The INTERNATIONAL RADIOTELEPHONY SPELLING ALPHABET, commonly known as the ICAO PHONETIC ALPHABET, sometimes called the NATO ALPHABET or SPELLING ALPHABET and the ITU RADIOTELEPHONIC or PHONETIC ALPHABET, is the most widely used radiotelephonic spelling alphabet . Although often called "phonetic alphabets", spelling alphabets are not associated with phonetic transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet . Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) alphabet assigned codewords acrophonically to the letters of the English alphabet , so that critical combinations of letters and numbers can be pronounced and understood by those who exchange voice messages by radio or telephone regardless of language barriers or the quality of the communication channel.
The 26 code words in the NATO phonetic alphabet are assigned to the 26 letters of the English alphabet in alphabetical order as follows: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu.
* 1 International adoption
* 1.1 NATO * 1.2 History
* 2 Code words
* 2.1 Letters * 2.2 Digits * 2.3 Pronunciation
* 3 Prior alphabets * 4 Usage
* 5 Variants
* 5.1 Aviation * 5.2 Telegrams * 5.3 Other
* 6 Additions in other languages
* 6.1 Spanish * 6.2 German and Swedish * 6.3 Danish and Norwegian * 6.4 Czech * 6.5 Finnish * 6.6 Estonian * 6.7 Malay
* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links
After the phonetic alphabet was developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) (see history below) it was adopted by many other international and national organizations, including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS), and the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU).
It is a subset of the much older International Code of Signals (INTERCO), which originally included visual signals by flags or flashing light, sound signals by whistle, siren, foghorn, or bell, as well as one, two, or three letter codes for many phrases. The same alphabetic code words are used by all agencies, but each agency chooses one of two different sets of numeric code words. NATO uses the regular English numeric words (Zero, One, with some alternative pronunciations), whereas the IMO provides for compound numeric words (Nadazero, Unaone, Bissotwo...). In practice these are used very rarely, as they frequently result in confusion between speakers of different languages.
An alternative name for the ICAO spelling alphabet, " NATO phonetic alphabet", exists because it appears in Allied Tactical Publication ATP-1, Volume II: _Allied Maritime Signal and Maneuvering Book_ used by all allied navies of NATO, which adopted a modified form of the _International Code of Signals_. Because the latter allows messages to be spelled via flags or Morse code , it naturally named the code words used to spell out messages by _voice_ its "phonetic alphabet". The name _ NATO phonetic alphabet_ became widespread because the signals used to facilitate the naval communications and tactics of NATO have become global. However, ATP-1 is marked _ NATO Confidential_ (or the lower _ NATO Restricted_) so it is not available publicly. Nevertheless, a NATO unclassified version of the document is provided to foreign, even hostile, militaries, even though they are not allowed to make it available publicly. The spelling alphabet is now also defined in other unclassified international military documents. The NATO alphabet appeared in some United States Air Force Europe publications during the Cold War. A particular example was the Ramstein Air Base, Telephone Directory published between 1969 and 1973 (currently out of print). The American and NATO versions had differences and the translation was provided as a convenience. Differences included Alfa, Bravo and Able, Baker for the first two letters.
The ICAO developed this system in the 1950s in order to account for discrepancies that might arise in communications as a result of multiple alphabet naming systems coexisting in different places and organizations.
In the official version of the alphabet, the non-English spellings Alfa and Juliett are used. _Alfa_ is spelled with an _f_ as it is in most European languages because the English and French spelling _alpha_ would not be pronounced properly by native speakers of some other languages – who may not know that _ph_ should be pronounced as _f_. _Juliett_ is spelled with a _tt_ for French speakers, because they may otherwise treat a single final _t_ as silent. In some English versions of the alphabet, one or both of these may have their standard English spelling.
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help: IPA .
The final choice of code words for the letters of the alphabet and for the digits was made after hundreds of thousands of comprehension tests involving 31 nationalities. The qualifying feature was the likelihood of a code word being understood in the context of others. For example, _football_ has a higher chance of being understood than _foxtrot_ in isolation, but _foxtrot_ is superior in extended communication.
