NEW BRUNSWICK (French : Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French
pronunciation: ( listen )) is one of
Canada 's three Maritime
provinces (together with
Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island and
Nova Scotia ) and is
the only constitutionally bilingual (English–French) province. The
principal cities are
Fredericton , the capital, Greater
currently the largest metropolitan (CMA ) area and the most populous
city, and the port city of Saint John , which was the first
incorporated city in
Canada and largest in the province for 231 years
Canada 2016 Census , Statistics
Canada estimated the
provincial population to have been 747,101, down very slightly from
751,171 in 2011, on an area of almost 73,000 km2. The majority of the
population is English-speaking of Anglo and Celtic heritage, but there
is also a large
Francophone minority (31%), chiefly of Acadian origin.
It was created as a result of the partitioning of the British colony
Nova Scotia in 1784 with the capital in Saint John before being
moved up river. The name 'New Brunswick' was chosen by King George
III despite local recommendations for the name to be 'New Ireland'.
The provincial flag features a ship superimposed on a yellow
background with a yellow lion passant guardant on red pennon above it.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 French colonial era
* 2.2 British colonial era
* 2.3 Canadian province
* 3 Geography
* 4 Climate
* 5 Demography
* 5.1 Ethnicity
* 5.2 Population since 1851
* 5.3 Languages
* 5.4 Religion
* 6 Economy
* 7 Government
* 7.1 Judiciary
* 7.2 Municipalities
* 7.3 Regional Service Commissions
* 8 Education
* 9 Culture
* 9.1 Events and festivals
* 9.2 Media
* 9.3 Tourism
* 9.4 Parks
* 10 Notable people
* 11 Image gallery
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 Further reading
* 15 External links
The province is named after the city of
Braunschweig , located in
Lower Saxony in northern
Germany and known in English and
Low German (the language originally spoken in that area of Germany) as
Brunswick, and also after the former duchy of the same name . The
then-colony was named in 1784 to honour the reigning British monarch,
George III , who was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of
Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire .
History of New Brunswick
First Nations inhabitants of the area that would become
New Brunswick were members of three distinct (but related) tribes. The
largest tribe was the Mi\'kmaq , and they occupied the eastern and
coastal areas of the province. They were responsible for the Augustine
Mound , a burial ground built about 800 BCE near Metepnákiaq (Red
Bank First Nation ). The western portion of the province was the
traditional home of the
Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) people. The smaller
Passamaquoddy tribe occupied lands in the southwest of the province.
FRENCH COLONIAL ERA
Main article: History of the
Although it is possible that Vikings may have reached as far south as
New Brunswick, the first known European exploration of New Brunswick
was that of French explorer
Jacques Cartier in 1534, who discovered
and named the
Bay of Chaleur . The next French contact was in 1604,
when a party led by Pierre du Gua de Monts and
Samuel de Champlain set
up camp for the winter on St. Croix Island , between present-day New
Brunswick and Maine. The colony relocated the following year across
Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy to Port Royal,
Nova Scotia . Over the next 150 years,
a number of other French settlements and seigneuries were founded in
the area occupied by present-day New Brunswick, including along the
Saint John River, the upper
Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy region, in the Tantramar
Marshes at Beaubassin, and finally at St. Pierre (site of present-day
Bathurst ). The whole maritime region (and parts of Maine) was at that
time claimed by
France and was designated as the colony of
BRITISH COLONIAL ERA
One of the provisions of the
Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 was the
Nova Scotia as it was called by the British)
Queen Anne . The bulk of the Acadian population thus found
themselves residing in the new British colony of Nova Scotia. The
Acadia (including the
New Brunswick region) was only
lightly populated and the two European powers contended over this
ill-defined territory. The
Maliseet from their headquarters at
Meductic on the Saint John River, participated with the French in
numerous guerilla raids and battles against
New England during Father
Rale\'s War and King William\'s War . A map of the American
colonies as they stood during the 17th century. What is now New
Brunswick was then known as Acadia, then a dominion of France.
About 1750, to protect his interests in
New France ,
Louis XV caused
three forts (
Fort Beauséjour ,
Fort Menagoueche and
Fort Gaspareaux )
to be built along the
Isthmus of Chignecto . This caused what is known
to historians as Father Le Loutre\'s War , because of the contended
possession which had been in issue since before 1713.
A major French fortification, the
Fortress of Louisbourg , was also
built on Île Royale (now
Cape Breton Island ) after Queen Anne\'s War
, but the function of this fort was mostly to defend the approaches to
the colony of
Canada , not the lost province of Acadia.
French and Indian War
French and Indian War (1754–63), the British completed
their displacement of the
Acadians over all of present-day New
Brunswick because they took up arms against them, when they had been
requested repeatedly for decades not to do so.
Fort Beauséjour (near
Fort Menagoueche and
Fort Gaspareaux were captured with
casualties on both sides by a British force commanded by Lt. Col.
Robert Monckton in 1755. Inside Fort Beauséjour, the British forces
found not only French regular troops, but also Acadian irregulars.
Governor Charles Lawrence of
Nova Scotia used the discovery of
Acadians helping in the defence of the fort to order the expulsion of
the Acadian population from Nova Scotia. The
Acadians of the recently
captured Beaubassin and Petitcodiac regions were included in the
expulsion order. Some of the
Acadians in the Petitcodiac and
Memramcook region escaped, and under the leadership of Joseph
Broussard continued to conduct guerrilla action against the British
forces for a couple of years. Other actions in the war included
British expeditions up the Saint John River in the St. John River
Campaign . Fort Anne (Fredericton) fell during the 1759 campaign, and
following this, the legal de jure status of Utretcht was settled and
confirmed de facto by the
Treaty of Paris 1763 . The Coming of
the Loyalists, painting by
Henry Sandham showing a romanticised view
of the Loyalists' arrival in New Brunswick.
