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The Navy Cross
Navy Cross
is the United States
United States
military's second-highest decoration awarded for valor in combat. The Navy Cross
Navy Cross
is awarded primarily to a member of the United States
United States
Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, and the U.S. Coast Guard (when operating under the Department of the Navy) for extraordinary heroism.[3] The medal is equivalent to the Army Distinguished Service Cross, the Air Force Cross, and the Coast Guard Cross. The Navy Cross
Navy Cross
is bestowed by the Secretary of the Navy and may also be awarded to members of the other armed services, and to foreign military personnel while serving with the U.S. naval services. The Navy Cross
Navy Cross
was established by Act of Congress (Public Law 65-253) and approved on February 4, 1919.

Contents

1 History 2 Criteria 3 Wear 4 Description and symbolism 5 Notable recipients

5.1 United States
United States
Navy 5.2 United States
United States
Marine Corps 5.3 United States
United States
Army 5.4 United States
United States
Coast Guard 5.5 Non-U.S. recipients

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] The Navy Cross
Navy Cross
was instituted in part due to the entrance of the United States
United States
into World War I. Many European nations had the custom of decorating heroes from other nations, but the Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
was the sole U.S. award for valor at the time.[4] The Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and Distinguished Service Medal in 1918, while the Navy followed suit in 1919, retroactive to 6 April 1917. Originally, the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
was lower in precedence than the Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, because it was awarded for both combat heroism and for "other distinguished service."[4] Congress revised this on 7 August 1942, making the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
a combat-only decoration that follows the Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
in order of precedence. Since the medal was established, it has been awarded more than 6,300 times.[4] It was designed by James Earle Fraser.[4] Since the 11 September attacks
11 September attacks
the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
has been awarded forty seven times, with two of them having the name of the recipient held in secret.[5] One of those secret awardings was due to actions during the 2012 Benghazi attack.[6] The first actual recipient of the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
is unknown because initial awards were made from a lengthy list published after World War I. Criteria[edit] The Navy Cross
Navy Cross
may be awarded to any member of the U.S. Armed Forces while serving with the Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard (when under the Department of the Navy) who distinguishes himself or herself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances:

In combat action while engaged against an enemy of the United States; or, In combat action while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, In combat action while serving with friendly foreign forces, who are engaged in armed conflict in which the United States
United States
is not a belligerent party.

The act(s) to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger, or at great personal risk, and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual's action(s) highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross. As originally authorized, the Navy Cross could be awarded for distinguished non-combat acts, but legislation of 7 August 1942 limited the award to acts of combat heroism. Wear[edit] The Navy Cross
Navy Cross
originally was the Navy's third-highest decoration, after the Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal. On 7 August 1942, Congress revised the order of precedence, placing the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
above the Distinguished Service Medal in precedence. Since that time, the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
has been worn after the Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
and before all other awards. Additional awards of the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
are denoted by gold or silver ​5⁄16 inch stars affixed to the suspension and service ribbon of the medal. A gold star would be issued for each of the second through fifth awards, to be replaced by a silver star which would indicate a sixth award. To date no one has received more than five awards. Description and symbolism[edit]

Crew members: AtM2/c Jonell Copeland ; StM Que Gant; Stm Harold Clark, Jr.; StM James Dockery; Stm Alonzo Swann; and Stm Eli Benjamin, were awarded the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
for being the only gun crew who would fire one of their aircraft carrier's anti-aircraft guns into a kamikaze dive bomber as it was diving towards the carrier's flight deck and their battle station(s) during the Battle of Leyte Gulf
Battle of Leyte Gulf
in 1944

Medal

The earliest version of the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
(1919–1928) featured a more narrow strip of white, while the so-called "Black Widow" medals awarded from 1941–1942 were notable for the dark color due to over-anodized finish. The medal is similar in appearance to the British Distinguished Service Cross.[4] Obverse: The medal is a modified cross pattée one and a half inches wide. The ends of its arms are rounded whereas a conventional cross patée has arms that are straight on the end. There are four laurel leaves with berries in each of the re-entrant arms of the cross. In the center of the cross a sailing vessel is depicted on waves, sailing to the viewer's left. The vessel is a symbolic caravel of the type used between 1480 and 1500. Fraser selected the caravel because it was a symbol often used by the Naval Academy and because it represented both naval service and the tradition of the sea. The laurel leaves with berries refer to achievement. Reverse: In the center of the medal, a bronze cross pattée, one and a half inches wide, are crossed anchors from the pre-1850 period, with cables attached. The letters USN are evident amid the anchors.