The pronunciation of the code words varies according to the language habits of the speaker. To eliminate wide variations in pronunciation, recordings and posters illustrating the pronunciation desired by the ICAO are available. However, there are still differences in pronunciation between the ICAO and other agencies, and the ICAO has conflicting Roman-alphabet and IPA transcriptions. Also, although all codes for the letters of the alphabet are English words, they are not in general given English pronunciations. Assuming that the transcriptions are not intended to be precise, only 11 of the 26—_Bravo, Echo, Hotel, Juliet(t), Kilo, Mike, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Whiskey,_ and _Zulu_—are given English pronunciations by all these agencies, though not always the same English pronunciations.
LETTER CODE WORD CONFLICTING ACCOUNTS OF THE PRONUNCIATION
A ALFA ATIS: ALPHA AL fah AL FAH ALFAH or AL-FAH ˈælfɑ al fah
B BRAVO BRAH voh BRAH VOH (1955: BRAH VOH) BRAHVOH or BRAH-VO ˈbrɑːˈvo bra vo
C CHARLIE CHAR lee CHAR LEE CHARLEE or CHAR-LEE ˈtʃɑːli or ˈʃɑːli tchah li, char li , /ˈtʃɑːrliː/ _CHAR-lee_ or /ˈʃɑːrliː/ _SHAR-lee_
D DELTA DEL tah DELL TAH DELLTAH or DELL-TAH ˈdeltɑ del tah
E ECHO EKK oh ECK OH ECKOH or ECK-OH ˈeko èk o
F FOXTROT FOKS trot FOKS TROT FOKSTROT or FOKS-TROT ˈfɔkstrɔt fox trott
G GOLF Golf GOLF GOLF ɡʌlf golf
H HOTEL HO tell HOH TELL HOHTELL or HOH-TELL hoːˈtel ho tèll
I INDIA IN dee ah IN DEE AH INDEE AH or IN-DEE-AH ˈindiˑɑ in di ah
J JULIETT ATIS: JULIET JEW lee ett JEW LEE ETT JEWLEE ETT or JEW-LEE-ETT ˈdʒuːliˑˈet djou li ètt
/ˈdʒuːliːɛt/ _JEW-lee-et_ or /ˌdʒuːliːˈɛt/ _JEW-lee-ET_
K KILO KEY loh KEY LOH KEYLOH or KEY-LOH ˈkiːlo ki lo
L LIMA LEE mah LEE MAH LEEMAH or LEE-MAH ˈliːmɑ li mah
M MIKE Mike MIKE MIKE mɑik maïk
N NOVEMBER NOH vem ber NO VEM BER NOVEMBER or NO-VEM-BER noˈvembə no vèmm ber
O OSCAR OSS car OSS CAH OSS-SCAR or OSS-CAR ˈɔskɑ oss kar
P PAPA PAH pah PAH PAH PAHPAH or PAH-PAH pəˈpɑ pah pah
Q QUEBEC keh BECK KEH BECK KEHBECK or KWUH-BECK keˈbek ké bèk
R ROMEO ROW me oh ROW ME OH ROWME OH or ROW-ME-OH ˈroːmiˑo ro mi o
S SIERRA see AIR ah SEE AIR RAH SEEAIRAH or SEE-AIR-AH siˈerɑ si èr rah
T TANGO TANG go TANG GO TANGGO or TANG-GO ˈtænɡo tang go
U UNIFORM YOU nee form YOU NEE FORM or OO NEE FORM YOUNEE FORM or YOU-NEE-FORM or OO-NEE-FORM ˈjuːnifɔːm or ˈuːnifɔrm you ni form, ou ni form , /ˈjuːniːfɔːrm/ _EW-nee-form_ or /ˈuːniːfɔːrm/ _OO-nee-form_
V VICTOR VIK ter VIK TAH VIKTAH or VIK-TAR ˈviktɑ vik tar
W WHISKEY WISS key WISS KEY WISSKEY or WISS-KEY ˈwiski ouiss ki
X X-RAY or XRAY EKS ray ECKS RAY ECKSRAY or ECKS-RAY ˈeksˈrei èkss ré
/ˈɛksreɪ/ _EKS-ray_ or /ˌɛksˈreɪ/ _EKS-RAY_
