Coordinates : 21°15′S 165°18′E / 21.25°S 165.30°E / -21.25; 165.30
New Caledonia Nouvelle-Calédonie (French )
Flags of New Caledonia
MOTTO: "Terre de parole, terre de partage" "Land of speech, land of sharing"
ANTHEM: Soyons unis, devenons frères
STATUS Sui generis special collectivity
Capital and largest city Nouméa 22°16′S 166°28′E / 22.267°S 166.467°E / -22.267; 166.467
OFFICIAL LANGUAGES French
RECOGNISED REGIONAL LANGUAGES
and 35 other native languages
DEMONYM New Caledonian
SOVEREIGN STATE French Republic
GOVERNMENT Dependent territory
• PRESIDENTIAL HEAD OF STATE Emmanuel Macron
• PRESIDENT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF NEW CALEDONIA Philippe Germain
• HIGH COMMISSIONER Thierry Lataste
LEGISLATURE Territorial Congress
• ANNEXED BY FRANCE 1853
• OVERSEAS TERRITORY 1946
• SPECIAL COLLECTIVITY 1999
• TOTAL 18,576 km2 (7,172 sq mi)
• LAND 18,275 km2 (7,056 sq mi)
• AUG. 2014 CENSUS 268,767
• DENSITY 14.5/km2 (37.6/sq mi) (200th )
GDP (NOMINAL) 2011 estimate
• TOTAL US$9.89 billion
• PER CAPITA US$38,921
CURRENCY CFP franc (XPF )
TIME ZONE UTC +11
DRIVES ON THE right
CALLING CODE +687
ISO 3166 CODE NC
INTERNET TLD .nc
NEW CALEDONIA (French : Nouvelle-Calédonie) is a special
New Caledonia has a land area of 18,576 km2 (7,172 sq mi). Its population of 268,767 (Aug. 2014 census) consists of a mix of Kanak people (the original inhabitants of New Caledonia), people of European descent (Caldoches and Metropolitan French ), Polynesian people (mostly Wallisians ), and Southeast Asian people, as well as a few people of Pied-Noir and North African descent. The capital of the territory is Nouméa .
* 1 History
* 1.1 French dependency * 1.2 French overseas territory
* 2 Politics
* 2.1 Customary authority * 2.2 Military * 2.3 Status
* 3 Administrative divisions
* 4 Geography
* 4.1 Climate
* 5 Environment
* 5.1 Flora * 5.2 Fauna
* 6 Demographics
* 6.1 Ethnic groups * 6.2 Languages * 6.3 Religion
* 7 Economy
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Media * 8.2 Sports * 8.3 Cuisine
* 9 Transport * 10 In popular culture * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References
* 14 Further reading
* 14.1 Historiography
* 15 External links
The earliest traces of human presence in New
Caledonia date back to
Lapita period c. 1600 BCE to c. 500 BCE. The
Lapita were highly
skilled navigators and agriculturists with influence over a large area
of the Pacific. Two
British explorer Captain
James Cook was the first European to sight
New Caledonia, on 4 September 1774, during his second voyage. He
named it "New
Caledonia ", as the northeast of the island reminded him
As trade in sandalwood declined, it was replaced by a new form of
trade, "blackbirding ", a euphemism for tricking
Melanesian or Western
Pacific Islanders drawn from New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, New
Hebrides , New Guinea, and the
The first missionaries from the
London Missionary Society and the
Marist Brothers arrived in the 1840s. In 1849, the crew of the
American ship Cutter was killed and eaten by the Pouma clan.
On 24 September 1853, under orders from
In 1864, nickel was discovered on the banks of the
Diahot River and
with the establishment of the Société Le
The indigenous population or
The Europeans brought new diseases such as smallpox and measles .
Many people died as a result of these diseases. The
In June 1940, after the fall of
FRENCH OVERSEAS TERRITORY
In 1946, New Caledonia became an overseas territory. By 1953, French citizenship had been granted to all New Caledonians, regardless of ethnicity.