After the Seven Years' War, most of present-day
New Brunswick (and
parts of Maine) were confirmed as part of the colony of Nova Scotia
and designated as Sunbury
County . New Brunswick's relatively isolated
location on the Bay of Fundy, away from the Atlantic coastline proper
tended to discourage settlement during the postwar period. There were
exceptions however, such as the coming of
New England Planters to the
Sackville region and the arrival of
Pennsylvania Dutch settlers in
Moncton in 1766. In both these cases, many of the new settlers took up
land that had originally belonged to displaced
Acadians before the
There were several actions on
New Brunswick soil during the American
Revolutionary War : the Maugerville Rebellion (1776), the Battle of
Fort Cumberland (1776), the
Siege of Saint John (1777) and the Battle
at Miramichi (1779) . The
Battle of Fort Cumberland was the largest
and most significant of these conflicts. Following the war,
significant population growth finally came to the area, when 14,000
Loyalists , having lost the war, came from the newly created United
States, arriving on the Saint John River in 1783. Influential
Loyalists such as Harvard -educated Edward Winslow saw themselves as
the natural leaders of their community and that they should be
recognized for their rank and that their loyalty deserved special
compensation. However they were not appreciated by the pre-loyalist
population in Nova Scotia. As Colonel Thomas Dundas wrote from Saint
John, "They have experienced every possible injury from the old
inhabitants of Nova Scotia." Therefore, 55 prominent merchants and
professionals petitioned for 5,000-acre (20 km2) grants each. Winslow
pressed for the creation of a "Loyalist colony" – an asylum that
could become "the envy of the American states".
Nova Scotia was therefore partitioned. In 1784, Britain split the
Nova Scotia into three separate colonies: New Brunswick,
Cape Breton Island, and present-day peninsular Nova Scotia, in
addition to the adjacent colonies of St. John\'s Island (renamed
Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island in 1798) and Newfoundland . The colony of New
Brunswick was established as a separate province by an
Order-in-Council in Great Britain the 18th June 1784; Sir Thomas
Carleton was appointed as Lieutenant-Governor on 3 August 1784, and
in 1785 a new legislative assembly was established with the first
elections. The new colony was almost called New Ireland after a failed
attempt to establish a colony of that name in
Maine during the war.
The province later gained control over its crown lands in 1837.
Even though the bulk of the Loyalist population was located in
Parrtown (Saint John), the decision was made by the colonial
authorities to place the new colonial capital at St. Anne's Point
(Fredericton), about 150 km up the Saint John River as it was felt
that by placing the capital inland, it would be less vulnerable to
American attack. The
University of New Brunswick
University of New Brunswick was founded at
Fredericton at the same time (1785), making it the oldest
English-language university in
Canada and the first public university
in North America. Local government at a rural level was accomplished
through a county and parish structure, and the power to tax for the
purpose of primary education was first granted by the province to the
parishes in 1802.
Grammar schools at the parish level followed in 1805
and again in 1816.
Initial Loyalist population growth in the new colony extended along
the Fundy coastline from Saint Andrews to Saint Martins and up the
Kennebecasis and lower Saint John River valleys.
During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, some of the deported
Nova Scotia found their way back to "Acadie," where they
settled mostly along the eastern and northern shores of the new colony
of New Brunswick. Here, they lived in relative (and in many ways,
Additional immigration to
New Brunswick in the early part of the 19th
century was from
Scotland ; western England; and
Waterford , Ireland,
often after first having come through (or having lived in)
Newfoundland . A large influx of settlers arrived in New Brunswick
after 1845 from Ireland as a result of the Potato Famine ; many of
these people settled in Saint John or Chatham . Both Saint John and
the Miramichi region remain largely Irish today.
The northwestern border between
New Brunswick had not been
clearly defined by the
Treaty of Paris (1783) that had ended the
American Revolution . By the late 1830s, population growth and
competing lumber interests in the upper Saint John River valley
created the need for a definite boundary in the area. During the
winter of 1838–39, the situation quickly deteriorated, with both
New Brunswick calling out their respective militias. The
Aroostook War " was bloodless (but politically very tense), and the
boundary was subsequently settled by the
Webster-Ashburton Treaty of
New Brunswick and
Nova Scotia Land Company , a means of
transferring land held by the Crown to individual owners, was
New Brunswick in 1831. Financed by shares sold in
England, this company purchased large areas of Canadian land at low
prices, promising to develop roads, mills and towns. Although the
province was largely rural, the colony, prior to the middle of the
century, was not self-sufficient in wheat or flour and imports were
thus necessary. In fact, Governor Douglas saw a silver lining in the
1825 Miramichi Fire ; he is recorded to have declared that the
fire had positive aspects, in that it cleared the forest so that
residents might dedicate themselves to farming, instead of relying on
the sale of timber in order to purchase imported foodstuffs.
Throughout the mid 19th century, shipbuilding on the Bay of Fundy
shore, on the Petitcodiac River, at Chatham on the
Miramichi River ,
and at Bathurst in the
Bay of Chaleur , became a dominant industry in
New Brunswick. The Marco Polo , a clipper ship holding the round-trip
speed record between Liverpool and Australia, was launched from Saint
John in 1851. The Cunard family began to flourish here at that time.
Resource-based industries such as logging and farming were also
important components of the
New Brunswick economy during this time and
railways were constructed throughout the province to serve them and
link the rural communities.
Politics of New Brunswick Current licence plate .
New Brunswick, one of the four original provinces of Canada, entered
Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867. The Charlottetown
Conference of 1864, which ultimately led to the confederation
movement, originally had been intended to discuss only a Maritime
Union , but concerns over the
American Civil War as well as Fenian
activity along the border led to an interest in expanding the scope of
the proposed union. This interest in an expanded union arose from the
Canada (formerly Upper and Lower
Canada , later Ontario
and Quebec), and a request was made by the Canadian political leaders
to the organizers of the Maritime conference to have the meeting
Although the Maritime leaders were swayed by the arguments of the
Canadians, many ordinary residents of the
Maritimes wanted no part of
this larger confederation for fear that their interests and concerns
would be ignored in a wider national union. Many politicians who
supported confederation, such as Sir
Samuel Leonard Tilley
Samuel Leonard Tilley (New
Brunswick's best-known Father of Confederation ), found themselves
without a seat after the next election; nevertheless, backers of the
wider confederation eventually prevailed.
