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NEXT (later NEXT COMPUTER and NEXT SOFTWARE) was an American computer and software company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer
Computer
co-founder Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
, based in Redwood City, California
California
, that developed and manufactured a series of computer workstations intended for the higher education and business markets. NeXT
NeXT
was founded by Jobs after he was ousted at Apple, along with several co-workers. NeXT
NeXT
introduced the first NeXT Computer in 1988, and the smaller NeXTstation
NeXTstation
in 1990. The NeXT
NeXT
computers experienced relatively limited sales, with estimates of about 50,000 units shipped in total. Nevertheless, their innovative object-oriented NeXTSTEP operating system and development environment were highly influential.

NeXT
NeXT
later released much of the NeXTSTEP system as a programming environment standard called OpenStep . NeXT
NeXT
withdrew from the hardware business in 1993 to concentrate on marketing OPENSTEP for Mach , its own OpenStep implementation, for several OEMs . NeXT
NeXT
also developed WebObjects , one of the first enterprise Web application frameworks . WebObjects never became very popular because of its initial high price of $50,000, but it remains a prominent early example of a Web server based on dynamic page generation rather than on static content .

Apple purchased NeXT
NeXT
in 1997 for $429 million (equivalent to $640 million in 2016), and 1.5 million shares of Apple stock. As part of the agreement, Steve Jobs, Chairman
Chairman
and CEO of NeXT
NeXT
Software, returned to Apple, the company he co-founded in 1976. The founder promised to merge software from NeXT
NeXT
with Apple's hardware platforms, eventually resulting in macOS , iOS , watchOS and tvOS . Parts of these operating systems incorporated the OPENSTEP foundation.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Background * 1.2 Original NeXT
NeXT
team

* 1.3 1987–93: NeXT Computer

* 1.3.1 First generation * 1.3.2 Second generation * 1.3.3 Software
Software
applications

* 1.4 1993–96: NeXT
NeXT
Software
Software
* 1.5 1996–97: Apple merger

* 2 Corporate culture and community * 3 Influence on the computer industry * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

BACKGROUND

In 1985, Apple co-founder Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
led Apple's SuperMicro division, which was responsible for the development of the Macintosh
Macintosh
and Lisa personal computers. The Macintosh
Macintosh
had been successful on university campuses partly because of the Apple University Consortium , which allowed students and institutions to buy the computers at a discount. The consortium had earned more than $50 million on computers by February 1984.

While chairman, Jobs visited university departments and faculty members to sell Macintosh. Jobs met Paul Berg , a Nobel Laureate in chemistry, at a luncheon held in Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
to honor François Mitterrand , then President of France
President of France
. Berg was frustrated by the expense of teaching students about recombinant DNA from textbooks instead of in wet laboratories , used for the testing and analysis of chemicals, drugs, and other materials or biological matter. Wet labs were prohibitively expensive for lower-level courses and were too complex to be simulated on personal computers of the time. Berg suggested to Jobs to use his influence at Apple to create a "3M computer " workstation for higher education, featuring more than one megabyte of random-access memory (RAM), a megapixel display and megaFLOP performance, hence the name "3M".

Jobs was intrigued by Berg's concept of a workstation and contemplated starting a higher education computer company in the fall of 1985, amidst increasing turmoil at Apple. Jobs' division did not release upgraded versions of the Macintosh
Macintosh
and most of the Macintosh Office . As a result, sales plummeted, and Apple was forced to write off millions of dollars in unsold inventory. Apple's chief executive officer (CEO) John Sculley
John Sculley
ousted Jobs from his day-to-day role at Apple, replacing him with Jean-Louis Gassée in 1985. Later that year, Jobs began a power struggle to regain control of the company. The board of directors sided with Sculley while Jobs took a business visit to Western Europe
Western Europe
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
on behalf of Apple.

ORIGINAL NEXT TEAM

After several months of being sidelined, Jobs resigned from Apple on September 13, 1985. He told the board he was leaving to set up a new computer company, and that he would be taking several Apple employees from the SuperMicro division with him. He also told the board that his new company would not compete with Apple and might even consider licensing its designs back to them to market under the Macintosh brand.

