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The terms MUSLIM WORLD and ISLAMIC WORLD commonly refer to the unified Islamic community ( Ummah ), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam
Islam
, or to societies where Islam
Islam
is practiced. In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam
Islam
is widespread , although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion.

The history of the Muslim
Muslim
world spans about 1400 years and includes a variety of socio-political developments, as well as advances in the arts, science, philosophy, and technology, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age . All Muslims look for guidance to the Quran
Quran
and believe in the prophetic mission of Muhammad
Muhammad
, but disagreements on other matters have led to appearance of different religious schools and branches within Islam. In the modern era, most of the Muslim
Muslim
world came under influence or colonial domination of European powers. The nation states that emerged in the post-colonial era have adopted a variety of political and economic models, and they have been affected by secular and as well as religious trends.

As of 2015, over 1.7 billion or about 23% of the world population are Muslims including the 4% who live as minorities. By the percentage of the total population in a region considering themselves Muslim, 91% in the Middle East
Middle East
-North Africa
Africa
(MENA ), 89% in Central Asia
Asia
, 40% in Southeast Asia
Asia
, 31% in South Asia
Asia
, 30% in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
, 25% in Asia
Asia
–Oceania , around 6% in Europe
Europe
, and 1% in the Americas .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Classical culture

* 1.1.1 Ceramics * 1.1.2 Literature * 1.1.3 Philosophy * 1.1.4 Sciences * 1.1.5 Technology

* 1.2 Gunpowder Empires

* 1.3 Great Divergence

* 1.3.1 Colonialism

* 1.4 Countries gaining independence

* 2 Contemporary developments

* 2.1 Muslim
Muslim
cultures today * 2.2 Globalization
Globalization

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Countries with the largest Muslim
Muslim
populations (2010)

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Religion

* 4.1.1 Islamic schools and branches * 4.1.2 Geographical distribution

* 4.2 Refugees

* 5 Education

* 5.1 Literacy * 5.2 Scholarship

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Regional economies

* 6.1.1 Western Muslim
Muslim
economies * 6.1.2 African Muslim
Muslim
economies * 6.1.3 Near East and Southwest Muslim
Muslim
economies

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Arts

* 7.1.1 Architecture * 7.1.2 Aniconism
Aniconism
* 7.1.3 Arabesque * 7.1.4 Girih * 7.1.5 Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy

* 7.2 Calendar

* 7.2.1 Islamic lunar calendar * 7.2.2 Solar Hijri calendar

* 8 Organizations

* 9 Government

* 9.1 Democracy and compulsion indexes

* 9.2 Religion and state

* 9.2.1 Islamic states * 9.2.2 State religion * 9.2.3 Unclear / No Declaration * 9.2.4 Secular states

* 9.3 Law and ethics

* 9.4 Politics

* 9.4.1 Islamism

* 10 List of conflicts in Muslim
Muslim
world * 11 Gallery * 12 See also * 13 Notes * 14 References * 15 External links

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Islam
Islam
and Timeline of Islamic history
Timeline of Islamic history
The Tabula Rogeriana , drawn by Al-Idrisi in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps . Al-Idrisi also wrote about the diverse Muslim
Muslim
communities found in various lands.

Muslim
Muslim
history involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. The history of Islam
Islam
began in the Arabian peninsula when the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
received the first revelation of the Quran
Quran
in the 7th century in the cave of Hira in the month of Ramadan . He was commanded by Allah to convey this message to the people and to be patient with those who became very hostile to it, especially the leaders of Quraysh who did not like the call of tawhid and abolishing idolatry . After 13 years of spreading this message despite increased persecution by the Quraysh, the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and his followers migrated to Medina
Medina
to establish a new state under the Prophet's leadership and away from persecution. This migration, called the Hijra , marks the first year of the Islamic calendar . Islam
Islam
then spread to the entire Arabian Peninsula over the course of the Prophet's life.

After the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
died, his successors (the Caliphs ) continued to lead the Muslim
Muslim
community based on his teachings and guidelines of the Quran. The majority of Muslims consider the first fours successors to be 'rightly guided' or Rashidun . Islam
Islam
under the Rashidun Caliphate grew rapidly. Geographic expansion of Muslim
Muslim
power extended well beyond the Arabian Peninsula in the form of a vast Muslim
Muslim
Empire with an area of influence that stretched from northwest India, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, and the Iberian Peninsula , to the Pyrenees .

A century after the death of last Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
, the Islamic empire extended from Spain
Spain
in the west to Indus
Indus
in the east. The subsequent empires such as those of the Abbasids
Abbasids
, Fatimids
Fatimids
, Almoravids
Almoravids
, Seljukids , Ajuran , Adal and Warsangali in Somalia
Somalia
, Mughals in the Indian subcontinent ( India
India
, Bangladesh , Afghanistan e.t.c), Safavids in Persia
Persia
and Ottomans in Anatolia were among the influential and distinguished powers in the world.

CLASSICAL CULTURE

Main article: Islamic Golden Age

*

Battle of Jabani (Shirvanshahs-Turkic culture ) *

Shah
Shah
of Safavid
Safavid
Empire Abbas I meet with Vali Muhammad
Muhammad
Khan (Safavid Turkic culture ) *

Mir Sayyid Ali, a scholar writing a commentary on the Quran
Quran
, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah
Shah
Jahan (Indian culture). *

Portrait of a painter during the reign of Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Mehmet II ( Turkish culture ). *

A Persian miniature
Persian miniature
of Shah
Shah
Abu'l Ma‘ali, a scholar (Ghaznavids-Turkic culture ) *

Ilkhanate Empire ruler, Ghazan
Ghazan
, studying the Quran
Quran
(Azerbaijani culture ). *

Azerbaijani love story Layla and Majnun studying together, from a Persian miniature
Persian miniature
painting ( Turko-Persian culture ).

The Islamic Golden Age coincided with the Middle Ages in the Muslim world, starting with the rise of Islam
Islam
and establishment of the first Islamic state in 622. The end of the age is variously given as 1258 with the Mongolian Sack of Baghdad , or 1492 with the completion of the Christian Reconquista of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
, Iberian Peninsula . During the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun ar-Rashid (786 to 809), the legendary House of Wisdom was inaugurated in Baghdad
Baghdad
where scholars from various parts of the world sought to translate and gather all the known world's knowledge into Arabic. The Abbasids
Abbasids
were influenced by the Quranic injunctions and hadiths, such as "the ink of a scholar is more holy than the blood of a martyr," that stressed the value of knowledge. The major Islamic capital cities of Baghdad, Cairo
Cairo
, and Córdoba became the main intellectual centers for science, philosophy, medicine, and education. During this period, the Muslim
Muslim
world was a collection of cultures; they drew together and advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient Greek , Roman , Persian , Chinese , Indian , Egyptian , and Phoenician civilizations.

Ceramics

Further information: Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam
Islam
A Seljuq , shatranj (chess ) set, glazed fritware , 12th century.