Following confederation, the fears of the anti-confederates were
proven correct as new national policies and trade barriers were soon
adopted by the central government, thus disrupting the historic
trading relationship between the Maritime Provinces and
New England .
The situation in
New Brunswick was exacerbated by both the Great Fire
of 1877 in Saint John and the decline of the wooden shipbuilding
industry; skilled workers were thus forced to move to other parts of
Canada or to the United States to seek employment.
In his History of New Brunswick, Hannay observes that "The system of
county government was as bad as possible, because the magistrates were
not responsible to any person. The condition of the county accounts
was never made public, and it was not until a comparatively late
period in the history of the province that the Grand
legislative authority to inspect the county accounts," and by 1877 an
act providing for compulsory municipal incorporation was put in force.
The province entered Confederation with a Legislative Council of 40
members holding their seats for life, a Legislative Assembly of 40
members and an Executive Council of nine members. Under its powers of
changing the provincial constitution the Legislative Council was
abolished by an act passed on April 16, 1891.
As the 20th century dawned, the province's economy again began to
expand. Manufacturing gained strength with the construction of textile
mills such as the St. Croix Cotton Mill ; and in the crucial forestry
sector, the sawmills that had dotted inland sections of the province
gave way to larger pulp and paper mills . The railway industry,
meanwhile, provided for growth and prosperity in the
Nevertheless, unemployment remained high throughout the province, and
Great Depression brought another setback. Two influential
families, the Irvings and the McCains , emerged from the Depression to
begin to modernise and vertically integrate the provincial
economy—especially in the vital forestry, food processing, and
energy sectors. In the mid-1960s, forestry practices changed from the
controlled harvests of a commodity to the cultivation of the forests.
New Brunswick changed from more than two-thirds rural before 1941 to
predominantly urban by 1971. Education and health care were poorly
funded, and in the 1940s and 1950s the rates of illiteracy and infant
mortality were among the highest in Canada. During the period
1950–1980, 80% of New Brunswick's small farms disappeared, as the
agroindustry took root.
Acadians in northern
New Brunswick had long been geographically
and linguistically isolated from the more numerous English speakers,
who lived in the south of the province. The population of French
origin grew dramatically after Confederation, from about 16 per cent
in 1871 to 24 per cent in 1901 and 34 per cent in 1931. Government
services were often not available in French, and the infrastructure in
Francophone areas was noticeably less developed than in
the rest of the province; this changed with the election of Premier
Louis Robichaud in 1960. He embarked on the ambitious Equal
Opportunity Plan, in which education, rural road maintenance, and
health care fell under the sole jurisdiction of a provincial
government that insisted on equal coverage throughout the province.
County councils were abolished, and the rural areas came under direct
provincial jurisdiction. The 1969 Official Languages Act made French
an official language.
Geography of New Brunswick See also: Geology of New
Brunswick Map of the province, showing major cities.
New Brunswick is bordered on the north by
Quebec 's Gaspé Peninsula
Chaleur Bay . The eastern boundary is formed by the Gulf of
Saint Lawrence and
Northumberland Strait . The southeast corner of the
province is connected to the
Nova Scotia peninsula by the narrow
Isthmus of Chignecto . The south of the province is bounded by the Bay
of Fundy coast, (which with a rise of 16 m (52 ft), has amongst the
highest tides in the world). The US state of
Maine forms the western
New Brunswick differs from the other Maritime provinces
physiographically, climatologically, and ethnoculturally. Both Nova
Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island are either surrounded by, or are
almost completely surrounded by water. Oceanic effects therefore tend
to define their climate, economy, and culture. On the other hand, New
Brunswick, although having a significant seacoast, is sheltered from
the Atlantic Ocean proper and has a large interior that is removed
from oceanic influences. As a result, the climate tends to be more
continental in character than maritime .
The major river systems of the province include the St. Croix River ,
Saint John River ,
Kennebecasis River ,
Petitcodiac River ,
Magaguadavic River ,
Miramichi River ,
Nepisiguit River , and the
Restigouche River . Although smaller, the
Bouctouche River ,
Richibucto River and
Kouchibouguac River are also important. The
settlement patterns and the economy of
New Brunswick are based more on
the province's river systems than its seacoasts. Because of this, New
Brunswick's population centres tend to be less 'centralized' than in
Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. Fredericton, Saint John, and
Moncton all sit on rivers that have played a significant role in their
New Brunswick is dominated by the Appalachian Mountains
Eastern Canadian forests ecoregion , with the northwestern
part of the province consisting of the remote and rugged Miramichi
Highlands as well as the Chaleur Uplands and the Notre Dame Mountains
, with a maximum elevation at
Mount Carleton of 817 m (2,680 ft). The
New Brunswick Lowlands form the eastern and central portions of the
province and are part of the Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests
ecoregion. Finally the Caledonia Highlands and St. Croix Highlands
extend along the
Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy coast reaching elevations of more than
400 m (1,312 ft).
The total land and water area of the province is 72,908 km2 (28,150
sq mi), over 80 percent of which is forested. Agricultural lands are
found mostly in the upper Saint John River valley, with lesser amounts
of farmland in the southeast of the province, especially in the
Kennebecasis and Petitcodiac river valleys. The three major urban
centres are all in the southern third of the province.
Köppen climate types of
New Brunswick has a humid continental climate all over the province,
with slightly milder winters on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coastline.
The far north of the province is just above subarctic with very cold
winters. Winters are colder than those being found in
Nova Scotia all
over the province due to the greater continental influence. Summers
are often warm, sometimes hot.
Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations
Demographics of New Brunswick
Acadians celebrating the
National Acadian Day
National Acadian Day in
Caraquet, New Brunswick
First Nations in
New Brunswick include the Mi\'kmaq and Maliseet
(Wolastoqiyik). The first European settlers, the Acadians, are today
descendants of survivors of the Great Expulsion (1755), which drove
thousands of French residents into exile in North America, Britain,
France for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to King George
III during the Seven Years\' War (
French and Indian War
French and Indian War ). Acadians
who were deported to
Louisiana are often referred to as Cajuns in
Much of the
English Canadian population of
New Brunswick is descended
from Loyalists who fled the American Revolution, including a
considerable number of Black Loyalists . Indeed, their arrival was the
impetus for the creation of the colony. This is commemorated in the
province's motto, Spem reduxit ("hope restored"). There is also a
significant population with Irish ancestry, especially in Saint John
Miramichi Valley . People of Scottish descent are scattered
throughout the province, with higher concentrations in the Miramichi
and in Campbellton .
In the 2001 Canadian census, the most commonly reported ethnicities
were 193,470 French (26.9%); 165,235 English (23.0%); 135,835 Irish
(18.9%); 127,635 Scottish (17.7%); 27,490 German (3.8%); 26,220
Acadians (3.6%); 23,815 "North American Indian" (First Nations)
Asian Canadian (2.0%), 13,355 Dutch (Netherlands)
(1.9%); and 7,620 Welsh (1.1%). It should be noted that 242,220 people
(33.7%) identified themselves as simply "Canadian" or "Canadien,"
while 173,585 (24.1%) also selected another ethnicity—for a total of
415,810 (57.8%) calling themselves Canadian . Each person could choose
more than one ethnicity.
POPULATION SINCE 1851
The population of the province since 1851 has been documented by
various government agencies, and is provided here below in tabular
format. The urban-rural split has been, since 1951, roughly even,
whereas previously the province had been largely rural. Since 1971,
the year in which the overall Canadian rural population fell below
25%, the province has been an outlier in this statistical category,
along with the other Atlantic provinces.
% change Ten year
% change Rank among
New Brunswick is Canada's only officially bilingual province, and it
is the only province where both official language communities are
heavily represented, with Anglophone New Brunswickers making up
roughly two-thirds of the population, and the Acadien or Francophone
New Brunswicker population representing over 30% of the population
(people whose mother tongue is an officially recognized First Nations
languages or non-official language together make up about 2% of New
Brunswickers). As a comparison, the minority language communities of
Quebec (Franco-Ontarians and Anglophone Quebeckers
respectively) make up less than 10% of those provinces' populations.
With both official language communities so strongly represented, New
Brunswick is home to both French and
English language hospitals and
healthcare networks, school systems, universities, and media. The
province also has a relatively high proportion of people who state
that they can speak both official languages, with about 246,000
people, or 33.2% of the population reporting the ability to speak both
English and French (though Francophones make up two-thirds of those
who are bilingual).
Language policy remains a perennial issue in
New Brunswick society
and politics. Recurring debates have arisen in regards to
interpretation of the provincial bilingualism policy, duality (the
system of parallel French and English speaking public services), and
specifics of implementation. The extent of the provincial policy on
bilingualism means that a new row is never far off in the New
Brunswick news cycle. The French-speaking community continues to
advocate for full funding of French-language public services and fair
representation in public sector employment, while some Anglophones
(and Francophones) fear that the system of duality is financially
inefficient and its extent is not worthwhile, or that the provincial
governments targets for bilingualism in public employment are hurting
their chances to work for the government, as Anglophones are less
likely than Francophones to be proficient enough in both official
languages to use them in employment.
The province's bilingual status is enshrined in both provincial and
federal law. The Canadian Constitution makes specific mention of New
Brunswick's bilingual status and defines the spirit of implementation
as one based on both community and individual rights (in contrast with
the constitutional protections for the other provinces that is limited
to individuals, though this extends to "community" issues in terms of
provision of schooling etc.). The Canadian Charter of Rights and
Freedoms has a number of
New Brunswick specific articles and makes
specific mention of
New Brunswick in each section relating to language
(ex. Section 18 has two paragraphs, the first regarding bilingual
publication of the Canadian Parliaments work and laws, the second
specifying that New Brunswick's legislature will publish its work in
both French and English). Of particular interest is Article 16.1,
which declares that the French and English speaking communities of New
Brunswick have equal rights and privileges, including community
specific educational and cultural institutions. This specific
distinction of linguistic community is important in that it recognizes
not only the rights of individuals to use their language, but also
demands that the two official language communities have their specific
institutions upheld. Native language in New Brunswick. Red and
orange indicates majority Anglophone areas; blue and green shows
The 2011 Canadian census showed a population of 751,171. Of the
731,855 single responses to the census question concerning mother
tongue, the most commonly reported languages were:
New Brunswick's official languages are shown in BOLD. Figures shown
are for the number of single-language responses and the percentage of
total single-language responses. During the 19th century Scottish
Gaelic was also spoken in the Campbellton and Dalhousie area. The
language died out as a natively-spoken language in the province in the
early 20th century.
New Brunswick francophones scored lower on the Programme for
the International Assessment of Adult Competencies than their
anglophone counterparts in New Brunswick.
The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the
2011 National Household Survey were the Roman Catholic Church , with
366,000 (52%); Baptists , with 70,990 (8%); the United Church of
Canada , with 54,265 (7%); the Anglicans , with 51,365 (7%); the
Pentecostals with 18,435 (3%).
New Brunswick's urban areas have modern, service-based economies
dominated by the health care, educational, retail, finance, and
insurance sectors. These sectors are reasonably equitably distributed
in all three principal urban centres. In addition, heavy industry and
port facilities are found in Saint John;
Fredericton is dominated by
government services, universities, and the military; and
developed as a commercial, retail, transportation, and distribution
centre with important rail and air terminal facilities.
The rural primary economy is best known for forestry , mining, mixed
farming , and fishing.
The US is the province's largest export market, accounting for 92% of
a foreign trade valued in 2014 at C$12.964 billion. Refined petroleum
accounted in 2014 for 63% of the total, followed by seafood products,
pulp, paper and sawmill products and non-metallic minerals (chiefly
Forestry is important in all areas of the province but especially in
the heavily forested central regions. There are many sawmills in the
smaller towns and large pulp and paper mills located in Saint John ,
Atholville , Miramichi ,
Nackawic , and
Heavy metals, including lead and zinc , are mined in the north around
Bathurst , but the area has largely been mined out: the Brunswick Mine
's massive sulphide orebody was discovered in 1953, opened in 1964 and
employed more than 2,000 people at its peak, but closed in April 2013.