Jobs named his new company Next, Inc. A number of former Apple employees followed him to Next, including Joanna Hoffman , Bud Tribble , George Crow , Rich Page , Susan Barnes , Susan Kare , and Dan'l Lewin. After consulting with major educational buyers from around the country, including a follow-up meeting with Paul Berg, a tentative specification for the workstation was drawn up. It was designed to be powerful enough to run wet lab simulations and cheap enough for college students to use in their dormitory rooms. Before the specifications were finished, however, Apple sued Next for "nefarious schemes" to take advantage of the cofounders' insider information . Jobs remarked, "It is hard to think that a $2 billion company with 4,300-plus people couldn't compete with six people in blue jeans." The suit was eventually dismissed before trial.

In 1986, Jobs recruited the famous graphic designer Paul Rand
Paul Rand
to create a brand identity costing $100,000. Rand created a 20-page brochure detailing the brand, including the precise angle used for the logo (28°) and a new company name, NeXT. The first major outside investment was from Ross Perot
Ross Perot
, who invested after seeing a segment about NeXT
NeXT
on The Entrepreneurs. In 1987, he invested $20 million in exchange for 16 percent of NeXT's stock and subsequently joined the board of directors in 1988.

1987–93: NEXT COMPUTER

First Generation

This original NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee
Tim Berners-Lee
at CERN , and became the world's first Web server
Web server
and ran the world\'s first Web browser in 1990

NeXT
NeXT
changed its business plan in mid-1986. The company decided to develop both computer hardware and software, instead of just a low-end workstation. A team led by Avie Tevanian , who had joined the company after working as one of the Mach kernel engineers at Carnegie Mellon University , was to develop the NeXTSTEP operating system. The hardware division, led by Rich Page — one of the cofounders who had previously led the Apple Lisa
Apple Lisa
team — designed and developed the hardware. NeXT's first factory was completed in Fremont, California
California
in 1987. It was capable of producing 150,000 machines per year. NeXT's first workstation was officially named the NeXT Computer , although it was widely termed "the cube" because of its distinctive case, a 1 ft magnesium cube, designed by Apple IIc case designer Frogdesign in accordance with an edict from Jobs.

The original design team had anticipated releasing the computer for US$ 3,000 in spring of 1987 to be ready for sale by summer of that year. The NeXT Computer received standing ovations when revealed at a lavish, invitation-only gala event, " NeXT Introduction — the Introduction to the NeXT
NeXT
Generation of Computers for Education" at the Louise M. Davies Symphony Hall , San Francisco
San Francisco
, California
California
on Wednesday October 12, 1988. The following day, selected educators and software developers were invited (for $100 registration fee) to attend the first public technical overview of the NeXT
NeXT
computer at an event called "The NeXT
NeXT
Day" held at the San Francisco
San Francisco
Hilton. This event gave developers interested in developing NeXT
NeXT
software an insight into the software architecture, object-oriented programming and developing for the NeXT
NeXT
Computer. The luncheon speaker was Steve Jobs.

The first machines were tested in 1989, after which NeXT
NeXT
started selling limited numbers to universities with a beta version of the NeXTSTEP operating system installed. Initially the NeXT Computer was targeted at U.S. higher education establishments only, with a base price of $6,500. The machine was widely reviewed in magazines, generally concentrating on the hardware. When asked if he was upset that the computer's debut was delayed by several months, Jobs responded, "Late? This computer is five years ahead of its time!"

The NeXT Computer was based on the new 25 MHz Motorola 68030 central processing unit (CPU). The Motorola 88000 RISC chip was originally considered, but was not available in sufficient quantities. It included between 8 and 64 MB of random-access memory (RAM), a 256 MB magneto-optical (MO) drive, a 40 MB (swap -only), 330 MB, or 660 MB hard disk drive , 10BASE2 Ethernet
Ethernet
, NuBus and a 17-inch MegaPixel grayscale display measuring 1120 by 832 pixels . In 1989 a typical new PC, Macintosh
Macintosh
, or Amiga
Amiga
computer included a few megabytes of RAM, a 640×480 16-color or 320x240 4000-color display, a 10 to 20 megabyte hard drive and few networking capabilities. It also was the first computer to ship with a general-purpose DSP chip (Motorola 56001) on the motherboard. This was used to support sophisticated music and sound processing, including the Music Kit software.

