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NATURAL LAW ( Latin
Latin
: _ius naturale_, _lex naturalis_) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature endowed by nature ; traditionally God
God
or a transcendent source, and can be understood universally through human reason . As determined by nature, the LAW OF NATURE is implied to be universal, existing independently of the positive law of a given political order , society or nation-state .

Historically, natural law refers to the use of reason to analyze human nature to deduce binding rules of moral behavior from nature's or God's creation of reality and mankind . The concept of natural law first appeared in ancient Greek philosophy including Aristotle
Aristotle
, and was referred to by Roman philosopher Cicero
Cicero
. It was subsequently alluded to in the Bible
Bible
, and was then developed in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by Catholic philosophers such as Albert the Great , and Thomas Aquinas . During the Age of Enlightenment , modern natural law theories were further developed, combining inspiration from the Roman law , and alongside philosophies like social contract theory. It featured greatly in the works of Alberico Gentili , Francisco Suárez
Francisco Suárez
, Richard Hooker , Thomas Hobbes , Hugo Grotius , Samuel von Pufendorf , Matthew Hale , John Locke , Francis Hutcheson , Jean Jacques Burlamaqui , Jean Jacques Rousseau , Emmerich de Vattel , Cesare Beccaria
Cesare Beccaria
and Francesco Mario Pagano . It was used to challenge the divine right of kings , and became an alternative justification for the establishment of a social contract , positive law , and government – and thus legal rights – in the form of classical republicanism . Conversely, the concept of natural rights is used by others to challenge the legitimacy of all such establishments.

Contemporarily, the concept of natural law is closely related to the concept of natural rights . Indeed, many philosophers , jurists and scholars use natural law synonymously with natural rights ( Latin
Latin
: _ius naturale _), or natural justice . while others distinguish between natural law and natural right.

Declarationism , a legal philosophy that is considered to violate the Supremacy Clause and the Anti- Establishment Clause of the United States Constitution
Constitution
, argues that the founding of the United States is based on natural law. Because of the intersection between natural law and natural rights , natural law has been cited as a component in the United States Declaration of Independence , and claimed by natural law proponents thus to be incorporated into its constitution, as well as in the French _ Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen _ (1789). (See: "Laws of Nature" First Paragraph Declaration of Independence )

Although natural law is often confused with common law , the two are distinct. Even though natural law theories have exercised a profound influence on the development of English common law, the latter is not based on inherent rights, but is the legal tradition whereby certain rights or values are legally recognized by virtue of already having judicial recognition or articulation. Natural law
Natural law
is often contrasted with the human-made laws (positive law ) of a given state , political entity or society . In legal theory, the interpretation of a human-made law requires some reference to natural law. On this understanding of natural law, natural law can be invoked to criticize judicial decisions about what the law says, but not to criticize the best interpretation of the law itself.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Plato
Plato
* 1.2 Aristotle
Aristotle
* 1.3 Stoic natural law * 1.4 Cicero
Cicero
* 1.5 Christianity
Christianity
* 1.6 English jurisprudence * 1.7 American jurisprudence * 1.8 Hobbes * 1.9 Cumberland\'s rebuttal of Hobbes * 1.10 Liberal natural law * 1.11 Islamic natural law

* 2 Catholic natural law jurisprudence * 3 Contemporary jurisprudence * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

The use of natural law, in its various incarnations, has varied widely throughout history. There are a number of theories of natural law, that differ from each other with respect to the role that morality plays in determining the authority of legal norms. This article deals with its usages separately rather than attempt to unify them into a single theory.

PLATO

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Although Plato
Plato
did not have an explicit theory of natural law (he rarely used the phrase 'natural law' except in _Gorgias _ 484 and _Timaeus _ 83e), his concept of nature, according to John Wild, contains some of the elements found in many natural law theories. According to Plato, we live in an orderly universe. The basis of this orderly universe or nature are the forms , most fundamentally the Form of the Good , which Plato
Plato
describes as "the brightest region of Being". The Form of the Good is the cause of all things, and when it is seen it leads a person to act wisely. In the _Symposium _, the Good is closely identified with the Beautiful. In the _Symposium_, Plato
Plato
describes how the experience of the Beautiful by Socrates enabled him to resist the temptations of wealth and sex. In the _Republic _, the ideal community is, "...a city which would be established in accordance with nature."

ARISTOTLE

See also: Treatise on Law _ Plato
Plato
(left) and Aristotle
Aristotle
(right), a detail of The School of Athens _, a fresco by Raphael
Raphael
.

Greek philosophy emphasized the distinction between "nature" (_physis_, _φúσις_) on the one hand and "law", "custom", or "convention" (_nomos_, _νóμος_) on the other. What the law commanded would be expected to vary from place to place, but what was "by nature" should be the same everywhere. A "law of nature" would therefore have the flavor more of a paradox than something that obviously existed. Against the conventionalism that the distinction between nature and custom could engender, Socrates
Socrates
and his philosophic heirs, Plato
Plato
and Aristotle
Aristotle
, posited the existence of natural justice or natural right (_dikaion physikon_, _δικαιον φυσικον_, Latin
Latin
_ius naturale_). Of these, Aristotle
Aristotle
is often said to be the father of natural law.

Aristotle's association with natural law may be due to the interpretation given to his works by Thomas Aquinas . But whether Aquinas correctly read Aristotle
Aristotle
is in dispute. According to some, Aquinas conflates natural law and natural right, the latter of which Aristotle
Aristotle
posits in Book V of the _ Nicomachean Ethics _ (Book IV of the _ Eudemian Ethics _). According to this interpretation, Aquinas's influence was such as to affect a number of early translations of these passages in an unfortunate manner, though more recent translations render those more literally. Aristotle
Aristotle
notes that natural justice is a species of political justice, specifically the scheme of distributive and corrective justice that would be established under the best political community; were this to take the form of law, this could be called a natural law, though Aristotle
Aristotle
does not discuss this and suggests in the _Politics _ that the best regime may not rule by law at all.

The best evidence of Aristotle's having thought there was a natural law comes from the _Rhetoric _, where Aristotle
Aristotle
notes that, aside from the "particular" laws that each people has set up for itself, there is a "common" law that is according to nature. Specifically, he quotes Sophocles and Empedocles:

Universal law is the law of Nature. For there really is, as every one to some extent divines, a natural justice and injustice that is binding on all men, even on those who have no association or covenant with each other. It is this that Sophocles' Antigone
Antigone
clearly means when she says that the burial of Polyneices was a just act in spite of the prohibition: she means that it was just by nature: "Not of to-day or yesterday it is, But lives eternal: none can date its birth."

