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The terms Muslim
Muslim
world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam,[1] or to societies where Islam
Islam
is practiced.[2][3] In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam
Islam
is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion.[4][3] Some scholars and commentators have criticised the term 'Muslim/Islamic world' and its derivative terms 'Muslim/Islamic country' as "simplistic" and "binary", since no state has a religiously homogeneous population (e.g. Egypt's citizens are c. 10% Christian), and in absolute numbers, there are sometimes fewer Muslims living in countries where they make up the majority than in countries where they form a minority.[5][6][7] Hence, the term Muslim-majority countries is often preferred in literature.[8] The history of the Muslim
Muslim
world spans about 1400 years and includes a variety of socio-political developments, as well as advances in the arts, science, philosophy, and technology, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age.[citation needed] All Muslims
Muslims
look for guidance to the Quran
Quran
and believe in the prophetic mission of Muhammad,[citation needed] but disagreements on other matters have led to appearance of different religious schools and branches within Islam. In the modern era, most of the Muslim
Muslim
world came under influence or colonial domination of European powers. The nation states that emerged in the post-colonial era have adopted a variety of political and economic models, and they have been affected by secular and as well as religious trends.[citation needed] As of 2013[update], the combined GDP (nominal) of 49 Muslim
Muslim
majority countries was US$ 5.7 trillion,[9] As of 2016[update], they contributed 8% of the world's total.[10] As of 2015, 1.8 billion or about 24.1% of the world population are Muslims.[11] By the percentage of the total population in a region considering themselves Muslim, 91% in the Middle East- North Africa
North Africa
(MENA),[12] 89% in Central Asia,[13] 40% in Southeast Asia,[14] 31% in South Asia,[15][16] 30% in Sub-Saharan Africa,[17] 25% in Asia–Oceania,[18] around 6% in Europe,[19] and 1% in the Americas.[20][21][22][23]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Classical culture

1.1.1 Ceramics 1.1.2 Literature 1.1.3 Philosophy 1.1.4 Sciences 1.1.5 Technology

1.2 Gunpowder
Gunpowder
Empires 1.3 Great Divergence

1.3.1 Colonialism

1.4 Postcolonial era

2 Geography 3 Demographics

3.1 Religion

3.1.1 Islamic schools and branches

3.2 Refugees

4 Education

4.1 Literacy 4.2 Scholarship

5 Culture

5.1 Arts

5.1.1 Architecture 5.1.2 Aniconism 5.1.3 Arabesque 5.1.4 Girih 5.1.5 Islamic calligraphy

5.2 Calendar

5.2.1 Islamic lunar calendar 5.2.2 Solar Hijri calendar

5.3 Contemporary developments

6 Government

6.1 Democracy
Democracy
and compulsion indexes 6.2 Religion and state

6.2.1 Islamic states 6.2.2 State religion 6.2.3 Unclear / No Declaration 6.2.4 Secular states

6.3 Law and ethics 6.4 Politics

6.4.1 Islamism 6.4.2 Islam-based intergovernmental organizations

7 Gallery 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Islam
Islam
and Timeline of Islamic history

The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi
Al-Idrisi
in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Al-Idrisi
Al-Idrisi
also wrote about the diverse Muslim
Muslim
communities found in various lands.

Muslim
Muslim
history involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. The history of Islam
Islam
began in the Arabian Peninsula when the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
allegedly received the first revelation of the Quran
Quran
in the 7th century in the cave of Hira in the month of Ramadan. According to tradition, he was supposedly commanded by Allah
Allah
to convey this message to the people, and to be patient with those hostile to it. These included the leaders of the Quraysh, the ruling tribe of Mecca, who opposed the assertion of tawhid (monotheism) and abolishing what Muhammed branded "idolatry", meaning the worship of gods other than Allah
Allah
at the Kaaba, such as Hubal and the goddesses al-Lāt, Al-‘Uzzá
Al-‘Uzzá
and Manāt. After 13 years of spreading this message, despite increased persecution by the Quraysh, Muhammad
Muhammad
and his followers migrated to Medina
Medina
to establish a new state under the prophet's leadership and away from persecution. This migration, called the Hijra, marks the first year of the Islamic calendar. Islam
Islam
was then spread to other parts of the Arabian Peninsula over the course of Muhammad's life. After Muhammad
Muhammad
died in 632, his successors (the Caliphs) continued to lead the Muslim
Muslim
community based on his teachings and guidelines of the Quran. The majority of Muslims
Muslims
consider the first four successors to be 'rightly guided' or Rashidun. The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate's conquests spread Islam
Islam
beyond the Arabian Peninsula, stretching from northwest India, across Central Asia, the Near East, North Africa, southern Italy, and the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees. The Arab Muslims were unable to conquer the entire Christian
Christian
Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in Asia Minor, however. The succeeding Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
attempted two failed sieges of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 674–678 and 717–718. Meanwhile, the Muslim
Muslim
community tore itself apart into the rivalling Sunni
Sunni
and Shia sects since the killing of caliph Uthman in 656, resulting in a succession crisis that has never been resolved.[24] The following First, Second and Third Fitnas and finally the Abbasid Revolution (746–750) also definitively destroyed the political unity of the Muslims, who have been inhabiting multiple states ever since.[25] Subsequent empires dominated by Muslims, such as those of the Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids, Seljukids, Ajuran, Adal and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in the Indian subcontinent (India, Bangladesh, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
e.t.c), Safavids in Persia
Persia
and Ottomans in Anatolia, were among the influential and distinguished powers in the world. 19th-century colonialism and 20th-century decolonisation have resulted in several independent Muslim-majority states around the world, with vastly differing attitudes towards and political influences granted to, or restricted for, Islam
Islam
from country to country. These have revolved around the question of Islam's compatibility with other ideological concepts such as secularism, nationalism (especially Arab nationalism and Pan-Arabism, as opposed to Pan-Islamism), socialism (see also Arab socialism
Arab socialism
and socialism in Iran), democracy (see Islamic democracy), republicanism (see also Islamic republic), liberalism and progressivism, feminism, capitalism and more. Classical culture[edit] Main article: Islamic Golden Age

Battle of Jabani (Shirvanshahs-Turkic culture)

Shah
Shah
of Safavid
Safavid
Empire Abbas I meet with Vali Muhammad
Muhammad
Khan (Safavid Turkic culture)

Mir Sayyid Ali, a scholar writing a commentary on the Quran, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah
Shah
Jahan (Indian/Pakistani culture).