The magneto-optical drive manufactured by Canon Inc.
Canon Inc.
was used as the primary mass storage device. These drives were relatively new to the market, and the NeXT
NeXT
was the first computer to use them. They were cheaper than hard drives (blank media especially so: though each had a cost of $150 to Canon, Jobs's typically forthright negotiations saw Canon agree to a retail of only $50 apiece) but slower (with an average seek time of 96 ms). The design made it impossible to move files between computers without a network, since each NeXT
NeXT
Computer had only one MO drive and the disk could not be removed without shutting down the system. Storage options proved challenging for the first NeXT
NeXT
Computers. The magneto-optical media was relatively expensive and had performance and reliability problems despite being faster than a floppy drive. The drive was not sufficient to run as the primary medium running the NeXTSTEP operating system both in terms of speed and capacity.

In 1989, NeXT
NeXT
struck a deal for former Compaq
Compaq
reseller Businessland to sell NeXT
NeXT
computers in select markets nationwide. Selling through a retailer was a major change from NeXT's original business model of only selling directly to students and educational institutions. Businessland founder David Norman predicted that sales of the NeXT Computer
Computer
would surpass sales of Compaq
Compaq
computers after 12 months.

In 1989, Canon invested US$100 million in NeXT, giving it a 16.67 percent stake, making NeXT
NeXT
worth almost $600 million. Canon invested in NeXT
NeXT
with the condition that it would be able to use the NeXTSTEP environment with its own workstations, which would mean a greatly expanded market for the software. After NeXT
NeXT
exited the hardware business, Canon produced a line of PCs, called object.station, including models 31, 41, 50 and 52, specifically designed to run NeXTSTEP/Intel. Canon also served as NeXT's distributor in Japan.

NeXT
NeXT
computers were first released on the retail market in 1990, for $9,999. NeXT's original investor Ross Perot
Ross Perot
resigned from the board of directors in June 1991 to dedicate more time to Perot Systems
Perot Systems
, a Plano, Texas
Plano, Texas
-based systems integrator.

Second Generation

A NeXTstation
NeXTstation
with the original keyboard, mouse and the NeXT Mega Pixel
Pixel
monitor

NeXT
NeXT
released a second generation of workstations in 1990. The new range included a revised NeXT
NeXT
Computer, renamed the NeXTcube
NeXTcube
, and the NeXTstation
NeXTstation
, nicknamed "the slab," which used a "pizza box " case form-factor. Jobs was explicit in ensuring NeXT
NeXT
staff did not use the latter terminology, lest the NeXT
NeXT
machines be compared to competing Sun workstations. The magneto-optical drive was replaced with a 2.88 MB floppy drive to offer users a way to use their floppy disks. However, individual 2.88 MB floppies were expensive and the technology did not supplant the 1.44 MB floppy. Realizing this, NeXT
NeXT
utilized the CD-ROM
CD-ROM
drive, which eventually became an industry standard for storage. Color graphics were available on the NeXTstation
NeXTstation
Color and the NeXTdimension graphics processor hardware for the NeXTcube. The new computers were cheaper and faster than their predecessors, with the new Motorola 68040
Motorola 68040
processor.

In 1992, NeXT
NeXT
launched "Turbo" variants of the NeXTcube
NeXTcube
and NeXTstation
NeXTstation
with a 33 MHz 68040 processor and maximum RAM capacity increased to 128 MB. NeXT
NeXT
sold 20,000 computers in 1992 ( NeXT
NeXT
counted upgraded motherboards on back order as sales) — a small number compared with their competitors. However, the company reported sales of $140 million for the year, encouraging Canon to invest a further $30 million to keep the company afloat.

In total, 50,000 NeXT
NeXT
machines were sold, including thousands to the then super secret National Reconnaissance Office located in Chantilly, Virginia. NeXT's long-term aim was to migrate to the RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) architecture, a processor design strategy intended to increase performance. The project was known as the NeXT RISC Workstation (NRW). Initially the NRW was to be based on the Motorola 88110 processor, but due to a lack of confidence in Motorola's commitment to the 88000-series architecture, it was later redesigned around dual PowerPC
PowerPC
601s . NeXT
NeXT
produced some motherboards and enclosures, but exited the hardware business before full production.