Y YANKEE YANG kee YANG KEY YANGKEY or YANG-KEY ˈjænki yang ki
Z ZULU ZOO luu ZOO LOO ZOOLOO or ZOO-LOO ˈzuːluː zou lou
- (hyphen) DASH
DIGIT CODE WORD PRONUNCIATION SIO TRANSCRIPTION
0 Zero (FAA, USMC) Nadazero (ITU, IMO) ZE-RO (ICAO), ZE RO or ZEE-RO (FAA) NAH-DAH-ZAY-ROH (ITU, IMO) zi ro /ˈziːroʊ/ _ZEE-roh_ /ˌnɑːˌdɑːˌzeɪˈroʊ/ _NAH-DAH-ZAY-ROH_
1 One (FAA), Won (USMC) Unaone (ITU, IMO) WUN (ICAO, FAA) OO-NAH-WUN (ITU, IMO) ouann /ˈwʌn/ _WUN_ /ˌuːˌnɑːˈwʌn/ _OO-NAH-WUN_
2 Two (FAA), Too (USMC) Bissotwo (ITU, IMO) TOO (ICAO, FAA) BEES-SOH-TOO (ITU, IMO) tou /ˈtuː/ _TOO_ /ˌbiːˌsoʊˈtuː/ _BEE-SOH-TOO_
3 Three (FAA), Tree (USMC) Terrathree (ITU, IMO) TREE (ICAO, FAA) TAY-RAH-TREE (ITU, IMO) tri /ˈtriː/ _TREE_ /ˌteɪˌrɑːˈtriː/ _TAY-RAH-TREE_
4 Four (FAA), Fo-wer (USMC) Kartefour (ITU, IMO) FOW-ER (ICAO), FOW ER (FAA) KAR-TAY-FOWER (ITU, IMO) fo eur /ˈfoʊ.ər/ _FOH-ər_ /ˌkɑːrˌteɪˈfoʊ.ər/ _KAR-TAY-FOH-ər_
5 Five (FAA), Fife (USMC) Pantafive (ITU, IMO) FIFE (ICAO, FAA) PAN-TAH-FIVE (ITU, IMO) fa ïf /ˈfaɪf/ _FYF_ /ˌpænˌtɑːˈfaɪv/ _PAN-TAH-FYV_
6 Six (FAA, USMC) Soxisix (ITU, IMO) SIX (ICAO, FAA) SOK-SEE-SIX (ITU, IMO) siks /ˈsɪks/ _SIKS_ /ˌsɔːkˌsiːˈsɪks/ _SOK-SEE-SIKS_
7 Seven (FAA, USMC) Setteseven (ITU, IMO) SEV-EN (ICAO), SEV EN (FAA) SAY-TAY-SEVEN (ITU, IMO) sèv n /ˈsɛvɛn/ _SEV-en_ /ˌseɪˌteɪˈsɛvɛn/ _SAY-TAY-SEV-en_
8 Eight (FAA), Ate (USMC) Oktoeight (ITU, IMO) AIT (ICAO, FAA) OK-TOH-AIT (ITU, IMO) eït /ˈeɪt/ _AYT_ /ˌɔːkˌtoʊˈeɪt/ _OK-TOH-AYT_
9 Niner (FAA, USMC) Nine _or_ niner (ICAO) Novenine (ITU, IMO) NIN-ER (ICAO), NIN ER (FAA) NO-VAY-NINER (ITU, IMO) naï neu /ˈnaɪnər/ _NY-nər_ /ˌnɔːvˌeɪˈnaɪnər/ _NOV-AY-NY-nər_
100 Hundred (ICAO) HUN-dred (ICAO) hun-dred /ˈhʌndrɛd/ _HUN-dred_
1000 Thousand (ICAO) TOU-SAND (ICAO) taou zend /ˌtaʊˈsænd/ _TOW-ZEND_
. (decimal point) Point (FAA) Decimal (ITU, ICAO) DAY-SEE-MAL (ITU) (ICAO) dè si mal /ˌdeɪˌsiːˈmæl/ _DAY-SEE-MAL_
. (full stop) Stop (ITU) STOP (ITU)
Pronunciations are somewhat uncertain because the agencies, while ostensibly using the same pronunciations, give different transcriptions, which are often inconsistent from letter to letter. The ICAO gives a different pronunciation for IPA transcription and for respelling, and the FAA also gives different pronunciations depending on the publication consulted, the _FAA Aeronautical Information Manual_ (§ 4-2-7), the FAA _Flight Services_ manual (§ 14.1.5), or the _ATC_ manual (§ 2-4-16). ATIS gives English spellings, but does not give pronunciations or numbers. The ICAO, NATO, and FAA use modifications of English numerals, with stress on one syllable, while the ITU and IMO compound pseudo-Latinate numerals with a slightly different set of modified English numerals, and with stress on each syllable. Numbers 10–99 are spelled out (that is, 17 is "1–7" and 60 is "6–0"), while for hundreds and thousands the English words _hundred_ and _thousand_ are used.