The European and Polynesian populations gradually increased in the years leading to the nickel boom of 1969–1972, and the Melanesians became a minority, though they were still the largest ethnic group.
Between 1976 and 1988, conflicts between French government actions
The Matignon Agreements , signed on 26 June 1988, ensured a decade of stability. The Nouméa Accord signed 5 May 1998, set the groundwork for a 20-year transition that will gradually transfer competences to the local government.
Following the timeline set by the
Nouméa Accord, the groundwork was
laid for a referendum on full independence from
Main article: Politics of New Caledonia Logo of the Territorial Congress
Caledonia is a territory sui generis to which
For 25 years, the party system in New
Caledonia was dominated by the
The Rally–UMP . This dominance ended with the
emergence of a new party,
Avenir Ensemble , also opposed to
independence, but considered more open to dialogue with the Kanak
movement, which is part of the
The Customary Senate is the assembly of the various traditional
councils of the Kanaks, and has jurisdiction over the law proposals
Kanak people have recourse to customary authorities regarding civil matters such as marriage, adoption, inheritance, and some land issues. The French administration typically respects decisions made in the customary system. However, their jurisdiction is sharply limited in penal matters, as some matters relating to the customary justice system, including the use of corporal punishment , are seen as clashing with the human rights obligations of France.
The Armed Forces of New Caledonia (French : Forces armées de Nouvelle-Calédonie) FANC, include about 2,000 soldiers, mainly deployed in Koumac , Nandaï , Tontouta , Plum , and Nouméa . The land forces consist of a regiment of the Troupes de marine , the Régiment d'infanterie de marine du Pacifique. The naval forces include two P400-class patrol vessels , a BATRAL , and a patrol boat of the Maritime Gendarmerie . The air force is made up of three Casa transport aircraft, four Puma helicopters and a Fennec helicopter, based in Tontouta. In addition, 760 gendarmes are deployed on the archipelago.
Since 1986, the
United Nations Committee on Decolonization has
Caledonia on the
Under the Nouméa Accord , signed in 1998 following a period of secessionist unrest in the 1980s and approved in a referendum , New Caledonia is to hold a second referendum on independence between 2014 and 2018. The official date of the referendum has been set for 2018, the year the Nouméa Accord expires.
The official name of the territory, Nouvelle-Calédonie, could be
changed in the near future due to the accord, which stated that "a
name, a flag, an anthem, a motto, and the design of banknotes will
have to be sought by all parties together, to express the Kanak
identity and the future shared by all parties." To date, however,
there has been no consensus on a new name for the territory. New
Caledonia has increasingly adopted its own symbols, choosing an
anthem, a motto, and a new design for its banknotes. In July 2010,
Caledonia adopted the
The institutional organization is the result of the organic law and ordinary law passed by the Parliament on 16 February 1999.
The archipelago is divided into three provinces:
* South Province (province Sud). Provincial capital: Nouméa . Area 9,407 km2. Population: 183,007 inhabitants (2009); 208,756 in 2015. * North Province (province Nord). Provincial capital: Koné . Area: 7,348 km2. Population: 45,137 inhabitants (2009); 68,278 in 2015. * Loyalty Islands Province (province des îles Loyauté). Provincial capital: Lifou . Area: 1,981 km2. Population: 17,436 inhabitants (2009); 43,451 in 2015.
