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The Neretva
Neretva
(pronounced [něreːtʋa], Serbian Cyrillic: Неретва), also known as the Narenta, is the largest river of the eastern part of the Adriatic
Adriatic
basin. Four HE power-plants with large dams (higher than 15 metres)[1] provide flood protection, power and water storage. It is recognized for its natural environment and diversity of its landscape.[2] Freshwater
Freshwater
ecosystems have suffered from an increasing population and the associated development pressures. One of the most valuable natural resources of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Croatia
Croatia
is its freshwater resource,[3] contained by an abundant wellspring and clear rivers.[3][4] Situated between the major regional rivers ( Drina
Drina
river on the east, Una river on the west and the Sava
Sava
river) the Neretva basin contains the most significant[3] source of drinking water. The Neretva
Neretva
is notable[5][6] among rivers of the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
region, especially regarding its diverse ecosystems and habitats, flora and fauna, cultural and historic heritage.[3][4] Its name has been suggested to come from the Indo-European root *ner, meaning "to dive". The same root is seen in the Serbo-Croatian root "roniti".[7]

Contents

1 Geography and hydrology

1.1 Sections 1.2 Tributaries 1.3 Towns and villages

2 Upper Neretva

2.1 Rakitnica
Rakitnica
River 2.2 Hydroelectric controversy

3 Lakes 4 Wetlands

4.1 Neretva
Neretva
Delta

5 Endemic and endangered species

5.1 Invasive species 5.2 Salmonids 5.3 Cyprinids 5.4 Cobitidae 5.5 Neretva
Neretva
delta endemics

6 Cultural and Historical significance

6.1 Early history 6.2 Roman period 6.3 Middle Ages 6.4 Ottoman period 6.5 World War II: Battle of the Neretva

7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Geography and hydrology[edit]

The Neretva
Neretva
river and its karstic rich fresh water aquifer.

The Neretva
Neretva
flows through Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Croatia
Croatia
until reaching the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea. It is the largest karst river in the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
in the eastern part of the Adriatic
Adriatic
basin/watershed. Its total length is 230 kilometres (143 miles), of which 208 kilometres (129 miles) are in Bosnia and Herzegovina, while the final 22 kilometres (14 miles) are in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County
Dubrovnik-Neretva County
of Croatia.[8] The Neretva
Neretva
watershed is 10,380 square kilometres (4,010 sq mi) in total; in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
10,110 square kilometres (3,900 sq mi) with the addition of the Trebišnjica
Trebišnjica
river watershed and in Croatia, 280 square kilometres (110 sq mi). The average discharge at profile Žitomislići in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
is 233 cubic metres (8,200 cu ft)/s and at the mouth in Croatia
Croatia
is 341 cubic metres (12,000 cu ft)/s in addition to the Trebišnjica River's 402 cubic metres (14,200 cu ft)/s. The Trebišnjica River basin is included in the Neretva
Neretva
watershed due to a physical link of the two basins by the porous karst terrain.[9] The hydrological parameters of Neretva
Neretva
are regularly monitored in Croatia
Croatia
at Metković.[10] Sections[edit] Geographically and hydrologically the Neretva
Neretva
is divided into three sections.[11]

Headwaters of the Neretva, just downstream of Ulog.

Its source and headwaters gorge are situated deep in the Dinaric Alps at the base of the Zelengora
Zelengora
and Lebršnik
Lebršnik
mountains, under the Gredelj saddle. The river source is at 1,227 meters above sea level. The first section of the Neretva
Neretva
reaches to the town of Konjic; the Upper Neretva
Upper Neretva
(Bosnian: Gornja Neretva), flows from south to north - north-west as do most Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
rivers belonging to the Danube
Danube
watershed, and covers some 1,390 square kilometres (540 sq mi) with an average elevation of 1.2%. Right below Konjic, the Neretva
Neretva
briefly expands into a wide valley which provides fertile agricultural land. The large Jablaničko Lake
Jablaničko Lake
was artificially formed after construction of a dam near Jablanica.[citation needed] The second section begins from the confluence of the Neretva
Neretva
and the Rama between Konjic
Konjic
and Jablanica where the Neretva
Neretva
suddenly takes a southern course. From Jablanica, the Neretva
Neretva
enters the largest canyons of its course, running through the steep slopes mountains of Prenj, Čvrsnica
Čvrsnica
and Čabulja
Čabulja
reaching 800–1,200 metres (2,625–3,937 feet) in depth. Three hydroelectric dams operate between Jablanica and Mostar. When the Neretva
Neretva
expands for the second and final time, it reaches its third section. This area is often called the Bosnian and Herzegovinian California. The last 30 kilometres (19 miles) form an alluvial delta, before the river empties into the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea.[citation needed]

Panoramic view River Neretva
Neretva
with village Lug near Jablanica, summer 2010.

Tributaries[edit]

Neretva
Neretva
River in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Rivers
Rivers
of the Jezernica (also known as the Tatinac), the Gornji and Donji Krupac, the Ljuta (also known as the Dindolka), the Jesenica, the Bjelimićka Rijeka, the Slatinica, the Račica, the Rakitnica, the Konjička Ljuta, the Trešanica, the Neretvica, the Rama, Doljanka, the Drežanka, the Grabovica, the Radobolja, and the Trebižat
Trebižat
flow into the Neretva
Neretva
from the right, while the Jezernica, the Živašnica (also known as the Živanjski Potok), the Lađanica, the Župski Krupac, the Bukovica, the Šištica, the Konjička Bijela, the Idbar, the Glogošnica, the Mostarska Bijela, the Buna, the Bregava, and the Krupa flow into it from the left. Towns and villages[edit]

Neretva
Neretva
River in Metković, Croatia.