Portrait of a painter during the reign of Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Mehmet II (Turkish culture).

A Persian miniature
Persian miniature
of Shah
Shah
Abu'l Ma‘ali, a scholar (Ghaznavids-Turkic culture)

Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
Empire ruler, Ghazan, studying the Quran
Quran
(Azerbaijani culture).

Azerbaijani love story Layla and Majnun
Layla and Majnun
studying together, from a Persian miniature
Persian miniature
painting (Turko-Persian culture).

The term "Islamic Golden Age" has been attributed to a period in history wherein science, economic development and cultural works in most of the Muslim-dominated world flourished.[26][27] The age is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
(786–809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world sought to translate and gather all the known world's knowledge into Arabic,[28][29] and to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad
Baghdad
in 1258.[30] The Abbasids
Abbasids
were influenced by the Quranic injunctions and hadiths, such as "the ink of a scholar is more holy than the blood of a martyr," that stressed the value of knowledge. The major Islamic capital cities of Baghdad, Cairo, and Córdoba became the main intellectual centers for science, philosophy, medicine, and education.[31] During this period, the Muslim
Muslim
world was a collection of cultures; they drew together and advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient Greek, Roman, Persian, Chinese, Indian, Egyptian, and Phoenician civilizations.[32] Ceramics[edit] Further information: Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam

A Seljuq, shatranj (chess) set, glazed fritware, 12th century.

Between the 8th and 18th centuries, the use of ceramic glaze was prevalent in Islamic art, usually assuming the form of elaborate pottery.[33] Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century. Another contribution was the development of fritware, originating from 9th century Iraq.[34] Other centers for innovative ceramic pottery in the Old world included Fustat
Fustat
(from 975 to 1075), Damascus
Damascus
(from 1100 to around 1600) and Tabriz
Tabriz
(from 1470 to 1550).[35] Literature[edit] Main article: Islamic literature Further information: Islamic poetry

Hadiqatus-suada by popular Azerbaijani Oghuz poetry Fuzûlî

The story of Princess Parizade and the Magic Tree.[36]

Ali Baba
Ali Baba
by Maxfield Parrish.

The Magic carpet.

The best known work of fiction from the Islamic world is One Thousand and One Nights (In Persian: hezār-o-yek šab > Arabic: ʔalf-layl-at-wa-l’-layla= One thousand Night and (one) Night) or *Arabian Nights, a name invented by early Western translators, which is a compilation of folk tales from Sanskrit, Persian, and later Arabian fables. The original concept is derived from a pre-Islamic Persian prototype Hezār Afsān (Thousand Fables) that relied on particular Indian elements.[37] It reached its final form by the 14th century; the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another.[38] All Arabian fantasy tales tend to be called Arabian Nights stories when translated into English, regardless of whether they appear in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights
One Thousand and One Nights
or not.[38] This work has been very influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by Antoine Galland.[39] Imitations were written, especially in France.[40] Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad the Sailor
Sinbad the Sailor
and Ali
Ali
Baba. A famous example of Arabic poetry
Arabic poetry
and Persian poetry on romance (love) is Layla and Majnun, dating back to the Umayyad era in the 7th century. It is a tragic story of undying love much like the later Romeo and Juliet, which was itself said to have been inspired by a Latin version of Layla and Majnun
Layla and Majnun
to an extent.[41] Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran, is a mythical and heroic retelling of Persian history. Amir Arsalan was also a popular mythical Persian story, which has influenced some modern works of fantasy fiction, such as The Heroic Legend of Arslan. Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) and Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
were pioneers of the philosophical novel. Ibn Tufail wrote the first Arabic
Arabic
novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan (Philosophus Autodidactus) as a response to Al-Ghazali's The Incoherence of the Philosophers, and then Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
also wrote a novel Theologus Autodidactus as a response to Ibn Tufail's Philosophus Autodidactus. Both of these narratives had protagonists (Hayy in Philosophus Autodidactus and Kamil in Theologus Autodidactus) who were autodidactic feral children living in seclusion on a desert island, both being the earliest examples of a desert island story. However, while Hayy lives alone with animals on the desert island for the rest of the story in Philosophus Autodidactus, the story of Kamil extends beyond the desert island setting in Theologus Autodidactus, developing into the earliest known coming of age plot and eventually becoming the first example of a science fiction novel.[42][43] Theologus Autodidactus,[44][45] written by the Arabian polymath Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288), is the first example of a science fiction novel.[46] It deals with various science fiction elements such as spontaneous generation, futurology, the end of the world and doomsday, resurrection, and the afterlife. Rather than giving supernatural or mythological explanations for these events, Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
attempted to explain these plot elements using the scientific knowledge of biology, astronomy, cosmology and geology known in his time. Ibn al-Nafis' fiction explained Islamic religious teachings via science and Islamic philosophy.[47] A Latin translation of Ibn Tufail's work, Philosophus Autodidactus, first appeared in 1671, prepared by Edward Pococke
Edward Pococke
the Younger, followed by an English translation by Simon Ockley in 1708, as well as German and Dutch translations. These translations might have later inspired Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
to write Robinson Crusoe, regarded as the first novel in English.[48][49][50][51] Philosophus Autodidactus, continuing the thoughts of philosophers such as Aristotle
Aristotle
from earlier ages, inspired Robert Boyle
Robert Boyle
to write his own philosophical novel set on an island, The Aspiring Naturalist.[52] Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy,[53] derived features of and episodes about Bolgia[54] from Arabic
Arabic
works on Islamic eschatology:[55][56] the Hadith
Hadith
and the Kitab al-Miraj (translated into Latin in 1264 or shortly before[57] as Liber Scale Machometi[58]) concerning the ascension to Heaven of Muhammad,[59] and the spiritual writings of Ibn Arabi.[60] The Moors
Moors
also had a noticeable influence on the works of George Peele
George Peele
and William Shakespeare. Some of their works featured Moorish characters, such as Peele's The Battle of Alcazar and Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, Titus Andronicus
Titus Andronicus
and Othello, which featured a Moorish Othello
Othello
as its title character. These works are said to have been inspired by several Moorish delegations from Morocco
Morocco
to Elizabethan England
England
at the beginning of the 17th century.[61] Philosophy[edit] Main article: Contemporary Islamic philosophy Further information: Logic in Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
and Ilm al-Kalam

Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Muslim
Muslim
polymath from Spain.