New Caledonia is further divided into 33 municipalities: One commune, Poya , is divided between two provinces. The northern half of Poya, with the main settlement and most of the population, is part of the North Province, while the southern half of the commune, with only 127 inhabitants in 2009, is part of the South Province. The communes, with 2015 populations in brackets, and administrative centres, are as follows:
* Thio (3,287) Thio
Yaté (2,683) Yaté
* L\'Île-des-Pins (2,921) Vao
* Le Mont-Dore (27,939) Mont-Dore
Dumbéa (32,290) Dumbéa
Païta (21,583) Païta
Boulouparis (3,300) Boulouparis
La Foa (4,035) La Foa
Sarraméa (856) Sarraméa
Farino (636) Farino
Moindou (869) Moindou
* 14 Poya (northern part) (3,541) Poya * 15 Pouembout (2,872) Pouembout * 16 Koné (8,331) Koné * * 17 Voh (3,813) Voh * 18 Kaala-Gomen (2,530) Kaala-Gomen * 19 Koumac (4,766) Koumac * 20 Poum (2,069) Poum * 21 Belep (1,601) Waala * 22 Ouégoa (3,198) Ouégoa * 23 Pouébo (4,036) Pouébo * 24 Hienghène (3,897) Hienghène * 25 Touho (3,112) Touho * 26 Poindimié (6,358) Poindimié * 27 Ponérihouen (4,153) Ponérihouen * 28 Houaïlou (6,273) Houaïlou * 29 Kouaoua (1,859) Kouaoua * 30 Canala (5,869) Canala
Loyalty Islands Province
Notes: * provincial capital. The population of the southern part of Poya commune is included in that for the northern part.
Caledonia is part of
The mainland is divided in length by a central mountain range whose highest peaks are Mont Panié (1,629 metres (5,344 ft)) in the north and Mont Humboldt (1,618 m (5,308 ft)) in the southeast. The east coast is covered by a lush vegetation. The west coast, with its large savannahs and plains suitable for farming, is a drier area. Many ore-rich massifs are found along this coast.
The Diahot River is the longest river of New Caledonia, flowing for some 100 kilometres (62 mi). It has a catchment area of 620 km2 (240 sq mi) and opens north-westward into the Baie d\'Harcourt , flowing towards the northern point of the island along the western escarpment of the Mount Panié. Most of the island is covered by wet evergreen forests, while savannahs dominate the lower elevations. The New Caledonian lagoon, with a total area of 24,000 square kilometres (9,300 sq mi) is one of the largest lagoons in the world. It is surrounded by the New Caledonia Barrier Reef .
The climate is tropical , with a hot and humid season from November to March with temperatures between 27 °C and 30 °C, and a cooler, dry season from June to August with temperatures between 20 °C and 23 °C, linked by two short interstices. The tropical climate is strongly moderated by the oceanic influence and the trade winds that attenuate humidity, which can be close to 80%. The average annual temperature is 23 °C, with historical extremes of 2.3 °C and 39.1 °C.
The rainfall records show that precipitation differs greatly within the island. The 3,000 millimetres (120 in) of rainfall recorded in Galarino are three times the average of the west coast. There are also dry periods, because of the effects of El Niño . Between December and April, tropical depressions and cyclones can cause winds to exceed a speed of 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph), with gusts of 250 kilometres per hour (160 mph) and very abundant rainfall. The last cyclone affecting New Caledonia was Cyclone Cook , in January 2017.
New Caledonia has many unique taxa, especially birds and plants. It has the richest diversity in the world per square kilometre. In its botany not only species but entire genera and even families are unique to the island, and survive nowhere else. The biodiversity is caused by Grande Terre's central mountain range, which has created a variety of niches, landforms and micro-climates where endemic species thrive.
Bruno Van Peteghem was in 2001 awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize for his efforts on behalf of the Caledonian ecological protection movement in the face of "serious challenges" from Jacques Lafleur 's RPCR party. Progress has been made in a few areas in addressing the protection of New Caledonia's ecological diversity from fire, industrial and residential development, unrestricted agricultural activity and mining (such as the judicial revocation of INCO 's mining license in June 2006 owing to claimed abuses).
New Caledonia's fauna and flora derive from ancestral species isolated in the region when it broke away from Gondwana many tens of millions of years ago. Not only endemic species have evolved here, but entire genera and even families are unique to the islands.