Service Ribbon

The service ribbon is navy blue with a center stripe of white identical to the suspension ribbon of the medal. The blue alludes to naval service; the white represents the purity of selflessness. Notable recipients[edit] United States
United States
Navy[edit]

James Thomas Alexander, Captain, 37th Naval Governor of Guam Adelbert Althouse, 27th and 29th Naval Governor of Guam Barry K. Atkins William B. Ault Bernard L. Austin, Vice admiral (two awards) John Arnold Austin, namesake of USS Austin (DE-15) Edward L. Beach Jr. Richard Halsey Best John "Jack" "Doc" Bradley Phil H. Bucklew (two awards) John D. Bulkeley
John D. Bulkeley
(plus MOH and 2 Army DSCs) Richard E. Byrd
Richard E. Byrd
(plus MOH) Charles P. Cecil
Charles P. Cecil
(two awards), namesake of USS Charles P. Cecil (DD-835) Gordon Pai'ea Chung-Hoon Bernard A. Clarey
Bernard A. Clarey
(three awards) George Thomas Coker Walter W. Coolbaugh, namesake of USS Coolbaugh (DE-217) William P. Cronan, 19th Naval Governor of Guam William Michael Crose, 7th Governor of American Samoa Randy "Duke" Cunningham Winfield Scott Cunningham Slade Cutter
Slade Cutter
(four awards) Roy M. Davenport
Roy M. Davenport
(5 awards, World War II) Albert David
Albert David
(two awards, plus MOH) Arthur C. Davis, Admiral (three awards) Samuel David Dealey
Samuel David Dealey
(4 awards and Army DSC and MOH) Dieter Dengler Glynn R. "Donc" Donaho (four awards) Mark L. Donald, Navy SEAL, medical officer William P. Driscoll Thomas M. Dykers, Rear admiral (two awards) and lead on the Silent Service TV series. Thomas Eadie
Thomas Eadie
Lieutenant (two awards and MOH) Joseph F. Enright William Charles Fitzgerald
William Charles Fitzgerald
namesake of USS Fitzgerald (DDG-62) Eugene B. Fluckey
Eugene B. Fluckey
(4 awards and MOH) Luis Fonseca, hospital corpsman James Shepherd Freeman Neldon Theo French namesake of USS French (DE-367) William Gilmer, 22nd and 24th Naval Governor of Guam Robert Halperin William Halsey, Jr. Robert W. Hayler (three awards), namesake of USS Hayler (DD-997) Arthur Ray Hawkins
Arthur Ray Hawkins
(three awards) Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee
Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee
(first female recipient), namesake of USS Higbee (DD-806)[7] William A. Hodgman, 23rd Naval Governor of Guam Gilbert C. Hoover, (3 awards) John Howard Hoover John Howard Draper Kauffman
Draper Kauffman
(two awards) Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Ernest J. King Thomas B. Klakring
Thomas B. Klakring
(three awards) Hugo W. Koehler Edmond Konrad (two awards) George Landenberger, 23rd Governor of American Samoa John H. Lang Gatewood Lincoln, 22nd Governor of American Samoa Elliott Loughlin
Elliott Loughlin
(two awards) Marcus Luttrell Harold John Mack David McCampbell
David McCampbell
(plus MOH) Benjamin McCandlish, Commodore, 36th Naval Governor of Guam.[8] Pete McCloskey Donald L. McFaul[9] Luke McNamee, Admiral, 10th and 12th Naval Governor of Guam, and 21st Director of the Office of Naval Intelligence.[10] Doris "Dorie" Miller (first African American recipient) Marc Mitscher
Marc Mitscher
(two awards) John Anderson Moore (three awards) Dudley W. "Mush" Morton (four awards) Edward "Butch" O'Hare (plus MOH) Richard H. "Dick" O'Kane (three awards, plus MOH) Chick Parsons (two awards) Edwin Taylor Pollock John Martin Poyer, 12th Governor of American Samoa Lawson P. Ramage
Lawson P. Ramage
(two awards plus MOH) George S. Rentz Samuel B. Roberts Dean Rockwell Maurice H. Rindskopf Tony F. Schneider
Tony F. Schneider
(two awards)[11] Benedict J. Semmes, Jr., Vice Admiral[12] Rodger W. Simpson
Rodger W. Simpson
(two awards) Raymond A. Spruance Giles C. Stedman George L. Street, III
George L. Street, III
(plus MOH) Robert J. Thomas[13] Corydon M. Wassell Ivan Wettengel, 25th Naval Governor of Guam James E. Williams, plus MOH and 2 Silver Stars Adam Williams (actor, awarded as Adam William Berg)