And so Empedocles, when he bids us kill no living creature, he is saying that to do this is not just for some people, while unjust for others: "Nay, but, an all-embracing law, through the realms of the sky Unbroken it stretcheth, and over the earth's immensity."

Some critics believe that the context of this remark suggests only that Aristotle
Aristotle
advised that it could be rhetorically advantageous to appeal to such a law, especially when the "particular" law of one's own city was averse to the case being made, not that there actually was such a law; Moreover, they claim that Aristotle
Aristotle
considered two of the three candidates for a universally valid, natural law provided in this passage to be wrong. Aristotle's paternity of natural law tradition is consequently disputed.

STOIC NATURAL LAW

The development of this tradition of natural justice into one of natural law is usually attributed to the Stoics . The rise of natural law as a universal system coincided with the rise of large empires and kingdoms in the Greek world. Whereas the "higher" law that Aristotle suggested one could appeal to was emphatically natural , in contradistinction to being the result of divine positive legislation , the Stoic natural law was indifferent to either the natural or divine source of the law: the Stoics asserted the existence of a rational and purposeful order to the universe (a divine or eternal law ), and the means by which a rational being lived in accordance with this order was the natural law, which inspired actions that accorded with virtue.

As the English historian A. J. Carlyle (1861–1943) notes:

There is no change in political theory so startling in its completeness as the change from the theory of Aristotle
Aristotle
to the later philosophical view represented by Cicero
Cicero
and Seneca.... We think that this cannot be better exemplified than with regard to the theory of the equality of human nature." Charles H. McIlwain likewise observes that "the idea of the equality of men is the profoundest contribution of the Stoics to political thought" and that "its greatest influence is in the changed conception of law that in part resulted from it.

Natural law
Natural law
first appeared among the stoics who believed that God
God
is everywhere and in everyone. Within humans is a "divine spark" which helps them to live in accordance with nature. The stoics felt that there was a way in which the universe had been designed and natural law helped us to harmonise with this.

CICERO

Marcus Tullius Cicero
Cicero

Cicero
Cicero
wrote in his De Legibus that both justice and law originate from what nature has given to man, from what the human mind embraces, from the function of man, and from what serves to unite humanity. For Cicero, natural law obliges us to contribute to the general good of the larger society. The purpose of positive laws is to provide for "the safety of citizens, the preservation of states, and the tranquility and happiness of human life." In this view, "wicked and unjust statutes" are "anything but 'laws,'" because "in the very definition of the term 'law' there inheres the idea and principle of choosing what is just and true." Law, for Cicero, "ought to be a reformer of vice and an incentive to virtue." Cicero
Cicero
expressed the view that "the virtues which we ought to cultivate, always tend to our own happiness, and that the best means of promoting them consists in living with men in that perfect union and charity which are cemented by mutual benefits."

Cicero
Cicero
influenced the discussion of natural law for many centuries to come, up through the era of the American Revolution. The jurisprudence of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was rooted in Cicero, who held "an extraordinary grip ... upon the imagination of posterity" as "the medium for the propagation of those ideas which informed the law and institutions of the empire." Cicero's conception of natural law "found its way to later centuries notably through the writings of Saint Isidore of Seville and the Decretum of Gratian ." Thomas Aquinas , in his summary of medieval natural law, quoted Cicero's statement that "nature" and "custom" were the sources of a society's laws.

The Renaissance Italian historian Leonardo Bruni praised Cicero
Cicero
as the man "who carried philosophy from Greece to Italy, and nourished it with the golden river of his eloquence." The legal culture of Elizabethan England, exemplified by Sir Edward Coke , was "steeped in Ciceronian rhetoric." The Scottish moral philosopher Francis Hutcheson , as a student at Glasgow, "was attracted most by Cicero, for whom he always professed the greatest admiration." More generally in eighteenth-century Great Britain, Cicero's name was a household word among educated people. Likewise, "in the admiration of early Americans Cicero
Cicero
took pride of place as orator, political theorist, stylist, and moralist."

The British polemicist Thomas Gordon "incorporated Cicero
Cicero
into the radical ideological tradition that travelled from the mother country to the colonies in the course of the eighteenth century and decisively shaped early American political culture." Cicero's description of the immutable, eternal, and universal natural law was quoted by Burlamaqui and later by the American revolutionary legal scholar James Wilson . Cicero
Cicero
became John Adams
John Adams
's "foremost model of public service, republican virtue, and forensic eloquence." Adams wrote of Cicero that "as all the ages of the world have not produced a greater statesman and philosopher united in the same character, his authority should have great weight." Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
"first encountered Cicero as a schoolboy while learning Latin, and continued to read his letters and discourses throughout his life. He admired him as a patriot, valued his opinions as a moral philosopher, and there is little doubt that he looked upon Cicero's life, with his love of study and aristocratic country life, as a model for his own." Jefferson described Cicero
Cicero
as "the father of eloquence and philosophy."

CHRISTIANITY

Those who see biblical support for the doctrine of natural law often point to Abraham's interrogation of God
God
on behalf of the iniquitous city of Sodom. Abraham even dares to tell the Most High that his plan to destroy the city (Genesis 18:25) would violate God’s own justice: “Can the judge of the whole earth not himself do justice?” This almost Socratic reply became for later writers the beginnings of natural rights theory. In this respect, natural law as described in the interaction between Abraham and God
God
predates the later Greek exposition of it by Plato, Socrates
Socrates
and Aristotle. The New Testament carries a further exposition on the Abrahamic dialogue and links to the later Greek exposition on the subject, when Paul 's Epistle to the Romans states: "For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves: Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else excusing one another. (Romans 2:14–15). The intellectual historian A. J. Carlyle has commented on this passage, "There can be little doubt that St Paul's words imply some conception analogous to the 'natural law' in Cicero
Cicero
, a law written in men's hearts, recognized by man's reason, a law distinct from the positive law of any State, or from what St Paul recognized as the revealed law of God. It is in this sense that St Paul's words are taken by the Fathers of the fourth and fifth centuries like St Hilary of Poitiers , St Ambrose
Ambrose
, and St Augustine
Augustine
, and there seems no reason to doubt the correctness of their interpretation."