Towns and villages on the Neretva
Neretva
include Ulog, Glavatičevo, Konjic, Čelebići, Ostrožac, Jablanica, Grabovica, Drežnica, Bijelo polje, Vrapčići, Mostar, Buna village, the historical town of Blagaj, Žitomislići, the historical village of Počitelj, Tasovčići, Čapljina, and Gabela
Gabela
in Bosnia and Herzegovina; and Metković, Opuzen, Komin, Rogotin, and Ploče
Ploče
in Croatia. The biggest town on the Neretva
Neretva
River is Mostar
Mostar
in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Upper Neretva[edit] Main article: Upper Neretva The upper course of the Neretva
Neretva
river is simply called the Upper Neretva
Neretva
(Bosnian: Gornja Neretva). It includes numerous streams and well-springs, three major glacial lakes near the river and more lakes scattered across the mountains of Treskavica
Treskavica
and Zelengora
Zelengora
in the wider area, mountains, peaks and forests, flora and fauna of the area.

Upper Neretva
Upper Neretva
Canyon, just downstream of Ulog
Ulog
village.

The Upper Neretva
Upper Neretva
has water of Class I purity[12] and is almost certainly the coldest river water in the world, often as low as 7–8 degrees Celsius in the summer months.[citation needed]

Upper Neretva
Upper Neretva
Valley, area of Glavatičevo
Glavatičevo
village, upstream from Konjic.

Rising from the base of the Zelengora
Zelengora
and Lebršnik
Lebršnik
Mountain, Neretva headwaters run in undisturbed rapids and waterfalls, carving steep gorges reaching 600–800 metres (2,000–2,600 ft) in depth. Rakitnica
Rakitnica
River[edit] Main article: Rakitnica The Rakitnica
Rakitnica
is the main tributary of the first section (Bosnian: Gornja Neretva). The Rakitnica
Rakitnica
River forms a 26 km (16 miles) long canyon, out of its 32 km (20 miles) length, that stretches between Bjelašnica
Bjelašnica
and Visočica to the southeast from Sarajevo.[13] From the canyon, a hiking trail along the ridge of the Rakitnica canyon drops 800 m below, to the famous village of Lukomir. The village is the only remaining traditional semi-nomadic Bosniak mountain village in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At almost 1,500 m, Lukomir
Lukomir
features stone homes with cherry-wood roof tiles. It is the country's highest and most isolated mountain village. The village is inaccessible from the first snows in December until late April and sometimes even later, except by skis or on foot. Hydroelectric controversy[edit] See also: Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity
§ Advantages and disadvantages of hydroelectricity, Dam
Dam
failure, and Environmental impacts of reservoirs The benefits brought by hydroelectric dams have come at an environmental and social cost.[14][15]

Before - the Neretva
Neretva
canyon near Jablanica town (circa 1920), long before Grabovica Dam.

After - the Neretva
Neretva
canyon flooded by Grabovica Lake (waters discharged) behind the Grabovica Dam.

The Neretva
Neretva
and two main tributaries are already harnessed by four Hydroelectric power-plants with large dams,[1] one with a major dam on the Rama tributary and another[1] on the Trebišnjica
Trebišnjica
River. In recent times the Republic of Srpska
Republic of Srpska
government finished the project named The Upper Horizons (Bosnian: Gornji horizonti), a large hydroelectric project that diverted underground waters in the Neretva watershed to the Trebišnjica
Trebišnjica
plant and others in the Trebišnjica basin. This project was opposed by NGO's in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Croatia. They argued that the project would increase salinity levels of every surface and underground water on the right bank of the Neretva, damage internationally recognized Ramsar sites, a protected Nature Park Hutovo Blato
Hutovo Blato
in Bosnia and Herzegovina, protected Neretva Delta in Croatia, and important reservoirs of freshwater, plus agricultural lands in the lower Neretva
Neretva
valley.[citation needed]

Hydroelectric Power Plant Mostar, upstream from city of Mostar.

The government of the Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
has unveiled plans to build three more hydroelectric power plants with dams over 150.5 metres in height[1] upstream from the existing plants, beginning with Glavaticevo Hydro Power Plant in the village of Glavatičevo, then going upstream to Bjelimići Hydro Power Plant and Ljubuča Hydro Power Plant located near the eponymous villages; and another, by the Republic of Srpska, at the Neretva
Neretva
headwaters gorge, near the source of the river. It is similarly opposed by environmental organizations and NGO's, such as Zeleni- Neretva
Neretva
Konjic[16] and the World Wildlife Fund.[4][17][18][19][20] Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
is preparing a parallel plan to form a large national park to include the entire region of Gornja Neretva
Neretva
(English: Upper Neretva), and have within the park the three hydroelectric plants. The latest idea is that the park should be divided in two, where the Neretva
Neretva
should be excluded from both and would become the boundary between parks. Those who oppose the plan wish to have the area turned into the National Park of Upper Neretva
Upper Neretva
and would leave the park without substantial development.[14][21][22] Lakes[edit]

Jablanica Lake and suspension bridge at Ostrožac village.

