Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous
system. It is a multidisciplinary branch of biology, that deals
with the anatomy, biochemistry, molecular biology, and physiology of
neurons and neural circuits. It also draws upon other fields, with the
most obvious being pharmacology, psychology, and
The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different
approaches used to study the molecular, cellular, developmental,
structural, functional, evolutionary, computational, psychosocial and
medical aspects of the nervous system.
Neuroscience has also given
rise to such other disciplines as neuroeducation, neuroethics, and
neurolaw. The techniques used by neuroscientists have also expanded
enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons
to imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain. Recent theoretical
advances in neuroscience have also been aided by the study of neural
As a result of the increasing number of scientists who study the
nervous system, several prominent neuroscience organizations have been
formed to provide a forum to all neuroscientists and educators. For
example, the International
Brain Research Organization was founded in
International Society for Neurochemistry in 1963,
Brain and Behaviour Society in 1968, and the Society
Neuroscience in 1969.
2 Modern neuroscience
2.1 Molecular and cellular neuroscience
2.2 Neural circuits and systems
2.3 Cognitive and behavioral neuroscience
2.3.1 Insufficient study sizes
Translational research and medicine
3 Major branches
4.1 Public education and outreach
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
Main article: History of neuroscience
Illustration from Gray's
Anatomy (1918) of a lateral view of the human
brain, featuring the hippocampus among other neuroanatomical features
The earliest study of the nervous system dates to ancient Egypt.
Trepanation, the surgical practice of either drilling or scraping a
hole into the skull for the purpose of curing headaches or mental
disorders, or relieving cranial pressure, was first recorded during
Neolithic period. Manuscripts dating to 1700 BC indicate that
Egyptians had some knowledge about symptoms of brain damage.
Early views on the function of the brain regarded it to be a "cranial
stuffing" of sorts. In Egypt, from the late Middle Kingdom onwards,
the brain was regularly removed in preparation for mummification. It
was believed at the time that the heart was the seat of intelligence.
According to Herodotus, the first step of mummification was to "take a
crooked piece of iron, and with it draw out the brain through the
nostrils, thus getting rid of a portion, while the skull is cleared of
the rest by rinsing with drugs."
The view that the heart was the source of consciousness was not
challenged until the time of the Greek physician Hippocrates. He
believed that the brain was not only involved with sensation—since
most specialized organs (e.g., eyes, ears, tongue) are located in
the head near the brain—but was also the seat of intelligence. Plato
also speculated that the brain was the seat of the rational part of
the soul. Aristotle, however, believed the heart was the center of
intelligence and that the brain regulated the amount of heat from the
heart. This view was generally accepted until the Roman physician
Galen, a follower of
Hippocrates and physician to Roman gladiators,
observed that his patients lost their mental faculties when they had
sustained damage to their brains.
Abulcasis, Averroes, Avicenna, Avenzoar, and Maimonides, active in the
Medieval Muslim world, described a number of medical problems related
to the brain. In
Vesalius (1514–1564), René
Descartes (1596–1650), and
Thomas Willis (1621–1675) also made
several contributions to neuroscience.
The Golgi stain first allowed for the visualization of individual
In the first half of the 19th century,
Jean Pierre Flourens
Jean Pierre Flourens pioneered
the experimental method of carrying out localized lesions of the brain
in living animals describing their effects on motricity, sensibility
and behavior. Studies of the brain became more sophisticated after the
invention of the microscope and the development of a staining
Camillo Golgi during the late 1890s. The procedure used a
silver chromate salt to reveal the intricate structures of individual
neurons. His technique was used by
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Santiago Ramón y Cajal and led to
the formation of the neuron doctrine, the hypothesis that the
functional unit of the brain is the neuron. Golgi and Ramón y
Cajal shared the Nobel Prize in
Medicine in 1906 for
their extensive observations, descriptions, and categorizations of
neurons throughout the brain. While Luigi Galvani's pioneering work in
the late 1700s had set the stage for studying the electrical
excitability of muscles and neurons, it was in the late 19th century
that Emil du Bois-Reymond, Johannes Peter Müller, and Hermann von
Helmholtz demonstrated that the electrical excitation of neurons
predictably affected the electrical states of adjacent
Richard Caton found electrical phenomena in the
cerebral hemispheres of rabbits and monkeys.