Because of its origins in the Old Testament, early Church Fathers , especially those in the West , saw natural law as part of the natural foundation of Christianity
Christianity
. The most notable among these was Augustine of Hippo , who equated natural law with man's prelapsarian state; as such, a life according to unbroken human nature was no longer possible and men needed instead to seek healing and salvation through the divine law and grace of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
.

In the twelfth century, Gratian equated the natural law with divine law. Albertus Magnus
Albertus Magnus
would address the subject a century later, and his pupil St. Thomas Aquinas in his _ Summa Theologica
Summa Theologica
_ I-II qq. 90–106 , restored Natural Law
Law
to its independent state, asserting natural law as the rational creature's participation in the eternal law. Yet, since human reason could not fully comprehend the Eternal law , it needed to be supplemented by revealed Divine law . (See also Biblical law in Christianity
Christianity
.) Meanwhile, Aquinas taught that all human or positive laws were to be judged by their conformity to the natural law. An unjust law is not a law, in the full sense of the word. It retains merely the 'appearance' of law insofar as it is duly constituted and enforced in the same way a just law is, but is itself a 'perversion of law.' At this point, the natural law was not only used to pass judgment on the moral worth of various laws, but also to determine what those laws meant in the first place. This principle laid the seed for possible societal tension with reference to tyrants.

The natural law was inherently teleological , however, it is most assuredly not deontological . For Christians, natural law is how man manifests the divine image in his life. This mimicry of God's own life is impossible to accomplish except by means of the power of grace. Thus, whereas deontological systems merely require certain duties be performed, Christianity
Christianity
explicitly states that no one can, in fact, perform any duties if grace is lacking. For Christians, natural law flows not from divine commands, but from the fact that man is made in God's image, man is empowered by God's grace. Living the natural law is how man displays the gifts of life and grace, the gifts of all that is good. Consequences are in God's hands, consequences are generally not within man's control, thus in natural law, actions are judged by three things: (1) the person's intent, (2) the circumstances of the act and (3) the nature of the act. The apparent good or evil consequence resulting from the moral act is not relevant to the act itself. The specific content of the natural law is therefore determined by how each person's acts mirror God's internal life of love. Insofar as one lives the natural law, temporal satisfaction may or may not be attained, but salvation will be attained. The state , in being bound by the natural law, is conceived as an institution whose purpose is to assist in bringing its subjects to true happiness. True happiness derives from living in harmony with the mind of God
God
as an image of the living God.

In the 16th century, the School of Salamanca ( Francisco Suárez
Francisco Suárez
, Francisco de Vitoria , etc.) further developed a philosophy of natural law.

After the Protestant Reformation , some Protestant
Protestant
denominations maintained parts of the Catholic concept of natural law. The English theologian Richard Hooker from the Church of England
England
adapted Thomistic notions of natural law to Anglicanism five principles: to live, to learn, to reproduce, to worship God, and to live in an ordered society.

ENGLISH JURISPRUDENCE

Heinrich A. Rommen remarked upon "the tenacity with which the spirit of the English common law retained the conceptions of natural law and equity which it had assimilated during the Catholic Middle Ages, thanks especially to the influence of Henry de Bracton (d. 1268) and Sir John Fortescue (d. cir. 1476)." Bracton's translator notes that Bracton "was a trained jurist with the principles and distinctions of Roman jurisprudence firmly in mind"; but Bracton adapted such principles to English purposes rather than copying slavishly. In particular, Bracton turned the imperial Roman maxim that "the will of the prince is law" on its head, insisting that the king is _under_ the law. The legal historian Charles F. Mullett has noted Bracton's "ethical definition of law, his recognition of justice, and finally his devotion to natural rights." Bracton considered justice to be the "fountain-head" from which "all rights arise." For his definition of justice, Bracton quoted the twelfth-century Italian jurist Azo : "' Justice
Justice
is the constant and unfailing will to give to each his right.'" Bracton's work was the second legal treatise studied by the young apprentice lawyer Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
.

Fortescue stressed "the supreme importance of the law of God
God
and of nature" in works that "profoundly influenced the course of legal development in the following centuries." The legal scholar Ellis Sandoz has noted that "the historically ancient and the ontologically higher law—eternal, divine, natural—are woven together to compose a single harmonious texture in Fortescue's account of English law." As the legal historian Norman Doe explains: "Fortescue follows the general pattern set by Aquinas. The objective of every legislator is to dispose people to virtue. It is by means of law that this is accomplished. Fortescue's definition of law (also found in Accursius and Bracton), after all, was 'a sacred sanction commanding what is virtuous and forbidding the contrary.'" Fortescue cited the great Italian Leonardo Bruni for his statement that "virtue alone produces happiness."

Christopher St. Germain's _Doctor and Student_ was a classic of English jurisprudence, and it was thoroughly annotated by Thomas Jefferson . St. Germain informs his readers that English lawyers generally don't use the phrase "law of nature", but rather use "reason" as the preferred synonym. Norman Doe notes that St. Germain's view "is essentially Thomist," quoting Thomas Aquinas's definition of law as "an ordinance of reason made for the common good by him who has charge of the community, and promulgated".

Sir Edward Coke was the preeminent jurist of his time. Coke's preeminence extended across the ocean: "For the American revolutionary leaders, 'law' meant Sir Edward Coke's custom and right reason." Coke defined law as "perfect reason, which commands those things that are proper and necessary and which prohibits contrary things". For Coke, human nature determined the purpose of law; and law was superior to any one man's reason or will. Coke's discussion of natural law appears in his report of _Calvin's Case_ (1608): "The law of nature is that which God
God
at the time of creation of the nature of man infused into his heart, for his preservation and direction." In this case the judges found that "the ligeance or faith of the subject is due unto the King by the law of nature: secondly, that the law of nature is part of the law of England: thirdly, that the law of nature was before any judicial or municipal law: fourthly, that the law of nature is immutable." To support these findings, the assembled judges (as reported by Coke, who was one of them) cited as authorities Aristotle , Cicero
Cicero
, and the Apostle Paul ; as well as Bracton, Fortescue, and St. Germain .