Software
Software
Applications

NeXT
NeXT
computers were delivered with Mathematica pre-installed. Several developers used the NeXT
NeXT
platform to write pioneering programs. Tim Berners-Lee
Tim Berners-Lee
used a NeXT Computer in 1990 to create the first Web browser and Web server; accordingly, NeXT
NeXT
was instrumental in the development of the World Wide Web.

NeXT
NeXT
was an engineering computer used by professors for the most serious science challenges, and also for developing finished newspaper layouts using News running on Next. George Mason University
George Mason University
in the early 1990s had a set of them for publishing, as well as Silicon Graphics for CAD/GL and Mathematica for astrophysics. The games Doom , Doom II: Hell on Earth and Quake were developed by id Software
Software
on NeXT machines. Other games based on the Doom engine , such as Heretic and Hexen: Beyond Heretic by Raven Software
Software
, as well as Strife by Rogue Entertainment were also developed on NeXT
NeXT
hardware using id's tools.

Other commercial programs were released for NeXT
NeXT
computers, including Altsys Virtuoso, a vector drawing program with page-layout features which was ported to Mac OS and Microsoft Windows as Aldus FreeHand v4, and the Lotus Improv spreadsheet program. The systems also came with a number of smaller built-in applications, such as the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, Oxford Quotations, the complete works of William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
, and the Digital Librarian search engine to access them.

1993–96: NEXT SOFTWARE

NeXTSTEP , the operating system used by the NeXTcube
NeXTcube
and NeXTstation
NeXTstation

NeXT
NeXT
started porting the NeXTSTEP operating system to IBM
IBM
PC compatible computers using the Intel 80486
Intel 80486
processor in late 1991. The operating system was ported to Intel's architecture because of a change in NeXT's business strategy, which was then to remove themselves from the hardware business entirely. A demonstration of the port was displayed at the NeXTWorld Expo in January 1992. By mid-1993 the product was complete and version 3.1, also known as NeXTSTEP 486, was released. Prior to the release of NeXTSTEP, Chrysler
Chrysler
planned to buy 3,000 copies in 1992.

NeXTSTEP 3.x was later ported to PA-RISC and SPARC
SPARC
-based platforms, for a total of four versions: NeXTSTEP/ NeXT
NeXT
(for NeXT's 68k "black boxes"), NeXTSTEP/Intel, NeXTSTEP/ PA-RISC and NeXTSTEP/SPARC. Although these ports were not widely used, NeXTSTEP gained popularity at institutions such as First Chicago NBD , Swiss Bank Corporation
Swiss Bank Corporation
, O'Connor and Company, and other organizations owing to its programming model. It was also used by many American federal agencies, such as United States Naval Research Laboratory , the National Security Agency , the Advanced Research Projects Agency , the Central Intelligence Agency and the National Reconnaissance Office . Some IBM
IBM
PC clone vendors offered somewhat customized hardware solutions that were delivered running NeXTSTEP on Intel, such as the Elonex NextStation and the Canon object.station 41.

NeXT
NeXT
withdrew from the hardware business in 1993 and the company was renamed NeXT
NeXT
Software
Software
Inc; consequently, 300 of the 540 staff employees were laid off. NeXT
NeXT
negotiated to sell the hardware business, including the Fremont factory, to Canon. Canon later pulled out of the deal. Work on the PowerPC
PowerPC
machines was stopped, along with all hardware production. CEO of Sun Microsystems
Sun Microsystems
Scott McNealy announced plans to invest $10 million in 1993 and use NeXT
NeXT
software (OpenStep) in future Sun systems. NeXT
NeXT
partnered with Sun to create OpenStep which was NeXTSTEP without the Mach-based kernel.

After dropping the hardware business, NeXT
NeXT
returned to selling a toolkit to run on other operating systems, in effect returning to the original business plan. New products based on OpenStep were released, including OpenStep Enterprise, a version for Microsoft's Windows NT . The company also launched WebObjects , a platform for building large-scale dynamic web applications. Many large businesses including Dell
Dell
, Disney , WorldCom , and the BBC
BBC
used this WebObjects software for a short time. In the modern day, WebObjects is used almost solely to power Apple's iTunes Store and most of its corporate Web site.