In parallel with this research, work with brain-damaged patients by
Paul Broca suggested that certain regions of the brain were
responsible for certain functions. At the time, Broca's findings were
seen as a confirmation of Franz Joseph Gall's theory that language was
localized and that certain psychological functions were localized in
specific areas of the cerebral cortex. The localization of
function hypothesis was supported by observations of epileptic
patients conducted by John Hughlings Jackson, who correctly inferred
the organization of the motor cortex by watching the progression of
seizures through the body.
Carl Wernicke further developed the theory
of the specialization of specific brain structures in language
comprehension and production. Modern research through neuroimaging
techniques, still uses the Brodmann cerebral cytoarchitectonic map
(referring to study of cell structure) anatomical definitions from
this era in continuing to show that distinct areas of the cortex are
activated in the execution of specific tasks.
During the 20th century, neuroscience began to be recognized as a
distinct academic discipline in its own right, rather than as studies
of the nervous system within other disciplines.
Eric Kandel and
collaborators have cited David Rioch, Francis O. Schmitt, and Stephen
Kuffler as having played critical roles in establishing the field.
Rioch originated the integration of basic anatomical and physiological
research with clinical psychiatry at the Walter Reed Army Institute of
Research, starting in the 1950s. During the same period, Schmitt
established a neuroscience research program within the Biology
Department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, bringing
together biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. The first
freestanding neuroscience department (then called Psychobiology) was
founded in 1964 at the University of California, Irvine by James L.
McGaugh. This was followed by the Department of
Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School which was founded in 1966 by
The understanding of neurons and of nervous system function became
increasingly precise and molecular during the 20th century. For
example, in 1952,
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and
Andrew Huxley presented a
mathematical model for transmission of electrical signals in neurons
of the giant axon of a squid, which they called "action potentials",
and how they are initiated and propagated, known as the
Hodgkin–Huxley model. In 1961–1962, Richard FitzHugh and J. Nagumo
simplified Hodgkin–Huxley, in what is called the FitzHugh–Nagumo
model. In 1962,
Bernard Katz modeled neurotransmission across the
space between neurons known as synapses. Beginning in 1966, Eric
Kandel and collaborators examined biochemical changes in neurons
associated with learning and memory storage in Aplysia. In 1981
Catherine Morris and Harold Lecar combined these models in the
Morris–Lecar model. Such increasingly quantitative work gave rise to
numerous biological neuron models.
Outline of neuroscience and Twentieth century studies
Human nervous system
The scientific study of the nervous system has increased significantly
during the second half of the twentieth century, principally due to
advances in molecular biology, electrophysiology, and computational
neuroscience. This has allowed neuroscientists to study the nervous
system in all its aspects: how it is structured, how it works, how it
develops, how it malfunctions, and how it can be changed. For example,
it has become possible to understand, in much detail, the complex
processes occurring within a single neuron. Neurons are cells
specialized for communication. They are able to communicate with
neurons and other cell types through specialized junctions called
synapses, at which electrical or electrochemical signals can be
transmitted from one cell to another. Many neurons extrude a long thin
filament of protoplasm called an axon, which may extend to distant
parts of the body and are capable of rapidly carrying electrical
signals, influencing the activity of other neurons, muscles, or glands
at their termination points. A nervous system emerges from the
assemblage of neurons that are connected to each other.