More of tropical gymnosperm species are endemic to New Caledonia than to any similar region on Earth. Of the 44 indigenous species of gymnosperms, 43 are endemic, including the only known parasitic gymnosperm ( Parasitaxus usta ). Also, of the 35 known species of Araucaria , 13 are endemic to New Caledonia. New Caledonia also has the world's most divergent lineage of flowering plant , Amborella trichopoda which is at, or near, the base of the clade of all flowering plants.
The world's largest extant species of fern ,
New Caledonia has its own version of maquis (maquis minier) occurring on metalliferous soils, mostly in the south. The soils of ultramafic rocks (mining terrains) have been a refuge for many native flora species because they are toxic and their mineral content is poorly suited to most foreign species of plants.
Main article: List of birds of New Caledonia The kagu , an endemic flightless bird
New Caledonia is home to the New Caledonian crow , a bird noted for its tool-making abilities, which rival those of primates. These crows are renowned for their extraordinary intelligence and ability to fashion tools to solve problems, and make the most complex tools of any animal yet studied apart from humans.
The endemic kagu , agile and able to run quickly, is a flightless bird, but it is able to use its wings to climb branches or glide. It is the surviving member of monotypic family Rhynochetidae , order Gruiformes .
There are 11 endemic fish species and 14 endemic species of decapod
crustaceans in the rivers and lakes of New Caledonia. Some, such as
Neogalaxias , exist only in small areas. The nautilus , considered a
living fossil and related to the ammonites which became extinct at the
end of the Mesozoic era, occurs in Pacific waters around New
Caledonia. There is a large diversity of marine fish in the
surrounding waters, which are within the extents of the
Several species of New Caledonia are remarkable for their size: Ducula goliath is the largest extant species of pigeon; Rhacodactylus leachianus , the largest gecko in the world; Phoboscincus bocourti the largest skink in the world, thought to be extinct but rediscovered in 2003.
Main article: Demographics of New Caledonia
YEAR POP. ±% P.A.
1956 68,480 —
1963 86,519 +3.40%
1969 100,579 +2.54%
1976 133,233 +4.10%
1983 145,368 +1.25%
1989 164,173 +2.05%
1996 196,836 +2.63%
2009 245,580 +1.72%
2014 268,767 +1.82%
At the last census in 2014 New Caledonia had a population of 268,767. Of these, 17,436 live in the Loyalty Islands Province , 45,137 in the North Province , and 183,007 in the South Province . Population growth has slowed down since the 1990s, but remains strong with a yearly increase of 1.7% between 1996 and 2009.
Natural growth is responsible for 85% of the population growth, while the remaining 15% is attributable to net migration. The population growth is strong in South Province (2.3% per year between 1996 and 2009), moderate in North Province (0.7%), but negative in the Loyalty Islands, which are losing inhabitants (−1.3%).
Over 40% of the population is under 20, although the ratio of older people on the total population is increasing. Two residents of New Caledonia out of three live in Greater Nouméa . Three out of four were born in New Caledonia. The total fertility rate went from 3.2 children per woman in 1990 to 2.2 in 2007.
At the 2014 census, 39.1% of the population reported belonging to
The other self-reported communities were Wallisians and Futunians
(8.2% of the total population, down from 8.7% at the 2009 census),
Tahitians (2.1% of the total population, up from 2.0% at the 2009
census), Indonesians (1.4% of the total population, down from 1.6% at
the 2009 census), Ni-
Finally 8.6% of the population reported belonging to multiple
communities (mixed race ) (up from 8.3% at the 2009 census), and 2.5%
refused to report any community (up from 1.2% at the 2009 census). The
question on community belonging, which had been left out of the 2004
census, was reintroduced in 2009 under a new formulation, different
from the 1996 census, allowing multiple choices (mixed race) and the
possibility to clarify the choice "other".
