UNC en Anglais 2012" (PDF). University of New
Caledonia. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database – April 2013". IMF. Retrieved
^ a b "GDP by State". BEA, U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved
^ a b c "New
Caledonia – Information Paper". NZ Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013.
^ "Vie pratique – L'Outre-Mer". Outre-mer.gouv.fr. Retrieved
^ ISEE.nc. "Commerce extérieur – Séries longues" (in French).
Archived from the original (XLS) on 4 November 2013. Retrieved
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FAOSTAT 2008 by Production". faostat.fao.org. Retrieved 6 June
Nickel gleams again in New Caledonia", Metal Bulletin, 3 December
2001 – though other articles in say 10% or 16%
^ a b c d e f "Les comptes économiques rapides de
Nouvelle-Calédonie" (PDF). ISEE.nc. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ a b c d "La Culture". Tourisme Nouvelle-Calédonie. Retrieved
^ "Mwâ Ka in Noumea, New Caledonia". Lonely Planet. Retrieved
^ The name is a pun, and can be read in English as "The Caledonian
News" or "Women of New Caledonia"
^ PFF stands in solidarity with
Les Nouvelles Calédoniennes stands in
solidarity with Les Nouvelles Calédoniennes, Scoop, 11 March 2014
^ a b "Vivre en Nouvelle-Calédonie". Gîtes Nouvelle Calédonie.
^ Le Chien bleu
^ Télévision Numérique Terrestre (TNT)
^ Grille TV Canal Plus Calédonie
^ L'Outre-mer dit adieu à l'analogique – AUDIOVISUEL – Info –
Nouvelle-Calédonie – La 1ère. nouvellecaledonie.la1ere.fr.
^ on 12 October 2011 UTC (2011-10-12). "Two new New Caledonia
television channels proposed". Rnzi.com. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ NCTV, c'est parti !, Les Nouvelles Calédoniennes, 9 December
^ "Regions and territories: New Caledonia". BBC News. 2013-01-16.
Caledonia joins the world football community". FIFA.com. 24 May
2004. Archived from the original on 2007-07-18. Retrieved 6 August
^ "Women's Cricket". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
^ "What Do People Eat in New Caledonia?".
newcaledoniatoday.wordpress.com. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
^ "Présentation". Aéroport international de
Nouméa la Tontouta.
^ Transport. isee.nc
^ a b "Transport in New Caledonia". Lonely Planet. Retrieved
^ Site de la DITTT – Infrastructures routières
Chappell, David. "The black and the red: radicalising anti-Colonialism
in 1970s New Caledonia." Journal of Pacific Studies (2004) 27#1 pp:
Dornoy, Myriam. Politics in New
Caledonia (Sydney University Press,
Lyons, Martyn. The totem and the tricolour: a short history of New
Caledonia since 1774 (University of New South Wales Press, 1986)
Muckle, Adrian. "'No More Violence nor War'," Journal of Pacific
History (2008) 44#2 p: 179-194. covers politics in New
Munholland, Kim. Rock of Contention:
Free French & Americans at
War in New Caledonia, 1940–1945 (2005)
Shineberg, Dorothy. People Trade: Pacific Island Laborers & New
Caledonia, 1865–1930 (1999)
Spencer, Michael. New Caledonia: Essays in Nationalism &
Toth, Stephen A. Beyond Papillon: The French Overseas Penal Colonies,
Muckle, Adrian. Spectres of Violence in a Colonial Context, New
Caledonia, 1917. University of
Veracini, Lorenzo. "The Shadows of The Colonial Period to Times of
Sharing History Writing in & About New Calidonia," Journal of
Pacific History (2003) 38#3 pp: 331–352. 22p.
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