Jablanica lake
Jablanica lake
is a large artificial lake on the Neretva
Neretva
river, right below Konjic
Konjic
where the Neretva
Neretva
expands into a wide valley. The river provided fertile, agricultural land before the lake flooded most of it. The lake was created in 1953 after construction of a large[1] gravitational hydroelectric dam near Jablanica in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. The lake has an irregular, elongated shape. Its width varies along its length. The lake is a popular vacation destination.[citation needed] Wetlands[edit] Downstream from the confluence of its tributaries, the Trebižat
Trebižat
and Bregava
Bregava
Rivers, the valley spreads into an alluvial fan covering 20,000 hectares (49,000 acres). The upper valley, the 7,411 hectares in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is called Hutovo Blato. The Neretva Delta
Neretva Delta
has been recognised as a Ramsar site since 1992, and Hutovo Blato
Hutovo Blato
since 2001. Both areas form one integrated Ramsar site that is a natural entity divided by the state border.[2] The Important Bird Areas programme, conducted by Birdlife International, covers protected areas in Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina.[23] Since 1995, Hutovo Blato
Hutovo Blato
has been protected as Hutovo Blato
Hutovo Blato
Nature Park[24][25] and managed by a public authority. The whole zone is protected from human impact and provides habitat for many plants and animals.[23] The historical site Old Fortress Hutovo Blato
Hutovo Blato
is in the Nature Park. Gornje Blato- Deransko Lake is supplied by the karstic water sources of the Trebišnjica
Trebišnjica
River, emerging from bordering hills. It is hydro-geologically connected to the Neretva
Neretva
River through its effluent, the Krupa River, formed out of five lakes (Škrka, Deranja, Jelim, Orah, Drijen). Large portions are permanently flooded and isolated by wide groves of reedbebds and trees. It represents a more interesting preserved area.[26] The Krupa River
Krupa River
is a Neretva
Neretva
left tributary and the main water current of Hutovo Blato, which carries the waters from Gornje Blato and Svitavsko Lake into the Neretva
Neretva
River. The length of Krupa is 9 km (6 miles) with an average depth of 5 metres (16 feet). The Krupa does not have a specific source, but is an arm of Deransko Lake. Also, the Krupa is a unique river in Europe, because it flows both ways. It flows both towards and back from its mouth. This happens when a high water level causes Neretva
Neretva
to push Krupa in the opposite direction.[27]

Cultivated slots and natural marshes of the complex Neretva
Neretva
Delta

Neretva
Neretva
Delta[edit] Main article: Neretva
Neretva
Delta Passing towns and villages in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Neretva spills out into the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea, building a wetland delta that is listed under the Ramsar Convention
Ramsar Convention
as internationally important.[17][23]

The mouth of the Neretva
Neretva
river near port-town of Ploče, Croatia.

In this lower valley in Croatia, the Neretva
Neretva
River splinters into multiple courses, creating a delta covering approximately 12,000 hectares. The delta in Croatia
Croatia
has been reduced by extensive land reclamation projects, reducing the river flows to just three branches from the original twelve. The marshes, lagoons and lakes that once dotted this plain have disappeared and only fragments of the old Mediterranean
Mediterranean
wetlands survive.[28] Wetlands, marshes and lagoons, lakes, beaches, rivers, hummocks (limestone hills) and mountains comprise the delta, with five protected areas with a total area of 1,620 ha. These are ornithological, ichthyologic and landscape reserves.[28] Endemic and endangered species[edit] Main article: Fish
Fish
species of the Neretva
Neretva
basin Dinaric karst water systems support 25% of the total of 546 fish species in Europe, many endemic. The Neretva
Neretva
River, together with four other areas in the Mediterranean, has the largest number of threatened freshwater fish species.[29] The degree of endemism in the karst ecoregion is greater than 10%. Multiple fish species have small habitats and are vulnerable, so they are included on the Red List
Red List
of endangered fish as of 2006[update]. The Adriatic
Adriatic
basin has 88 species of fish, of which 44 are Mediterranean
Mediterranean
endemic species, and 41 are Adriatic
Adriatic
endemic species. More than half of the Adriatic
Adriatic
river basin species of fish inhabit the Neretva, the Ombla, the Trebišnjica, the Morača
Morača
Rivers
Rivers
and their tributaries, and more than 30 are endemic.[30] Invasive species[edit]

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A pike perch ( Sander lucioperca
Sander lucioperca
Linnaeus 1758)[31] (also see Sander (genus)) population in the Neretva
Neretva
River watershed was observed in 1990 for the first time. The Rama River, a right tributary of the Neretva, and its Rama Lake received an unknown quantity of this allochthonous species. Population estimates have increased in the Neretva
Neretva
accumulation lakes. This fact confirms previous scientific assumptions of Škrijelj (1991, 1995), who predicted the possibility of pike perch displacement (migration) from Ramsko Lake
Ramsko Lake
to the Rama River and then further downstream to the river and its lakes. In 1990 the perch population made up 1.95% of the fish population in Rama Lake. Within a decade this rose to 25.42% in the nearby Jablaničko Lake. The fast pace of pike perch population growth and displacements is expected to match the environmental conditions from the mid-ecological valence of this fish.[clarification needed] In this sense, it is the established continuous and accelerated growth of the population dynamics of pike perch in Jablaničko Lake, a relatively good representation in Salakovačko Lake
Salakovačko Lake
and the beginning of growth of population in Grabovičko Lake. Parallel with the increase in pike perch is a decrease in indigenous species like European chub
European chub
also white chub (Squalius cephalus), and the disappearance of rare and endemic species like Adriatic
Adriatic
Dace also Balkan dace (Squalius svallize also Leuciscus svallize
Leuciscus svallize
Heckel & Kner 1858), Neretvan softmouth trout ( Salmothymus obtusirostris
Salmothymus obtusirostris
oxyrhinchus Steind.) and marble trout ( Salmo marmoratus
Salmo marmoratus
Cuv.). Pike perch causes clearly visible, negative effects on the autochthonous species in Jablaničko Lake. In Salakovačko Lake
Salakovačko Lake
these effects are in progress, although less visible, while in Grabovičko Lake it is not yet clearly visible. Salmonids[edit]