Europeans first settled in New
Distinct from the Caldoches are those were born in New Caledonia from families that had settled more recently, and are called simply Caledonians. The Metropolitan French -born migrants who come to New Caledonia are called Métros or Zoreilles, indicating their origins in metropolitan France. There is also a community of about 2,000 pieds noirs , descended from European settlers in France's former North African colonies; some of them are prominent in anti-independence politics, including Pierre Maresca , a leader of the RPCR .
A 2015 documentary by
Al Jazeera English asserted that up to 10% of
New Caledonia's population is descended from around 2,000 Arab -Berber
people deported from
French Algeria in the late 19th century to
prisons on the island in reprisal for the Mokrani Revolt in 1871.
After serving their sentences, they were released and given land to
own and cultivate as part of colonisation efforts on the island. As
the overwhelming majority of the Algerians imprisoned on New Caledonia
were men, the community was continued through intermarriage with women
of other ethnic groups, mainly French women from nearby women's
prisons. Despite facing both assimilation into the Euro-French
population and discrimination for their ethnic background, descendants
of the deportees have succeeded in preserving a common identity as
Algerians, including maintaining certain cultural practices (such as
Arabic names) and Islamic religion. They commonly travel to Algeria as
a rite of passage, though obtaining Algerian citizenship is often a
difficult process. The largest population of Algerian-Caledonians
lives in the commune of
Main article: Languages of New Caledonia
The 28 Kanak languages spoken in New Caledonia are part of the Oceanic group of the Austronesian family. Kanak languages are taught from kindergarten (four languages are taught up to the bachelor's degree) and an academy is responsible for their promotion. The four most widely spoken indigenous languages are Drehu (spoken in Lifou ), Nengone (spoken on Maré ) and Paicî (northern part of Grande Terre). Others include Iaai (spoken on Ouvéa ). At the 2009 census, 35.8% of people aged 15 or older reported that they could speak (but not necessarily read or write) one of the indigenous Melanesian languages , whereas 58.7% reported that they had no knowledge of any of them.
The predominant religion is
REGION Total GDP, nominal, 2011 (billion US$) GDP per capita, nominal, 2011 (US$)
Papua New Guinea
NEW CALEDONIA 9.89 38,921
Kiribati 0.16 1,594
Main article: Economy of New Caledonia
New Caledonia has one of the largest economies in the South Pacific, with a GDP of US$9.89 billion in 2011. The nominal GDP per capita was US$38,921 (at market exchange rates) in 2011. It is higher than New Zealand 's, though there is significant inequality in income distribution, and long-standing structural imbalances between the economically dominant South Province and the less developed North Province and Loyalty Islands. The currency in use in New Caledonia is the CFP franc , pegged to the euro at a rate of 1,000 CFP to 8.38 euros. It is issued by the Institut d'Emission d'Outre-Mer.
Real GDP grew by 3.8% in 2010 and 3.2% in 2011, boosted by rising
worldwide nickel prices and an increase in domestic demand due to
rising employment, as well as strong business investments. In 2011,
exports of goods and services from New
Caledonia amounted to 2.11
billion US dollars, 75.6% of which were mineral products and alloys
(mainly nickel ore and ferronickel ). Imports of goods and services
amounted to 5.22 billion US dollars. 22.1% of the imports of goods
came from Metropolitan
Financial support from
New Caledonian soils contain about 25% of the world's nickel resources. The late-2000s recession has gravely affected the nickel industry, as the sector faced a significant drop in nickel prices (−31.0% year-on-year in 2009) for the second consecutive year. The fall in prices has led a number of producers to reduce or stop altogether their activity, resulting in a reduction of the global supply of nickel by 6% compared to 2008.
This context, combined with bad weather has forced the operators in the sector to revise downwards their production target. Thus, the activity of mineral extraction has declined by 8% in volume year on year. The share of the nickel sector as a percentage of GDP fell 3%, to 5% in 2009 compared with 8% in 2008. A trend reversal and a recovery in demand, have been recorded early in the second half of 2009, allowing a 2.0% increase in the local metal production.