Between the 8th and 18th centuries, the use of ceramic glaze was prevalent in Islamic art, usually assuming the form of elaborate pottery . Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra
Basra
, dating to around the 8th century . Another contribution was the development of fritware , originating from 9th century Iraq. Other centers for innovative ceramic pottery in the Old world included Fustat (from 975 to 1075), Damascus
Damascus
(from 1100 to around 1600) and Tabriz (from 1470 to 1550).

Literature

Main article: Islamic literature
Islamic literature
Further information: Islamic poetry

*

Hadiqatus-suada by popular Azerbaijani Oghuz poetry Fuzûlî *

The story of Princess Parizade and the Magic Tree. *

Ali Baba
Ali Baba
by Maxfield Parrish
Maxfield Parrish
. *

The Magic carpet .

The best known work of fiction from the Islamic world is One Thousand and One Nights (In Persian: hezār-o-yek šab > Arabic: ʔalf-layl-at-wa-l’-layla= One thousand Night and (one) Night) or * Arabian Nights , a name invented by early Western translators, which is a compilation of folk tales from Sanskrit , Persian, and later Arabian fables . The original concept is derived from a pre-Islamic Persian prototype HEZāR AFSāN (Thousand Fables) that relied on particular Indian elements . It reached its final form by the 14th century; the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another. All Arabian fantasy tales tend to be called Arabian Nights stories when translated into English, regardless of whether they appear in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights
One Thousand and One Nights
or not. This work has been very influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by Antoine Galland
Antoine Galland
. Imitations were written, especially in France. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture , such as Aladdin , Sinbad the Sailor
Sinbad the Sailor
and Ali Baba
Ali Baba
.

A famous example of Arabic poetry
Arabic poetry
and Persian poetry on romance (love) is Layla and Majnun , dating back to the Umayyad era in the 7th century. It is a tragic story of undying love much like the later Romeo and Juliet , which was itself said to have been inspired by a Latin version of Layla and Majnun to an extent. Ferdowsi 's Shahnameh , the national epic of Iran
Iran
, is a mythical and heroic retelling of Persian history . Amir Arsalan was also a popular mythical Persian story, which has influenced some modern works of fantasy fiction, such as The Heroic Legend of Arslan
The Heroic Legend of Arslan
.

Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) and Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
were pioneers of the philosophical novel . Ibn Tufail wrote the first Arabic
Arabic
novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan ( Philosophus Autodidactus ) as a response to Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
's The Incoherence of the Philosophers , and then Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
also wrote a novel Theologus Autodidactus as a response to Ibn Tufail's Philosophus Autodidactus. Both of these narratives had protagonists (Hayy in Philosophus Autodidactus and Kamil in Theologus Autodidactus ) who were autodidactic feral children living in seclusion on a desert island , both being the earliest examples of a desert island story. However, while Hayy lives alone with animals on the desert island for the rest of the story in Philosophus Autodidactus, the story of Kamil extends beyond the desert island setting in Theologus Autodidactus, developing into the earliest known coming of age plot and eventually becoming the first example of a science fiction novel.

Theologus Autodidactus, written by the Arabian polymath Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288), is the first example of a science fiction novel. It deals with various science fiction elements such as spontaneous generation , futurology , the end of the world and doomsday , resurrection , and the afterlife . Rather than giving supernatural or mythological explanations for these events, Ibn al-Nafis attempted to explain these plot elements using the scientific knowledge of biology , astronomy , cosmology and geology known in his time. Ibn al-Nafis' fiction explained Islamic religious teachings via science and Islamic philosophy .

A Latin translation of Ibn Tufail's work, Philosophus Autodidactus, first appeared in 1671, prepared by Edward Pococke the Younger, followed by an English translation by Simon Ockley in 1708, as well as German and Dutch translations. These translations might have later inspired Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
to write Robinson Crusoe
Robinson Crusoe
, regarded as the first novel in English . Philosophus Autodidactus, continuing the thoughts of philosophers such as Aristotle
Aristotle
from earlier ages, inspired Robert Boyle to write his own philosophical novel set on an island, The Aspiring Naturalist.

Dante Alighieri 's Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
, derived features of and episodes about Bolgia from Arabic
Arabic
works on Islamic eschatology : the Hadith and the Kitab al-Miraj (translated into Latin in 1264 or shortly before as Liber Scale Machometi ) concerning the ascension to Heaven of Muhammad, and the spiritual writings of Ibn Arabi . The Moors also had a noticeable influence on the works of George Peele
George Peele
and William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
. Some of their works featured Moorish characters, such as Peele's The Battle of Alcazar and Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice
Venice
, Titus Andronicus
Titus Andronicus
and Othello
Othello
, which featured a Moorish Othello
Othello
as its title character. These works are said to have been inspired by several Moorish delegations from Morocco
Morocco
to Elizabethan England
England
at the beginning of the 17th century.

Philosophy

Main article: Contemporary Islamic philosophy Further information: Logic in Islamic philosophy and Ilm al- Kalam
Kalam
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Muslim
Muslim
polymath from Spain
Spain
.

One of the common definitions for "Islamic philosophy" is "the style of philosophy produced within the framework of Islamic culture ." Islamic philosophy, in this definition is neither necessarily concerned with religious issues, nor is exclusively produced by Muslims. The Persian scholar Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980–1037) had more than 450 books attributed to him. His writings were concerned with various subjects, most notably philosophy and medicine. His medical textbook The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine
was used as the standard text in European universities for centuries. He also wrote The Book of Healing , an influential scientific and philosophical encyclopedia.

One of the most influential Muslim
Muslim
philosophers in the West was Averroes (Ibn Rushd), founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, whose works and commentaries affected the rise of secular thought in Europe. He also developed the concept of "existence precedes essence ".

Another figure from the Islamic Golden Age , Avicenna, also founded his own Avicennism school of philosophy, which was influential in both Islamic and Christian lands. He was also a critic of Aristotelian logic and founder of Avicennian logic, developed the concepts of empiricism and tabula rasa , and distinguished between essence and existence .

Yet another influential philosopher who had an influence on modern philosophy was Ibn Tufail . His philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdha , translated into Latin as Philosophus Autodidactus in 1671, developed the themes of empiricism, tabula rasa, nature versus nurture , condition of possibility , materialism , and Molyneux\'s problem . European scholars and writers influenced by this novel include John Locke , Gottfried Leibniz , Melchisédech Thévenot , John Wallis
John Wallis
, Christiaan Huygens
Christiaan Huygens
, George Keith , Robert Barclay , the Quakers , and Samuel Hartlib .

Islamic philosophers continued making advances in philosophy through to the 17th century, when Mulla Sadra
Mulla Sadra
founded his school of Transcendent theosophy and developed the concept of existentialism .