In vertebrates, the nervous system can be split into two parts, the
central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and the peripheral
nervous system. In many species — including all vertebrates — the
nervous system is the most complex organ system in the body, with most
of the complexity residing in the brain. The human brain alone
contains around one hundred billion neurons and one hundred trillion
synapses; it consists of thousands of distinguishable substructures,
connected to each other in synaptic networks whose intricacies have
only begun to be unraveled. The majority of the approximately
20,000–25,000 genes belonging to the human genome are expressed
specifically in the brain. Due to the plasticity of the human brain,
the structure of its synapses and their resulting functions change
throughout life. Thus the challenge of making sense of all this
complexity is formidable.
Molecular and cellular neuroscience
Molecular neuroscience and Cellular neuroscience
Photograph of a stained neuron in a chicken embryo
The study of the nervous system can be done at multiple levels,
ranging from the molecular and cellular levels to the systems and
cognitive levels. At the molecular level, the basic questions
addressed in molecular neuroscience include the mechanisms by which
neurons express and respond to molecular signals and how axons form
complex connectivity patterns. At this level, tools from molecular
biology and genetics are used to understand how neurons develop and
how genetic changes affect biological functions. The morphology,
molecular identity, and physiological characteristics of neurons and
how they relate to different types of behavior are also of
The fundamental questions addressed in cellular neuroscience include
the mechanisms of how neurons process signals physiologically and
electrochemically. These questions include how signals are processed
by neurites – thin extensions from a neuronal cell body, consisting
of dendrites (specialized to receive synaptic inputs from other
neurons) and axons (specialized to conduct nerve impulses called
action potentials) – and somas (the cell bodies of the neurons
containing the nucleus), and how neurotransmitters and electrical
signals are used to process information in a neuron. Another major
area of neuroscience is directed at investigations of the development
of the nervous system. These questions include the patterning and
regionalization of the nervous system, neural stem cells,
differentiation of neurons and glia, neuronal migration, axonal and
dendritic development, trophic interactions, and synapse formation.
Computational neurogenetic modeling
Computational neurogenetic modeling is concerned with the development
of dynamic neuronal models for modeling brain functions with respect
to genes and dynamic interactions between genes.
Neural circuits and systems
Biological neural network
Biological neural network and Systems neuroscience
At the systems level, the questions addressed in systems neuroscience
include how neural circuits are formed and used anatomically and
physiologically to produce functions such as reflexes, multisensory
integration, motor coordination, circadian rhythms, emotional
responses, learning, and memory. In other words, they address how
these neural circuits function and the mechanisms through which
behaviors are generated. For example, systems level analysis addresses
questions concerning specific sensory and motor modalities: how does
vision work? How do songbirds learn new songs and bats localize with
ultrasound? How does the somatosensory system process tactile
information? The related fields of neuroethology and neuropsychology
address the question of how neural substrates underlie specific animal
and human behaviors.
Neuroendocrinology and psychoneuroimmunology
examine interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine and
immune systems, respectively. Despite many advancements, the way
networks of neurons perform complex cognitive processes and behaviors
is still poorly understood.
Cognitive and behavioral neuroscience
Main article: Cognitive neuroscience
At the cognitive level, cognitive neuroscience addresses the questions
of how psychological functions are produced by neural circuitry. The
emergence of powerful new measurement techniques such as neuroimaging
(e.g., fMRI, PET, SPECT), electrophysiology, and human genetic
analysis combined with sophisticated experimental techniques from
cognitive psychology allows neuroscientists and psychologists to
address abstract questions such as how human cognition and emotion are
mapped to specific neural substrates. Although many studies still hold
a reductionist stance looking for the neurobiological basis of
cognitive phenomena, recent research shows that there is an
interesting interplay between neuroscientific findings and conceptual
research, soliciting and integrating both perspectives. For example,
the neuroscience research on empathy solicited an interesting
interdisciplinary debate involving philosophy, psychology and
psychopathology. Moreover, the neuroscientific identification of
multiple memory systems related to different brain areas has
challenged the idea of memory as a literal reproduction of the past,
supporting a view of memory as a generative, constructive and dynamic
Neuroscience is also allied with the social and behavioral sciences as
well as nascent interdisciplinary fields such as neuroeconomics,
decision theory, social neuroscience, and neuromarketing to address
complex questions about interactions of the brain with its
environment. A study into consumer responses for example uses EEG to
investigate neural correlates associated with narrative transportation
into stories about energy efficiency.