One of the common definitions for "Islamic philosophy" is "the style of philosophy produced within the framework of Islamic culture."[62] Islamic philosophy, in this definition is neither necessarily concerned with religious issues, nor is exclusively produced by Muslims.[62] The Persian scholar Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980–1037) had more than 450 books attributed to him. His writings were concerned with various subjects, most notably philosophy and medicine. His medical textbook The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine
was used as the standard text in European universities for centuries. He also wrote The Book of Healing, an influential scientific and philosophical encyclopedia. One of the most influential Muslim
Muslim
philosophers in the West was Averroes
Averroes
(Ibn Rushd), founder of the Averroism
Averroism
school of philosophy, whose works and commentaries affected the rise of secular thought in Europe.[63] He also developed the concept of "existence precedes essence".[64] Another figure from the Islamic Golden Age, Avicenna, also founded his own Avicennism school of philosophy, which was influential in both Islamic and Christian
Christian
lands. He was also a critic of Aristotelian logic and founder of Avicennian logic, developed the concepts of empiricism and tabula rasa, and distinguished between essence and existence.[citation needed] Yet another influential philosopher who had an influence on modern philosophy was Ibn Tufail. His philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdha, translated into Latin as Philosophus Autodidactus in 1671, developed the themes of empiricism, tabula rasa, nature versus nurture,[65] condition of possibility, materialism,[66] and Molyneux's problem.[67] European scholars and writers influenced by this novel include John Locke,[68] Gottfried Leibniz,[51] Melchisédech Thévenot, John Wallis, Christiaan Huygens,[69] George Keith, Robert Barclay, the Quakers,[70] and Samuel Hartlib.[52] Islamic philosophers continued making advances in philosophy through to the 17th century, when Mulla Sadra
Mulla Sadra
founded his school of Transcendent theosophy and developed the concept of existentialism.[71] Other influential Muslim
Muslim
philosophers include al-Jahiz, a pioneer in evolutionary thought; Ibn al-Haytham
Ibn al-Haytham
(Alhazen), a pioneer of phenomenology and the philosophy of science and a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy and Aristotle's concept of place (topos); Al-Biruni, a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy; Ibn Tufail and Ibn al-Nafis, pioneers of the philosophical novel; Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi, founder of Illuminationist philosophy; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, a critic of Aristotelian logic and a pioneer of inductive logic; and Ibn Khaldun, a pioneer in the philosophy of history.[72] Sciences[edit] Main article: Timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world See also: Physics in medieval Islam, Psychology in medieval Islam, Mathematics in medieval Islam, Astronomy in medieval Islam, and Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam

Sciences

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's Astrolabe. (13th century)

One of Mansur ibn Ilyas ( Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
era) colored illustrations of human anatomy.

Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi's Kitab al-Tasrif Surgical instruments illustrations. (11th century)

A self-trimming lamp from Banū Mūsā's work On Mechanical Devices on Automation.

An illustration from al-Biruni's astronomical works, explains the different phases of the moon.

The Elephant Clock
Elephant Clock
was one of the most famous inventions of Al-Jazari.

"Cubic equations and intersections of conic sections", of Omar Khayyam.

Lagâri Hasan Çelebi's rocket flight depicted in a 17th-century engraving.

Muslim
Muslim
scientists contributed to advances in the sciences. They placed far greater emphasis on experiment than had the Greeks. This led to an early scientific method being developed in the Muslim
Muslim
world, where progress in methodology was made, beginning with the experiments of Ibn al-Haytham
Ibn al-Haytham
(Alhazen) on optics from circa 1000, in his Book of Optics. The most important development of the scientific method was the use of experiments to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation, which began among Muslim
Muslim
scientists. Ibn al-Haytham
Ibn al-Haytham
is also regarded as the father of optics, especially for his empirical proof of the intromission theory of light. Some have also described Ibn al-Haytham
Ibn al-Haytham
as the "first scientist."[73] al-Khwarzimi's invented the log base systems that are being used today, he also contributed theorems in trigonometry as well as limits.[74] Recent studies show that it is very likely that the Medieval Muslim
Muslim
artists were aware of advanced decagonal quasicrystal geometry (discovered half a millennium later in the 1970s and 1980s in the West) and used it in intricate decorative tilework in the architecture.[75] Muslim
Muslim
physicians contributed to the field of medicine, including the subjects of anatomy and physiology: such as in the 15th century Persian work by Mansur ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Faqih Ilyas entitled Tashrih al-badan ( Anatomy
Anatomy
of the body) which contained comprehensive diagrams of the body's structural, nervous and circulatory systems; or in the work of the Egyptian physician Ibn al-Nafis, who proposed the theory of pulmonary circulation. Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine remained an authoritative medical textbook in Europe
Europe
until the 18th century. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi
(also known as Abulcasis) contributed to the discipline of medical surgery with his Kitab al-Tasrif ("Book of Concessions"), a medical encyclopedia which was later translated to Latin and used in European and Muslim
Muslim
medical schools for centuries. Other medical advancements came in the fields of pharmacology and pharmacy.[76] In astronomy, Muḥammad ibn Jābir al-Ḥarrānī al-Battānī improved the precision of the measurement of the precession of the Earth's axis. The corrections made to the geocentric model by al-Battani, Averroes, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Mu'ayyad al-Din al-'Urdi and Ibn al-Shatir
Ibn al-Shatir
were later incorporated into the Copernican heliocentric model. Heliocentric theories were also discussed by several other Muslim
Muslim
astronomers such as Al-Biruni, Al-Sijzi, Qotb al-Din Shirazi, and Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī. The astrolabe, though originally developed by the Greeks, was perfected by Islamic astronomers and engineers, and was subsequently brought to Europe. Some most famous scientists from the medieval Islamic world include Jābir ibn Hayyān, al-Farabi, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Biruni, Avicenna, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, and Ibn Khaldun. Technology[edit]