Other influential Muslim
Muslim
philosophers include al-Jahiz , a pioneer in evolutionary thought; Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), a pioneer of phenomenology and the philosophy of science and a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy and Aristotle's concept of place (topos); Al-Biruni , a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy; Ibn Tufail and Ibn al-Nafis, pioneers of the philosophical novel; Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi , founder of Illuminationist philosophy ; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi , a critic of Aristotelian logic and a pioneer of inductive logic ; and Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
, a pioneer in the philosophy of history .

Sciences

Main article: Timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world See also: Physics in medieval Islam
Islam
, Psychology in medieval Islam
Islam
, Mathematics in medieval Islam
Islam
, Astronomy in medieval Islam
Islam
, and Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam
Islam

SCIENCES

*

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
's Astrolabe
Astrolabe
. (13th century) *

One of Mansur ibn Ilyas ( Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
era) colored illustrations of human anatomy.

*

Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi 's Kitab al-Tasrif Surgical instruments illustrations. (11th century) *

A self-trimming lamp from Banū Mūsā
Banū Mūsā
's work On Mechanical Devices on Automation .

*

An illustration from al-Biruni 's astronomical works, explains the different phases of the moon . *

The Elephant Clock
Elephant Clock
was one of the most famous inventions of Al-Jazari.

*

"Cubic equations and intersections of conic sections", of Omar Khayyam . *

Lagâri Hasan Çelebi 's rocket flight depicted in a 17th-century engraving.

Muslim
Muslim
scientists contributed to advances in the sciences. They placed far greater emphasis on experiment than had the Greeks . This led to an early scientific method being developed in the Muslim
Muslim
world, where progress in methodology was made, beginning with the experiments of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) on optics from circa 1000, in his Book of Optics
Optics
. The most important development of the scientific method was the use of experiments to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation, which began among Muslim
Muslim
scientists . Ibn al-Haytham is also regarded as the father of optics, especially for his empirical proof of the intromission theory of light. Some have also described Ibn al-Haytham as the "first scientist." al-Khwarzimi 's invented the log base systems that are being used today, he also contributed theorems in trigonometry as well as limits. Recent studies show that it is very likely that the Medieval Muslim
Muslim
artists were aware of advanced decagonal quasicrystal geometry (discovered half a millennium later in the 1970s and 1980s in the West) and used it in intricate decorative tilework in the architecture.

Muslim
Muslim
physicians contributed to the field of medicine, including the subjects of anatomy and physiology : such as in the 15th century Persian work by Mansur ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Faqih Ilyas entitled Tashrih al-badan ( Anatomy
Anatomy
of the body) which contained comprehensive diagrams of the body's structural, nervous and circulatory systems ; or in the work of the Egyptian physician Ibn al-Nafis, who proposed the theory of pulmonary circulation . Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine remained an authoritative medical textbook in Europe
Europe
until the 18th century. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (also known as Abulcasis) contributed to the discipline of medical surgery with his Kitab al-Tasrif ("Book of Concessions"), a medical encyclopedia which was later translated to Latin and used in European and Muslim
Muslim
medical schools for centuries. Other medical advancements came in the fields of pharmacology and pharmacy .

In astronomy, Muḥammad ibn Jābir al-Ḥarrānī al-Battānī improved the precision of the measurement of the precession of the Earth\'s axis . The corrections made to the geocentric model by al-Battani, Averroes, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
, Mu\'ayyad al-Din al-\'Urdi and Ibn al-Shatir were later incorporated into the Copernican heliocentric model. Heliocentric theories were also discussed by several other Muslim
Muslim
astronomers such as Al-Biruni, Al-Sijzi
Al-Sijzi
, Qotb al-Din Shirazi , and Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī . The astrolabe , though originally developed by the Greeks, was perfected by Islamic astronomers and engineers, and was subsequently brought to Europe.

Some most famous scientists from the medieval Islamic world include Jābir ibn Hayyān , al-Farabi , Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi , Ibn al-Haytham , Al-Biruni , Avicenna
Avicenna
, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
, and Ibn Khaldun .

Technology

The Spinning wheel
Spinning wheel
is believed to have been invented in the medieval era (of what is now the Greater Middle East ), it is considered to be an important device that contributed greatly to the advancement of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
. (scene from Al-Maqamat , painted by al-Wasiti 1237) Main articles: List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world and Arab Agricultural Revolution
Arab Agricultural Revolution

In technology, the Muslim
Muslim
world adopted papermaking from China. The knowledge of gunpowder was also transmitted from China
China
via Islamic countries, where formulas for pure potassium nitrate were developed.

Advances were made in irrigation and farming, using new technology such as the windmill . Crops such as almonds and citrus fruit were brought to Europe
Europe
through al-Andalus , and sugar cultivation was gradually adopted by the Europeans. Arab merchants dominated trade in the Indian Ocean until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century. Hormuz was an important center for this trade. There was also a dense network of trade routes in the Mediterranean , along which Muslim
Muslim
countries traded with each other and with European powers such as Venice
Venice
, Genoa
Genoa
and Catalonia
Catalonia
. The Silk Road crossing Central Asia passed through Muslim
Muslim
states between China
China
and Europe.

Muslim
Muslim
engineers in the Islamic world made a number of innovative industrial uses of hydropower , and early industrial uses of tidal power and wind power , fossil fuels such as petroleum, and early large factory complexes (tiraz in Arabic). The industrial uses of watermills in the Islamic world date back to the 7th century, while horizontal-wheeled and vertical-wheeled water mills were both in widespread use since at least the 9th century. A variety of industrial mills were being employed in the Islamic world, including early fulling mills, gristmills , hullers , sawmills , ship mills , stamp mills , steel mills , sugar mills , tide mills and windmills. By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from al-Andalus and North Africa
Africa
to the Middle East
Middle East
and Central Asia. Muslim
Muslim
engineers also invented crankshafts and water turbines , employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, and pioneered the use of dams as a source of water power, used to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. Such advances made it possible for industrial tasks that were previously driven by manual labour in ancient times to be mechanized and driven by machinery instead in the medieval Islamic world. The transfer of these technologies to medieval Europe
Europe
had an influence on the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
.

GUNPOWDER EMPIRES

Scholars often use the term Gunpowder Empires to describe the Islamic empires of the Safavid
Safavid
, Ottoman and Mughal . Each of these three empires had considerable military exploits using the newly developed firearms , especially cannon and small arms, to create their empires. They existed primarily between the fourteenth and the late seventeenth centuries.

*

Safavid
Safavid
Empire 's Zamburak
Zamburak
. *

Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Mughal Emperor Akbar
Akbar
's Siege of Ranthambore Fort in 1568. *

Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries in combat against the Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522. *

Cannons and guns belonging to the Aceh Sultanate (in modern Indonesia ).

GREAT DIVERGENCE

Main article: Great Divergence "Why do the Christian nations, which were so weak in the past compared with Muslim
Muslim
nations begin to dominate so many lands in modern times and even defeat the once victorious Ottoman armies?"..."Because they have laws and rules invented by reason" IBRAHIM MUTEFERRIKA , Rational basis for the Politics of Nations (1731)

The Great Divergence was the reason why European colonial powers militarily defeated preexisting Oriental powers like the Mughal Empire , Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and many smaller states in the pre-modern Greater Middle East
Middle East
, and initiated a period known as 'colonialism '.