Softmouth trout

Marble trout

Dentex trout

Salmonid
Salmonid
fish from the Neretva
Neretva
basin show considerable variation in morphology, ecology and behaviour.[32][33] Among most endangered are three endemic species of trout: Neretvan softmouth trout ( Salmothymus obtusirostris
Salmothymus obtusirostris
oxyrhinchus Steind.),[34] Toothtrout (Salmo dentex)[35] and marble trout ((Salmo marmoratus Cuv.).[36] All three endemic trout species of the Neretva
Neretva
are endangered, mostly due to the habitat destruction or construction of large/major dams ("large" is higher than 15–20 m; "major" is over 150–250 m).[1] Other problems include hybridization or genetic pollution with introduced, non-native trouts, illegal fishing and poor water and fisheries management.[37][38] Cyprinids[edit] The most endangered cyprinids (family Cyprinidae) are endemic. Especially interesting are five Phoxinellus
Phoxinellus
(sub)species that inhabit isolated karstic plains (fields) of eastern as well as western Herzegovina
Herzegovina
in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which eventually reach the Neretva
Neretva
watershed and/or coastal drainages of south-eastern Dalmatia.

Karst
Karst
minnow ( Phoxinellus
Phoxinellus
metohiensis) is considered Vulnerable (VU). South Dalmatian minnow ( Phoxinellus
Phoxinellus
pstrossii) is threatened, but was marked Data Deficient
Data Deficient
(DD) and was not designated on IUCN Red List
Red List
of Threatened
Threatened
Species Version 2009.1. Dalmatian minnow ( Phoxinellus
Phoxinellus
ghetaldii) is considered vulnerable. Adriatic
Adriatic
minnow ( Phoxinellus
Phoxinellus
alepidotus) is endemic to Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Croatia
Croatia
and occurs in lowland water bodies with little current. It is threatened due to pollution and habitat destruction.[39] It is considered endangered. Spotted minnow ( Phoxinellus
Phoxinellus
adspersus), is endemic in the Tihaljina River, which is fed by underground waters from Imotsko field and is connected to the Trebižat River
Trebižat River
via the Mlada River. It also occurs in Mostarsko Blato wetlands. Fish
Fish
were found in the source of the Norin River, a right-hand tributary of the lower Neretva
Neretva
at Metković, in Croatia, at Kuti Lake, a left-hand tributary of the lower Neretva, at Imotsko field in Crveno Lake and the Vrljika River drainage and near Vrgorac
Vrgorac
in the Matica River system.[40] It is considered vulnerable. Minnow nase (Chondrostoma phoxinus) is considered Critically Endangered
Endangered
(CR) Neretvan nase
Neretvan nase
(also Dalmatian nase and Dalmatian soiffe) (Chondrostoma knerii)[41] is endemic to the Neretva. Neretvan nase
Neretvan nase
is mainly distributed in the lower parts and delta, the Krupa River, Nature Park Hutovo Blato
Hutovo Blato
wetlands and Neretva Delta
Neretva Delta
wetlands. It occurs in water bodies with little current. It is threatened by habitat destruction and pollution.[42] It is considered Vulnerable (VU). Adriatic
Adriatic
dace also Balkan dace ( Squalius svallize
Squalius svallize
also Leuciscus svallize Heckel & Kner 1858)[43] is a vulnerable endemic, although also found in Montenegro
Montenegro
and Albania. Adults inhabit water bodies on the low plains, with little current and in lakes. They feed on invertebrates. It is threatened due to pollution, habitat destruction and due to introduction of other species. Illyrian dace ( Squalius illyricus
Squalius illyricus
also Leuciscus illyricus
Leuciscus illyricus
Heckel & Kner 1858)[44] inhabits karstic waters of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia
Croatia
and Albania. It occurs in water courses on low plains, with little current. It feeds on invertebrates. It is stressed by habitat destruction, pollution and introduced species. It is considered Near Threatened
Threatened
(NT). Turskyi dace ( Leuciscus turskyi
Leuciscus turskyi
also Squalius turskyi turskyi and Telestes turskyi)[45] inhabits karstic waters, lake Buško Blato
Buško Blato
and the Krka and Čikola
Čikola
Rivers. It occurs on the low plains, with little current and in lakes. It feeds on invertebrates. Threats include water abstraction and pollution. It is considered Critically Endangered (CR). Dalmatian barbelgudgeon
Dalmatian barbelgudgeon
(Aulopyge hugeli)[46] inhabits karstic streams of Glamocko field, Livanjsko field
Livanjsko field
and Duvanjsko field, lakes Buško Blato, Blidinje
Blidinje
and Cetina, Krka and Zrmanja
Zrmanja
river drainages. It occurs in lentic waters and feeds on plants. The fish is threatened by water pollution and habitat destruction and is considered endangered. It is migratory in Livanjsko field.