1996–97: APPLE MERGER

Apple Computer
Computer
announced an intention to acquire NeXT
NeXT
on December 20, 1996. Apple paid $429 million in cash, which went to the initial investors and 1.5 million Apple shares, which went to Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
, who was deliberately not given cash for his part in the deal. The main purpose of the acquisition was to use NeXTSTEP as a foundation to replace the dated classic Mac OS , instead of BeOS
BeOS
or the in-development Copland . The deal was finalized on February 7, 1997, bringing Jobs back to Apple as a consultant, who was later appointed as interim CEO. In 2000 Jobs took the CEO position as a permanent assignment.

Several NeXT
NeXT
executives replaced their Apple counterparts when Steve Jobs restructured the company's board of directors. Over the next five years the NeXTSTEP operating system was ported to the PowerPC architecture. At the same time, an Intel port and OpenStep Enterprise toolkit for Windows were both produced. The operating system was code named Rhapsody , while the toolkit for development on all platforms was called "Yellow Box". For backwards compatibility Apple added the "Blue Box" to Rhapsody, allowing existing Mac applications to be run in a self-contained cooperative multitasking environment.

A server version of the new operating system was released as Mac OS X Server 1.0 in 1999, and the first consumer version, Mac OS X
Mac OS X
, in 2001. The OpenStep developer toolkit was renamed Cocoa . Rhapsody's Blue Box was renamed Classic Environment and changed to run applications full-screen without requiring a separate window. Apple included an updated version of the original Macintosh
Macintosh
toolbox, called Carbon , that gave existing Mac applications access to the environment without the constraints of Blue Box. Some of NeXTSTEP's interface features were used in Mac OS X, including the Dock , the Services menu , the Finder 's "browser " view, and the Cocoa text system .

NeXTSTEP's processor-independent capabilities were retained in Mac OS X, leading to both PowerPC
PowerPC
and Intel x86 versions (although only PowerPC
PowerPC
versions were publicly available before 2006). Apple moved to Intel processors by August 2006.

CORPORATE CULTURE AND COMMUNITY

Jobs created a different corporate culture at NeXT
NeXT
in terms of facilities, salaries, and benefits. Jobs had experimented with some structural changes at Apple but at NeXT
NeXT
he abandoned conventional corporate structures, instead making a "community" with "members" instead of employees. There were only two different salaries at NeXT until the early 1990s. Team members who joined before 1986 were paid $75,000 while those who joined afterwards were paid $50,000. This caused a few awkward situations where managers were paid less than their employees. Employees were given performance reviews and raises every six months because of the spartan salary plans. To foster openness, all employees had full access to the payrolls, although few employees ever took advantage of the privilege. NeXT's health insurance plan offered benefits to not only married couples but unmarried couples and same-sex couples, although the latter privilege was later withdrawn due to insurance complications. The payroll schedule was also very different from other companies in Silicon Valley at the time: instead of getting paid twice a month at the end of the pay period, employees would get paid once a month in advance.

Jobs found office space in Palo Alto, California
California
on 3475 Deer Creek Road, occupying a glass and concrete building which featured a staircase designed by architect I. M. Pei
I. M. Pei
. The first floor used hardwood flooring and large worktables where the workstations would be assembled. To avoid inventory errors, NeXT
NeXT
used the just-in-time (JIT) inventory strategy. The company contracted out for all major components such as mainboards and cases and had the finished components shipped to the first floor for assembly. The second floor was the office space with an open floor plan. The only enclosed rooms were Jobs's office and a few conference rooms.

As NeXT
NeXT
expanded, more office space was needed. The company rented an office at 800 and 900 Chesapeake Drive in Redwood City, also designed by Pei. The architectural centerpiece was a "floating" staircase with no visible supports. The open floor plan was retained, although furnishings became luxurious, with $5,000 chairs, $10,000 sofas and Ansel Adams
Ansel Adams
prints.

NeXT's first former campus in Palo Alto was subsequently occupied by SAP AG . Its second former campus in Redwood City was occupied by ApniCure and OncoMed Pharmaceuticals Inc.