*

Mughal Emperor Shah
Shah
Alam II negotiates with the British East India Company after being defeated during the Battle of Buxar . *

Siege of Ochakov (1788) , an armed conflict between the Ottomans and the Russian Tsardom
Tsardom
. *

Combat in the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(during the Russo-Persian Wars ).

Colonialism

Main articles: Colonial empire and Colonialism Map of colonial powers throughout the world in the year 1914 (note colonial powers in the pre-modern Muslim
Muslim
world).

Beginning with the 15th century, colonialism by European powers (particularly, but not exclusively, Britain , Spain
Spain
, Portugal
Portugal
, France
France
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Italy
Italy
, Germany
Germany
, Russia
Russia
, Austria
Austria
, and Belgium
Belgium
) profoundly affected Muslim
Muslim
societies in Africa
Africa
, Europe
Europe
, the Middle East
Middle East
and Asia
Asia
. Colonialism was often advanced by conflict with mercantile initiatives by colonial powers and caused tremendous social upheavals in Muslim
Muslim
societies.

Colonial powers commonly classified Muslim
Muslim
societies that were highly heterogeneous as monolithic, anti-modern and anti-intellectual.

A number of Muslim
Muslim
societies reacted to Western powers with zealotry and thus initiating the rise of Pan- Islamism ; or affirmed more traditionalist and inclusive cultural ideals; and in rare cases adopted modernity that was ushered by the colonial powers.

The only Muslim
Muslim
regions not to be colonized by the Europeans were Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, and Afghanistan.

COUNTRIES GAINING INDEPENDENCE

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Many disputes have occurred within the Muslim
Muslim
community regarding how to manage, organize and administer their respective countries.

CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENTS

*

Ceiling with Islamic patterns at the Museum of Islamic Art, Doha .

*

The Red Crescent is recognized in 33 countries. *

Azerbaijani scientist, founder of fuzzy mathematics, professor emeritus of computer science at the University of California, Berkeley . *

1001 Inventions project and its director Ahmed Salim . *

By the medieval era most of the countries on the Silk Road were Muslim
Muslim
majority. *

Muhammad
Muhammad
Yunus was awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
, for his concepts in Microcredit
Microcredit
and Microfinance .

MUSLIM CULTURES TODAY

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As of 2015 Islam
Islam
has 1.7 billion adherents, making up over 23.4% of the world population .

Throughout history Muslim
Muslim
cultures have been diverse ethically, linguistically and regionally. In the contemporary world Muslim cultures exist in Asia
Asia
, Africa
Africa
and Europe
Europe
in various countries where Muslims constitute a majority.

However, other Muslim
Muslim
cultures have also emerged in countries throughout the world where Muslims constitute the minority segments of the population.

GLOBALIZATION

Due to globalization , Islam
Islam
today has taken root and influenced cultures in places far from the traditional boundaries of the Muslim world.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: List of Muslim-majority countries

According to a 2010 study and released January 2011, Islam
Islam
has 1,5 billion adherents, making up over 22% of the world population. According to the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
in 2015 there were 50 Muslim-majority countries.

COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST MUSLIM POPULATIONS (2010)

Main article: List of countries by Muslim
Muslim
population

MUSLIM POPULATIONS

*

Turkmen girls.

*

Indonesia
Indonesia
is currently the most populous Muslim
Muslim
majority country. *

Silk and Spices Festival in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
.

*

Kazakh guard at Nowruz
Nowruz
celebrations in Astana
Astana
. *

Horseman in Kano
Kano
, Nigeria
Nigeria
, Durbar festival .

*

The weekly Jumu\'ah prayer ( Pristina
Pristina
, Kosovo
Kosovo
). *

Eid al-Fitr in Tajikistan .

In the following list, India, Nigeria, Ethiopia, China, Russia
Russia
and Philippines
Philippines
have large Muslim
Muslim
populations, but Muslims are not a majority in those countries. For other listed countries, the Muslim population has the overwhelming majority.

* Indonesia
Indonesia
204,847,000 (87% ) * Pakistan
Pakistan
178,097,000 (96%) * India
India
172,000,000 (14%) (2016) * Bangladesh 145,312,000 (90%) * Nigeria
Nigeria
75,728,000 (48%) * Iran
Iran
74,819,000 (100%) * Turkey
Turkey
74,660,000 (99%) * Egypt
Egypt
73,746,000 (90%) * Algeria
Algeria
34,780,000 (98%) * Morocco
Morocco
32,381,000 (99% ) * Iraq
Iraq
31,108,000 (99%) * Sudan
Sudan
30,855,000 (97%) * Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
30,770,375 (100%) * Afghanistan
Afghanistan
29,047,000 (100%) * Ethiopia
Ethiopia
28,721,000 (34%) * Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
26,833,000 (97%) * Yemen
Yemen
24,023,000 (99%) * China
China
23,308,000 (2%) * Syria
Syria
20,895,000 (93%) * Malaysia
Malaysia
17,139,000 (61%) * Russia
Russia
16,379,000 (12%) * Niger
Niger
15,627,000 (98%) * Philippines
Philippines
5,000,000 or 11,000,000 (5% or 11%) * Somalia
Somalia
10,864,733 (100%)

Muslims live in, but also have an official status in the following regions:

* Africa: North African countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, Libya
Libya
, Egypt
Egypt
, Sudan
Sudan
; Northeast African countries like Somalia
Somalia
, Tanzania , Eritrea , Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Djibouti
Djibouti
; and West African countries like Mali
Mali
, Senegal
Senegal
, The Gambia , Guinea
Guinea
, Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
, Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
, Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
, Niger
Niger
, Nigeria
Nigeria
, Chad , Mauritania
Mauritania
, Ghana , Ivory Coast , Cameroon , Liberia , Comoros , Togo and Benin * Asia: Central Asia
Asia
: Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan , Tajikistan , Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, Xinjiang ( China
China
) * Southwest Asia: Arab nations such as Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Iraq
Iraq
, Oman
Oman
, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Qatar
Qatar
, Bahrain
Bahrain
, Yemen
Yemen
, and non-Arab nations such as Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Turkey
Turkey
, Iran
Iran
and Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
. * South Asia: Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Bangladesh , and the Maldives . * Southeast Asia
Asia
: Indonesia
Indonesia
, Brunei , Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore . * East Asia: parts of China
China
( Ningxia ) * Europe: Albania
Albania
, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo
Kosovo
, Russia ( North Caucasus and Volga Region
Volga Region
) and Ukraine (especially in the Crimea
Crimea
)

The countries of Southwest Asia
Asia
and some in Northern and Northeastern Africa
Africa
are considered part of the Greater Middle East . In Chechnya , Dagestan , Kabardino-Balkaria , Karachay–Cherkessia , Ingushetia , Tatarstan , Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
in Russia, Muslims are in the majority.