Ultimately neuroscientists would like to understand every aspect of
the nervous system, including how it works, how it develops, how it
malfunctions, and how it can be altered or repaired. The specific
topics that form the main foci of research change over time, driven by
an ever-expanding base of knowledge and the availability of
increasingly sophisticated technical methods. Over the long term,
improvements in technology have been the primary drivers of progress.
Developments in electron microscopy, computers, electronics,
functional brain imaging, and most recently genetics and genomics,
have all been major drivers of progress.
Insufficient study sizes
Most studies in neurology have too few test subjects to be
scientifically sure. Those insufficient size studies are the basis for
all domain-specific diagnoses in neuropsychiatry, since the few large
enough studies there are always find individuals with the brain
changes thought to be associated with a mental condition but without
any of the symptoms. The only diagnoses that can be validated through
large enough brain studies are those on serious brain damages and
neurodegenerative diseases that destroy most of the brain.
Translational research and medicine
Further information: Translational research
Parasagittal MRI of the head of a patient with benign familial
Neurology, psychiatry, neurosurgery, psychosurgery, anesthesiology and
pain medicine, neuropathology, neuroradiology, ophthalmology,
otolaryngology, clinical neurophysiology, addiction medicine, and
sleep medicine are some medical specialties that specifically address
the diseases of the nervous system. These terms also refer to clinical
disciplines involving diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.
Neurology works with diseases of the central and peripheral nervous
systems, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and stroke, and
their medical treatment.
Psychiatry focuses on affective, behavioral,
cognitive, and perceptual disorders.
Anesthesiology focuses on
perception of pain, and pharmacologic alteration of consciousness.
Neuropathology focuses upon the classification and underlying
pathogenic mechanisms of central and peripheral nervous system and
muscle diseases, with an emphasis on morphologic, microscopic, and
chemically observable alterations.
Neurosurgery and psychosurgery work
primarily with surgical treatment of diseases of the central and
peripheral nervous systems. The boundaries between these specialties
have been blurring recently as they are all influenced by basic
research in neuroscience.
Brain imaging also enables objective,
biological insights into mental illness, which can lead to faster
diagnosis, more accurate prognosis, and help assess patient progress
Integrative neuroscience makes connections across these specialized
areas of focus.
Modern neuroscience education and research activities can be very
roughly categorized into the following major branches, based on the
subject and scale of the system in examination as well as distinct
experimental or curricular approaches. Individual neuroscientists,
however, often work on questions that span several distinct subfields.
List of the major branches of neuroscience
Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms involved
in emotion, typically through experimentation on animal models.
Behavioral neuroscience (also known as biological psychology,
physiological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology) is the
application of the principles of biology (viz., neurobiology) to the
study of genetic, physiological, and developmental mechanisms of
behavior in humans and non-human animals.
Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level
including morphology and physiological properties.
This consists of medical specialties such as neurology, neurosurgery,
psychiatry, as well as many allied health professions such as
psychology, audiology, speech-language pathology.
Neurology is the
medical specialty that works with disorders of the nervous system.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty that works with the disorders of
the mind, including various affective, behavioral, cognitive, and
perceptual disorders. (Also see note below.)
Cognitive neuroscience is the study of the mechanisms underlying
cognition with a specific focus on the neural substrates of mental
Computational neuroscience is the study of brain function in terms of
the information processing properties of the structures that make up
the nervous system.