The first issue of NeXTWORLD magazine was printed in 1991. It was published in San Francisco
San Francisco
by Integrated Media and edited by Michael Miley and later Dan Ruby. It was the only mainstream periodical to discuss NeXT
NeXT
computers, the operating system, and NeXT
NeXT
software. Publication was discontinued in 1994 after only four volumes. A NeXTWORLD Expo followed as a developer conference , held in 1991 and 1992 at the San Francisco
San Francisco
Civic Center and in 1993 and 1994 at the Moscone Center
Moscone Center
in San Francisco, with Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
as the keynote speaker.

INFLUENCE ON THE COMPUTER INDUSTRY

Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
pooled the finest of over-specified hardware and software (from PC standards) into NeXT
NeXT
and the company added its own innovations. NeXT
NeXT
was the machine-of-choice for well-funded Unix-friendly science departments.

Despite NeXT's limited commercial success, the company had a wide-ranging impact on the computer industry. Object-oriented programming and graphical user interfaces became more common after the 1988 release of the NeXTcube
NeXTcube
and NeXTSTEP, when other companies started to emulate NeXT's object-oriented system. Apple started the Taligent project in 1989, with the goal of building a NeXT-like operating system for the Macintosh, with collaboration from Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
and IBM
IBM
.

Microsoft announced the Cairo project in 1991; the Cairo specification included similar object-oriented user interface features for a coming consumer version of Windows NT. Although the project was ultimately abandoned, some elements were integrated into other projects. By 1994, Microsoft and NeXT
NeXT
were collaborating on a Windows NT port of OpenStep; the port, however, was never released.

WebObjects failed to achieve wide popularity partly because of the initial high price of US$50,000, but it remains the first and most prominent early example of a web application server that enabled dynamic page generation based on user interactions as opposed to static content. WebObjects is now bundled with macOS Server and Xcode .

SEE ALSO

* Companies portal * San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area portal

* NeXT character set

NOTES

* ^ A B C " NeXT
NeXT
Inc. to Drop Hardware 300 losing jobs in strategy shift". San Francisco
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Chronicle . February 9, 1993. * ^ A B C "Apple Computer, Inc. Agrees to Acquire NeXT
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Software Inc." (Press release). Apple Computer. December 20, 1996. Archived from the original on February 8, 2002. Retrieved June 13, 2008. * ^ Linzmayer, Owen W. (1999). Apple Confidential: The Real Story of Apple Computer, Inc. * ^ "Apple Computer, Inc. Finalizes Acquisition of NeXT
NeXT
Software Inc." (Press release). Apple Computer. February 7, 1997. Archived from the original on January 17, 1999. Retrieved June 13, 2008. * ^ Stross, Randall (1993). Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
and the NeXT
NeXT
Big Thing. Athenium. pp. 56, 67. ISBN 0-689-12135-0 . * ^ Morrison, Jas (February 20, 1984). "NeXT, Microsoft tackle objects: NT to gain OpenStep port". Fortune. * ^ Stross, Randall (1993). Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
and the NeXT
NeXT
Big Thing. Athenium. p. 72. ISBN 0-689-12135-0 . * ^ Shannon, Victoria (May 22, 2006). "Apple losing its polish in Franc". International Herald Tribune . p. 11. Archived from the original on June 2, 2006. * ^ Fuerst, Irene (March 15, 1985). "Apple's new Mac push; can Apple Computer
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succeed in wooing big companies with its Macintosh Office?". Datamation. p. 42. * ^ Rose, Frank (1990). West of Eden. Viking. p. 193. ISBN 0-670-81278-1 . * ^ Rose 1990, p. 227 * ^ Rose 1990, p. 291 * ^ Young, Jeffrey S.; Simon, William L. (2005). iCon: Steve Jobs. John Wiley & Sons. p. 118. ISBN 0-471-72083-6 . * ^ Spector, G (September 24, 1985). "Apple's Jobs Starts New Firm, Targets Education Market". PC Week . p. 109. * ^ Deutschman, Alan (2000). Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Broadway Books. p. 64. ISBN 0-7679-0432-X . * ^ Stross, Randall (1993). Steve Jobs
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and the NeXT
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Big Thing. Athenium. p. 75. ISBN 0-689-12135-0 . * ^ Stross 1993, p. 75 * ^ Deutschman, p. 44 * ^ A B C Stross, Randall (1993). Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
and the NeXT
NeXT
Big Thing. Athenium. ISBN 0-689-12135-0 . * ^ A B Heller, Steven; Helfand, Jessica; Lois, George (2000). Paul Rand. Phaidon Press. p. 256. ISBN 0-7148-3994-9 . * ^ Video on YouTube
YouTube
* ^ Young, Jeffrey S.; Simon, William L. (2005). iCon: Steve Jobs. John Wiley & Sons. p. 134. ISBN 0-471-72083-6 . * ^ A B Thompson, Tom; Baran, Nick (November 1988). "The NeXT Computer". Byte . 13 (12): 158–175. * ^ Bonnera, Paul (February 1989). "The heart of a new machine (frogdesign for NeXT
NeXT
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Steve Jobs
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Dell
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just says no.". Fortune. General Reference Center Gold . * ^ Ford, Kevin. "Canon object.station 41". The Best of NeXT Computers. Retrieved September 18, 2011. * ^ Garfinkel, Simon L (April 1994). "Open Door Policy". NeXTWORLD.