Some definitions would also include the Muslim
Muslim
minorities in:

* several countries of Europe, of which the Muslim
Muslim
population in Albania, Austria
Austria
, Belgium
Belgium
, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria , Cyprus, France
France
, Georgia , Germany
Germany
, Italy
Italy
, Macedonia , Montenegro , Netherlands
Netherlands
, Russia
Russia
and Switzerland make up at least 5% of the total population of each of those countries, and with more than half of European Muslims, 28,071,000, living in France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the United Kingdom , * several regions of Russia, other than ethnic republics above ( Adygea , North Ossetia–Alania , etc.) * some parts of India
India
like Kashmir, Assam, West Bengal ( India
India
has the third-largest population of Muslims of any country) * Singapore , Burma (Myanmar) , Pattani (Thailand ), and Mindanao ( Philippines
Philippines
) * Guyana , Suriname , Trinidad and Tobago . * Democratic Republic of the Congo , Burundi , Malawi , South Africa , Cameroon , Central African Republic , Uganda , Ethiopia

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Muslim
Muslim
population growth View of Jakarta
Jakarta
, Indonesia
Indonesia
. The country has the largest number of Muslims in the world.

More than 23% of the world's population is Muslim. Current estimates conclude that the number of Muslims in the world is around 1.5 billion. Muslims are the majority in 49 countries, they speak hundreds of languages and come from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Major languages spoken by Muslims include Arabic
Arabic
, Bengali , Urdu , Punjabi , Malay , Javanese , Sundanese , Swahili , Hausa , Fula , Berber , Tuareg , Somali , Albanian , Spanish , Bosnian , Russian , Turkish , Azeri , Kazakh , Uzbek , Tatar , Persian , Kurdish , Pashto , Balochi , Sindhi and Kashmiri , among many others.

RELIGION

The two main denominations of Islam
Islam
are the Sunni and Shia sects. They differ primarily upon of how the life of the ummah ("faithful") should be governed, and the role of the imam . Sunnis believe that the true political successor of the Prophet according to the Sunnah should be selected based on ٍ Shura (consultation), as was done at the Saqifah which selected Abu Bakr , Muhammad's father-in-law, to be Muhammad's political but not his religious successor. Shia, on the other hand, believe that Muhammad
Muhammad
designated his son-in-law Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib as his true political as well as religious successor.

The overwhelming majority of Muslims in the world, between 87–90%, are Sunni.

Shias and other groups make up the rest, about 10–13% of overall Muslim
Muslim
population. The countries with the highest concentration of Shia populations are: Iran
Iran
– 96%, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
– 85%, Iraq
Iraq
– 60/70%, Bahrain
Bahrain
– 70%, Yemen
Yemen
– 47%, Turkey
Turkey
– 28%, Lebanon – 27%, Syria
Syria
– 17%, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
– 15%, Pakistan
Pakistan
– 25%, and India
India
– 5%.

The Kharijite Muslims, who are less known, have their own stronghold in the country of Oman
Oman
holding about 75% of the population.

Islamic Schools And Branches

Major schools and branches of Islam
Islam
(NB: Ja\'fari and Twelver boxes are interchanged) Main article: Islamic schools and branches

The first centuries of Islam
Islam
gave rise to three major sects : Sunnis , Shi\'as and Kharijites . Each sect developed distinct jurisprudence schools (madhhab ) reflecting different methodologies of jurisprudence (fiqh ).

The major Sunni madhhabs are Hanafi , Maliki , Shafi\'i , and Hanbali .

The major Shi\'a branches are Twelver (Imami), Ismaili (Sevener) and Zaidi (Fiver). Isma\'ilism later split into Nizari Ismaili and Musta’li Ismaili , and then Mustaali was divided into Hafizi and Taiyabi Ismailis . It also gave rise to the Qarmatian movement and the Druze
Druze
faith. Twelver Shiism developed Ja\'fari jurisprudence whose branches are Akhbarism and Usulism , and other movements such as Alawites , Shaykism and Alevism .

Similarly, Kharijites were initially divided into five major branches: Sufris , Azariqa , Najdat , Adjarites and Ibadis . Among these numerous branches, only Hanafi , Maliki , Shafi\'i , Hanbali , Imamiyyah -Ja\'fari - Usuli , Nizārī Ismā\'īlī , Alevi , Zaydi , Ibadi , Zahiri , Alawite , Druze
Druze
and Taiyabi communities have survived. In addition, new schools of thought and movements like Quranist Muslims , Ahmadi Muslims and African American Muslims later emerged independently.

Geographical Distribution

The main Islamic madh\'habs (schools of law) of Muslim
Muslim
countries or distributions A map of major denominations and religions of the world

REFUGEES

According to the UNHCR , Muslim
Muslim
countries hosted 18 million refugees by the end of 2010.

Since then Muslim
Muslim
nations have absorbed refugees from recent conflicts, including the uprising in Syria
Syria
. In July 2013, the UN stated that the number of Syrian refugees had exceeded 1.8 million.

EDUCATION

World map indicating literacy by country in 2013 (2013 UN Human Development Report and Individual statistics departments) Grey = no data

In many Muslim
Muslim
countries, illiteracy is a substantial problem. Low literacy rates in the Eastern Middle East
Middle East
countries and lack of educational initiatives are the cause of great social turbulence.

Seminary exist however many Madrassahs operated by renegade organizations have taken hold in the gap caused by the lack of basic education not provided and funded by the governments of various countries.

A Pew Center study about religion and education around the world in 2016, found that Muslims have the lowest average levels of education after Hindus , with an average of 5.6 years of schooling; About 36% of World Muslim
Muslim
population population have no formal schooling, Muslims have also the lowest average levels of higher education of any major religious group, with only 8% have graduate and post-graduate degrees. The highest of years of schooling among Muslim
Muslim
majority countries found in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(11.5), Kuwait
Kuwait
(11.0) and Kazakhstan (10.7). In addition the average of years of schooling in countries where Muslims are the majority is 6.0 years of schooling, which lag behind the global average (7.7 years of schooling). In the youngest age (25–34) group surveyed, Young Muslims have the lowest average levels of education of any major religious group, with an average of 6.7 years of schooling, which lag behind the global average (8.6 years of schooling). The study found that Muslims have a significant amount of gender inequality in educational attainment, since Muslim
Muslim
women have an average of 4.9 years of schooling; compare to an average of 6.4 years of schooling among Muslim
Muslim
men.

*

Young school girls in Paktia Province of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. *

A primary classroom in Niger
Niger
. *

Schoolgirls in Gaza lining up for class, 2009.