The Spinning wheel
Spinning wheel
is believed to have been invented in the medieval era (of what is now the Greater Middle East), it is considered to be an important device that contributed greatly to the advancement of the Industrial Revolution. (scene from Al-Maqamat, painted by al-Wasiti 1237)

Main articles: List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world
List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world
and Arab Agricultural Revolution In technology, the Muslim
Muslim
world adopted papermaking from China.[77] The knowledge of gunpowder was also transmitted from China
China
via predominantly Islamic countries,[78] where formulas for pure potassium nitrate[79][80] were developed. Advances were made in irrigation and farming, using new technology such as the windmill. Crops such as almonds and citrus fruit were brought to Europe
Europe
through al-Andalus, and sugar cultivation was gradually adopted by the Europeans. Arab merchants dominated trade in the Indian Ocean until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century. Hormuz was an important center for this trade. There was also a dense network of trade routes in the Mediterranean, along which Muslim-majority countries traded with each other and with European powers such as Venice, Genoa
Genoa
and Catalonia. The Silk Road
Silk Road
crossing Central Asia
Central Asia
passed through Muslim
Muslim
states between China
China
and Europe. Muslim
Muslim
engineers in the Islamic world made a number of innovative industrial uses of hydropower, and early industrial uses of tidal power and wind power,[81] fossil fuels such as petroleum, and early large factory complexes (tiraz in Arabic).[82] The industrial uses of watermills in the Islamic world date back to the 7th century, while horizontal-wheeled and vertical-wheeled water mills were both in widespread use since at least the 9th century. A variety of industrial mills were being employed in the Islamic world, including early fulling mills, gristmills, hullers, sawmills, ship mills, stamp mills, steel mills, sugar mills, tide mills and windmills. By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from al-Andalus and North Africa
North Africa
to the Middle East
Middle East
and Central Asia.[77] Muslim
Muslim
engineers also invented crankshafts and water turbines, employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, and pioneered the use of dams as a source of water power, used to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines.[83] Such advances made it possible for industrial tasks that were previously driven by manual labour in ancient times to be mechanized and driven by machinery instead in the medieval Islamic world. The transfer of these technologies to medieval Europe
Europe
had an influence on the Industrial Revolution.[84] Gunpowder
Gunpowder
Empires[edit] Scholars often use the term Gunpowder
Gunpowder
Empires to describe the Islamic empires of the Safavid, Ottoman and Mughal. Each of these three empires had considerable military exploits using the newly developed firearms, especially cannon and small arms, to create their empires.[85] They existed primarily between the fourteenth and the late seventeenth centuries.[86]

Safavid
Safavid
Empire's Zamburak.

Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Akbar's Siege of Ranthambore Fort in 1568.[87]

Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries in combat against the Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522.

Cannons and guns belonging to the Aceh Sultanate
Aceh Sultanate
(in modern Indonesia).

Great Divergence[edit] Main article: Great Divergence

"Why do the Christian
Christian
nations, which were so weak in the past compared with Muslim
Muslim
nations begin to dominate so many lands in modern times and even defeat the once victorious Ottoman armies?"..."Because they have laws and rules invented by reason"

Ibrahim Muteferrika, Rational basis for the Politics of Nations (1731)[88]

The Great Divergence
Great Divergence
was the reason why European colonial powers militarily defeated preexisting Oriental powers like the Mughal Empire, Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and many smaller states in the pre-modern Greater Middle East, and initiated a period known as 'colonialism'.[88]

Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah
Shah
Alam II negotiates with the British East India Company after being defeated during the Battle of Buxar.

Siege of Ochakov (1788), an armed conflict between the Ottomans and the Russian Tsardom.

Combat in the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(during the Russo-Persian Wars).

French campaign in Egypt
Egypt
and Syria
Syria
against the Mamluks and Ottomans

Colonialism[edit] Main articles: Colonial empire
Colonial empire
and Colonialism

Map of colonial powers throughout the world in the year 1914 (note colonial powers in the pre-modern Muslim
Muslim
world).

Beginning with the 15th century, colonialism by European powers (particularly, but not exclusively, Britain, Spain, Portugal, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Russia, Austria, and Belgium) profoundly affected Muslim-majority societies in Africa, Europe, the Middle East
Middle East
and Asia. Colonialism
Colonialism
was often advanced by conflict with mercantile initiatives by colonial powers and caused tremendous social upheavals in Muslim-dominated societies.[citation needed] Colonial powers commonly classified Muslim-majority societies that were highly heterogeneous as monolithic, anti-modern and anti-intellectual.[citation needed] A number of Muslim-majority societies reacted to Western powers with zealotry and thus initiating the rise of Pan-Islamism; or affirmed more traditionalist and inclusive cultural ideals; and in rare cases adopted modernity that was ushered by the colonial powers.[89] The only Muslim-majority regions not to be colonized by the Europeans were Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, and Afghanistan.[citation needed] Turkey
Turkey
was one of the first colonial powers of the world with the Ottoman empire
Ottoman empire
ruling several states for over 6 centuries.

The Christian
Christian
reconquest of Buda, Ottoman Hungary, 1686

The submission of Diponegoro
Diponegoro
to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830

French conquest of Algeria
French conquest of Algeria
(1830–1857)

Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan 1896–1899

The Melilla War between Spain
Spain
and Rif Berbers of Morocco
Morocco
in 1909

Postcolonial era[edit]

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Many disputes have occurred within the Muslim
Muslim
community regarding how to manage, organize and administer their respective countries. Geography[edit]

Indonesia
Indonesia
is currently the most populous Muslim-majority country.