United States
United States
Marine Corps[edit]

Robert H. Barrow
Robert H. Barrow
(plus an Army DSC) John Basilone
John Basilone
(plus MOH)[14] Gregory "Pappy" Boyington
Gregory "Pappy" Boyington
(plus MOH) Martin Brandtner
Martin Brandtner
(two awards) Marion Eugene Carl
Marion Eugene Carl
(two awards) George R. Christmas Julius Cogswell (plus Army DSC)[15] Daniel Daly
Daniel Daly
(plus two awards MOH, and an Army DSC) Ray Davis (plus MOH) James Devereux William A. Eddy Merritt A. Edson
Merritt A. Edson
(two awards plus MOH) Raymond Frybarger, Jr. Namesake of the USS Frybarger Guy Gabaldon Herman H. Hanneken
Herman H. Hanneken
(two awards plus MOH) Myron Harrington, Jr.[16] Edward Buist Hope (plus Army DSC)[17] Henry L. Hulbert
Henry L. Hulbert
(plus MOH, and an Army DSC) Bradley Kasal Treddy Ketcham Henry Louis Larsen
Henry Louis Larsen
(two awards) Kurt Chew-Een Lee Justin LeHew William K. MacNulty Victor Maghakian William Edward Campbell March Karl Marlantes John McNulty (U.S. Marine Corps) (plus an Army DSC) Raymond Murray
Raymond Murray
(two awards plus an Army DSC) Peter J. Ortiz
Peter J. Ortiz
(two awards) Edwin A. Pollock Lewis "Chesty" Puller, US Marine Corps (5 awards and Army DSC) Paul A. Putnam Ford O. Rogers James Roosevelt Kenneth L. Reusser
Kenneth L. Reusser
(two awards) John Ripley William H. Rupertus Al Schmid Harry Schmidt Harold G. Schrier
Harold G. Schrier
(flag raiser on Iwo Jima) Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr. Robert Taplett Alexander Vandegrift
Alexander Vandegrift
(plus MOH) Lew Walt (two awards) Jim Webb George Yarborough Namesake of the USS Yarborough

United States
United States
Army[edit]

Stephen J. Chamberlin Rex T. Barber Thomas George Lanphier, Jr. John W. Mitchell John U.D. Page

United States
United States
Coast Guard[edit]

Frederick C. Billard[18][19] Elmer Fowler Stone[19][20]

Phillip F. Roach [21]

Non-U.S. recipients[edit]

Letter from Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels
Josephus Daniels
confirming that the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
was conferred on Ernesto Burzagli
Ernesto Burzagli
in 1919. Captain Burzagli was an officer in the Royal Italian Navy.

The Secretary of the Navy has only occasional opportunities to confirm that the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
has been awarded to a non-U.S. recipient. Slightly more than 100 such honors have been extended to men who were not citizens of the United States.

Gordon Bridson, New Zealand (1943)[22][23] Ernesto Burzagli, Italy (1919) Harold Farncomb, Australia (1945)[24] Donald Gilbert Kennedy
Donald Gilbert Kennedy
of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force and Coastwatcher
Coastwatcher
during the Guadalcanal Campaign
Guadalcanal Campaign
(World War II).[25] Israel Fisanovich, Soviet Union (1944), Soviet Navy
Soviet Navy
submarine commander[26] George Victor Jmaeff, Canada (1969), posthumous [27] Émile Henry Muselier, France (1919)[28] Peter Phipps, New Zealand (1943)[23][29] Ronald Niel Stuart, first Royal Navy
Royal Navy
officer to receive both the American Navy Cross
Navy Cross
and the British Victoria Cross[30] Tran Van Bay, South Vietnam (1967), posthumous Nguyen Van Kiet, South Vietnam (1972) Mikhail Vasilyevich Greshilov (ru), Soviet Union (1944), Soviet Navy submarine commander[31]