Computational neuroscience can also refer to the
use of computer simulations and theoretical models to study the
function of the nervous system.
Cultural neuroscience is the study of how cultural values, practices
and beliefs shape and are shaped by the mind, brain and genes across
Developmental neuroscience studies the processes that generate, shape,
and reshape the nervous system and seeks to describe the cellular
basis of neural development to address underlying mechanisms.
Evolutionary neuroscience is an interdisciplinary scientific research
field that studies the evolution of nervous systems.
Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that examines the
biology of the nervous system with molecular biology, molecular
genetics, protein chemistry, and related methodologies.
Neural engineering is a discipline within biomedical engineering that
uses engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, or enhance
Neuroanatomy the study of the anatomy and stereotyped organization of
Neuroethology is an interdisciplinary branch that studies the neural
basis of natural animal behavior.
Neurogastronomy is the study of flavor and how it affects sensation,
cognition, and memory.
Neuroheuristics (or Neuristics) is a transdisciplinary paradigm that
studies the information processing effected by the brain as an outcome
of nurture versus nature, at the crossing of top-down and bottom-up
Neuroimaging includes the use of various techniques to either directly
or indirectly image the structure and function of the brain.
Neuroinformatics is a discipline within bioinformatics that conducts
the organization of neuroscience data and application of computational
models and analytical tools.
Neurolinguistics is the study of the neural mechanisms in the human
brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of
Neurophysics investigates the fundamentally physical basis for the
neurons, neural networks and the brain.
Neurophysiology is the study of the functioning of the nervous system,
generally using physiological techniques that include measurement and
stimulation with electrodes or optically with ion- or
voltage-sensitive dyes or light-sensitive channels.
Neuropsychology is a discipline that resides under the umbrellas of
both psychology and neuroscience, and is involved in activities in the
arenas of both basic science and applied science. In psychology, it is
most closely associated with biopsychology, clinical psychology,
cognitive psychology, and developmental psychology. In neuroscience,
it is most closely associated with the cognitive, behavioral, social,
and affective neuroscience areas. In the applied and medical domain,
it is related to neurology and psychiatry.
Paleoneurobiology is a field which combines techniques used in
paleontology and archeology to study brain evolution, especially that
of the human brain.
Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to
understanding how biological systems implement social processes and
behavior, and to using biological concepts and methods to inform and
refine theories of social processes and behavior.
Systems neuroscience is the study of the function of neural circuits
The largest professional neuroscience organization is the Society for
Neuroscience (SFN), which is based in the United States but includes
many members from other countries. Since its founding in 1969 the SFN
has grown steadily: as of 2010 it recorded 40,290 members from 83
different countries. Annual meetings, held each year in a
different American city, draw attendance from researchers,
postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, and undergraduates, as well
as educational institutions, funding agencies, publishers, and
hundreds of businesses that supply products used in research.
Other major organizations devoted to neuroscience include the
Brain Research Organization (IBRO), which holds its
meetings in a country from a different part of the world each year,
Federation of European Neuroscience Societies
Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS), which
holds a meeting in a different European city every two years. FENS
comprises a set of 32 national-level organizations, including the
Neuroscience Association, the German
(Neurowissenschaftliche Gesellschaft), and the French Société des
Neurosciences. The first National Honor Society in Neuroscience, Nu
Rho Psi, was founded in 2006.
In 2013, the
BRAIN Initiative was announced in the US.
