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The music of Australia
Australia
has an extensive history made of music societies. Indigenous Australian
Indigenous Australian
music is a part of the unique heritage of a 40,000–60,000 year history which produced the iconic didgeridoo. Contemporary fusions of Indigenous and Western styles (exemplified in the works of No Fixed Address, Yothu Yindi, Christine Anu and Geoffrey Gurrumul Yunupingu) mark distinctly Australian contributions to world music. During its early western history, Australia
Australia
was a collection of British colonies, and Australian folk music and bush ballads such as Waltzing Matilda
Waltzing Matilda
were heavily influenced by Anglo-Celtic traditions, while classical forms were derived from those of Europe. Contemporary Australian music ranges across a broad spectrum with trends often concurrent with those of the US, the UK, and similar nations – notably in the Australian rock
Australian rock
and Australian country music
Australian country music
genres. Tastes have diversified along with post- World War II
World War II
multicultural immigration to Australia. Notable Australian musicians include: the opera singers Dame Nellie Melba and Dame Joan Sutherland; the bass baritone Peter Dawson, country music stars Slim Dusty
Slim Dusty
(Australia's biggest selling domestic artist), Smoky Dawson
Smoky Dawson
and John Williamson; solo artists John Farnham, Olivia Newton-John
Olivia Newton-John
(five No. 1 Hot 100 hits, like "You're the One That I Want"), Rick Price, Missy Higgins, Kylie Minogue, Natalie Imbruglia, Guy Sebastian, Dami Im, Delta Goodrem, Sia Furler, Cody Simpson, Jessica Mauboy, Havana Brown, Gotye
Gotye
(No. 1 U.S. Billboard Hot 100 hit with "Somebody That I Used to Know" ft. New Zealander Kimbra), Rick Springfield (No. 1 Hot 100 hit with "Jessie's Girl") and Tina Arena, Diana Anaid, pub rock band Cold Chisel, folk-rocker Paul Kelly; Dance groups The Avalanches
The Avalanches
and Cut Copy; jazz guitarist Tommy Emmanuel; pioneer rocker Johnny O'Keefe. Australia
Australia
produced global folk-rock bands The Seekers, global rock and pop bands Men At Work
Men At Work
(two No. 1 Hot 100 hits including "Down Under" in 1983), the EasyBeats, Air Supply
Air Supply
(No. 1 Hot 100 hit with "The One That You Love"), Crowded House, AC/DC, INXS
INXS
(No. 1 Hot 100 hit with "Need You Tonight"), Little River Band, Nick Cave
Nick Cave
And The Bad Seeds, Midnight Oil, Dragon, Silverchair, Youth Group, You Am I
You Am I
and Powderfinger; Pendulum, Pop Rock duo Savage Garden
Savage Garden
(two No. 1 Hot 100 hits including "Truly Madly Deeply" in 1998), pop punk band 5 Seconds of Summer, alternative music acts the John Butler Trio, Xavier Rudd, Jet, Wolfmother, Sick Puppies, Tame Impala
Tame Impala
and The Vines. Other popular artists and groups include The Veronicas, Ball Park Music, Sticky Fingers, the Choirboys, Chantoozies, Saint Jude, Cheetah, Marc Williams, Peter Andre, Goanna, Australian Crawl, Rose Tattoo, Colleen Hewett, Keith Urban, The Angels, Ted Mullry Gang, Courtney Barnett, Hush, Chocolate Starfish, the Mixtures, Helen Reddy, Diana Trask, Thundamentals, San Cisco, Empire Of The Sun, Hilltop Hoods
Hilltop Hoods
and Iggy Azalea (No. 1 Hot 100 hit with "Fancy" in 2014). List of Billboard Hot 100 number-ones by Australian artists

Contents

1 Indigenous music 2 Folk music

2.1 Folk revival

3 Popular music

3.1 Country music 3.2 Children's music 3.3 R&B and soul music 3.4 Reggae 3.5 Rock and pop

3.5.1 First wave of Australian rock 3.5.2 Second wave of Australian rock 3.5.3 Third wave of Australian rock 3.5.4 1980s

3.5.4.1 Grunge

3.5.5 1990s: Indie rock

3.6 Electronic and dance music 3.7 Electronic 3.8 Hardcore 3.9 Metal 3.10 Punk rock/pop punk 3.11 Alternative rock 3.12 Hip-hop

4 Art music

4.1 Classical music 4.2 Jazz

5 Organisations 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Indigenous music[edit] Main article: Indigenous Australian
Indigenous Australian
music

Performance of Aboriginal song and dance in the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney
Sydney
with traditional instrument, the Didgeridoo.