* ^ " NeXT
NeXT
may expand two-man board". PC Week. December 9, 1991. p. 125. * ^ Young, Jeffrey S.; Simon, William L. (2005). iCon: Steve Jobs. John Wiley & Sons. p. 200. ISBN 0-471-72083-6 . * ^ " NeXT
NeXT
Fans Give Up the Ghost". Wired . December 21, 2005. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved March 3, 2011. * ^ Garfinkel, Simson L. (March 1993). "Hardware was great while it lasted". NeXTWORLD. Retrieved June 13, 2008. * ^ Lavin, Dan (March 1993). "Canon to buy NeXT
NeXT
factory, design center". NeXTWORLD. Retrieved June 13, 2008. * ^ " Mathematica — Celebrating 25 Years of Contributions, Invention, Discovery, and Education: Nov. 1987: Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
signs on to bundle Mathematica with every NeXT
NeXT
computer...". mathematica25.com. * ^ Berners-Lee, Tim. "The WorldWideWeb
WorldWideWeb
browser". World Wide Web Consortium . Retrieved June 13, 2008. * ^ Roads and Crossroads of Internet History Chapter 4: Birth of the Web * ^ "Inventing the Web". Computer
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History Museum . Retrieved August 25, 2016. The expensive but cutting-edge NeXT
NeXT
computer was famous for rapid prototyping features. These let Tim Berners-Lee
Tim Berners-Lee
create the Web in just three months, but restricted the first browser-editor to these rare machines. * ^ John Romero (December 20, 2006). "Apple- NeXT
NeXT
Merger Birthday!". Archived from the original on March 5, 2007. * ^ "Next Computer
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Close To a Deal With Chrysler". San Francisco Chronicle. September 8, 1992. * ^ Sherman, Lee (2004). "First NeXT
NeXT
RISC Workstation". NeXTWORLD. Retrieved April 14, 2008. * ^ "NeXTSTEP: NeXT
NeXT
announces new release of NeXTSTEP & NeXTSTEP Developer. ( NeXTSTEP 3.2 and NeXTSTEP Developer 3.2)". EDGE: Work-Group Computing Report. October 25, 1993. p. 40. * ^ McCarthy, Shawn P. (March 6, 1995). "Next's OS finally is maturing. (NextStep Unix operating system)". Government Computer
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Since the name ends with Inc it company type can not be private company type Inc. "Inc." is the abbreviation for incorporated. A corporation is a separate legal entity from the person or people forming it. Directors and officers purchase shares in the business and have responsibility for its operation. Incorporation limits an individual's liability in case of a lawsuit.

REFERENCES

* Deutschman, Alan (2001). The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Broadway. ISBN 0-7679-0433-8 . * Linzmayer, Owen W. (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0. No Starch Press. ISBN 1-59327-010-0 . * Malone, Michael (1999). Infinite Loop. Currency. ISBN 0-385-48684-7 . * Stross, Randall E. (1993). Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
& the NeXT
NeXT
Big Thing. Scribner. ISBN 0-689-12135-0 . * Young, Jeffrey S.; Simon, William L. (2005). iCon: Steve Jobs. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-72083-6 .

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