Cobitidae[edit] The Neretvan spined loach ( Cobitis narentana
Cobitis narentana
Karaman, 1928) is an Adriatic
Adriatic
watershed endemic that inhabits a narrow area of the Neretva watershed in Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
[47] In Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
it inhabits only the lower Neretva
Neretva
and its smaller tributaries like the Matica River. In Croatia
Croatia
it is a strictly protected species and inhabits only the Neretva
Neretva
delta and its smaller tributaries, the (Norin) and lake systems of the Neretva
Neretva
delta (Baćina lakes, Kuti, Desne, Modro oko).[47] It is considered Vulnerable (VU). Neretva
Neretva
delta endemics[edit] The Neretva
Neretva
delta hosts more than 20 endemic species, of which 18 are endemic to the Adriatic
Adriatic
watershed, along with three endemic species in Croatia. Nearly half (45%) of the total number of species that inhabit this area are included in one of the categories of threat and are mainly endemic.[30] Cultural and Historical significance[edit]

Old stone pedestrian bridge in Konjic.

Early history[edit] During antiquity, the Neretva
Neretva
was known as Narenta, Narona
Narona
and Naro(n),[48][49][50] and was the inland[51] home to the ancient Illyrian tribe of Ardiaei. They became ship builders, seafarers and fishermen. Archaeological discoveries of Illyrian culture dealt both with daily and religious life such as the discovery of ancient Illyrian shipwrecks found in Hutovo Blato, in the vicinity of the Neretva
Neretva
River.[52] After intense excavations in the area of Hutovo Blato
Hutovo Blato
in the autumn of 2008, archaeologists from Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
University of Mostar and Sweden
Sweden
University of Lund
University of Lund
found traces of an Illyrian trading post that was more than two thousand years old. The find is unique in a European perspective and archaeologists have concluded that Desilo, as the location is called, was an important trading post of great significance for contact between the Illyrians
Illyrians
and the Romans. Archaeological finds include the ruins of a settlement, the remains of a harbour that probably functioned as a trading post, as well as many sunken boats, fully laden with wine pitchers – so-called amphorae – from the 1st century BC.[53] Archaeologist
Archaeologist
Adam Lindhagen claimed that it was the most important Illyrian ruin.[54][55] Roman period[edit] One of the most significant monuments of Roman times in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
is Mogorjelo. Located 1 kilometer south of the town of Čapljina, Mogorjelo
Mogorjelo
remnants of the old Roman suburban Villa Rustica from the 4th century represents ancient Roman agricultural production and estate, mills, bakeries, olive oil refinery and forges.[56] The Villa was destroyed in the middle of the 4th century, during the invasion of western Goths. Surviving residents did not restore it to its original splendor. The name of Mogorjelo
Mogorjelo
is thought to be derived either from the Slavic word for "burn" (Slavic – goriti) or that at the end of the 5th century the church was built on the ruins of the Villa, and was dedicated to St. Hermagor – Mogoru.[57] Middle Ages[edit] In the Early Middle Ages, the South Slavic Narentines
Narentines
held the region. They were known for piracy and resisted Christianization
Christianization
until they were defeated by the Venetians, and then the Byzantines, at the turn of the 10th and 11th centuries.[citation needed] Gabela
Gabela
is a rich archaeological site on the Neretva
Neretva
bank, situated 5 km (3 miles) south of Čapljina. Along with notable medieval buildings, remains of Old City walls, and a sculpture of a stone lion – a symbol of Venetian culture survived. For its remarkable geostrategic position, Gabela
Gabela
was linked to Homer's most famous work – the Iliad.[citation needed] Ottoman period[edit]

Stari Most
Stari Most
(Old Bridge), 16th century, Mostar

The Old Bridge was commissioned by Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
in 1557 to replace an older wooden suspension bridge. Construction began in 1557 and took nine years: according to the inscription the bridge was completed in 974 AH, corresponding to the period between 19 July 1566 and 7 July 1567. Memories and legends and the name of the builder, Mimar Hayruddin (student of the Old/Great Sinan ( Mimar Sinan
Mimar Sinan
/ Koca Sinan), the Ottoman architect) were preserved in writing. Charged under pain of death to construct a bridge of such unprecedented dimensions, the architect reportedly prepared for his own funeral on the day the scaffolding was finally removed from the completed structure. Upon its completion it was the widest man-made arch in the world. Associated technical issues remain obscure: how the scaffolding was erected, how the stone was transported from one bank to the other, and how the scaffolding was maintained during construction. On 9 November 1993, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
it was destroyed by Croatian HVO by sustained artillery shelling, in an attempt to erase any sign of Ottoman architecture in Bosnia.[58] After the war, immediate plans were raised to reconstruct the bridge as a symbol of peace and ethnic harmony, literally bridging the two sides of the conflict. They attempted to reuse as much original material as possible. Salvage operations, funded by the international community, raised the stones and the remains of the bridge from the river bed. Missing elements or parts that were not usable were cut from the original quarry. Now listed as a World Heritage Site, the bridge was rebuilt under the aegis of UNESCO. Its 1,088 stones were shaped according to the original techniques, at a cost of about €12 million. The grand opening was held on 23 July 2004.[citation needed]