Public education and outreach
In addition to conducting traditional research in laboratory settings,
neuroscientists have also been involved in the promotion of awareness
and knowledge about the nervous system among the general public and
government officials. Such promotions have been done by both
individual neuroscientists and large organizations. For example,
individual neuroscientists have promoted neuroscience education among
young students by organizing the International
Brain Bee, which is an
academic competition for high school or secondary school students
worldwide. In the United States, large organizations such as the
Society for Neuroscience have promoted neuroscience education by
developing a primer called
Brain Facts, collaborating with public
school teachers to develop
Neuroscience Core Concepts for K-12
teachers and students, and cosponsoring a campaign with the Dana
Brain Awareness Week to increase public awareness
about the progress and benefits of brain research. In Canada, the
CIHR Canadian National
Brain Bee is held annually at McMaster
Finally, neuroscientists have also collaborated with other education
experts to study and refine educational techniques to optimize
learning among students, an emerging field called educational
neuroscience. Federal agencies in the United States, such as the
National Institute of Health
National Institute of Health (NIH) and National
(NSF), have also funded research that pertains to best practices
in teaching and learning of neuroscience concepts.
List of neuroscience databases
List of neuroscience topics
List of neuroscientists
Outline of brain mapping
Outline of the human brain
List of regions in the human brain
^ "Neuroscience". Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary.
^ "Neurobiology". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2017-01-22.
^ Ayd, Frank J., Jr. (2000). Lexicon of Psychiatry,
Neurology and the
Neurosciences. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. p. 688.
^ Shulman, Robert G. (2013). "Neuroscience: A Multidisciplinary,
Brain Imaging: What it Can (and Cannot) Tell Us
About Consciousness. Oxford University Press. p. 59.
^ Longstaff, Alan (2011). BIOS Instant Notes in Neuroscience. Garland
Science. p. v. ISBN 9780415607698.
^ Marlin L Languis; James J Buffer; Daniel Martin; Paul J Naour, eds.
(2012). Cognitive Science: Contributions to Educational Practice.
Routledge. p. ix. ISBN 9780415615174.
^ Ogawa, Hiroto; Oka, Kotaro (2013). Methods in Neuroethological
Research. Springer. p. v. ISBN 9784431543305.
^ Tanner, Kimberly D. (2006-01-01). "Issues in
Making Connections". CBE— Life Sciences Education. 5 (2): 85.
doi:10.1187/cbe.06-04-0156. ISSN 1931-7913.
PMC 1618510 .
^ Zull, J. (2002). The art of changing the brain: Enriching the
practice of teaching by exploring the biology of learning. Sterling,
Virginia: Stylus Publishing, LLC
^ "History of IBRO". International
Brain Research Organization.
2010. [dead link]
^ The Beginning Archived April 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.,
International Society for Neurochemistry
^ "About EBBS". European
Brain and Behaviour Society. 2009. Archived
from the original on 2016-03-03.
^ "About SfN". Society for Neuroscience.
^ Mohamed W (2008). "The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus:
Ancient Egypt". IBRO History of Neuroscience. Retrieved
Herodotus (2009) [440 BCE]. The Histories:
Book II (Euterpe).
Translated by George Rawlinson.
Plato (2009) [360 BCE]. Timaeus. Translated by George
^ Finger, Stanley (2001). Origins of Neuroscience: A History of
Brain Function (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford
University Press, USA. pp. 3–17. ISBN 0-19-514694-8.
^ Guillery, R (Jun 2005). "Observations of synaptic structures:
origins of the neuron doctrine and its current status". Philos Trans R
Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 360 (1458): 1281–307.
doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1459. PMC 1569502 .
Neuroscience - New World Encyclopedia".
www.newworldencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2017-06-16.
^ Harrison, David W. (2015).
Brain Asymmetry and Neural Systems
Foundations in Clinical
Neuroscience and Neuropsychology. Springer
International Publishing. pp. 15–16.
^ Greenblatt SH (1995). "Phrenology in the science and culture of the
19th century". Neurosurg. 37 (4): 790–805.
doi:10.1227/00006123-199510000-00025. PMID 8559310.
^ Bear MF; Connors BW; Paradiso MA (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the
Brain (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
^ Kandel ER; Schwartz JH; Jessel TM (2000). Principles of Neural
Science (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
^ Cowan, W.M.; Harter, D.H.; Kandel, E.R. (2000). "The emergence of
modern neuroscience: Some implications for neurology and psychiatry".