The pronunciation of the digits 3, 4, 5, and 9 differs from standard English – being pronounced _tree_, _fower_, _fife_, and _niner_. The digit 3 is specified as _tree_ so that it is not pronounced _sri_; the long pronunciation of 4 (still found in some English dialects) keeps it somewhat distinct from _for_; 5 is pronounced with a second "f" because the normal pronunciation with a "v" is easily confused with "fire" (a command to shoot); and 9 has an extra syllable to keep it distinct from German _nein_ 'no'.
Only the ICAO prescribes pronunciation with the IPA , and then only for letters. Several of the pronunciations indicated are slightly modified from their normal English pronunciations: /ˈælfɑ, ˈbrɑːˈvo, ˈʃɑːli, ˈdeltɑ, ˈfɔkstrɔt, ɡʌlf, ˈliːmɑ, ˈɔskɑ, siˈerɑ, ˈtænɡo, ˈuːnifɔrm, ˈviktɑ, ˈjænki/, partially due to the substitution of final schwas with the _ah_ vowel; in addition, the intended distinction between the short vowels /o ɑ ɔ/ and the long vowels /oː ɑː ɔː/ is obscure, and has been ignored in the consolidated transcription above. Both the IPA and respelled pronunciations were developed by the ICAO before 1956 with advice from the governments of both the United States and United Kingdom, so the pronunciations of both General American English and British Received Pronunciation are evident, especially in the rhotic and non-rhotic accents . The respelled version is usually at least consistent with a rhotic accent ('r' pronounced), as in CHAR LEE, SHAR LEE, NO VEM BER, YOU NEE FORM, and OO NEE FORM, whereas the IPA version usually specifies a non-rhotic accent ('r' pronounced only before a vowel), as in ˈtʃɑːli, ˈʃɑːli, noˈvembə, and ˈjuːnifɔːm. Exceptions are OSS CAH, VIK TAH and ˈuːnifɔrm. The IPA form of _Golf_ implies it is pronounced _gulf_, which is not either General American English or British Received Pronunciation. Different agencies assign different stress patterns to _Bravo, Hotel, Juliett, November, Papa, X-ray_; the ICAO has different stresses for _Bravo, Juliett, X-ray_ in its respelled and IPA transcriptions. The mid back vowel transcribed in _Oscar_ and _Foxtrot_ is actually a low vowel in both Received British and General American, and has been interpreted as such above. Furthermore, the pronunciation prescribed for "whiskey" has no initial , although some speakers in both General American and RP pronounce an (or ) here, and an initial (or ) is categorical in Scotland and Ireland.