One of the world's largest potash deposits is located in Sussex .
Two mines exist there, named Penobsiquis and Picadilly, the latter of
which cost over two billion dollars since 2008 and ceased operations
in 2016. Some of the laid-off workers were given opportunities in
Saskatchewan. Oil and natural gas deposits are also being developed
in the Sussex region.
Farming is concentrated in the upper Saint John River valley (in the
northwest portion of the province), where the most valuable crop is
potatoes. Mixed and dairy farms are found elsewhere, but especially in
the southeast, concentrated in the Kennebecasis and Petitcodiac river
New Brunswick was in 2015 the biggest producer of wild
blueberries in Canada, with the rural (northern) Acadian region a
major contributor to the total revenue of over $39 million. Maple
syrup and sugar products earned New Brunswick's 191 farmers over $30
million gross in 2014.
The most valuable seafood catches are lobster , scallops and snow
crab . The farming of
Atlantic salmon in the
Passamaquoddy Bay region
is an important local industry.
The largest employers in the province are the Irving group of
companies, several large multinational forest companies, the
government of New Brunswick, and the
McCain Foods group of companies.
In the 2014–15 fiscal year, provincial debt reached $12.2 billion
or 37.7 per cent of nominal GDP. This represented a significant
increase over the $10.1 billion recorded in 2011–12, when provincial
debt was 32.2 per cent of provincial GDP. Although the province has a
Fiscal Responsibility and Balanced Budget Act , the governments of
Shawn Graham and
David Alward both ran large deficits to place their
constituents in a precarious position. The Auditor-General compared
the public finances of the province unfavourably with both Manitoba
Saskatchewan in 2013.
Politics of New Brunswick and Monarchy in New
Brunswick See also:
List of premiers of New Brunswick NB
Legislative Building , seat of
New Brunswick Government since 1882.
New Brunswick since 1891 has had a unicameral legislature, with 49
seats contested in the 2014 election. Elections are held at least
every five years, but may be called at any time by the Lieutenant
Governor (the viceregal representative) on consultation with the
Premier . The Premier is the leader of the party that holds the most
seats in the legislature.
There are two dominant political parties in New Brunswick, the
Liberal Party and the Progressive Conservative Party . While
consistently polling approximately 10% of the electoral vote since the
early 1980s, the New Democratic Party has elected few members to the
Legislative Assembly . From time to time, other parties, such as the
Confederation of Regions Party , have held seats in the legislature,
but only on the strength of a strong protest vote.
The dynamics of
New Brunswick politics are different from those of
other Canadian provinces. The lack of a dominant urban centre in the
province means that the government has to be responsive to issues
affecting all areas of the province. In addition, the presence of a
Francophone minority dictates that consensus politics is
necessary, even when there is a majority government present. In this
manner, the ebb and flow of
New Brunswick provincial politics
parallels the federal stage.
Since 1960, the province has tended to elect a succession of young
bilingual leaders. Former Premier
Bernard Lord (Progressive
Conservative) once was touted as a potential leader of the
Conservative Party of
Frank McKenna (premier, 1987–97), had
been considered the Liberal Party of
Canada leadership material.
Richard Hatfield (premier, 1970–87) played an active role in the
patriation of the Canadian constitution and creation of the Canadian
Charter of Rights and Freedoms .
Louis Robichaud (premier, 1960–70)
was responsible for a wide range of social reforms.
On September 21, 2014, the Liberal Party won the provincial election
Brian Gallant the new Premier. He replaced
David Alward . The Liberals won 27 seats
(before recounts), the Conservatives won 21, and the Green Party won
its first seat.
A September 2010 report released by the Canadian Taxpayers Federation
criticized the pensions made by members of the legislative assembly,
which take 16 taxpayer dollars for every dollar contributed by the
Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) and cost taxpayers $7.6
million annually. According to the organization, New Brunswick
legislators have one of the richest pension plans in the country,
after voting for an 85 percent increase in 2008.
List of New Brunswick case law and Court system of
The judicial system in New Brunswick, which is now governed by the
Judicature Act and its regulations, is similar to that in most other
provinces with the exception of Quebec. The system consists of eight
Judicial Districts, loosely based on the counties. Courts exist in
three streams: the court of Queen\'s Bench , the Probate court , and
the Provincial court . The Probate Court deals with matters involving
wills and estates of deceased persons, while the Provincial court is
the entry point for all persons charged with offences under the
Criminal Code or other federal or provincial legislation. The Court of
Queen’s Bench hears all matters within the domain of family law, and
also has original jurisdiction in major civil and criminal cases. In
addition, it has appellate jurisdiction over summary conviction
offences from the Provincial Court. Criminal cases, at the defendant's
option, can be tried by a jury or by a judge alone. Civil cases are
similarly disposed. The
Court of Appeal of New Brunswick , which sits
in Fredericton, hears appeals from the inferior courts, as well as
various administrative tribunals. The Chief Justice of New Brunswick
, currently the Honourable J. Ernest Drapeau , serves at the apex of
this court structure. In addition, the Chief Justice chairs the
committee tasked with recommending
Order of New Brunswick recipients.
In New Brunswick, search warrants are issued only by judges of the
Provincial Court because, while the Criminal Code provides that search
warrants may be issued by a justice of the peace or a Provincial Court
judge, there are no justices of the peace in New Brunswick. By the
Hatfield government\'s passage of an Act to Repeal the Justices of the
Peace Act (1984 S.N.B. c.27) the position of “justice of the
peace” was abolished in the province. This is unique as being unlike
the other jurisdictions in Canada, all of which had retained as of
2004 and still function with the position of justice of the peace.
Moncton . Saint John in 2002.
Fredericton in 2006.