Main article: Islam
Islam
by country Because the terms ' Muslim
Muslim
world' and 'Islamic world' are disputed, since no country is homogeneously Muslim, and there is no way to determine at what point a Muslim
Muslim
minority in a country is to be considered 'significant' enough, there is no consensus on how to define the Muslim
Muslim
world geographically.[5][6][8] The only rule of thumb for inclusion which has some support, is that countries need to have a Muslim
Muslim
population of more than 50%.[5][8] Jones (2005) defines a 'large minority' as being between 30% and 50%; thus, there were nine countries with a 'large Muslim
Muslim
minority' in 2000, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kazakhstan, Macedonia, Nigeria, and Tanzania.[8] According to a 2010 study and released January 2011,[90][91] Islam
Islam
has 1.5 billion adherents, making up over 22% of the world population.[92][93][94] According to the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
in 2015 there were 50 Muslim-majority countries.[95][96] Worldatlas.com (April 2017) identified 45 'Islamic countries'. Among the Islamic states are: Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Mauritania, and Yemen. Other states where Islam
Islam
is the politically defined state religion are: Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Algeria, Malaysia, Maldives, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Somalia
Somalia
and Brunei. Other Muslim-majority countries include: Niger, Indonesia, Sudan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sierra Leone, and Djibouti, Albania, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Chad, The Gambia, Guinea, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Mali, Northern Cyprus, Nigeria, Senegal, Syria, Lebanon, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey
Turkey
and Uzbekistan.[97] Demographics[edit] Main article: Muslim
Muslim
population growth

View of Jakarta, Indonesia. The country has the largest number of Muslims
Muslims
in the world.

More than 24.1% of the world's population is Muslim.[98][99] Current estimates conclude that the number of Muslims
Muslims
in the world is around 1.8 billion.[98] Muslims
Muslims
are the majority in 49 countries,[100] they speak hundreds of languages and come from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Major languages spoken by Muslims
Muslims
include Arabic, Hindi, Bengali, Urdu, Punjabi, Malay, Javanese, Sundanese, Swahili, Hausa, Fula, Berber, Tuareg, Somali, Albanian, Spanish, Bosnian, Russian, Turkish, Azeri, Kazakh, Uzbek, Tatar, Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Tamil, Telugu, Balochi, Sindhi and Kashmiri, among many others. Religion[edit] The two main denominations of Islam
Islam
are the Sunni
Sunni
and Shia sects. They differ primarily upon of how the life of the ummah ("faithful") should be governed, and the role of the imam. Sunnis believe that the true political successor of the Prophet according to the Sunnah
Sunnah
should be selected based on ٍ Shura
Shura
(consultation), as was done at the Saqifah which selected Abu Bakr, Muhammad's father-in-law, to be Muhammad's political but not his religious successor. Shia, on the other hand, believe that Muhammad
Muhammad
designated his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib
as his true political as well as religious successor.[101] The overwhelming majority of Muslims
Muslims
in the world, between 87–90%, are Sunni.[102] Shias and other groups make up the rest, about 10–13% of overall Muslim
Muslim
population. The countries with the highest concentration of Shia populations are: Iran
Iran
– 96%,[103] Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
– 85%,[104] Iraq – 60/70%,[105] Bahrain
Bahrain
– 70%, Yemen
Yemen
– 47%,[106] Turkey
Turkey
– 28%,[107][108][109] Lebanon
Lebanon
– 27%, Syria
Syria
– 17%, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
– 15%, Pakistan
Pakistan
– 5%/10%,[110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118] and India
India
– 5%.[119] The Kharijite Muslims, who are less known, have their own stronghold in the country of Oman
Oman
holding about 75% of the population.[120]

Shi'a
Shi'a
Muslims
Muslims
in Iran
Iran
celebrate Ashura

Friday prayer for Sunni
Sunni
Muslims
Muslims
in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Islamic schools and branches[edit]

The main Islamic madh'habs (schools of law) of Muslim-majority countries or distributions

Main article: Islamic schools and branches The first centuries of Islam
Islam
gave rise to three major sects: Sunnis, Shi'as and Kharijites. Each sect developed distinct jurisprudence schools (madhhab) reflecting different methodologies of jurisprudence (fiqh). The major Sunni
Sunni
madhhabs are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali. The major Shi'a
Shi'a
branches are Twelver
Twelver
(Imami), Ismaili
Ismaili
(Sevener) and Zaidi (Fiver). Isma'ilism
Isma'ilism
later split into Nizari Ismaili
Ismaili
and Musta’li Ismaili, and then Mustaali
Mustaali
was divided into Hafizi
Hafizi
and Taiyabi
Taiyabi
Ismailis.[121] It also gave rise to the Qarmatian
Qarmatian
movement and the Druze
Druze
faith. Twelver
Twelver
Shiism developed Ja'fari jurisprudence
Ja'fari jurisprudence
whose branches are Akhbarism
Akhbarism
and Usulism, and other movements such as Alawites, Shaykism[122] and Alevism.[123][124] Similarly, Kharijites
Kharijites
were initially divided into five major branches: Sufris, Azariqa, Najdat, Adjarites and Ibadis. Among these numerous branches, only Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali, Imamiyyah-Ja'fari-Usuli, Nizārī Ismā'īlī, Alevi,[125] Zaydi, Ibadi, Zahiri, Alawite,[126] Druze
Druze
and Taiyabi
Taiyabi
communities have survived. In addition, new schools of thought and movements like Quranist Muslims, Ahmadi Muslims
Muslims
and African American Muslims
Muslims
later emerged independently.

A Sufi
Sufi
dervish drums up the Friday afternoon crowd in Omdurman, Sudan

Druze
Druze
dignitaries celebrating the Nabi Shu'ayb
Nabi Shu'ayb
festival at the tomb of the prophet in Hittin

Ibadis
Ibadis
living in the M'zab
M'zab
valley in Algerian Sahara

Zaydi Imams ruled in Yemen
Yemen
until 1962

Most of the inhabitants of the Hunza Valley
Hunza Valley
in Pakistan
Pakistan
are Ismaili Muslims