Military alphabets before 1956
ROYAL NAVY Western Front slang RAF radio alphabet Joint Army(Air Corps)/Navy(Marines)
1914–18 (WWI ) 1924–42 1943–56 1941–56
Apples Ack Ace Able _or_ Affirm Able
Butter Beer Baker
Duff Don Dog
Freddy Freddie Fox
George Gee George
Ink Item _or_ Interrogatory Item
Johnnie Jig _or_ Johnny Jig
Monkey Emma Monkey Mike
Nuts Nab _or_ Negat Nan
Pudding Pip Peter _or_ Prep Peter
Sugar Esses Sugar
Tommy Toc Tare
Vinegar Vic Victor
Yellow Yorker Yoke
ROYAL NAVY Western Front slang RAF 1924–42 RAF 1943–56 Joint Army/Navy
The first internationally recognized spelling alphabet was adopted by the ITU during 1927. The experience gained with that alphabet resulted in several changes being made during 1932 by the ITU. The resulting alphabet was adopted by the International Commission for Air Navigation, the predecessor of the ICAO , and was used for civil aviation until World War II. It continued to be used by the IMO until 1965:
Amsterdam, Baltimore, Casablanca, Denmark, Edison, Florida, Gallipoli, Havana, Italia, Jerusalem, Kilogramme, Liverpool, Madagascar, New York, Oslo, Paris, Quebec, Roma, Santiago, Tripoli, Upsala, Valencia, Washington, Xanthippe, Yokohama, Zurich
British and American armed forces had each developed their spelling alphabets before both forces adopted the ICAO alphabet during 1956. British forces adopted the RAF radio alphabet , which is similar to the phonetic alphabet used by the Royal Navy during World War I. At least two of the terms are sometimes still used by UK civilians to spell words over the phone, namely _F for Freddie_ and _S for Sugar_.
The U.S. adopted the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet during 1941 to standardize systems among all branches of its armed forces. The U.S. alphabet became known as _Able Baker_ after the words for A and B. The United Kingdom adapted its RAF alphabet during 1943 to be almost identical to the American Joint-Army-Navy (JAN) one.
After World War II, with many aircraft and ground personnel from the allied armed forces, "Able Baker" continued to be used for civil aviation. But many sounds were unique to English, so an alternative "Ana Brazil" alphabet was used in Latin America. But the International Air Transport Association (IATA), recognizing the need for a single universal alphabet, presented a draft alphabet to the ICAO during 1947 that had sounds common to English, French, Spanish and Portuguese. After further study and modification by each approving body, the revised alphabet was implemented on 1 November 1951 for civil aviation (but it may not have been adopted by any military):
Alfa, Bravo, Coca, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Metro, Nectar, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Union, Victor, Whisky, Extra, Yankee, Zulu
Problems were soon found with this list. Some users believed that they were so severe that they reverted to the old "Able Baker" alphabet. To identify the deficiencies of the new alphabet, testing was conducted among speakers from 31 nations, principally by the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States. Confusion among words like _Delta_, _Nectar_, _Victor_, and _Extra_, or the unintelligibility of other words during poor receiving conditions were the main problems. After much study, only the five words representing the letters C, M, N, U, and X were replaced. The ICAO sent a recording of the new _Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet_ to all member states in November 1955. The final version given in the table above was implemented by the ICAO on 1 March 1956, and the ITU adopted it no later than 1959 when they mandated its usage via their official publication, _Radio Regulations_. Because the ITU governs all international radio communications, it was also adopted by all radio operators, whether military, civilian, or amateur . It was finally adopted by the IMO in 1965. During 1947 the ITU adopted the compound number words (_Nadazero_, _Unaone_, etc.), later adopted by the IMO during 1965.
A spelling alphabet is used to spell parts of a message containing letters and numbers to avoid confusion, because many letters sound similar, for instance "n" and "m" or "f" and "s"; the potential for confusion increases if static or other interference is present. For instance the message "proceed to map grid DH98" could be transmitted as "proceed to map grid Delta-Hotel-Niner-Ait". Using "Delta" instead of "D" avoids confusion between "DH98" and "BH98" or "TH98". The unusual pronunciation of certain numbers was designed to reduce confusion.