List of municipalities in New Brunswick and List of
The province devolves certain of its powers and taxation to local
units under the Municipalities Act. The government of these units is
renewed by election, now quadrennial, through the Municipal Elections
New Brunswick is the eighth-most populous province in
751,171 residents as of the 2011 Census . It is the third-smallest in
land area at approximately 71,400 km2 (27,600 sq mi). New Brunswick's
107 municipalities cover only 7000860000000000000♠8.6% of the
province's land mass but are home to 7001653000000000000♠65.3% of
its population. The three most populous municipalities, which together
composed as of 2016 slightly over one quarter of the province's
population, are presented below.
Moncton was, in 2014, the largest urban centre and fastest growing
metropolitan area in the province and is among the top ten fastest
growing urban areas in Canada. The 2016 census indicates that
Moncton's population rose by 4.1 per cent to 71,889 from 69,074 in
2011, while Saint John's population decreased by 3.6 per cent, from
70,063 to 67,575. The city's economy is principally based on the
transportation, distribution, information technology, commercial, and
Moncton has a sizeable
Francophone Acadian minority
population (35%) and became officially bilingual in 2002. Since the
city's transition to bilingualism,
Moncton has experienced an upsurge
in French in-migration from elsewhere in the province. The
depopulation of the Acadian Peninsula and other areas in Northern New
Brunswick are partially a result of French New Brunswickers seeking
new opportunities in urban centres like
Moncton and its sister city,
Saint John is a historic city and popular port of call. The Port City
is the oldest in the country and until recently was the largest in the
province. The city is one of the busiest shipping ports in
terms of gross tonnage. Saint John has become a major energy hub for
the East Coast . It is the home of Canada's biggest oil refinery and
an LNG terminal has also been constructed in the city. In addition,
the public owns large oil-fired and nuclear power plants, which are
located in or near the city. Due to recent prosperity, the retail,
commercial, and residential sectors are currently experiencing a
Moosehead Brewery is located in the west side of the
city. Saint John is a maritime city both in terms of its culture and
traditional industries like fishing and shipbuilding. Saint John is a
city of predominantly Celtic heritage making its cultural experience
akin to cities in Nova Scotia. Saint John has a growing tech sector
surrounding the downtown (locally called uptown) and University of New
Fredericton , the capital of the province, is home to the Beaverbrook
Art Gallery, the
University of New Brunswick
University of New Brunswick , and St. Thomas
University . One of Canada's largest military bases,
CFB Gagetown , is
located near suburban
Oromocto ; which is situated just east of
Fredericton. The economy of
Fredericton is intimately tied to the
governmental, military, and university sectors.
Fredericton is also
one of the few urban centres in Atlantic
Canada that sits
significantly far inland (c. 100 km), making its city-scape unique to
REGIONAL SERVICE COMMISSIONS
After the 1966 abolition by
Louis Robichaud of the elected County
Council level of government, municipalities were constrained to
deposit their refuse nearby, as the municipalities were unable to own
property outside their jurisdiction. This led to unsanitary conditions
in several locations, and over time the dumps became full. This fact
led to a realization that regional service delivery needed to be
reinvented. The Regional Service Delivery Act of 2012, which was
introduced by Minister of Local Government
Bruce Fitch , created
bodies corporate that regulate regional planning and solid waste
disposal, and provide fora for discussion on a regional level of
police and emergency services and regional sport, recreational and
cultural facilities. The commissions are populated by the mayors of
each municipality or rural community within a region. In October
2016, controversy erupted over a $40-million theatre production
facility for Fredericton, because smaller municipalities in the region
were not convinced that they wanted to fund the albatross.
Howard Douglas Hall on the UNB
Fredericton campus, currently
the oldest university building still in use in Canada.
Convocation Hall from the swan pond,
Mount Allison University .
St. Thomas University ,
Fredericton See also: Education in New
List of schools in New Brunswick
Public education in the province is administered by the Department of
Education , a department of the
Government of New Brunswick ,
according to a forest of legislation because of segmentation by age
and purpose. Private education, apprenticeships and occupational
training in the province are also strictly regulated, to the extent
that it constitutes a provincial offence to offer courses with no
New Brunswick has a comprehensive parallel system of Anglophone and
Francophone public schools providing education to both the primary and
secondary levels. These schools are segregated by government decree.
The English system developed out of a mixture of the British and
American systems, reflecting the Loyalist background of so many early
settlers. There are also secular and religious private schools in the
New Brunswick Community College system has campuses in all
regions of the province. Although they are legislated separately by
official language, this comprehensive trade school system offers
roughly parallel programs in various campuses. Anglophone students
from the northern part of the province must travel south to obtain
Francophone students have no courses offered in the
southwest. Each campus, however, tends to have areas of concentration
to allow for specialization. There are also a number of private
colleges for specialized training in the province, such as the Moncton
Flight College , one of the top pilot-training academies in Canada.
There are four publicly funded secular universities and four private
degree-granting institutions with religious affiliation in the
province. The two comprehensive provincial universities are the
University of New Brunswick
University of New Brunswick and the Université de
Moncton . These
institutions have extensive postgraduate programs and Schools of Law .
Medical education programs have also been established at both the
Moncton and at UNBSJ in Saint John (although affiliated
Université de Sherbrooke and
Dalhousie University respectively).
Mount Allison University in Sackville is currently ranked as the best
undergraduate liberal arts university in
Canada and has produced 51
Rhodes Scholars , more than any other liberal arts university in the
Commonwealth . Publicly funded provincial comprehensive universities
University of New Brunswick
University of New Brunswick (
Fredericton and Saint John),
* Université de
Moncton (Moncton, Shippagan , and Edmundston),
PUBLICLY FUNDED UNDERGRADUATE LIBERAL ARTS UNIVERSITIES
* St. Thomas University (Fredericton), Anglophone
Mount Allison University (Sackville), Anglophone
PRIVATE CHRISTIAN UNDERGRADUATE LIBERAL ARTS UNIVERSITY
Crandall University (Moncton), Anglophone
PRIVATE DEGREE-GRANTING RELIGIOUS TRAINING INSTITUTIONS
* St. Stephen\'s University (St. Stephen ), Anglophone
Kingswood University (Sussex), Anglophone
New Brunswick Bible Institute (Hartland ), Anglophone
New Brunswick culture was aboriginal in flavour, influenced by
the native populations who made their home along the coast and
riverbanks until the arrival of French-speaking in the early 17th
century and English-speaking settlers beginning in the mid 18th
century. Aboriginal culture in turn quickly came under European
influence through trade and religion. Even writing was affected; see
for example, Mi\'kmaq hieroglyphic writing . Aboriginal societies were
gradually marginalized under the reserve system, and it was not until
the late nineteenth century, through the work of Silas Rand , that the
Glooscap began to emerge.