LITERACY

Literacy rate in the Muslim
Muslim
world varies. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
] is the 2rd place in Index of Literacy of World Countries. Some members such as Kuwait, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan have over 97% literacy rates, whereas literacy rates are the lowest in Mali
Mali
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Chad and parts of Africa
Africa
. In 2015, the International Islamic News Agency reported that nearly 37% of the population of the Muslim
Muslim
world is unable to read or write, basing that figure on reports from the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

SCHOLARSHIP

Several Muslim
Muslim
countries like Turkey
Turkey
and Iran
Iran
exhibit high scientific publication. Some countries have tried to encourage scientific research. In Pakistan, establishment of the Higher Education Commission in 2002, resulted in a 5-fold increase in the number of PhDs and a 10-fold increase in the number of scientific research papers in 10 years with the total number of universities increasing from 115 in 2001 to over 400 in 2012. Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
has established the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology . United Arab Emirates has invested in Zayed University , United Arab Emirates University , and Masdar Institute of Science and Technology

ECONOMY

Avaz Twist Tower in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa
in Dubai
Dubai
, United Arab Emirates Petronas Towers
Petronas Towers
in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur

The major economies of the Muslim
Muslim
world are composed of some economic systems of Western Asia
Asia
, South Asia
Asia
, Southeast Asia
Asia
; most of the Middle East
Middle East
, most of North Africa
Africa
(and the Horn of Africa
Africa
), and most of West Africa
Africa
.

Islamic economics bans interest or Riba
Riba
( Usury ) but in the vast majority of Muslim
Muslim
countries Western banking is used.

According to the Salam Standard Global Economic Impact of Muslim Tourism 2015/2016 report, the GDP impact of the world’s Muslim tourism sector exceeded US$138 billion in 2015. The industry generated 4.3 million jobs and contributed more than $18 billion in tax revenue.

REGIONAL ECONOMIES

Western Muslim
Muslim
Economies

The major economies of the western Muslim
Muslim
economies are in part composed of the Asiatic economies of Islamic Western Asia
Asia
and South Asia. Further information: Economy of Kazakhstan , Economy of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, Economy of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Economy of Pakistan
Pakistan
, and Economy of the Maldives

African Muslim
Muslim
Economies

The major economies of the African Muslim
Muslim
economies are composed of Islamic African nations . Further information: Economy of Mauritania , Economy of Mali
Mali
, Economy of Burkina Faso , and Economy of Niger
Niger
Further information: Economy of Chad , Economy of Cote d\'Ivoire , Economy of Gambia , Economy of Guinea , Economy of Guinea-Bissau , Economy of Senegal , Economy of Sierra Leone , and Economy of Nigeria
Nigeria
Further information: Economy of Morocco
Morocco
, Economy of Algeria
Algeria
, Economy of Tunisia
Tunisia
, Economy of Libya , Economy of Egypt
Egypt
, Economy of Sudan
Sudan
, and Economy of Western Sahara See also: Horn of Africa
Africa
Economy (Economy of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Economy of Somalia
Somalia
)

Near East And Southwest Muslim
Muslim
Economies

The major economies of the Near East and Southwest Muslim
Muslim
economies are composed of Islamic Near Eastern nations (the Middle East) and Islamic Southeast Asian nations. Further information: Economy of the Middle East
Middle East
( Middle East
Middle East
economic integration ), Economy of Palestine ( Economy of Gaza ), Economy of Iraq
Iraq
( Economy of Iraqi Kurdistan ), Economy of Brunei , Economy of Malaysia
Malaysia
( Bamboo network
Bamboo network
), and Economy of Indonesia
Indonesia
Further information: Economy of Bahrain , Economy of Jordan
Jordan
, Economy of Kuwait
Kuwait
, Economy of Lebanon , Economy of Northern Cyprus , Economy of Oman , Economy of Qatar , Economy of Saudi Arabia , and Economy of Syria
Syria
Further information: Economy of Turkey
Turkey
, Economy of Iran
Iran
, Economy of United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
, and Economy of Yemen
Yemen

CULTURE

ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

*

The Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
situated in Agra city of India
India
is one of the most notable example of Islamic architecture . (Larger)

*

A Chinese pavilion
Chinese pavilion
instead of a minaret at the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Xi\'an , one of China
China
's largest mosques. *

The 10th-century Grand Mosque
Mosque
of Cordoba . (Andalusia Cordoba BW 2015-10-27 13-54-14.jpg Larger)

*

Hassan II Mosque
Mosque
in Morocco
Morocco
. *

Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem

ARTS

The term " Islamic art and architecture " denotes the works of art and architecture produced from the 7th century onwards by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations.

Architecture

Main article: Islamic architecture

Encompasses both secular and religious styles, the design and style made by Muslims and their construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture included the architectural types: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. Perhaps the most important expression of Islamic art is architecture, particularly that of the mosque. Through Islamic architecture, effects of varying cultures within Islamic civilization can be illustrated. Generally, the use of Islamic geometric patterns and foliage based arabesques were striking. There was also the use of decorative calligraphy instead of pictures which were haram (forbidden) in mosque architecture. Note that in secular architecture, human and animal representation was indeed present.

The North African and Iberian Islamic architecture, for example, has Roman -Byzantine elements, as seen in the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan which contains marble columns from Roman and Byzantine buildings, in the Alhambra
Alhambra
palace at Granada
Granada
, or in the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Cordoba .

Persian-style mosques are characterized by their tapered brick pillars, large arcades , and arches supported each by several pillars. In South Asia, elements of Hindu architecture were employed, but were later superseded by Persian designs.

Aniconism

Main article: Aniconism
Aniconism
in Islam
Islam

No Islamic visual images or depictions of God are meant to exist because it is believed that such artistic depictions may lead to idolatry . Moreover, Muslims believe that God is incorporeal , making any two- or three- dimensional depictions impossible. Instead, Muslims describe God by the names and attributes that, according to Islam, he revealed to his creation. All but one sura of the Quran
Quran
begins with the phrase "In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful ". Images of Mohammed are likewise prohibited. Such aniconism and iconoclasm can also be found in Jewish and some Christian theology .

Arabesque

Main article: Arabesque (Islamic art)
Arabesque (Islamic art)

Islamic art frequently adopts the use of geometrical floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as arabesque . Such designs are highly nonrepresentational, as Islam
Islam
forbids representational depictions as found in pre-Islamic pagan religions . Despite this, there is a presence of depictional art in some Muslim
Muslim
societies, notably the miniature style made famous in Persia
Persia
and under the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
which featured paintings of people and animals, and also depictions of Quranic stories and Islamic traditional narratives. Another reason why Islamic art is usually abstract is to symbolize the transcendence, indivisible and infinite nature of God, an objective achieved by arabesque. Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
is an omnipresent decoration in Islamic art, and is usually expressed in the form of Quranic verses. Two of the main scripts involved are the symbolic kufic and naskh scripts, which can be found adorning the walls and domes of mosques , the sides of minbars , and so on.

Distinguishing motifs of Islamic architecture have always been ordered repetition, radiating structures, and rhythmic, metric patterns. In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility, especially for mosques and palaces. Other features employed as motifs include columns, piers and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes. The role of domes in Islamic architecture has been considerable. Its usage spans centuries, first appearing in 691 with the construction of the Dome of the Rock mosque, and recurring even up until the 17th century with the Taj Mahal . And as late as the 19th century, Islamic domes had been incorporated into European architecture.