In addition to the traditional military usage, civilian industry uses the alphabet to avoid similar problems in the transmission of messages by telephone systems. For example, it is often used in the retail industry where customer or site details are spoken by telephone (to authorize a credit agreement or confirm stock codes), although ad hoc coding is often used in that instance. It has been used often by information technology workers to communicate serial/reference codes (which are often very long) or other specialised information by voice. Most major airlines use the alphabet to communicate Passenger Name Records (PNRs) internally, and in some cases, with customers. It is often used in a medical context as well, to avoid confusion when transmitting information.
Several letter codes and abbreviations using the spelling alphabet have become well-known, such as Bravo Zulu (letter code BZ) for "well done", Checkpoint Charlie (Checkpoint C) in Berlin, and Zulu Time for Greenwich Mean Time or Coordinated Universal Time . During the Vietnam War , the U.S. government referred to the Viet Cong guerrillas and the group itself as VC, or Victor Charlie; the name "Charlie" became synonymous with this force.
* "Delta" is replaced by "Data", "Dixie" or "David" at airports that have a majority of Delta Air Lines flights, such as Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport , in order to avoid confusion because "Delta" is also Delta's callsign.
* As early as 1928, the U.S. public was taught to use the following list when composing telegrams:
Adam, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Edward, Frank, George, Henry, Ida, John, King, Lincoln, Mary, New York, Ocean, Peter, Queen, Roger, Sugar, Thomas, Union, , William, X-Ray, Young, Zero
Many unofficial spelling alphabets are in use that are not based on a standard, but are based on words the transmitter can remember easily, including first names , states, or cities. The LAPD phonetic alphabet has many first names. The German spelling alphabet ("Deutsches Funkalphabet" (literally "German Radio Alphabet")) also uses first names. Also, during the Vietnam war, soldiers used 'Cain' instead of 'Charlie' because 'Charlie' meant Viet Cong (Charlie being short for Victor Charlie, the NATO alphabet spelling of the initials VC).
ADDITIONS IN OTHER LANGUAGES
Certain languages' standard alphabets have letters, or letters with diacritics (e.g., umlauts , rings , tildes ), that do not exist in the English alphabet. If these letters have two-letter ASCII substitutes, the ICAO/ NATO code words for the two letters are used.
In Spanish the word "Ñoño" (dull) is used for ñ .
GERMAN AND SWEDISH
In German , _Alfa-Echo_ (ae) may be used for "ä ", _Oscar-Echo_ (oe) for "ö ", _Sierra-Sierra_ (ss) for " ß ", and _Uniform-Echo_ (ue) for "ü ". The same applies to "ä " and "ö " in Swedish , though _Ärlig_ and _Östen_, from the Swedish spelling alphabet, are also used; similarly, _Åke_ may be used for "å ".
DANISH AND NORWEGIAN
In Danish and Norwegian the letters "æ ", "ø " and "å " have their own code words. In Danish _Ægir_, _Ødis_ and _Åse_ represent the three letters, while in Norwegian the three code words are _Ægir_, _Ørnulf_ and _Ågot_ for civilians and _Ærlig_, _Østen_ and _Åse_ for military personnel.
Czech "ů ", historically _uo_, is _Uniform-Oscar_ (uo).
In Finnish there are special code words for the letters _å_, _ä_ and _ö_. _Åke_ is used to represent _å_, _Äiti_ is used for _ä_ and _Öljy_ for _ö_. These code words are used only in national operations, the last remnants of the Finnish radio alphabet .
Estonian has 4 special letters, _õ_, _ä_, _ö_ and _ü_. _Õnne_ represents _õ_, _Ärni_ for _ä_, _Ööbik_ for _ö_ and _Ülle_ for _ü_.
Malay replaces letter "L" with "London", since the word "Lima" in Malay means number 5 (five).