As described by the political historian Arthur Doyle, an invisible
line separated the two founding European cultures, beginning on the
eastern outskirts of
Moncton and running diagonally across the
province northwest towards Grand Falls . Franco-
New Brunswick (Acadie)
lay to the northeast of this divide, and Anglo-
New Brunswick lay to
Doyle's characterization was made not long after government reforms
by former premier
Louis J. Robichaud had significantly improved the
status of French-speaking
Acadians within the province and initiated
their journey towards cultural recognition and equality with their
English-speaking counterparts. The Capitol Theatre in Moncton.
New Brunswick was influenced by its colonial ties to France,
England, Scotland, and Ireland as well as by its geographical
New England and the arrival of about 40,000 Loyalists in
As local society was founded in forestry and seaborne endeavours, a
tradition of lumber camp songs and sea shanties prevailed. Acadian
cloggers and Irish and Scots step dancers competed at festivals to
expressive fiddle and accordion music. The art of storytelling,
well-known to the native populations, passed on to the early settlers,
and poetry—whether put to music or not—was a common form of
commemorating shared events, as the voice of a masterful poet or
soulful musician easily conquered the province's language barriers.
One of the greatest celebrated holidays in
New Brunswick is Canada
Day. This is because
New Brunswick was one of the first four provinces
of Confederation, joining on July 1, 1867. Another holiday that is of
great importance is
New Brunswick Day which is on the first Monday of
August and has been celebrated annually since 1976. This statutory
holiday gives the people of
New Brunswick an opportunity to celebrate
their provinces's history, culture, natural beauty, and community
relations. Families can enjoy large meals, entertainment, and other
fun activities together.
Other cultural expressions were found in family gatherings and the
church; both French and English cultures saw a long and early
influence of ecclesiastical architecture , with Western European and
American influences dominating rather than a particular vernacular
sense. Poets produced the first important literary contributions in
the province. Cousins
Bliss Carman and Sir
Charles G.D. Roberts found
inspiration in the landscape, as would later writers as well. In
painting, individual artists such as
Anthony Flower worked in
obscurity, either through design or neglect, while others such as
Edward Mitchell Bannister
Edward Mitchell Bannister left the province before ever developing a
Few 19th-century artists emerged, but those who did often benefited
from fine arts training at
Mount Allison University in Sackville,
which began offering classes in 1854. The program came into its own
John A. Hammond , who served from 1893 to 1916. Alex Colville
Lawren Harris later studied and taught art there and both
Christopher Pratt and Mary Pratt were trained at Mount Allison. The
University’s art gallery – which opened in 1895 and is named for
its patron, John Owens of Saint John – is Canada’s oldest.
In French-speaking New Brunswick, it would not be until the 1960s
that a comparable institution was founded, the Université de Moncton.
Then, a cultural renaissance occurred under the influence of Acadian
historians and such teachers as
Claude Roussel and through
coffeehouses , music, and protest. An outpouring of Acadian art,
literature, and music has pressed on unabated since that time. Popular
exponents of modern Acadian literature and music include Antonine
Édith Butler and
France Daigle . A recent New Brunswick
Herménégilde Chiasson , was a poet. In
New Brunswick and neighbouring
Quebec and northern Maine, a
separate French-speaking group, the
Brayon , have fostered such
important artists as
Roch Voisine and
Lenny Breau . (See also "Music
New Brunswick ) Dr.
John Clarence Webster
John Clarence Webster and Max Aitken, 1st Baron
Beaverbrook have made important endowments to provincial museums. Dr.
Webster gave his art collection to the
New Brunswick Museum in 1934,
thereby endowing the museum with one of its greatest assets, James
Barry 's Death of General Wolfe, which ranks as a Canadian national
treasure . Courtesy of Lord Beaverbrook, the Beaverbrook Art Gallery
Fredericton has a collection of world-renowned art, including works
Salvador Dalí and
J. M. W. Turner . The 1930s were an important
New Brunswick culture, with artists such as Jack Humphrey
Miller Brittain coming to prominence. The nationally renowned poet
P. K. Page spent the decade in Saint John, which also saw
the arrival of Danish ceramicists Kjeld and Erica Deichmann , who
introduced pottery as a serious art form.
The performing arts have a long tradition in New Brunswick, dating
back to travelling road shows and 19th-century opera in Saint John.
The early recording star
Henry Burr was discovered at the Imperial
Theatre in Saint John. Based in Fredericton, the most important
proponent of theatre today is
Theatre New Brunswick , originally under
the direction of
Walter Learning , which tours plays around the
province; Canadian playwright Norm Foster saw his early works premiere
at TNB. Other live theatre troops include Théâtre l’Escaouette in
Moncton, the Théatre populaire d'Acadie in
Caraquet , and Live Bait
Theatre in Sackville. All three major cities have significant
performance spaces. The refurbished Imperial and Capitol Theatres are
found in Saint John and Moncton, respectively; the more modern
Playhouse is located in Fredericton.
In modern literature, writers
Alfred Bailey and Alden Nowlan
New Brunswick literary scene in the last third of the
20th century and world-renowned literary critic
Northrop Frye was
influenced by his upbringing in
Moncton . The annual Frye Festival in
that city celebrates his legacy. The expatriate British poet John
Thompson , who settled outside Sackville, proved influential in his
Douglas Lochhead and
K. V. Johansen are other
prominent writers living in the town of Sackville. David Adams
Richards , born in the Miramichi, has become a well-respected
Governor-General\'s Award -winning author. Canadian novelist,
story-writer, biographer and poet,
Raymond Fraser , grew up in Chatham
and lives now in
Fredericton and award-winning Irish author and poet
Gerard Beirne now lives in
Fredericton and is a professor at The
University of New Brunswick.