Refugees[edit] According to the UNHCR, Muslim-majority countries hosted 18 million refugees by the end of 2010.[citation needed] Since then Muslim
Muslim
nations have absorbed refugees from recent conflicts, including the uprising in Syria.[127] In July 2013, the UN stated that the number of Syrian refugees had exceeded 1.8 million.[128] Education[edit] In many Muslim-majority countries, illiteracy is a substantial problem. Low literacy rates in the Eastern Middle East
Middle East
countries and lack of educational initiatives are the cause of great social turbulence.[citation needed] Seminary exist however many Madrassahs operated by renegade organizations have taken hold in the gap caused by the lack of basic education not provided and funded by the governments of various countries.[citation needed] A 2016 Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
study about religion and education around the world found that Muslims
Muslims
have the lowest average levels of education after Hindus, with an average of 5.6 years of schooling.[129] About 36% of all Muslims
Muslims
have no formal schooling,[129] Muslims
Muslims
have also the lowest average levels of higher education of any major religious group, with only 8% having graduate and post-graduate degrees.[129] The highest of years of schooling among Muslim-majority countries found in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(11.5),[129] Kuwait
Kuwait
(11.0)[129] and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(10.7).[129] In addition, the average of years of schooling in countries where Muslims
Muslims
are the majority is 6.0 years of schooling, which lag behind the global average (7.7 years of schooling).[129] In the youngest age (25–34) group surveyed, Young Muslims
Muslims
have the lowest average levels of education of any major religious group, with an average of 6.7 years of schooling, which lag behind the global average (8.6 years of schooling).[129] The study found that Muslims
Muslims
have a significant amount of gender inequality in educational attainment, since Muslim women have an average of 4.9 years of schooling; compare to an average of 6.4 years of schooling among Muslim
Muslim
men.[129]

Young school girls in Paktia Province
Paktia Province
of Afghanistan.

A primary classroom in Niger.

Schoolgirls in Gaza lining up for class, 2009.

Literacy[edit] Literacy rate in the Muslim
Muslim
world varies. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
is the 2nd place in Index of Literacy of World Countries. Some members such as Kuwait, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
have over 97% literacy rates, whereas literacy rates are the lowest in Mali, Afghanistan, Chad
Chad
and parts of Africa. In 2015, the International Islamic News Agency reported that nearly 37% of the population of the Muslim
Muslim
world is unable to read or write, basing that figure on reports from the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
and the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.[130] Scholarship[edit] Several Muslim-majority countries like Turkey, Iran, Egypt
Egypt
and Pakistan
Pakistan
exhibit high rate of citable scientific publications.[131][132] Culture[edit] Throughout history, Muslim
Muslim
cultures have been diverse ethnically, linguistically and regionally.

Islamic architecture

The Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
situated in Agra
Agra
city of India
India
is one of the most notable example of Islamic architecture.[133] (Larger)

A Chinese pavilion
Chinese pavilion
instead of a minaret at the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Xi'an, one of China's largest mosques.

The 10th-century Grand Mosque
Mosque
of Cordoba. (Andalusia Cordoba BW 2015-10-27 13-54-14.jpg Larger[permanent dead link])

Hassan II Mosque
Hassan II Mosque
in Morocco.

Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
in Jerusalem

Arts[edit] The term " Islamic art
Islamic art
and architecture" denotes the works of art and architecture produced from the 7th century onwards by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations.[134][135] Architecture[edit] Main article: Islamic architecture Encompasses both secular and religious styles, the design and style made by Muslims
Muslims
and their construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture
Islamic culture
included the architectural types: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. Perhaps the most important expression of Islamic art
Islamic art
is architecture, particularly that of the mosque.[136] Through Islamic architecture, effects of varying cultures within Islamic civilization can be illustrated. Generally, the use of Islamic geometric patterns and foliage based arabesques were striking. There was also the use of decorative calligraphy instead of pictures which were haram (forbidden) in mosque architecture. Note that in secular architecture, human and animal representation was indeed present. The North African and Iberian Islamic architecture, for example, has Roman-Byzantine elements, as seen in the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan which contains marble columns from Roman and Byzantine buildings,[137] in the Alhambra
Alhambra
palace at Granada, or in the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Cordoba. Persian-style mosques are characterized by their tapered brick pillars, large arcades, and arches supported each by several pillars. In South Asia, elements of Hindu architecture were employed, but were later superseded by Persian designs. Aniconism[edit] Main article: Aniconism
Aniconism
in Islam No Islamic visual images or depictions of God are meant to exist because it is believed that such artistic depictions may lead to idolatry. Moreover, Muslims
Muslims
believe that God is incorporeal, making any two- or three- dimensional depictions impossible. Instead, Muslims describe God by the names and attributes that, according to Islam, he revealed to his creation. All but one sura of the Quran
Quran
begins with the phrase "In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful". Images of Mohammed are likewise prohibited. Such aniconism and iconoclasm[138] can also be found in Jewish and some Christian theology. Arabesque[edit] Main article: Arabesque (Islamic art) Islamic art
Islamic art
frequently adopts the use of geometrical floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as arabesque. Such designs are highly nonrepresentational, as Islam
Islam
forbids representational depictions as found in pre-Islamic pagan religions. Despite this, there is a presence of depictional art in some Muslim
Muslim
societies, notably the miniature style made famous in Persia
Persia
and under the Ottoman Empire which featured paintings of people and animals, and also depictions of Quranic stories and Islamic traditional narratives. Another reason why Islamic art
Islamic art
is usually abstract is to symbolize the transcendence, indivisible and infinite nature of God, an objective achieved by arabesque.[139] Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
is an omnipresent decoration in Islamic art, and is usually expressed in the form of Quranic verses. Two of the main scripts involved are the symbolic kufic and naskh scripts, which can be found adorning the walls and domes of mosques, the sides of minbars, and so on.[139] Distinguishing motifs of Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture
have always been ordered repetition, radiating structures, and rhythmic, metric patterns. In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility, especially for mosques and palaces. Other features employed as motifs include columns, piers and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes.[140] The role of domes in Islamic architecture has been considerable. Its usage spans centuries, first appearing in 691 with the construction of the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
mosque, and recurring even up until the 17th century with the Taj Mahal. And as late as the 19th century, Islamic domes had been incorporated into European architecture.[141]

Example of an Arabesque

Example of an Arabesque

Example of an Arabesque

Girih[edit] Main article: Girih Girih
Girih
is an Islamic decorative art form used in architecture and handicrafts (book covers, tapestry, small metal objects), consisting of geometric lines that form an interlaced strapwork.

Girih
Girih
tiles

The subdivision rule used to generate the Girih
Girih
pattern on the spandrel.

Girih
Girih
pattern that can be drawn with compass and straight edge.

Islamic calligraphy[edit] Main article: Islamic calligraphy Islamic calligraphy, is the artistic practice of handwriting, calligraphy, and by extension, of bookmaking, in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage.