Fortified Počitelj
Počitelj
looking downstream the Neretva

It is traditional for the town's young men to leap from the 24 metres (79 ft) bridge into the Neretva. The practice dates back to 1566, the time the bridge was built, and an event was held every summer in front of population. The first recorded instance of someone diving off the bridge is from 1664. In 1968 a formal diving competition was inaugurated and held every summer.[59] Počitelj
Počitelj
is situated on a hill near Mostar
Mostar
and is easily accessible by bus. As with many other Bosnian sites, this town is Ottoman in design. It is a historic fortified town with a hostel (caravanserai) and a hamam beneath. A traditional mosque is there. During the Bosnian War Počitelj
Počitelj
was badly damaged and most of its residents fled and never returned[60] World War II: Battle of the Neretva[edit]

Famous bridge, focal point of the Battle of Neretva

The famous Battle of Neretva
Neretva
is a 1969 Oscar-nominated motion picture depicting events from the Second World War
Second World War
and the actual Battle of the Neretva.[61] Codenamed Fall Weiß, the operation was a German plan for a combined attack launched in early 1943 against Yugoslav Partisans throughout occupied Yugoslavia. The offensive took place between January and April 1943. The operation used to be known, in socialist Yugoslav times, as the Fourth Enemy Offensive, or as the Battle for the Wounded. At one point during the battle, the Partisans were caught in a pocket with their back to the Neretva
Neretva
River. Near Jablanica, 20,000 Partisans under command of Marshal Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
struggled to save some 4500 wounded comrades and typhus patients together with the Supreme Headquarters and Main Hospital, against some 150,000 Axis combatants.[62] Gallery[edit]

Picture taken from train between Jablanica and Mostar

View from the Old Bridge in Mostar

Neretva
Neretva
River in seen from Tito's Bridge in Mostar

The mouth of the Neretva
Neretva
river and Adriatic
Adriatic
sea

See also[edit]