*

Example of an Arabesque *

Example of an Arabesque *

Example of an Arabesque

Girih

Main article: Girih

Girih is an Islamic decorative art form used in architecture and handicrafts (book covers, tapestry, small metal objects), consisting of geometric lines that form an interlaced strapwork.

*

Girih tiles *

The subdivision rule used to generate the Girih pattern on the spandrel. *

Girih pattern that can be drawn with compass and straight edge .

Islamic Calligraphy

Main article: Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy

Islamic calligraphy, is the artistic practice of handwriting, calligraphy, and by extension, of bookmaking, in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage.

*

Kufic script from an early Qur\'an manuscript , 7th century. (Surah 7: 86–87) *

Bismallah calligraphy. *

Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
represented for amulet of sailors in the Ottoman Empire . *

Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
praising Ali
Ali
. *

Modern Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
representing various planets .

CALENDAR

Islamic Lunar Calendar

al-Ḥusayn ibn Zayd ibn ‘Alī ibn Jaḥḥāf's work on the Islamic Calendar .

The Islamic calendar, Muslim
Muslim
calendar or Hijri calendar (AH) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim
Muslim
countries and determines the proper days on which to observe the annual fast (see Ramadan ), to attend Hajj
Hajj
, and to celebrate other Islamic holidays and festivals.

Solar Hijri Calendar

Jalali calendar also called Solar Hijri calendar .

The Solar Hijri calendar, also called the Shamsi Hijri calendar, and abbreviated as SH, is the official calendar of Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan. It begins on the vernal equinox . Each of the twelve months corresponds with a zodiac sign. The first six months have 31 days, the next five have 30 days, and the last month has 29 days in usual years but 30 days in leap years. The year of Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
's migration to Medina
Medina
(622 CE) is fixed as the first year of the calendar, and the New Year's Day always falls on the March equinox .

ORGANIZATIONS

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

ECONOMY

* GDP (PPP) * GDP (PPP) per capita * Exports * Imports

EDUCATION

MEMBER STATES

* By population * Largest cities

PARLIAMENTARY UNION

* v * t * e

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization grouping fifty-seven states . 49 are Muslim
Muslim
countries, the others are non- Muslim
Muslim
countries with Muslim minorities. The organization is the collective voice of the Muslim world to safeguard the interest and ensure the progress and well-being of their peoples and those of other Muslims in the world over.

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) includes many nations that are also in the Arab League .

GOVERNMENT

DEMOCRACY AND COMPULSION INDEXES

In the 2010 Democracy Index published by the Economist Intelligence Unit , no Muslim
Muslim
World countries were rated as a "Full Democracy" under its guidelines, and 3 out of 49 were rated as a "Flawed Democracy." The rest were rated either an "Authoritarian Regime" or a "Hybrid Regime."

The 2010 Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World
rated three Muslim-majority nations as Free based on Political Rights and Civil Liberties
Civil Liberties
in the member countries.

Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Without Borders
in its 2010 Press Freedom Index rated Mali and Suriname among the Muslim
Muslim
world as having a Satisfactory Situation. Other Muslim
Muslim
states had ratings ranging from Noticeable Problems to Very Serious Situation.

The US Department of State 2010 International Religious Freedom Report cited Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan
Sudan
and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
as being Countries of Particular Concern , where religious freedom is severely violated. It also cited Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan as "countries that face challenges in protecting religious freedom".

The Open Doors USA organization, in its 2012 survey of countries around the world that persecute Christians , listed 37 members of the Muslim
Muslim
world amongst the top 50 countries where Christians face the most severe persecution. 9 of the top 10 countries are Islamic-majority states.

RELIGION AND STATE

Main articles: List of Muslim-majority countries and List of countries by Muslim
Muslim
population Further information: Political aspects of Islam
Islam
and Islam
Islam
and secularism Muslim
Muslim
majority countries classified by constitutional role for religion. Islamic state State religion Secular state
Secular state
Unclear / No declaration

As the Muslim
Muslim
world came into contact with secular ideals, societies responded in different ways. Some Muslim
Muslim
countries are secular. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
became the first secular republic in the Muslim
Muslim
world, between 1918 and 1920, before it was incorporated into the Soviet Union. Turkey
Turkey
has been governed as a secular state since the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
. By contrast, the 1979 Iranian Revolution replaced a mostly secular regime with an Islamic republic led by the Ayatollah
Ayatollah
, Ruhollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini
.

Some countries have declared Islam
Islam
as the official state religion. In those countries, the legal code is largely secular. Only personal status matters pertaining to inheritance and marriage are governed by Sharia
Sharia
law.

Islamic States

Islamic states have adopted Islam
Islam
as the ideological foundation of state and constitution.

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Iran
Iran
* Mauritania
Mauritania
* Oman
Oman
* Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* Yemen
Yemen

State Religion

The following Muslim-majority nation-states have endorsed Islam
Islam
as their state religion .

* Algeria
Algeria
* Bahrain
Bahrain
* Brunei * Comoros * Djibouti
Djibouti
* Egypt
Egypt
* Iraq
Iraq
* Jordan
Jordan
* Kuwait
Kuwait
* Libya
Libya
* Maldives
Maldives
* Malaysia
Malaysia
* Morocco
Morocco
* Pakistan
Pakistan
* Qatar
Qatar
* Sahrawi Republic * Somalia
Somalia
* Tunisia
Tunisia
* United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates

Unclear / No Declaration

These are neutral states where the constitutional or official announcement regarding status of religion is not clear or unstated.

* Bangladesh * Indonesia
Indonesia
* Lebanon
Lebanon
* Syria
Syria

Secular States

Secular states in Muslim
Muslim
world have declared separation between civil/government affairs and religion.

* Albania
Albania
* Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Bosnia-Herzegovina * Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
* Chad * The Gambia * Guinea
Guinea
* Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
* Kazakhstan * Kosovo
Kosovo
* Kyrgyzstan * Mali
Mali
* Niger
Niger
* Nigeria
Nigeria
* Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
* Senegal
Senegal
* Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
* Tajikistan * Turkey
Turkey
* Turkmenistan * Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
* West Bank
West Bank

LAW AND ETHICS

Further information: Islamic ethics Use of Sharia
Sharia
by country : Sharia
Sharia
plays no role in the judicial system Sharia
Sharia
applies in personal status issues only Sharia
Sharia
applies in full, including criminal law Regional variations in the application of sharia

In some nations, Muslim
Muslim
ethnic groups enjoy considerable autonomy .