Kufic
Kufic
script from an early Qur'an manuscript, 7th century. (Surah 7: 86–87)

Bismallah
Bismallah
calligraphy.

Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
represented for amulet of sailors in the Ottoman Empire.

Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
praising Ali.

Modern Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
representing various planets.

Calendar[edit] Islamic lunar calendar[edit]

al-Ḥusayn ibn Zayd ibn ‘Alī ibn Jaḥḥāf's work on the Islamic Calendar.

The Islamic calendar, Muslim
Muslim
calendar or Hijri calendar (AH) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim-majority countries and determines the proper days on which to observe the annual fast (see Ramadan), to attend Hajj, and to celebrate other Islamic holidays and festivals. Solar Hijri calendar[edit]

Jalali calendar also called Solar Hijri calendar.

The Solar Hijri calendar, also called the Shamsi Hijri calendar, and abbreviated as SH, is the official calendar of Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan. It begins on the vernal equinox. Each of the twelve months corresponds with a zodiac sign. The first six months have 31 days, the next five have 30 days, and the last month has 29 days in usual years but 30 days in leap years. The year of Prophet Muhammad's migration to Medina (622 CE) is fixed as the first year of the calendar, and the New Year's Day always falls on the March equinox. Contemporary developments[edit]

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Ceiling with Islamic patterns at the Museum of Islamic Art, Doha.

The Red Crescent is recognized in 33 countries.

1001 Inventions project and its director Ahmed Salim.

By the medieval era most of the countries on the Silk Road
Silk Road
were Muslim majority.

Muhammad
Muhammad
Yunus was awarded the Nobel Prize, for his concepts in Microcredit
Microcredit
and Microfinance.

As of 2015 Islam
Islam
has 1.8 billion adherents, making up over 24.1% of the world population.[11] Due to globalization, Islam
Islam
today has taken root and influenced cultures in places far from the traditional boundaries of the Muslim
Muslim
world.[142] Government[edit] Democracy
Democracy
and compulsion indexes[edit] The Open Doors
Open Doors
USA organization, in its 2012 survey of countries around the world that persecute Christians, listed 37 members of the Muslim
Muslim
world amongst the top 50 countries where Christians face the most severe persecution. 9 of the top 10 countries are Islamic-majority states.[143] Religion and state[edit]

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Main articles: List of Muslim-majority countries
List of Muslim-majority countries
and List of countries by Muslim
Muslim
population Further information: Political aspects of Islam
Islam
and Islam
Islam
and secularism

Muslim-majority countries classified by constitutional role for religion.   Islamic state   State religion   Secular state   Unclear / No declaration

As the Muslim
Muslim
world came into contact with secular ideals, societies responded in different ways. Some Muslim-majority countries are secular. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
became the first secular republic in the Muslim world, between 1918 and 1920, before it was incorporated into the Soviet Union.[144][145][146][not in citation given] Turkey
Turkey
has been governed as a secular state since the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.[147] By contrast, the 1979 Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
replaced a mostly secular regime with an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
led by the Ayatollah, Ruhollah Khomeini.[148] Some countries have declared Islam
Islam
as the official state religion. In those countries, the legal code is largely secular. Only personal status matters pertaining to inheritance and marriage are governed by Sharia
Sharia
law. Islamic states[edit] Islamic states have adopted Islam
Islam
as the ideological foundation of state and constitution.

 Afghanistan[149]  Iran[150]  Mauritania[151]  Oman[152]  Saudi Arabia[153]  Yemen[154]

State religion[edit] The following Muslim-majority nation-states have endorsed Islam
Islam
as their state religion.

 Algeria[155]  Bahrain[156]  Brunei[157]  Comoros[158]  Djibouti[159]  Egypt[160]  Iraq[161]  Jordan[162]  Kuwait[163]  Libya[164]  Maldives[165]  Malaysia[166]  Morocco[167]  Pakistan[168]  Qatar[169]  Sahrawi Republic[170]  Somalia[171]  Tunisia[172]  United Arab Emirates[173]

Unclear / No Declaration[edit] These are neutral states where the constitutional or official announcement regarding status of religion is not clear or unstated.

 Bangladesh[174]  Indonesia[175]  Lebanon[176]  Syria[177]

Secular states[edit] Secular states in Muslim
Muslim
world have declared separation between civil/government affairs and religion.

 Albania[178]  Azerbaijan[179]  Bosnia-Herzegovina[180]  Burkina Faso[181]  Chad[182]  The Gambia[183]  Guinea[184]  Guinea-Bissau[185]  Kazakhstan[186]  Kosovo[187]  Kyrgyzstan[188]  Mali[189]  Niger[190]  Nigeria[191]  Northern Cyprus  Senegal[192]  Sierra Leone[193]  Tajikistan[194]  Turkey[195]  Turkmenistan[196]  Uzbekistan[197] Palestine[198]

Law and ethics[edit]

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Further information: Islamic ethics

Use of Sharia
Sharia
by country:    Sharia
Sharia
plays no role in the judicial system    Sharia
Sharia
applies in personal status issues only    Sharia
Sharia
applies in full, including criminal law   Regional variations in the application of sharia

In some nations, Muslim
Muslim
ethnic groups enjoy considerable autonomy. In some places, Muslims
Muslims
implement Islamic law, called sharia in Arabic. The Islamic law exists in a number of variations, but the main forms are the five (four Sunni
Sunni
and one Shia) and Salafi and Ibadi schools of jurisprudence (fiqh)[clarification needed]

Hanafi
Hanafi
school in Pakistan, North India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Turkey, Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, other Balkan States, Lower Egypt, Spain, Canada, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Russia, Caucasus Republics, China, Central Asian Republics, European Union, other countries of North and South America. Maliki
Maliki
in North Africa, West Africa, Sahel, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. Shafi'i
Shafi'i
in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Eritrea, Somalia, Yemen, Maldives, Sri Lanka and South India Hanbali
Hanbali
in Saudi Arabia, Jaferi in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain
Bahrain
and Azerbaijan. These four are the only " Muslim
Muslim
states" where the majority is Shia population. In Yemen, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Turkey, and Syria, are countries with Sunni
Sunni
populations. In Lebanon, the majority Muslims
Muslims
(54%) were about equally divided between Sunni and Shia in 2010. Ibadi
Ibadi
in Oman
Oman
and small regions in North Africa