Vrelo Bosne Vrelo Bune Bunica Vrelo Bunice Trebišnjica List of national parks of BiH Environmental impacts of reservoirs Environment and electricity generation Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f "Methodology and Technical Notes". IUCN - Watersheds of the World. Archived from the original on 4 July 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2009. A large dam is defined by the industry as one higher than 15 metres high and a major dam as higher than 150.5 metres  ^ a b "Transboundary management of the lower Neretva
Neretva
valley". Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. March 14, 2002. Retrieved 2012-04-06.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ a b c d "UNDP H2O Knowledge Fair - Bosnia and Herzegovina". UNDP H2O Knowledge Fair. Archived from the original on 21 November 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2009. There are about 30 water reservoirs in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
primarily on the Neretva
Neretva
and Trebisnjica basin, ...  ^ a b c "Living Neretva". WWF - World Wide Fund. Retrieved 2009-03-18.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "Geoheritage of the Balkan Peninsula" (PDF). The Geological Survey of Sweden
Sweden
(SGU). Retrieved 2009-03-18.  External link in publisher= (help)[permanent dead link] ^ "Database of researchers and research institutions in BiH - Project of identification and characterisation of autochthonous human, animal and plant resource of the Neretva
Neretva
- Resume". Database of researchers and research institutions in B&H. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2009.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ http://www.metkovic.hr/povijest/default.asp?izb=neretva.asp ^ " Neretva
Neretva
River Sub-basin". INWEB Internationally Shared Surface Water Bodies in the Balkan Region. Retrieved 2009-03-19.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ Ostroški, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2015). Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015 [Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia
Croatia
2015] (PDF). Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia (in Croatian and English). 47. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. p. 49. ISSN 1333-3305. Retrieved 27 December 2015.  ^ "Daily hydrological report". State Hydrometeorological Bureau of the Republic of Croatia. Retrieved 2010-09-09.  ^ "Hydrological characteristics of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Adriatic watershed". Hydro-meteorological institute of Federation of B&H. Archived from the original on 23 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "Water Quality Protection Project - Environmental Assessment". World Bank. Retrieved 2009-06-18.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ BHTourism - Rakitnica ^ a b "Our view of the Hydroelectrical Power Station System "Upper Neretva"" (PDF). ZELENI-NERETVA Konjic
Konjic
NGO For Preservation Of The Neretva
Neretva
River And Environment Protection. Retrieved 2009-06-22.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "Dams–Impact of dams". Science Encyclopedia, vol.2.  ^ "ZELENI-NERETVA Konjic
Konjic
NGO For Preservation Of The Neretva
Neretva
River And Environment Protection". Retrieved 2009-03-10.  ^ a b "Water power: the upper Neretva
Neretva
River, Bosnia-Herzegovina". WWF - World Wide Fund. Retrieved 2009-03-10. [dead link] ^ "Fondacija Heinrich Böll". Retrieved 2009-03-24.  ^ "REC - The Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe". Retrieved 2009-03-24.  ^ "Declaration For The Protection Of The Neretva
Neretva
River". ZELENI-NERETVA Konjic
Konjic
NGO For Preservation Of The Neretva
Neretva
River And Environment Protection. Retrieved 2009-06-22.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ Silenced Rivers: The Ecology
Ecology
and Politics of Large Dams, by Patrick McCully, Zed Books, London, 1996 ^ "Arguments Pro&Contra - Why Are We Contra The Hydroelectrical Power Station System "Upper Neretva"". ZELENI-NERETVA Konjic
Konjic
NGO For Preservation Of The Neretva
Neretva
River And Environment Protection. Retrieved 2009-06-22.  ^ a b c " Neretva
Neretva
Delta". Transboundary Cooperation Through the Management of Shared Natural Resources. Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC). Archived from the original on 14 June 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2012.  ^ Hutovo Blato
Hutovo Blato
Nature Park Archived 18 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Hutovo Blato
Hutovo Blato
Nature Park — Network of Adriatic
Adriatic
Parks". Network of Adriatic
Adriatic
Parks. Archived from the original on 2 March 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2009.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "Gornje-Deransko Blato - Hutovo Blato
Hutovo Blato
- NAP - Network of Adriatic Parks". NAP - Network of Adriatic
Adriatic
Parks. Retrieved 2009-03-19.  External link in publisher= (help)[permanent dead link] ^ "Krupa river & Hutovo Blato
Hutovo Blato
- NAP - Network of Adriatic
Adriatic
Parks". NAP - Network of Adriatic
Adriatic
Parks. Retrieved 2009-03-19.  External link in publisher= (help)[permanent dead link] ^ a b "Nature in Neretva
Neretva
Delta". www.neretva.info Neretva
Neretva
Delta. Archived from the original on 2010-08-01. Retrieved 2009-03-13.  ^ Smith, Kevin G.; Darwall, William R. T. (2006). The Status and Distribution of Freshwater
Freshwater
Fish
Fish
Endemic to the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Basin. IUCN. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-2-8317-0908-6.  ^ a b Skaramuca Boško; Dulčić Jakov (14 December 2007). Endangered and endemic species of fish in the basins of the Neretva
Neretva
river, Trebišnjica
Trebišnjica
and Morača. Dubrovnik: Sveučilište u Dubrovniku; EastWest Institute. pp. 43–46. ISBN 978-953-7153-18-2.  ^ "Sander lucioperca". Fishbase. Retrieved 2009-07-16.  ^ " Marble trout
Marble trout
(Salmo marmoratus)". Balkan Trout
Trout
Restoration Group. Retrieved 2009-03-10.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ S. MUHAMEDAGIĆ; H. M. GJOEN; M. VEGRA (2008). "Salmonids of the Neretva
Neretva
river basin - p" (pdf). EIFAC FAO Fisheries
Fisheries
and Aqauculture Report No. 871. European Inland Fisheries
Fisheries
Advisory Commission (EIFAC): 224–233. Retrieved 6 January 2014.  ^ "Salmo obtusirostris". Balkan Trout
Trout
Restoration Group. Retrieved 2009-03-10.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "Salmo dentex". Balkan Trout
Trout
Restoration Group. Retrieved 2009-03-10.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "Salmo marmoratus". Balkan Trout
Trout
Restoration Group. Retrieved 2009-03-10.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ Freyhof, J.; Kottelat, M. (2008). "Salmo dentex". 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened
Threatened
Species. Retrieved 2007-08-05.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ Crivelli, A.J. (2006). "Salmo marmoratus". 2006 IUCN Red List
Red List
of Threatened
Threatened
Species. Retrieved 2007-08-05.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ " Adriatic
Adriatic
minnow ( Phoxinellus
Phoxinellus
alepidotus)". Fishbase. Retrieved 2009-07-16.  ^ "Spotted minnow ( Phoxinellus
Phoxinellus
adspersus)". Fishbase. Retrieved 2009-07-16.  ^ "Neretvan Nase (Chondrostoma knerii)". Fishbase. Retrieved 2009-07-16.  ^ Crivelli, A.J. (2006). "Chondrostoma knerii". 2006 IUCN Red List
Red List
of Threatened
Threatened
Species. Retrieved 2009-07-16.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "( Squalius svallize
Squalius svallize
also Leuciscus svallize)". Fishbase. Retrieved 2009-07-16.  ^ "Ilirski klijen (Squalius illyricus)". Fishbase. Retrieved 2009-07-16.  ^ "Turkish chub (Leuciscus turskyi)". Fishbase. Retrieved 2009-07-16.  ^ "Dalmatian Barbelgudgeon (Aulopyge hugeli)". Fishbase. Retrieved 2009-07-16.  ^ a b Mrakovčić 2006. ^ Archeological Museum of Narona[permanent dead link] ^ The Ancient City of Narona
Narona
Archived 22 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Neven Kazazovic, Tajne Neretve ^ Appian and Illyricum by Marjeta Šašel Kos," The Ardiaei were certainly also settled in the hinterland, along the Naro River at least as far as the Konjic
Konjic
region," ^ Illyria Archived 4 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Bosnian archaeologists discover fabled ships". iol.co.za. Retrieved 2009-03-17.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "The world's first Illyrian trading post found". Apollon - University of Oslo. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2009.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "Unique Archaeological Discovery In Balkan: World's First Illyrian Trading Post Found". Science Daily. Retrieved 2009-03-17.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ Mogorjelo
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Archived 11 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "ICTY: Prlić et al. (IT-04-74)". Archived from the original on 2 August 2009.  ^ Diving Club Mostar
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Archived 23 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Neretva
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on IMDb ^ Operation WEISS - The Battle of Neretva

External links[edit]

The Dinaric Arc Sustainable Hydropower Initiative WWF - Neretva
Neretva
& Trebisnjica WWF - Living Neretva
Neretva
Project IUCN & WWF project - Environment for People in the Dinaric Arc Balkan Rivers
Rivers
– The Blue Heart of Europe WWF - Parks Dinarides Rafting on the Neretva

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Neretva.