After Coke, the most famous common law jurist of the seventeenth century is Sir Matthew Hale . Hale wrote a treatise on natural law that circulated among English lawyers in the eighteenth century and survives in three manuscript copies. This natural-law treatise has been published as _Of the Law
Law
of Nature_ (2015). Hale's definition of the natural law reads: "It is the Law
Law
of Almighty God
God
given by him to Man with his Nature
Nature
discovering the morall good and moral evill of Moral Actions, commanding the former, and forbidding the latter by the secret voice or dictate of his implanted nature, his reason, and his concience." He viewed natural law as antecedent, preparatory, and subsequent to civil government, and stated that human law "cannot forbid what the Law
Law
of Nature
Nature
injoins, nor Command what the Law
Law
of Nature
Nature
prohibits." He cited as authorities Plato
Plato
, Aristotle
Aristotle
, Cicero , Seneca , Epictetus
Epictetus
, and the Apostle Paul . He was critical of Hobbes's reduction of natural law to self-preservation and Hobbes's account of the state of nature, but drew positively on Hugo Grotius 's _ De jure belli ac pacis _, Francisco Suárez
Francisco Suárez
's _Tractatus de legibus ac deo legislatore_, and John Selden
John Selden
's John Selden
John Selden
's _De jure naturali et gentium juxta disciplinam Ebraeorum_.

As early as the thirteenth century, it was held that "the law of nature...is the ground of all laws" and by the Chancellor and Judges that "it is required by the law of nature that every person, before he can be punish'd, ought to be present; and if absent by contumacy, he ought to be summoned and make default". Further, in 1824, we find it held that "proceedings in our Courts are founded upon the law of England, and that law is again founded upon the law of nature and the revealed law of God. If the right sought to be enforced is inconsistent with either of these, the English municipal courts cannot recognize it."

AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE

The U.S. Declaration of Independence states that it has become necessary for the people of the United States to assume "the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature
Nature
and of Nature's God entitle them". Some early American lawyers and judges perceived natural law as too tenuous, amorphous and evanescent a legal basis for grounding concrete rights and governmental limitations . Natural law did, however, serve as authority for legal claims and rights in some judicial decisions, legislative acts, and legal pronouncements. Robert Lowry Clinton argues that the U.S. Constitution rests on a common law foundation and the common law, in turn, rests on a classical natural law foundation.

HOBBES

Thomas Hobbes

By the 17th Century, the Medieval
Medieval
teleological view came under intense criticism from some quarters. Thomas Hobbes instead founded a contractualist theory of legal positivism on what all men could agree upon: what they sought (happiness) was subject to contention, but a broad consensus could form around what they feared (violent death at the hands of another). The natural law was how a rational human being, seeking to survive and prosper, would act. Natural law, therefore, was discovered by considering humankind's natural rights , whereas previously it could be said that natural rights were discovered by considering the natural law. In Hobbes' opinion, the only way natural law could prevail was for men to submit to the commands of the sovereign. Because the ultimate source of law now comes from the sovereign, and the sovereign's decisions need not be grounded in morality, legal positivism is born. Jeremy Bentham 's modifications on legal positivism further developed the theory.

As used by Thomas Hobbes in his treatises _Leviathan _ and _De Cive _, natural law is "a precept , or general rule, found out by reason , by which a man is forbidden to do that which is destructive of his life, or takes away the means of preserving the same; and to omit that by which he thinks it may best be preserved."

According to Hobbes, there are nineteen Laws. The first two are expounded in chapter XIV of Leviathan ("of the first and second natural laws; and of contracts"); the others in chapter XV ("of other laws of nature").

* The first Law
Law
of nature is _that every man ought to endeavour peace, as far as he has hope of obtaining it; and when he cannot obtain it, that he may seek and use all helps and advantages of war_. * The second Law
Law
of nature is _that a man be willing, when others are so too, as far forth, as for peace, and defence of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himself._ * The third Law
Law
is _that men perform their covenants made._ In this law of nature consisteth the fountain and original of justice... when a covenant is made, then to break it is unjust and the definition of injustice is no other than the not performance of covenant. And whatsoever is not unjust is just. * The fourth Law
Law
is _that a man which receiveth benefit from another of mere grace, endeavour that he which giveth it, have no reasonable cause to repent him of his good will._ Breach of this law is called ingratitude. * The fifth Law
Law
is complaisance: _that every man strive to accommodate himself to the rest._ The observers of this law may be called sociable; the contrary, stubborn, insociable, forward, intractable. * The sixth Law
Law
is _that upon caution of the future time, a man ought to pardon the offences past of them that repenting, desire it._ * The seventh Law
Law
is _that in revenges, men look not at the greatness of the evil past, but the greatness of the good to follow._ * The eighth Law
Law
is _that no man by deed, word, countenance, or gesture, declare hatred or contempt of another._ The breach of which law is commonly called contumely. * The ninth Law
Law
is _that every man acknowledge another for his equal by nature._ The breach of this precept is pride. * The tenth law is _that at the entrance into the conditions of peace, no man require to reserve to himself any right, which he is not content should be reserved to every one of the rest._ The breach of this precept is arrogance, and observers of the precept are called modest. * The eleventh law is that _if a man be trusted to judge between man and man, that he deal equally between them._ * The twelfth law is _that such things as cannot be divided, be enjoyed in common, if it can be; and if the quantity of the thing permit, without stint; otherwise proportionably to the number of them that have right._ * The thirteenth law is _the entire right, or else...the first possession_ (in the case of alternating use), of a thing that _can neither be divided nor enjoyed in common_ should be determined by lottery. * The fourteenth law is that _those things which cannot be enjoyed in common, nor divided, ought to be adjudged to the first possessor; and in some cases to the first born, as acquired by lot._ * The fifteenth law is that _all men that mediate peace be allowed safe conduct._ * The sixteenth law is _that they that are at controversie, submit their Right to the judgement of an Arbitrator._ * The seventeenth law is _that no man is a fit Arbitrator in his own cause._ * The eighteenth law is that no man should serve as a judge in a case if _greater profit, or honour, or pleasure apparently ariseth out of the victory of one party, than of the other._ * The nineteenth law is that in a disagreement of fact, the judge should not give more weight to the testimony of one party than another, and absent other evidence, should give credit to the testimony of other witnesses.