Annual Review of Neuroscience. 23: 345–346.
doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.23.1.343. PMID 10845068.
^ "History - Department of Neurobiology".
^ The United States Department of Health and Human Services. Mental
Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. "Chapter 2: The Fundamentals
of Mental Health and Mental Illness" pp 38  Retrieved May 21, 2012
^ Aragona M, Kotzalidis GD, Puzella A. (2013) The many faces of
empathy, between phenomenology and neuroscience. Archives of
Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 4:5-12
^ Ofengenden, Tzofit (2014). "
Memory formation and belief" (PDF).
Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences. 7 (2):
^ Gordon, R., Ciorciari, J., & van Laer, T. (2017). "Using EEG to
examine the role of attention, working memory, emotion, and
imagination in narrative transportation." European Journal of
Marketing. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2892967 or
^ K. Button et al. "Power failure: why small sample size undermines
the reliability of neuroscience", Nature Reviews
^ Fang, Steen och Casadevall, "Misconduct accounts for the majority of
retracted scientific publications", PNAS 2012.
^ Lepage M (2010). "Research at the
Brain Imaging Centre". Douglas
Mental Health University Institute. Archived from the original on
March 5, 2012.
^ Panksepp J (1990). "A role for "affective neuroscience" in
understanding stress: the case of separation distress circuitry". In
Puglisi-Allegra S; Oliverio A. Psychobiology of Stress. Dordrecht,
Netherlands: Kluwer Academic. pp. 41–58.
^ Chiao, J.Y. & Ambady, N. (2007). Cultural neuroscience: Parsing
universality and diversity across levels of analysis. In Kitayama, S.
and Cohen, D. (Eds.) Handbook of Cultural Psychology, Guilford Press,
New York, pp. 237-254.
^ 1933-, Shepherd, Gordon M.,. Neurogastronomy : how the brain
creates flavor and why it matters. ISBN 9780231159111.
^ "Financial and organizational highlights" (PDF). Society for
Neuroscience. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 15,
^ "About the International
Brain Bee". The International Brain
Brain Facts: A Primer on the
Brain and Nervous System". Society for
Neuroscience Core Concepts: The Essential Principles of
Neuroscience". Society for Neuroscience. Archived from the original on
April 15, 2012.
Brain Awareness Week Campaign". The Dana Foundation.
^ "Official CIHR Canadian National
Brain Bee Website". Archived from
the original on May 30, 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
^ Goswami U (2004). "Neuroscience, education and special education".
Br J of Spec Educ. 31 (4): 175–183.
^ "The SEPA Program". NIH. Archived from the original on September 20,
2011. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
^ "About Education and Human Resources". NSF. Retrieved September 23,
Bear, M. F.; B. W. Connors; M. A. Paradiso (2006). Neuroscience:
Brain (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Binder, Marc D.; Hirokawa, Nobutaka; Windhorst, Uwe, eds. (2009).
Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Springer.
Kandel, ER; Schwartz JH; Jessell TM (2012). Principles of Neural
Science (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Squire, L. et al. (2012). Fundamental Neuroscience, 4th edition.
Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-660303-0
Byrne and Roberts (2004). From Molecules to Networks. Academic Press;
Sanes, Reh, Harris (2005). Development of the Nervous System, 2nd
edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-618621-9
Siegel et al. (2005). Basic Neurochemistry, 7th edition. Academic
Press; ISBN 0-12-088397-X
Rieke, F. et al. (1999). Spikes: Exploring the Neural Code. The MIT
Press; Reprint edition ISBN 0-262-68108-0
Neuroscience 2nd ed. Dale Purves, George J. Augustine,
David Fitzpatrick, Lawrence C. Katz, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O.