* Greek spelling alphabet * International Code of Signals (includes flag representations) * LAPD phonetic alphabet * List of military time zones * PGP word list * Procedure word * Q code * Russian spelling alphabet * Spelling alphabet * Ten-code * Voice procedure
* ^ http://www.icao.int/Pages/AlphabetRadiotelephony.aspx * ^ Spelling out words Accessed 20 July 2015 * ^ _International Code of Signals_, United States Edition, 1969 Edition (Revised 2003), Chapter 1, pages 18–19, 148. * ^ "Globalization and Sea Power". Isn.ethz.ch. Retrieved 2014-08-11. * ^ Communication instructions – General, Allied Communications Publication ACP 121(H), Combined Communications-Electronics Board, April 2007, section 318 * ^ "The postal History of the ICAO". ICAO. Retrieved 2 July 2016. * ^ "Alphabet – Radiotelephony". ICAO. Retrieved 29 August 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions ATIS-0100523.2011, ATIS Telecom Glossary 2011". Atis.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Pamphlet included in the 1955 ICAO phonograph recording, viewable at _The Postal History of ICAO,_ Annex 10 – Aeronautical Telecommunications * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ International Civil Aviation Organization, _Aeronautical Telecommunications: Annex 10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation_, Volume II (Fifth edition, 1995), Chapter 5, 38–40. * ^ "Military phonetic alphabet by US Army". Army.com. 2014-03-14. Retrieved 2014-08-11. * ^ _A_ _B_ "ITU Phonetic Alphabet and Figure Code". Life.itu.ch. Retrieved 22 August 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ " ICAO Phonetics in the FAA _ATC Manual_, §2-4-16". Federal Aviation Administration . 11 February 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Phonetic alphabet in the \'\'FAA Aeronautical Information Manual\'\', §4-2-7". Faa.gov. Retrieved 2014-08-11. * ^ _A_ _B_ Service de l'Information Aéronautique, _Radiotéléphonie_, 2nd edition, 2006 * ^ _A_ _B_ The audio recording, available on airwaysmuseum.com does not follow the details of the ICAO transcription. Apart from the dual pronunciations of _Charlie_ and _Uniform_, the speaker uses the normal English pronunciations of the code words. * ^ The ITU and ICAO (romanized) transcribe this as /nɔːˈvɛmbər/ _naw-VEM-bər_ , presumably an error. * ^ "RP 0506 – Field Communication" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-11. * ^ The pronunciation "fife" is required. Failure to use this pronunciation has resulted in '5' being misheard as '9'. (McMillan, 1998, "Miscommunications in Air Traffic Control") * ^ Transcribed as if it were /ˈnɪnər/ _NIN-ər_ , but this pronunciation is never used. * ^ Transcribed as if it rhymed with _sand_, but this pronunciation is never used. * ^ " ICAO phonetic alphabet by Canada". Tc.gc.ca. 20 May 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ L.J. Rose, "Aviation's ABC: The development of the ICAO spelling alphabet", _ ICAO Bulletin_ 11/2 (1956) 12–14. * ^ International Telecommunication Union, "Appendix 16: Phonetic Alphabet and Figure Code", _Radio Regulations_ (Geneva, 1959) 430–431. * ^ "Where does the term "Bravo Zulu" originate?". 6 March 2005. Archived from the original on 6 March 2005. Retrieved 22 August 2010. * ^ Civil Aviation Authority, "Aircraft Call Sign Confusion Evaluation Safety Study", April 2000 * ^ "How to Write Telegrams Properly". * ^ "Sambandsregelmente för Försvarsmakten, Telefoni – HKV 12800: 70799" dated 26 June 2006. * ^ "Svenska bokstaveringsalfabetet" (in Swedish). Retrieved 30 December 2016. * ^ "Det fonetiske alfabet". Glemsom.dk. Retrieved 2014-08-11. * ^ "Internasjonalt alfabet for radiokommunikasjon". Aktivioslo.no. 2013-01-24. Retrieved 2014-08-11. * ^ _Sotilaan käsikirja 2013_ (PDF). Puolustusvoimat. 2013. p. 205. ISBN 978-951-25-2463-1 .
_ Look up ICAO SPELLING ALPHABET _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.