Hobbes's philosophy includes a frontal assault on the founding principles of the earlier natural legal tradition, disregarding the traditional association of virtue with happiness, and likewise re-defining "law" to remove any notion of the promotion of the common good. Hobbes has no use for Aristotle
Aristotle
's association of nature with human perfection, inverting Aristotle's use of the word "nature." Hobbes posits a primitive, unconnected state of nature in which men, having a "natural proclivity...to hurt each other" also have "a Right to every thing, even to one anothers body"; and "nothing can be Unjust" in this "warre of every man against every man" in which human life is "solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short." Rejecting Cicero
Cicero
's view that men join in society primarily through "a certain social spirit which nature has implanted in man," Hobbes declares that men join in society simply for the purpose of "getting themselves out from that miserable condition of Warre, which is necessarily consequent...to the naturall Passions of men, when there is no visible Power to keep them in awe." As part of his campaign against the classical idea of natural human sociability, Hobbes inverts that fundamental natural legal maxim, the Golden Rule. Hobbes's version is _"Do not that to another, which thou wouldst not have done to thy selfe."_

CUMBERLAND\'S REBUTTAL OF HOBBES

The English cleric Richard Cumberland wrote a lengthy and influential attack on Hobbes's depiction of individual self-interest as the essential feature of human motivation. Historian Knud Haakonssen has noted that in the eighteenth century, Cumberland was commonly placed alongside Alberico Gentili , Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf "in the triumvirate of seventeenth-century founders of the 'modern' school of natural law." The eighteenth-century philosophers Shaftesbury and Hutcheson "were obviously inspired in part by Cumberland." Historian Jon Parkin likewise describes Cumberland's work as "one of the most important works of ethical and political theory of the seventeenth century." Parkin observes that much of Cumberland's material "is derived from Roman Stoicism , particularly from the work of Cicero
Cicero
, as "Cumberland deliberately cast his engagement with Hobbes in the mould of Cicero's debate between the Stoics, who believed that nature could provide an objective morality, and Epicureans , who argued that morality was human, conventional and self-interested." In doing so, Cumberland de-emphasized the overlay of Christian dogma (in particular, the doctrine of "original sin" and the corresponding presumption that humans are incapable of "perfecting" themselves without divine intervention) that had accreted to natural law in the Middle Ages.

By way of contrast to Hobbes's multiplicity of laws, Cumberland states in the very first sentence of his _Treatise of the Laws of Nature_ that "all the Laws of Nature
Nature
are reduc'd to that one, of Benevolence toward all Rationals." He later clarifies: "By the name _Rationals_ I beg leave to understand, as well _God_ as _Man_; and I do it upon the Authority of Cicero." Cumberland argues that the mature development ("perfection") of human nature involves the individual human willing and acting for the common good. For Cumberland, human interdependence precludes Hobbes's natural right of each individual to wage war against all the rest for personal survival. However, Haakonssen warns against reading Cumberland as a proponent of "enlightened self-interest ." Rather, the "proper moral love of humanity" is "a disinterested love of God
God
through love of humanity in ourselves as well as others." Cumberland concludes that actions "principally conducive to our Happiness" are those that promote "the Honour and Glory of God" and also "Charity and Justice
Justice
towards men." Cumberland emphasizes that desiring the well-being of our fellow humans is essential to the "pursuit of our own Happiness." He cites "reason" as the authority for his conclusion that happiness consists in "the most extensive Benevolence," but he also mentions as "Essential Ingredients of Happiness" the "Benevolent Affections," meaning "Love and Benevolence towards others," as well as "that Joy, which arises from their Happiness."

LIBERAL NATURAL LAW

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Dr Alberico Gentili , the founder of the science of international law.

Liberal natural law grew out of the medieval Christian natural law theories and out of Hobbes\' revision of natural law, sometimes in an uneasy balance of the two.

Sir Alberico Gentili and Hugo Grotius based their philosophies of international law on natural law. In particular, his writings on freedom of the seas and just war theory directly appealed to natural law. About natural law itself, he wrote that "even the will of an omnipotent being cannot change or abrogate" natural law, which "would maintain its objective validity even if we should assume the impossible, that there is no God
God
or that he does not care for human affairs." (_ De iure belli ac pacis _, Prolegomeni XI). This is the famous argument _etiamsi daremus_ (_non esse Deum_), that made natural law no longer dependent on theology. However, German church-historians Ernst Wolf and M. Elze disagreed and claimed that Grotius' concept of natural law did have a theological basis. In Grotius' view, the Old Testament contained moral precepts (e.g. the Decalogue ) which Christ confirmed and therefore were still valid. Moreover, they were useful in explaining the content of natural law. Both biblical revelation and natural law originated in God
God
and could therefore not contradict each other.

In a similar way, Samuel Pufendorf gave natural law a theological foundation and applied it to his concepts of government and international law .

John Locke incorporated natural law into many of his theories and philosophy, especially in _Two Treatises of Government
Government
_. There is considerable debate about whether his conception of natural law was more akin to that of Aquinas (filtered through Richard Hooker ) or Hobbes\' radical reinterpretation, though the effect of Locke's understanding is usually phrased in terms of a revision of Hobbes upon Hobbesean contractualist grounds. Locke turned Hobbes' prescription around, saying that if the ruler went against natural law and failed to protect "life, liberty, and property," people could justifiably overthrow the existing state and create a new one.

While Locke spoke in the language of natural law, the content of this law was by and large protective of natural rights , and it was this language that later liberal thinkers preferred. Political philosopher Jeremy Waldron has pointed out that Locke's political thought was based on "a particular set of Protestant
Protestant
Christian assumptions." To Locke, the content of natural law was identical with biblical ethics as laid down especially in the Decalogue , Christ
Christ
's teaching and exemplary life, and St. Paul's admonitions. Locke derived the concept of basic human equality, including the equality of the sexes ("Adam and Eve"), from Genesis 1, 26–28, the starting-point of the theological doctrine of Imago Dei . One of the consequences is that as all humans are created equally free, governments need the consent of the governed. Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
, arguably echoing Locke, appealed to unalienable rights in the _Declaration of Independence _, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are _created_ equal, that they are endowed by their _Creator_ with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty
Liberty
and the pursuit of Happiness ." The Lockean idea that governments need the consent of the governed was also fundamental to the Declaration of Independence, as the American Revolutionaries used it as justification for their separation from the British crown.