McNamara, S. Mark Williams. Published by Sinauer Associates, Inc.,
section.18 Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular, and Medical
Aspects 6th ed. by George J. Siegel, Bernard W. Agranoff, R. Wayne
Albers, Stephen K. Fisher, Michael D. Uhler, editors. Published by
Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
Andreasen, Nancy C. (March 4, 2004). Brave New Brain: Conquering
Mental Illness in the Era of the Genome. Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-19-514509-0. Archived from the original on February
Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the
Human Brain. New York, Avon Books. ISBN 0-399-13894-3 (Hardcover)
ISBN 0-380-72647-5 (Paperback)
Gardner, H. (1976). The Shattered Mind: The Person After
New York, Vintage Books, 1976 ISBN 0-394-71946-8
Goldstein, K. (2000). The Organism. New York, Zone Books.
ISBN 0-942299-96-5 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-942299-97-3
Lauwereyns, Jan (February 2010). The
Anatomy of Bias: How Neural
Circuits Weigh the Options. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Subhash Kak, The Architecture of Knowledge: Quantum Mechanics,
Neuroscience, Computers and Consciousness, Motilal Banarsidass, 2004,
Llinas R. (2001). I of the Vortex: From Neurons to Self MIT Press.
ISBN 0-262-12233-2 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-262-62163-0
Luria, A. R. (1997). The Man with a Shattered World: The History of a
Brain Wound. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press.
ISBN 0-224-00792-0 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-674-54625-3
Luria, A. R. (1998). The Mind of a Mnemonist: A Little
Book About A
Vast Memory. New York, Basic Books, Inc. ISBN 0-674-57622-5
Medina, J. (2008).
Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and
Thriving at Work, Home, and School. Seattle, Pear Press.
ISBN 0-9797777-0-4 (Hardcover with DVD)
Pinker, S. (1999). How the Mind Works.
W. W. Norton
W. W. Norton & Company.
Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature.
Viking Adult. ISBN 0-670-03151-8
Robinson, D. L. (2009). Brain, Mind and Behaviour: A New Perspective
on Human Nature (2nd ed.). Dundalk, Ireland: Pontoon Publications.
Penrose, R., Hameroff, S. R., Kak, S., & Tao, L. (2011).
Consciousness and the universe: Quantum physics, evolution, brain
& mind. Cambridge, MA: Cosmology
Ramachandran, V. S. (1998). Phantoms in the Brain. New York,
HarperCollins. ISBN 0-688-15247-3 (Paperback)
Rose, S. (2006). 21st Century Brain: Explaining, Mending &
Manipulating the Mind ISBN 0-09-942977-2 (Paperback)
Sacks, O. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. Summit Books
ISBN 0-671-55471-9 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-06-097079-0
Sacks, O. (1990). Awakenings. New York, Vintage Books. (See also
Oliver Sacks) ISBN 0-671-64834-9 (Hardcover)
ISBN 0-06-097368-4 (Paperback)
Scholarpedia Expert articles
Sternberg, E. (2007) Are You a Machine? The Brain, the Mind and What
it Means to be Human. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books.
Churchland, P. S. (2011) Braintrust: What
Neuroscience Tells Us about
Morality. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-13703-X
Selvin, Paul (2014) "Hot Topics presentation: New Small Quantum Dots
for Neuroscience. SPIE Newsroom, doi:10.1117/2.3201403.17
Wikiversity has learning resources about Topic: Neuroscience
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Neuroscience
Look up neuroscience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to neuroscience.
Neuroscience on In Our Time at the BBC.
Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF)
Neurobiology at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
American Society for Neurochemistry
British Neuroscience Association (BNA)
Federation of European
Neuroscience Online (electronic neuroscience textbook)
Neuroscience lecture series - Making Your Mind: Molecules,
Motion, and Memory
Société des Neurosciences
Neuroscience For Kids
Outline of neuroscience
Molecular cellular cognition
Neural network (artificial)
Neural network (biological)
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring
Central nervous system
Peripheral nervous system
Branches of life science and biology
Origin of life