In some places, Muslims implement Islamic law, called sharia in Arabic. The Islamic law exists in a number of variations, but the main forms are the five (four Sunni and one Shia ) and Salafi and Ibadi schools of jurisprudence (fiqh )

* Hanafi school in Pakistan, North India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Turkey, Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, other Balkan States, Lower Egypt, Spain, Canada, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Russia, Caucasus Republics, China, Central Asian Republics, European Union, other countries of North and South America. * Maliki in North Africa, West Africa, Sahel, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. * Shafi\'i in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Eritrea, Somalia, Yemen, Maldives, Sri Lanka and South India
India
* Hanbali in Saudi Arabia, * Jaferi in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain
Bahrain
and Azerbaijan. These four are the only " Muslim
Muslim
states" where the majority is Shia population. In Yemen, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Turkey, and Syria, are countries with Sunni populations. In Lebanon, the majority Muslims (54%) were about equally divided between Sunni and Shia in 2010. * Ibadi in Oman
Oman
and small regions in North Africa

In a number of Muslim
Muslim
countries the law requires women to cover either their legs, shoulders and head, or the whole body apart from the face. In strictest forms, the face as well must be covered leaving just a mesh to see through. These hijab rules for dressing cause tensions, concerning particularly Muslims living in Western countries, where restrictions are considered both sexist and oppressive. Some Muslims oppose this charge, and instead declare that the media in these countries presses on women to reveal too much in order to be deemed attractive, and that this is itself sexist and oppressive.

POLITICS

Further information: Islamic revival and Liberal movements within Islam
Islam
Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
, the former prime minister of Pakistan became the first woman elected to lead a Muslim
Muslim
majority country.

During much of the 20th century, the Islamic identity and the dominance of Islam
Islam
on political issues have arguably increased during the early 21st century. The fast-growing interests of the Western world in Islamic regions, international conflicts and globalization have changed the influence of Islam
Islam
on the world in contemporary history .

Islamism

Some people in Muslim
Muslim
countries also see Islam
Islam
manifested politically as Islamism . Political Islam
Islam
is powerful in some Muslim-majority countries. Islamic parties in Turkey, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Algeria
Algeria
have taken power at the provincial level. Some in these movements call themselves Islamists, which also sometimes describes more militant Islamic groups. The relationships between these groups (in democratic countries there is usually at least one Islamic party) and their views of democracy are complex.

Some of these groups are accused of practicing Islamic terrorism
Islamic terrorism
.

LIST OF CONFLICTS IN MUSLIM WORLD

Khojaly Genocide Memorial in The Hague
The Hague
, Netherlands
Netherlands
. Bosnian Muslim
Muslim
mourners at the reburial ceremony for an exhumed victim of the Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
.

Some of the events pivotal in the Muslim
Muslim
world's relationship with the outside world during the Soviet era
Soviet era
and Post- Soviet era
Soviet era
were:

* Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 * The Arab-Israel War 1967 * The Nagorno-Karabakh War * The Western Sahara War * The Somali Civil War * The Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War * The Gulf War 1991 * The Bosnian War * The First Chechen War * The Kosovo
Kosovo
War * The South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict (1982–2000) * The Kashmir conflict * The Kargil War (Between Pakistan
Pakistan
and India) (1999) * The War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present) * The 2003 invasion of Iraq
Iraq
* The War on Terror
War on Terror
* The Syrian occupation of Lebanon
Lebanon
* The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad
Muhammad
cartoons controversy of 2005 * The Second Sudanese Civil War
Second Sudanese Civil War
* The 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War * The 2006 controversy over remarks quoted by Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
* The 2007 Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict * The ongoing war in Darfur * The ongoing standoff with Iran
Iran
over its nuclear program * The ongoing Second Chechen War * The ongoing War in North-West Pakistan
Pakistan
* The ongoing Islamic insurgency in the Philippines
Philippines
* The ongoing Islamic insurgency in Thailand * The War in Somalia
Somalia
(2009–) * The 2008 Kosovo
Kosovo
declaration of independence * The Arab Spring * The 2011 military intervention in Libya
Libya
* The Syrian Civil War * The Northern Mali
Mali
conflict * The Central African Republic conflict (2012–present) * The 2013 Burma anti- Muslim
Muslim
riots * The ongoing Xinjiang conflict * The ongoing Islamist insurgency in Nigeria
Nigeria
* The 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
* The 2014 Northern Iraq
Iraq
campaign * 2014 India– Pakistan
Pakistan
border skirmishes * Yemeni Civil War (2015–present) * 2016 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes

GALLERY

*

Azerbaijani folk musicians in 1910s
1910s
*

A Kazakh wedding ceremony in a mosque *

A group of marabouts – West African religious leaders and teachers of the Quran
Quran
. *

Muslim
Muslim
girls at Istiqlal Mosque
Mosque
in Jakarta
Jakarta
*

A tribal delegation in Chad

SEE ALSO

* Spread of Islam
Islam
* Islam
Islam
by country * Islamic studies * Islam
Islam
and other religions * Pan- Islamism * Islamic Military Alliance

NOTES

* ^ Marilyn R. Waldman, Malika Zeghal (2009). "Islamic world". Britannica. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ John L. Esposito, ed. (2009). "Preface". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. (Subscription required (help)). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World (OEIW) deals with all aspects of Islam—the world's second largest and fastest-growing religion—and the societies in which it exists, including their religion, politics, economics, everyday life, culture, and thought. * ^ A B Asma Afsaruddin (2016). "Islamic World". In William H. McNeill. Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.). Berkshire Publishing Group. (Subscription required (help)). The Islamic world is generally defined contemporaneously as consisting of nation-states whose population contains a majority of Muslims. in the contemporary era, the term Islamic world now includes not only the traditional heartlands of Islam, but also Europe
Europe
and North America, both of which have sizeable minority Muslim
Muslim
populations * ^ Scott Carpenter, Soner Cagaptay (June 2, 2009). "What Muslim World?". Foreign Policy. * ^ A B "Christianity 2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). * ^ "Region: Middle East-North Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim
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Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012. * ^ "The Global Religious Landscape" (PDF). Pew. December 2012. * ^ "Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2017-03-14. * ^ "Region: Asia-Pacific". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2011-01-27. Retrieved 2017-03-13. * ^ Editor, Daniel Burke. "The moment American Muslims were waiting for". CNN Religion. Retrieved 2017-03-13. * ^ "Region: Sub-Saharan Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012. * ^ "Region: Asia-Pacific". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012. * ^ "Region: Europe". The Future of the Global Muslim
Muslim
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. * ^ John Pike. "Alawi Islam". Retrieved 15 February 2015. * ^ "OIC to hold conference on refugees in Muslim
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* ^ See:

* Esposito (2004), p. 84 * Lapidus (2002), pp. 502–07, 845 * Lewis (2003), p. 100

* ^ "Constitution of Afghanistan
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constitution, Republic of Kosovo constitution, * ^ Article 1 of Constitution Archived 20070204064819 at www.coe.int Error: unknown archive URL * ^ Preamble of Constitution Archived 20120912141413 at confinder.richmond.edu Error: unknown archive URL * ^ John L. Esposito. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press US, (2004) ISBN 0-19-512559-2 pp. 233–34 * ^ "Nigerian Constitution". Nigeria
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