In a number of Muslim-majority countries the law requires women to cover either their legs, shoulders and head, or the whole body apart from the face. In strictest forms, the face as well must be covered leaving just a mesh to see through. These hijab rules for dressing cause tensions, concerning particularly Muslims
Muslims
living in Western countries, where restrictions are considered both sexist and oppressive. Some Muslims
Muslims
oppose this charge, and instead declare that the media in these countries presses on women to reveal too much in order to be deemed attractive, and that this is itself sexist and oppressive. Politics[edit] Further information: Islamic revival
Islamic revival
and Liberal movements within Islam

Benazir Bhutto, the former prime minister of Pakistan
Pakistan
became the first woman elected to lead a Muslim-majority country.[199]

During much of the 20th century, the Islamic identity and the dominance of Islam
Islam
on political issues have arguably increased during the early 21st century. The fast-growing interests of the Western world in Islamic regions, international conflicts and globalization have changed the influence of Islam
Islam
on the world in contemporary history.[200] Islamism[edit]

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Some people in Muslim-majority countries also see Islam
Islam
manifested politically as Islamism.[201] Political Islam
Islam
is powerful in some Muslim-majority countries. Islamic parties in Turkey, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Algeria
Algeria
have taken power at the provincial level. Some in these movements call themselves Islamists, which also sometimes describes more militant Islamic groups. The relationships between these groups (in democratic countries there is usually at least one Islamic party) and their views of democracy are complex. Some of these groups are accused of practicing Islamic terrorism. Islam-based intergovernmental organizations[edit]

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Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

Economy

GDP (PPP) GDP (PPP) per capita Exports Imports

Education

Member states

By population Largest cities

Parliamentary Union

v t e

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC) is an inter-governmental organization grouping fifty-seven states. 49 are Muslim-majority countries, the others have significant Muslim
Muslim
minorities. The organization claims to be the collective voice of the Muslim
Muslim
world to safeguard the interest and ensure the progress and well-being of their peoples and those of other Muslims
Muslims
in the world over.[citation needed] Gallery[edit]

Azerbaijani folk musicians in 1910s

A Kazakh wedding ceremony in a mosque

A group of marabouts – West African religious leaders and teachers of the Quran.

Muslim
Muslim
girls at Istiqlal Mosque
Mosque
in Jakarta

A tribal delegation in Chad

See also[edit]

Spread of Islam Islam
Islam
by country Islamic studies Islam
Islam
and other religions Pan-Islamism Islamic Military Alliance

Notes[edit]

^ Marilyn R. Waldman, Malika Zeghal (2009). "Islamic world". Britannica. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ John L. Esposito, ed. (2009). "Preface". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001/acref-9780195305135-div1-15 (inactive 2017-10-27). (Subscription required (help)). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World (OEIW) deals with all aspects of Islam—the world's second largest and fastest-growing religion—and the societies in which it exists, including their religion, politics, economics, everyday life, culture, and thought.  ^ a b Asma Afsaruddin (2016). "Islamic World". In William H. McNeill. Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.). Berkshire Publishing Group. doi:10.1093/acref/9780190622718.001.0001/acref-9780190622718-e-268 (inactive 2017-10-27). (Subscription required (help)). The Islamic world is generally defined contemporaneously as consisting of nation-states whose population contains a majority of Muslims. [...] in the contemporary era, the term Islamic world now includes not only the traditional heartlands of Islam, but also Europe
Europe
and North America, both of which have sizeable minority Muslim
Muslim
populations  ^ Scott Carpenter, Soner Cagaptay (2 June 2009). "What Muslim
Muslim
World?". Foreign Policy.  ^ a b c Nawaz, Maajid (2012). Radical: My Journey out of Islamist Extremism. WH Allen. p. XXII–XIII. ISBN 9781448131617. Retrieved 19 September 2017.  ^ a b Christopher Hitchens (2007). "Hitchens '07: Danish Muhammad Cartoons". Christopher Hitchens and Tim Rutten in discussion. Retrieved 19 September 2017. 21 ambassadors from Muslim
Muslim
– so-called " Muslim
Muslim
states". How do they dare to call themselves "Muslim"? In what sense is Egypt
Egypt
a "Muslim" country? You can't denominate a country as religious.  (4:35) ^ Gert Jan Geling (12 January 2017). "Ook na 1400 jaar kan de islam heus verdwijnen". Trouw (in Dutch). "Many people, including myself, are often guilty of using terms such as ' Muslim
Muslim
countries', or the 'Islamic world', as if Islam
Islam
has always been there, and always will be. And that is completely unclear. (...) If the current trend [of apostasy] continues, at some point a large section of the population may no longer be religious. How 'Islamic' would that still make the 'Islamic world'?  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b c d Jones, Gavin W. (2005). Islam, the State and Population. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 11–14. ISBN 9781850654933. Retrieved 19 September 2017.  ^ "Economies of the ummah".  ^ " Muslim
Muslim
countries make thin contribution to global economy". September 22, 2016.  ^ a b Michael Lipka & Conrad Hackett (6 April 2017). "Why Muslims are the world's fastest-growing religious group". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 14 February 2018.  ^ "Region: Middle East-North Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012.  ^ "The Global Religious Landscape" (PDF). Pew. December 2012.  ^ "Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 14 March 2017.  ^ "Region: Asia-Pacific". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ Editor, Daniel Burke. "The moment American Muslims
Muslims
were waiting for". CNN Religion. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "Region: Sub-Saharan Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012.  ^ "Region: Asia-Pacific". The Future of the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012.  ^ "Region: Europe". The Future of the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012.  ^ "Region: Americas". The Future of the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012.  ^ Tom Kington (31 March 2008). "Number of Muslims
Muslims
ahead of Catholics, says Vatican". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2008.  ^ " Muslim
Muslim
Population". IslamicPopulation.com. Retrieved 17 November 2008.  ^ "Field Listing Religions". Retrieved 17 November 2008.  ^ Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "islam. §7. Sektevorming". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum. ^ Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Omajjaden §1. De Spaanse tak". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum. ^ George Saliba (1994), A History of Arabic
Arabic
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