The Belgian philosopher of law Frank van Dun is one among those who are elaborating a secular conception of natural law in the liberal tradition. Libertarian theorist Murray Rothbard argues that "the very existence of a natural law discoverable by reason is a potentially powerful threat to the status quo and a standing reproach to the reign of blindly traditional custom or the arbitrary will of the State apparatus." Ludwig von Mises states that he relaid the general sociological and economic foundations of the liberal doctrine upon utilitarianism, rather than natural law, but R.A. Gonce argues that "the reality of the argument constituting his system overwhelms his denial." Murray Rothbard, however, says that Gonce makes a lot of errors and distortions in the analysis of Mises's works, including making confusions about the term which Mises uses to refer to scientific laws, "laws of nature", saying it characterizes Mises as a natural law philosopher. David Gordon notes, "When most people speak of natural law, what they have in mind is the contention that morality can be derived from human nature. If human beings are rational animals of such-and-such a sort, then the moral virtues are...(filling in the blanks is the difficult part)."

Economist and philosopher F. A. Hayek said that, originally, "the term 'natural' was used to describe an orderliness or regularity that was not the product of deliberate human will. Together with 'organism' it was one of the two terms generally understood to refer to the spontaneously grown in contrast to the invented or designed. Its use in this sense had been inherited from the stoic philosophy, had been revived in the twelfth century, and it was finally under its flag that the late Spanish Schoolmen developed the foundations of the genesis and functioning of spontaneously formed social institutions." The idea that 'natural' was "the product of designing reason" is a product of a seventeenth century rationalist reinterpretation of the law of nature. Luis Molina , for example, when referred to the 'natural' price, explained that it is "so called because 'it results from the thing itself without regard to laws and decrees, but is dependent on many circumstances which alter it, such as the sentiments of men, their estimation of different uses, often even in consequence of whims and pleasures". And even John Locke , when talking about the foundations of natural law and explaining what he thought when citing "reason", said: "By reason, however, I do not think is meant here that faculty of the understanding which forms traint of thought and deduces proofs, but certain definite principles of action from which spring all virtues and whatever is necessary for the proper moulding of morals."

This anti-rationalist approach to human affairs, for Hayek, was the same which guided Scottish enlightenment thinkers, such as Adam Smith , David Hume
David Hume
and Adam Ferguson , to make their case for liberty. For them, no one can have the knowledge necessary to plan society, and this "natural" or "spontaneous" order of society shows how it can efficiently "plan" bottom-up. Also, the idea that law is just a product of deliberate design, denied by natural law and linked to legal positivism , can easily generate totalitarianism : "If law is wholly the product of deliberate design, whatever the designer decrees to be law is just by definition and unjust law becomes a contradiction in terms. The will of the duly authorized legislator is then wholly unfettered and guided solely by his concrete interests". This idea is wrong because law cannot be just a product of "reason": "no system of articulated law can be applied except within a framework of generally recognized but often unarticulated rules of justice".

However, a secular critique of the natural law doctrine was stated by Pierre Charron in his _De la sagesse_ (1601): "The sign of a natural law must be the universal respect in which it is held, for if there was anything that nature had truly commanded us to do, we would undoubtedly obey it universally: not only would every nation respect it, but every individual. Instead there is nothing in the world that is not subject to contradiction and dispute, nothing that is not rejected, not just by one nation, but by many; equally, there is nothing that is strange and (in the opinion of many) unnatural that is not approved in many countries, and authorized by their customs."

ISLAMIC NATURAL LAW

Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī , an Islamic scholar and polymath scientist , understood natural law as the survival of the fittest. He argued that the antagonism between human beings can only be overcome through a divine law , which he believed to have been sent through prophets . This is also the position of the Ashari school, the largest school of Sunni theology. Averroes
Averroes
(Ibn Rushd), in his treatise on _ Justice
Justice
and Jihad_ and his commentary on Plato's _Republic_, writes that the human mind can know of the unlawfulness of killing and stealing and thus of the five maqasid or higher intents of the Islamic sharia or to protect religion, life, property, offspring, and reason. The concept of natural law entered the mainstream of Western culture through his Aristotelian commentaries, influencing the subsequent Averroist movement and the writings of Thomas Aquinas .

The Maturidi school, the second largest school of Sunni theology, posits the existence of a form of natural law. Abu Mansur al-Maturidi stated that the human mind could know of the existence of God
God
and the major forms of 'good' and 'evil' without the help of revelation. Al- Maturidi gives the example of stealing, which is known to be evil by reason alone due to man's working hard for his property. Killing, fornication, and (for certain Muslims) drinking alcohol were all 'evils' the human mind could know of according to al-Maturidi. The concept of _ Istislah _ in Islamic law bears some similarities to the natural law tradition in the West, as exemplified by Thomas Aquinas . However, whereas natural law deems good what is self-evidently good, according as it tends towards the fulfilment of the person, _istislah_ calls good whatever is connected to one of five "basic goods". Al-Ghazali abstracted these "basic goods" from the legal precepts in the Qur'an and Sunnah: they are religion, life, reason, lineage and property. Some add also "honour". Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya also posited that human reason could discern between 'great sins' and good deeds.

CATHOLIC NATURAL LAW JURISPRUDENCE

See also: Treatise on Law and Determinatio

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Albertus Magnus
Albertus Magnus
, O.P. (c. 1200–1280). Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274).

Part of a series on

CATHOLIC PHILOSOPHY

Aquinas , Scotus and Ockham

ETHICS

* Natural law * Virtue ethics * Catholic personalism * Catholic social teaching

BRANCHES

* Scholasticism * Thomism * Neo- Scholasticism * Scotism
Scotism
* Occamism * Augustinian * Molinism
Molinism

Philosophers Saint Thomas Aquinas Saint Augustine
Augustine
Saint Albertus Magnus
Albertus Magnus
Saint Paul of Tarsus Saint Ambrose
Ambrose
Saint Jerome
Jerome
Saint Gregory the Great Saint Thomas More Saint Benedict Saint John Paul II Edith Stein
Edith Stein
(Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross) Bl. Duns Scotus William of Ockham
William of Ockham
Alexander of Hales Henry of Ghent Francis Mayron Luis de Molina Peter Lombard
Peter Lombard
Peter Abelard Giles of Rome Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
Alasdair MacIntyre

Catholicism portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portal

* v * t * e

The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
holds the view of natural law introduced by Albertus Magnus
Albertus Magnus
and elaborated by Thomas Aquinas , particularly in his _Summa Theologiae _, and often as filtered through the School of Salamanca . This view is also shared by some Protestants , and was delineated by Anglican
Anglican
writer C.S. Lewis in his works _Mere Christianity
Christianity
_ and _ The Abolition of Man . _

The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
understands human beings to consist of body and mind, the physical and the non-physical (or soul perhaps), and that the two are inextricably linked. Humans are capable of discerning the difference between good and evil because they have a conscience . There are many manifestations of the good that we can pursue. Some, like procreation , are common to other animals, while others, like the pursuit of truth, are inclinations peculiar to the capacities of human beings.