Coordinates: 43°28′37″N 17°48′54″E / 43.47694°N 17.81500°E / 43.47694; 17.81500

v t e

Neretva

Countries

Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia

Places

Ulog Glavatičevo Konjic Čelebići Ostrožac Jablanica Mostar Počitelj Čapljina Gabela Metković Opuzen Ploče

Tributaries

Left

Jezernica Živanjski Potok Ladjanica Župski Krupac Bukovica Šištica Konjička Bijela Idbar Glogošnica Mostarska Bijela Buna Bregava Krupa

Right

Gornji Krupac Tatinac Donji Krupac Ljuta-Dindolka Bjelimićka Rijeka Slatinica Račica Rakitnica Ljuta Trešanica Neretvica Rama Doljanka Grabovica Drežanka Radobolja Jasenica Trebižat

Lakes

Natural lakes

Uloško Boračko Blatačko Deransko Svitavsko Kuti

Artificial reservoirs

Jablaničko Ramsko Grabovičko Salakovačko Mostarsko Vrutak

Related articles

Trebišnjica Stari Most Vrelo Bune Battle of Neretva Hutovo Blato Jablanica Dam Rama Dam Bunica Neretva
Neretva
Delta Upper Neretva

v t e

Hydrography of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Rivers

Danube/Black Sea watershed

Bila Bioštica Bistrica (Drina) Bliha Bobovica Bosanka Bosna Brka Crkvenica Crna rijeka Crna rijeka Crna rijeka Cvrcka Čudnić Ćehotina Ćorkovac Dabar Demićka Devetero vrela Drina Drinjača Duboka Fojnica Glina Glinica Gomjenica Gostović Grabovička rijeka Ilomska Jadar Jakotina Janj Japra Jezerka Klokot Korana Kreševka Krivaja Krka Kruševica Krušnica Lašva Lepenica Lim Miljacka Mala Ilomska Misoča Piva Pliva Prača Rakitnica
Rakitnica
(Prača) Ribnik Rzav Sava Sana Sanica Spreča Stavnja Stupčanica Sutjeska Tara Ugar Ukrina Una Unac Usora Uvac Vrbanja Vrbas Zdena Zujevina Željeznica Žepa

Adriatic watershed

Bistrica (Livanjsko Polje) Bregava Buna Bunica Doljanka Drežanka Krupa Lištica Mostarska Bijela Neretva Neretvica Pljačkovac Radobolja Rakitnica Rama Sturba Šuica Trebišnjica Trebižat Zalomka

Lakes

Mountain Lakes (natural/glacial)

Bijelo Bijelo Blatačko Blidinje Boračko Busija Crno Crvenjak Donje Bare Glamočko Gornje Bare Gvozno Hrast Idovačko Jugovo Kladopoljsko Kotlaničko Kukavičko Orlovačko Platno Prokoško Rastičevsko Šatorsko Štirinsko Turjača Uloško / Crvanjsko Velež Veliko

Ponds (natural & artificial)

Aligovac Balkana Bara Bardača Bašigovaćko Bistarac Breštica Bukvensko Busača Bužimsko Deransko Drenova Drijen Vrelo Gubinsko Hazna Humci Ispod Pržića Malo Lake Ispod Pržića Veliko Lake Jelim Jelovac Kalemovo Krenica Kvrkulja Laminci Malo Malo Plivsko Mezgraja Mijino Orah Orlovo Oličko Opačićko Panonsko Pasje Paučko Pelagićevo Pijavičko Popovača Prekajsko Radovan Ramičko Sniježnica Starača Šićki Brod Škrka Smreka Veliko Plivsko Vidara Vijenac Zanasovići Ždrimačko Župica

Artificial reservoirs

Bilećko Bočac Buško Blato Grabovičko Grahovčići Grajseljići Jablaničko Klinje Lipsko Mali Lug Mandek Modračko Mostarsko Nuga Peručaćko Ramsko Salakovačko Trebinjsko Tribistovo Veliki Lug Višegradsko Vrtliško Zvorničko Župica

Valleys & canyons

Bioštica Bistrica (Drina) Bregava Doljanka Drežnica Drina Drinjača Krivaja Lim Miljacka Misoča Mostarska Bijela Neretva Neretvica Piva Prača Rakitnica Sana Stupčanica Sutjeska Sutjeska Tara Tara River Canyon Ugar Una Unac
Unac
River Upper Neretva Vrbas Željeznica Žepa

Wetlands

Bardača Hutovo Blato Sava
Sava
marshes

Waterfalls

Bliha Bobaš Dušćica falls Ilomska falls Kočuša Kozica Kravica Marina Pećina falls Una falls Pliva Skakavac 1 Skakavac 2 Skakavac 3 Štrbački buk Ugar falls Vrbanja falls Ždrimački slap

v t e

Hydrography of Croatia

Rivers

Bednja Boljunčica Bosut Cetina Česma Danube Dobra Drava Gacka Glina Glogovnica Ilova Jadro Karašica Karašica Korana Krapina Krka Kupa Kupčina Lika Lonja Mirna Mrežnica Mura Neretva Odra Ombla Orljava Pakra Plitvica Raša Rječina Sava Slunjčica Spačva Studva Sunja Sutla Trnava Una Vuka Zrmanja

Lakes

Vrana (Dalmatia) Dubrava Peruća Prokljan Varaždin Vrana (Cres) Krušćica Plitvice Baćina Trakošćan

Valleys, estuaries, canyons, wetlands

Lim Paklenica Kopački Rit Lonjsko Polje

Waterfalls

Galovački buk Skradinski buk Roški slap Štrbački buk Large waterfall (Plitvice)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 247185

.