Historically, nickel was transported by wire ropeway to ships waiting off shore.
Caldoches , white people born in New Caledonia
Wood carving , especially of the houp (
Montrouziera cauliflora ), is
a contemporary reflection of the beliefs of the traditional tribal
society, and includes totems , masks, chambranles , or flèche
faîtière , a kind of arrow which adorns the roofs of
Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Centre
The Kaneka is a form of local music, inspired by reggae and originating in the 1980s.
The Mwâ Ka is a 12m totem pole commemorating the French annexation of New Caledonia, and was inaugurated in 2005.
Les Nouvelles Calédoniennes is the only daily newspaper in the archipelago. A monthly publication, Le Chien bleu, parodies the news from New Caledonia.
There are five radio stations: the public service broadcaster RFO
radio Nouvelle-Calédonie , Océane FM (the collectivity's newest
station), the youth-oriented station
NRJ , Radio Djiido (established
Jean-Marie Tjibaou ), and Radio Rythmes Bleus . The last two
stations are primarily targeted to the various
As for television, the public service broadcaster
The media are considered to be able to operate freely, but Reporters Without Borders raised concerns in 2006 about "threats and intimidation" of RFO staff by members of a pro-independence group.
Caledonia football team began playing in 1950, and was
New Caledonia also has a national synchronised swimming team which tours abroad.
The "Tour Cycliste de Nouvelle Caledonie" is a multi-day cycling
stage race that is held usually in October. The race is organised by
the Comite Cycliste New Caledonia. The race attracts riders from
Australia, New Zealand, France, Reunion,
Due to low levels of domestic horticulture, fresh tropical fruits feature less highly in New Caledonian cuisine than in other Pacific nations, instead relying on rice, fish and root vegetables such as taro. One way this is frequently prepared is in a buried-oven-style feast, known as Bougna. Wrapped in banana leaves, the fish, taro, banana and other seafood are buried with hot rocks to cook, then dug up and eaten.
Main article: Transport in New Caledonia
Tontouta International Airport is 50 km (31 mi) north of Nouméa, and
Caledonia with the airports of Paris, Tokyo, Sydney,
Auckland, Brisbane, Melbourne, Osaka, Papeete, Fiji, Wallis, Port
Vila, Seoul, and St. Denis. Most internal air services are operated
by the International carrier
New Caledonia's road network consists of:
* Route territoriale 1 , going from the exit from Nouméa to the Néhoué river, north of Koumac ; * Route territoriale 2 , on Lifou Island and from the Wanaham airport to the south of Wé ; * Route territoriale 3 , from the junction with the RT1 in Nandi up to Tiwaka ; * Route territoriale 4 , from the junction with the RT1 near Muéo to the power plant.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
The television series McHale\'s Navy was set in the islands in the area, with fleet headquarters being in New Caledonia, and so were the episodes "New Blood" and "Cruel Sea" of the 1999 BBC television show Walking with Dinosaurs.
Rebellion (French : L'Ordre et la Morale) was released in 2011 and is based on the massacre by French military during the 1988 Ouvéa cave hostage taking in New Caledonia as seen from the perspective of then GIGN leader Capt. Philippe Legorjus.
In 2009, South Korean television drama Boys Over Flowers filmed Episode 5 and Episode 6 at New Caledonia as a vacation spot for the richest of South Korea. With 10 million viewers, New Caledonia and the sights filmed in the show have led to increase interest in the Korean population who see it as a possible honeymoon location.
* New Caledonia portal
* d\'Entrecasteaux Ridge * Lists of islands
* ^ Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (French : Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see ). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
* ^ A B "La Nouvelle-Calédonie se dote d\'un hymne et d\'une
devise" (in French). LeMonde.fr. 2010-08-18. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
* ^ A B C D "268 767 habitants en 2014". ISEE. Retrieved
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J "PIB GRANDS AGRÉGATS". ISEE. Archived from
the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
* ^ A B C D "Présentation" (in French).