Indigenous Australian
Indigenous Australian
music refers to the music of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. Music forms an integral part of the social, cultural and ceremonial observances of these peoples, and has been so for over 60,000 years.[1] Traditional Indigenous music is best characterised by the didgeridoo, the best-known instrument, which is considered by some to be the world's oldest.[2] Archaeological studies of rock art in the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
suggest people of the Kakadu region were playing the instrument 15,000 years ago.[3] Contemporary Indigenous Australian
Indigenous Australian
music has covered numerous styles, including rock and roll, country,[4] hip hop, and reggae. Jimmy Little is regarded as the first Aboriginal performer to achieve mainstream success, with his debut 1964 song "The Royal Telephone" highly popular and successful.[5] In 2005, Little was presented with an honorary doctorate in music by the University of Sydney.[6] Despite the popularity of some of his work, Little failed to launch Indigenous music in the country—from the 1970s onwards, groups such as Coloured Stone, Warumpi Band, and No Fixed Address would help improve the image of the genre.[5] It would be Yothu Yindi
Yothu Yindi
that would bring Indigenous music to the mainstream, with their 1991 song "Treaty", from the album Tribal Voice, becoming a hit.[7] would go on to reach No. 11 on the ARIA Singles Chart.[8] The band's performances were based on the traditional Yolngu
Yolngu
dance, and embodied a sharing of culture.[5] The success of Yothu Yindi—winners of eight ARIA Awards[9]—was followed in by Kev Carmody, Tiddas, Christine Anu, and numerous other Indigenous Australian
Indigenous Australian
musicians.[5]

Horace Watson recording the songs of Fanny Cochrane Smith, considered to be the last fluent speaker of a Tasmanian language, 1903. Folk-singer Bruce Watson, descendant of Watson, composed a song about this picture and later performed it with singer Ronnie Summers, a descendant of Smith.

Indigenous Australian
Indigenous Australian
music is unique, as it dates back more than 60,000 years to the prehistory of Australia
Australia
and continues the ancient songlines through contemporary artists as diverse as: David Dahwurr Hudson, Jimmy Little, Warumpi Band, Yothu Yindi, Tiddas, Wild Water, Christine Anu, Geoffrey Gurrumul Yunupingu, Saltwater Band, Nabarlek, Nokturnl, the Pigram Brothers, Coloured Stone, Blekbala Mujik, Kev Carmody, Archie Roach
Archie Roach
and Ruby Hunter. Folk music[edit] Main article: Australian folk music

Cover to Banjo Paterson's seminal 1905 collection of bush ballads, entitled The Old Bush Songs

For much of its history, Australia's bush music belonged to an oral and folkloric tradition, and was only later published in print in volumes such as Banjo Paterson's Old Bush Songs, in the 1890s. The distinctive themes and origins of Australia's "bush music" or "bush band music" can be traced to the songs sung by the convicts who were sent to Australia
Australia
during the early period of the British colonisation, beginning in 1788. Early Australian ballads sing of the harsh ways of life of the epoch and of such people and events as bushrangers, swagmen, drovers, stockmen and shearers. Convict and bushranger verses often railed against government tyranny. Classic bush songs on such themes include: The Wild Colonial Boy, Click Go The Shears, The Eumeralla Shore, The Drover's Dream, The Queensland Drover, The Dying Stockman and Moreton Bay.[10] Later themes which endure to the present include the experiences of war, of droughts and flooding rains, of Aboriginality and of the railways and trucking routes which link Australia's vast distances. Isolation and loneliness of life in the Australian bush
Australian bush
has been another theme. Waltzing Matilda, often regarded as Australia's unofficial National anthem, is a quintessential Australian folk song, influenced by Celtic folk ballads. Country and folk artists such as Tex Morton, Slim Dusty, Rolf Harris, The Bushwackers, John Williamson, and John Schumann of the band Redgum
Redgum
have continued to record and popularise the old bush ballads of Australia
Australia
through the 20th and into the 21st century – and contemporary artists including Sara Storer and Lee Kernaghan
Lee Kernaghan
draw heavily on this heritage. Australia
Australia
has a unique tradition of folk music, with origins in both the indigenous music traditions of the original Australian inhabitants, as well as the introduced folk music (including sea shanties) of 18th and 19th century Europe. Celtic, English, German and Scandinavian folk traditions predominated in this first wave of European immigrant music. The Australian tradition is, in this sense, related to the traditions of other countries with similar ethnic, historical and political origins, such as New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. The Australian indigenous tradition brought to this mix novel elements, including new instruments, some of which are now internationally familiar, such as the didgeridoo of Northern Australia. A number of British singers have spent periods in Australia and have included Australian material in their repertoires, e.g. A. L. Lloyd, Martin Wyndham-Read and Eric Bogle. Folk revival[edit]

Eric Bogle.