Atlantic Ballet Theatre of
Canada , based in
Moncton and featuring
Russian and European trained dancers, has recently flourished and has
started touring both nationally and internationally. Symphony New
Brunswick , based in Saint John, also tours extensively in the
New Brunswick differs culturally from
Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island and Nova
Scotia in a number of ways. Because of the provinces's sizeable French
speaking population, French-Canadian culture (specifically Acadian)
permeates many parts of
New Brunswick society. Likewise, New
Brunswick's proximity to the United States affects the everyday life
of people that live close to the 'line'.
New Brunswick shares more
border crossings with the US State of
Maine than any other
Province/State share in North America. Furthermore, the well-known
Maritime dialect so recognizable in
Nova Scotia and PEI becomes
'watered down' the further west (and north) you move in the Province.
While some areas, like Saint John, strongly share in the Maritime
cultural experience, a number of population centres in New Brunswick
have more in common with communities in
Maine than they do with
Halifax or Charlottetown.
New Brunswick has been coined by many as
Canada's 'Drive-thru Province.' While this title is used in jest,
there is truth behind the fact that the sheer distances between major
population centres in
New Brunswick do a lot to transform culture from
place to place. Despite being within the same provincial boundaries,
Moncton, Saint John, and
Fredericton differ culturally, economically,
and geographically in significant ways.
EVENTS AND FESTIVALS
See also: Category:Festivals in
The following is an incomplete list of events and festivals in the
Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy International Marathon
Legs For Literacy
Marathon by the Sea
Festival international du cinéma francophone en Acadie
The Frye Festival
Harvey Community Days
HubCap Comedy Festival
Le Pays de la Sagouine
Harvest Jazz & Blues Festival (music)
Miramichi Folksong Festival (music)
New Brunswick Summer Music Festival (music)
New Brunswick has four daily newspapers (three of which are in
English), the Times ">
Fundy National Park .
New Brunswick Botanical Garden
Longest covered bridge in the world, Hartland ,
Boardwalk across the dunes,
Christ Church Cathedral ,
New Brunswick portal
Acadiensis , scholarly history journal covering Atlantic Canada
Bibliography of New Brunswick
Counties of New Brunswick
New Brunswick Environmental and Heritage Acts
* Royal eponyms in
Scouting and Guiding in New Brunswick
List of airports in New Brunswick
List of communities in New Brunswick
List of historic places in New Brunswick
List of museums in New Brunswick
* List of National Historic Sites in
* List of nature centres in
List of New Brunswick general elections (post-Confederation)
List of parishes in New Brunswick
List of people from New Brunswick
List of rivers of New Brunswick
List of schools in New Brunswick
* ^ Ann Gorman Condon. "Winslow Papers >> Ann Gorman Condon >> The
New Province: Spem Reduxit". University of New Brunswick. Retrieved 8
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territories, 2011 and 2006 censuses". Statcan.gc.ca. February 8, 2012.
Retrieved February 8, 2012.
* ^ "Population by year of
Canada and territories".
Canada . September 26, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
* ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and
territory (2011)". Statistics Canada. November 19, 2013. Retrieved
September 26, 2013.
* ^ Parisian French pronunciation:
* ^ Section Sixteen of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
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New Brunswick is
Canada\'s only province with a shrinking population". CBC News. CBC.
Retrieved February 8, 2017. Census confirms
Moncton as province's
largest city, passing Saint John
* ^ . CBC
Retrieved 2 August 2017. Missing or empty title= (help )
* ^ "The Winslow Papers: The Partition of Nova Scotia".
* ^ "The Winslow Papers: The Partition of Nova Scotia".
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Canada. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
Nova Scotia Museum (1997). "Spelling Of Mi\'kmaq". Archived
from the original on December 5, 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2007.
* ^ Gerald Hallowell, ed. Oxford Companion to Canadian History
(2004) p. 368-9
* ^ Quoted in S.D. Clark, Movements of Political Protest in Canada,
1640–1840, (1959), pp. 150–51
* ^ Hallowell, ed. Oxford Companion to Canadian History p. 369
* ^ "No. 12566".
The London Gazette . 3 August 1784. p. 1.
* ^ Ann Gorman Condon, The Envy of the American States: The
Loyalist Dream for
New Brunswick (1984)
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New Brunswick Land Company and the
settlement of Stanley and Harvey
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* ^ Nason, David. "Railways of New Brunswick" (1993, New Ireland
Press)(ISBN 0920483380 ).
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Book – Local Government of
Canada, 1915 — New Brunswick"
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Canada. Retrieved October 24, 2015.
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ship passenger lists. Formac Publishing Company. p. 7.
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(3) (2001 Census)". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
* ^ Population and dwelling counts, for
Canada provinces and
territories, 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data. Statistics
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Canada . Last accessed
September 28, 2006. Also available in an archived copy.
* ^ statcan.gc.ca: "Population, urban and rural, by province and
territory (New Brunswick)"
* ^ statcan.gc.ca: "Home -> The Daily -> Canadian Megatrends ->
Canada goes urban", 31 Mar 2016
* ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Population by mother
tongue, by province and territory, excluding institutional residents
(2011 Census) (New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario)". www.statcan.gc.ca.
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Official Languages of New Brunswick" (PDF). p. 39.
* ^ "
New Brunswick still debating language issues after 50 years of
bilingualism Toronto Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
* ^ "Liberals, PCs show fissures over bilingualism controversy".
www.cbc.ca. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
* ^ Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages
(5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) (2011 Census)
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New Brunswick francophones".
Statistics Canada. 2016-09-19. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
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years", 28 Mar 2012
* ^ canadianminingjournal.com: "CLOSURE: Brunswick mine closes on a
high note", 30 Apr 2013
* ^ cbc.ca: "
Potash mine closure greeted with dread in Sussex", 19
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430 jobs", 19 Jan 2016
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l’expansion au Nouveau Brunswick", 21 Apr 2016
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