To know what is right, one must use one's reason and apply it to Thomas Aquinas' precepts. This reason is believed to be embodied, in its most abstract form, in the concept of a primary precept: "Good is to be sought, evil avoided." St. Thomas explains that:

there belongs to the natural law, first, certain most general precepts, that are known to all; and secondly, certain secondary and more detailed precepts, which are, as it were, conclusions following closely from first principles. As to those general principles, the natural law, in the abstract, can nowise be blotted out from men's hearts. But it is blotted out in the case of a particular action, insofar as reason is hindered from applying the general principle to a particular point of practice, on account of concupiscence or some other passion, as stated above (77, 2). But as to the other, i.e., the secondary precepts, the natural law can be blotted out from the human heart, either by evil persuasions, just as in speculative matters errors occur in respect of necessary conclusions; or by vicious customs and corrupt habits, as among some men, theft, and even unnatural vices, as the Apostle states (Rm. i), were not esteemed sinful.

However, while the primary and immediate precepts cannot be "blotted out", the secondary precepts can be. Therefore, for a deontological ethical theory they are open to a surprisingly large amount of interpretation and flexibility. Any rule that helps man to live up to the primary or subsidiary precepts can be a secondary precept, for example:

* Drunkenness is wrong because it injures one's health, and worse, destroys one's ability to reason, which is fundamental to man as a rational animal (i.e., does not support self-preservation). * Theft is wrong because it destroys social relations, and man is by nature a social animal (i.e., does not support the subsidiary precept of living in society).

Natural moral law is concerned with both exterior and interior acts, also known as action and motive. Simply doing the right thing is not enough; to be truly moral one's motive must be right as well. For example, helping an old lady across the road (good exterior act) to impress someone (bad interior act) is wrong. However, good intentions don't always lead to good actions. The motive must coincide with the cardinal or theological virtues. Cardinal virtues are acquired through reason applied to nature; they are:

* Prudence * Justice
Justice
* Temperance * Fortitude

The theological virtues are:

* Faith * Hope * Charity

According to Aquinas, to lack any of these virtues is to lack the ability to make a moral choice. For example, consider a man who possesses the virtues of justice, prudence, and fortitude, yet lacks temperance. Due to his lack of self-control and desire for pleasure, despite his good intentions, he will find himself swaying from the moral path.

CONTEMPORARY JURISPRUDENCE

In jurisprudence , _natural law_ can refer to the several doctrines:

* That just laws are immanent in nature; that is, they can be "discovered" or "found" but not "created" by such things as a bill of rights ; * That they can emerge by the natural process of resolving conflicts, as embodied by the evolutionary process of the common law; or * That the meaning of law is such that its content cannot be determined except by reference to moral principles. These meanings can either oppose or complement each other, although they share the common trait that they rely on inherence as opposed to design in finding just laws.

Whereas legal positivism would say that a law can be unjust without it being any less a law, a natural law jurisprudence would say that there is something legally deficient about an unjust norm. Legal interpretivism , famously defended in the English-speaking world by Ronald Dworkin , claims to have a position different from both natural law and positivism.

Besides utilitarianism and Kantianism , natural law jurisprudence has in common with virtue ethics that it is a live option for a first principles ethics theory in analytic philosophy .

The concept of natural law was very important in the development of the English common law . In the struggles between Parliament and the monarch , Parliament often made reference to the Fundamental Laws of England
England
, which were at times said to embody natural law principles since time immemorial and set limits on the power of the monarchy. According to William Blackstone , however, natural law might be useful in determining the content of the common law and in deciding cases of equity , but was not itself identical with the laws of England. Nonetheless, the implication of natural law in the common law tradition has meant that the great opponents of natural law and advocates of legal positivism , like Jeremy Bentham , have also been staunch critics of the common law.

Natural law
Natural law
jurisprudence is currently undergoing a period of reformulation (as is legal positivism). The most prominent contemporary natural law jurist, Australian John Finnis , is based in Oxford, but there are also Americans Germain Grisez , Robert P. George , and Canadian Joseph Boyle and Brazil Emídio Brasileiro. All have tried to construct a new version of natural law. The 19th-century anarchist and legal theorist, Lysander Spooner , was also a figure in the expression of modern natural law.

"New Natural Law" as it is sometimes called, originated with Grisez. It focuses on "basic human goods," such as human life, knowledge, and aesthetic experience, which are self-evidently and intrinsically worthwhile, and states that these goods reveal themselves as being incommensurable with one another.

The tensions between the natural law and the positive law have played, and continue to play a key role in the development of international law .

SEE ALSO

_ This "see also " section MAY CONTAIN AN EXCESSIVE NUMBER OF SUGGESTIONS. Please ensure that only the most relevant links are given, that they are not red links , and that any links are not already in this article. (July 2017)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

* Antigone
Antigone
* Hadley Arkes * Jean Barbeyrac * J. Budziszewski * Classical liberalism * Richard Cumberland * Francisco Elias de Tejada y Spinola * Henry George
Henry George
* Enrique Gil Robles * International legal theory * Land Value Taxation * Legal positivism * Liberalism * Libertarianism * Moral realism * Natural order * Naturalistic fallacy * Neo- Scholasticism * Non-aggression principle * Norm of reciprocity * Objectivism (philosophy) * Orders of creation * Philosophy
Philosophy
of law * Purposive theory * Rule of law * Rule according to higher law * Spontaneous order * Substantive due process * Thomism * Tit for tat * Unenumerated rights * Universality (philosophy) * Emerich de Vattel * White Rose Society
Society
* Xeer