Nouvelle-caledonie.gouv.fr. Archived from the original on 30 October
2012. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
* ^ A B "Présentation – L\'Outre-Mer". Outre-mer.gouv.fr.
* ^ David Stanley (1989). South Pacific Handbook. David Stanley. p.
549. ISBN 978-0-918373-29-8 .
* ^ A B "Histoire / La Nouvelle-Calédonie" (in French).
Nouvelle-caledonie.gouv.fr. 2012-11-20. Archived from the original on
30 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
* ^ A B C D Leanne Logan; Geert Cole (2001). New Caledonia. Lonely
Planet. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-86450-202-2 .
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N "Rapport annuel 2010" (PDF). IEOM
Nouvelle-Calédonie. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
* ^ Quanchi, Max; Robson, John (2005). Historical Dictionary of the
Discovery and Exploration of the Pacific Islands. Scarecrow Press.
ISBN 9780810865280 .
* ^ A B "New
Caledonia and International Seaport History. The
Maritime Heritage Project". www.maritimeheritage.org. Retrieved
* ^ Frédéric Angleviel. "De Kanaka à Kanak: l\'appropriation
d\'un terme générique au profit de la revendication identitaire"
(PDF). Université de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
* ^ "Charting the Pacific – Places". Abc.net.au. 1998-10-13.
* ^ A B Leanne Logan; Geert Cole (2001). New Caledonia. Lonely
Planet. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-86450-202-2 .
* ^ Bruce M. Knauft (1999). From Primitive to Postcolonial in
* ^ A B C "Présentation – L\'Outre-Mer". Outre-mer.gouv.fr.
* ^ A B C D E F "Concluding session,
* Chappell, David. "The black and the red: radicalising anti-Colonialism in 1970s New Caledonia." Journal of Pacific Studies (2004) 27#1 pp: 49–62. * Dornoy, Myriam. Politics in New Caledonia (Sydney University Press, 1984) * Lyons, Martyn. The totem and the tricolour: a short history of New Caledonia since 1774 (University of New South Wales Press, 1986) * Muckle, Adrian. "'No More Violence nor War'," Journal of Pacific History (2008) 44#2 p: 179-194. covers politics in New Caledonia 1988 to 2008. * Munholland, Kim. Rock of Contention: Free French & Americans at War in New Caledonia, 1940–1945 (2005) * Shineberg, Dorothy. People Trade: Pacific Island Laborers & New Caledonia, 1865–1930 (1999) * Spencer, Michael. New Caledonia: Essays in Nationalism & Dependency (1988) * Toth, Stephen A. Beyond Papillon: The French Overseas Penal Colonies, 1854–1952 (2006)
* Muckle, Adrian. Spectres of Violence in a Colonial Context, New
Caledonia, 1917. University of
* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Wikimedia Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity
* Government of New
Caledonia (in French)
Caledonia : picture post card beautiful – Official
* v * t * e
New Caledonia articles
* Elections * High Commissioner * Political parties * President * Vice President
* CFP franc (currency) * Telecommunications * Tourism
* Culture * Demographics * Emblem * Flag * Kanak people * Languages * Music * Religion * Sports
* Outline * Bibliography
* v * t * e
Administrative divisions of New Caledonia
* Loyalty Islands Province * North Province * South Province
* v * t * e
OVERSEAS DEPARTMENTS 1
SUI GENERIS COLLECTIVITY
* New Caledonia
Overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands)
Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean
* v * t * e
Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)
Commonwealth of Nations
ARTICLES RELATING TO NEW CALEDONIA\'S LOCALE
* v * t * e
OTHER POLITICAL UNITS
* West Papua (region)
* New Caledonia
* People * Languages * Music * Mythology * Universities
* Political parties * United Liberation Movement for West Papua
* v * t * e
Countries and territories of
* West Papua * Papua
Dependencies and other territories
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 129721582 * GND : 4102498-9 * NDL