See also[edit]

United States
United States
Navy portal

Military awards and decorations

Military awards of the United States
United States
Department of the Navy

List of recipients of the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
in the Vietnam War

Notes[edit]

^ https://awards.navy.mil/awards/webdoc01.nsf/(vwDocsByID)/DL060927142728/$file/1650.1H.pdf ^ Recipients of the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
Archived 2014-04-07 at the Wayback Machine. ^ SECNAVYINST 2006, 1650.1H, P. 2--22&23 ^ a b c d e "The Navy Cross". Naval Historical Center. January 24, 2001. Retrieved August 12, 2009.  ^ Brook, Tom Vanden (5 December 2016). "Navy secretary recommends two Medals of Honor". NavyTimes. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ Scarborough, Rowen (25 January 2014). "Delta Force commando who saved 'numerous lives' in Benghazi seige honored". Washington Times. Retrieved 1 January 2017.  Brook, Tom Vanden (16 May 2016). "Navy SEALs' secret medals reveal heroism over last 15 years". NavyTimes. Retrieved 1 January 2017.  ^ "Chief Nurse Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee, U.S. Navy".  ^ "Benjamin Vaughan McCandlish". Military Times. Gannett Government Media. 2011. Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2011.  ^ "Valor awards for Donald L. McFaul
Donald L. McFaul
Military Times Hall of Valor". Militarytimes.com. 2010-07-04. Retrieved 2012-10-31.  ^ "Admiral M'Namee Dead in Newport: Former Head of Mackay Radio, Adviser at 1919 Paris Peace Parley, in Navy 42 Years". The New York Times. New York City. The New York Times
The New York Times
Company. 31 December 1952. p. 15. Retrieved 12 August 2013.  ^ University of New Mexico NROTC Sun Line Vol.IV No.1 November 1965 ^ TogetherWeServed - VADM Benedict Semmes ^ "Valor awards for Robert J. Thomas Military Times Hall of Valor". Militarytimes.com. 2010-07-04. Retrieved 2012-10-31.  ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20080616211621/http://www.history.army.mil/html/moh/wwII-a-f.html ^ Cogswell, Julius. "Military Times Valor Awards for Julius Cogswell". Military Times Valor Awards. Military Times. Retrieved 5 April 2017.  ^ Harrington, Myron. "Valor Awards for Myron Harrington". Military Times Wall of Honor. Military Times. Retrieved 5 April 2017.  ^ Hope, Edward. "Valor Awards for Edward B. Hope". Military Times Wall of Valor. Military Times. Retrieved 7 April 2017.  ^ United States
United States
Coast Guard: Rear Admiral Frederick C. Billard ^ a b Larzelere, pp 178–179 ^ United States
United States
Coast Guard: Commander Elmer Fowler Stone
Elmer Fowler Stone
biography ^ "Commodore Philip F. Roach, USCG" (PDF). United States
United States
Coast Guard. Retrieved 2014-05-06.  ^ Dictionary of New Zealand Biography: Bridson bio notes ^ a b Dear, pp 46–47 ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography: Farncomb bio notes ^ "Full Text Citations For Award of The Navy Cross". To Foreign Personnel - World War II. Retrieved 25 July 2017.  ^ Heroes of the Soviet Union (in Russian language, same data in English) ^ "Virtual Wall page and Navy Cross
Navy Cross
citation".  ^ Hallett, Frederick H. "Surcouf". The Submarine Review. Annandale, Virginia: The Naval Submarine League (Winter 2012): 72.  ^ Royal New Zealand Navy: Phipps bio notes ^ Snelling, Stephen. (2002). The Naval VCs, p. 142. ^ "M. V. G. Greshilove (sic)". Military Times. Retrieved 2014-06-08. 

References[edit]

"Navy Cross". Service Medals and Campaign Credits of the United States. United States
United States
Navy. Retrieved July 10, 2007.  Dear, Murray (April 2015). "A Weekend's Leave in Auckland". Naval History. Annapolis, Maryland: U.S. Naval Institute. 29 (2): 46–47.  access-date= requires url= (help) Larzelere, Alex (2003). The Coast Guard in World War I: An Untold Story. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland. ISBN 978-1-55750-476-0. 

Further reading[edit]

SECNAVINST 1650.1H 2006 2–22 Page 57

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Navy Cross.

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Navy Cross
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United States
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