NOTES

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Aristotle
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Law
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Political Theory in the West, vol. 1_. Edinburgh. pp. 8–9. * ^ McIlwain, Charles H. (1932). _The Growth of Political Thought in the West: From the Greeks to the End of the Middle Ages_. New York. pp. 114–15. * ^ Cicero, _De Legibus_, bk. 1, sec. 16–17. * ^ _A_ _B_ Barham, Francis (1842). "Introduction". _The Political Works of Marcus Tullius Cicero_. London: Edmund Spettigue. * ^ Cicero, _De Legibus_ (Keyes translation), bk. 2, sec. 11. * ^ Cicero, _De Legibus_ (Keyes translation), bk. 1, sec. 58. * ^ Cochrane, Charles Norris (1957). _ Christianity
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Law
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Cicero
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Liberty
Fund. book I, part 2, ch. 5, sec. 11. * ^ Wilson, James (1967). "Of the Law
Law
of Nature". In McCloskey, Robert Green. _The Works of James Wilson_. 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 145–46. * ^ Farrell, James M. (December 1989). "John Adams's Autobiography: The Ciceronian Paradigm and the Quest for Fame". _The New England Quarterly_. 62 (4): 506. doi :10.2307/366395 . * ^ Adams, John (1979) . _A Defence of the Constitutions of Government
Government
of the United States of America_. 1 (3 ed.). Darmstadt: Scientia Verlag Aalen. xvii–xviii. * ^ Wilson, Douglas L., ed. (1989). _Jefferson's Literary Commonplace Book_. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 159. * ^ Jefferson to Amos J. Cook, 21 Jan. 1816; quoted in _Jefferson's Literary Commonplace Book_, p. 161. * ^ Carlyle, A. J. (1903). _A History of Medieval
Medieval
Political Theory in the West_. 1. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 83. * ^ Summa Theologica, I-II, Q. 91, Art. 2 "I answer that" * ^ _Summa Theologicae,_ Q. 95, A. 2. * ^ Burns, Tony (2000). "Aquinas's Two Doctrines of Natural Law". _Political Studies_. 48 (5): 929–46. doi :10.1111/1467-9248.00288 . * ^ _Natural Law
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Law
and the American Revolution 1760–1776_. New York: Octagon Books. p. 33. * ^ de Bracton, Henry (1968). _Of the Laws and Customs of England_. 2. trans. Samuel E. Thorne. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press and The Selden Society. p. 22. * ^ de Bracton, Henry (1968). _Of the Laws and Customs of England_. 2. trans. Samuel E. Thorne. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press and The Selden Society. p. 23. * ^ Brown, Imogene E. (1981). _American Aristides: A Biography of George Wythe_. East Brunswick, NJ: Associated University Presses. p. 77. * ^ Hazeltine, Harold Dexter (1949). "General Preface: The Age of Littleton and Fortescue". In Fortescue, John. _De Laudibus Legum Anglie_. ed. and trans. S. B. Chrimes. Cambridge: Cambridge
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Cambridge
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Cambridge
University Press. p. l1. * ^ Vinogradoff, Paul (Oct 1908). " Reason
Reason
and Conscience
Conscience
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Cambridge
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Cambridge
University Press. p. 113. , note 23, citing Thomas Aquinas, _Summa Theologica_, 1a, 2ae, 90, 4. * ^ Sir Edward Coke, _The Selected Writings and Speeches of Sir Edward Coke_, ed. Steve Sheppard (Indianapolis: Liberty
Liberty
Fund, 2003), vol. 1, p. xxvii. * ^ John Phillip Reid, _In a Defiant Stance: The Conditions of Law in Massachusetts Bay, The Irish Comparison, and the Coming of the American Revolution_ (University Park, Penn.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977), 71. * ^ Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
wrote to James Madison
James Madison
in 1826 that before the Revolution, the first volume of Coke's _Institutes of the Laws of England_ "was the universal elementary book of law students, and a sounder Whig never wrote, nor of profounder learning in the orthodox doctrines of the British constitution, or in what were called English liberties." See _The Writings of Thomas Jefferson_, vol. 16, p. 155. * ^ John Underwood Lewis, "Sir Edward Coke (1552–1634): His Theory of 'Artificial Reason' as a Context for Modern Basic Legal Theory," in _Law, Liberty, and Parliament: Selected Essays on the Writings of Sir Edward Coke_, ed. Allen D. Boyer (Indianapolis: Liberty
Liberty
Fund, 2004), pp. 108–09; citing Edward Coke, _First Part of the Institutes_, 319b. * ^ Lewis, "Sir Edward Coke (1552–1634): His Theory of 'Artificial Reason' as a Context for Modern Basic Legal Theory,", p. 120. * ^ Sir Edward Coke, _The Selected Writings and Speeches of Sir Edward Coke_, ed. Steve Sheppard (Indianapolis: Liberty
Liberty
Fund, 2003), vol. 1, pp. 195–97. * ^ British Library, London, Add. MS 18235, fols. 41–147 ; Harley MS 7159, fols. 1–266 ; Hargrave MS 485 * ^ Matthew Hale, _Of the Law
Law
of Nature_, ed. David S. Sytsma (CLP Academic, 2015). * ^ Hale, _Of the Law
Law
of Nature_, 41. * ^ Hale, _Of the Law
Law
of Nature_, 85–106. * ^ Hale, _Of the Law
Law
of Nature_, 194. * ^ Hale, _Of the Law
Law
of Nature_, 41, 52, 64, 150–51. * ^ Hale, _Of the Law
Law
of Nature_, 43, 86, 94. * ^ Hale, _Of the Law
Law
of Nature_, 7–8, 17, 49, 63, 111–19, 192. * ^ 8 Edw 4 fol. 12 * ^ 9 Ed. 4 fol. 14 * ^ Fort. 206 * ^ 2 B. & C. 471 * ^ Reid, John Phillip (1986). _Constitutional History of the American Revolution: The Authority of Rights_. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 90–91. * ^ Clinton, Robert Lowry (1997). _ God
God
and Man in the Law: The Foundations of Anglo-American Constitutionalism_. University Press of Kansas. * ^ Hobbes, Leviathan, pt. 1, ch. 14 (p. 64) * ^ Paul A. Rahe, _Republics Ancient and Modern: Classical Republicanism and the American Revolution_ (Chapel Hill, 1992), pp. 372–73 * ^ A Hobbes Dictionary: http://www.blackwellreference.com/public/tocnode?id=g9780631192626_chunk_g978063119262612_ss1-2 * ^ James R. Stoner, Jr., _Common Law
Law
and Liberal Theory: Coke, Hobbes, and the Origins of American Constitutionalism_ (Lawrence, Kansas, 1992), 71; see also John Phillip Reid, "In the Taught Tradition: The Meaning of Law
Law
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