Notable Australian exponents of the folk revival movement included both European immigrants such as Eric Bogle, noted for his sad lament to the battle of Gallipoli "And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda", and indigenous Australians like Archie Roach
Archie Roach
and Paul Kelly. Kelly's lyrics capture the vastness of the culture and landscape of Australia by chronicling life about him for over 30 years. David Fricke from Rolling Stone calls Kelly "one of the finest songwriters I have ever heard, Australian or otherwise.". In the 1970s, Australian Folk Rock brought both familiar and less familiar traditional songs, as well as new compositions, to live venues and the airwaves. Notable artists include The Bushwacker Band and Redgum. Redgum
Redgum
are known for their 1983 anti-war protest song "I Was Only Nineteen", which peaked at No. 1 on the National singles charts. The 1990s brought Australian Indigenous Folk Rock to the world, led by bands including Yothu Yindi. Australia's long and continuous folk tradition continues strongly to this day, with elements of folk music still present in many contemporary artists including those generally thought of as Rock, Heavy Metal and Alternative Music. Popular music[edit] Country music[edit] Main article: Australian country music

Country singer Melinda Schneider
Melinda Schneider
with folk-rocker Paul Kelly

Kasey Chambers

Australia
Australia
has a long tradition of country music, which has developed a style quite distinct from its US counterpart. The early roots of Australian country are related to traditional folk music traditions of Ireland, England, Scotland and many diverse nations. "Botany Bay" from the late 19th century is one example. Waltzing Matilda, often regarded by foreigners as Australia's unofficial national anthem, is a quintessential Australian country song, influenced more by Celtic folk ballads than by American Country and Western music. This strain of Australian country music, with lyrics focusing on strictly Australian subjects, is generally known as "bush music" or "bush band music." The most successful Australian bush
Australian bush
band is Melbourne's The Bushwackers, active since the early 1970s, other well-known country singers include Reg Lindsay, bush balladeer singer Buddy Williams, and entertainers Johnny Ashcroft
Johnny Ashcroft
and Chad Morgan. Another, more Americanized form of Australian country music
Australian country music
was pioneered in the 1930s by such recording artists as Tex Morton, and later popularized by Slim Dusty, best remembered for his 1957 song "A Pub With No Beer" and Smoky Dawson. Dusty married singer-songwriter Joy McKean in 1951 and went on to become Australia's biggest selling domestic music artist with more than 7 million record sales.[11] British-born country singer and yodeller, Frank Ifield, was one of the first Australian post-war performers to gain widespread international recognition. After returning to the UK in 1959 Ifield was successful in the early 1960s, becoming the first performer to have three consecutive number-one hits on the UK charts: "I Remember You", "Lovesick Blues" (both 1962) and "The Wayward Wind" (1963).[12] "I Remember You" was also a Top 5 hit in the US.[13] Australian country artists including Olivia Newton-John, Sherrie Austin, and Keith Urban
Keith Urban
have achieved considerable success in the USA. In recent years local contemporary country music, featuring much crossover with popular music, had popularity in Australia; notable musicians of this genre include David Hudson, John Williamson, Gina Jeffreys, Lee Kernaghan, Troy Cassar-Daley, Sara Storer, Felicity Urquhart and Kasey Chambers. Others influenced by the genre include Nick Cave, Paul Kelly, The John Butler Trio, Jagged Stone and The Waifs. Popular Australian country songs include Click Go the Shears (Traditional), Lights on the Hill (1973), I Honestly Love You
I Honestly Love You
(1974), True Blue (1981), and Not Pretty Enough
Not Pretty Enough
(2002). Children's music[edit]

The Wiggles' lineup in 2007, riding in the Big Red Car during a concert.

Children's music in Australia
Australia
developed gradually over the latter half of the 20th century. The most recognised performers in that period were those associated with the long-running Australian Broadcasting Corporation series Playschool, including veteran actor-musician Don Spencer and actor and singer Noni Hazlehurst. Children's music remained a relatively small segment of the Australian music industry until the emergence of groundbreaking children's group The Wiggles
The Wiggles
in the late 1990s. The multi-award-winning four-piece group rapidly gained international popularity in the early 2000s and by the end of the decade they had become one of the most popular children's groups in the world. The Wiggles
The Wiggles
now boasts a huge fanbase in many regions including Australasia, Britain, Asia, and the Americas. In 2008 The Wiggles
The Wiggles
were named Business Review Weekly's top-earning Australian entertainers for the fourth year in a row having earned A$45 million in 2007.[14] They have been called "the world's biggest preschool band" and "your child's first rock band".[15] The group has achieved worldwide success with their children's albums, videos, television series, and concert appearances. They have earned seventeen gold, twelve platinum, three double-platinum, and ten multi-platinum awards for sales of over 17 million DVDs and four million CDs.[16] By 2002, The Wiggles
The Wiggles
had become the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's (ABC) most successful pre-school television program. They have performed for over 1.5 million children in the US between 2005 and 2008.[17] They have won APRA song writing awards for Best Children's Song three times and earned ADSDA's award for Highest Selling Children's Album four times.[16] They have been nominated for ARIA's Best Children's Album award nineteen times, and won the award twelve times.[18] In 2003, they received ARIA's Outstanding Achievement Award for their success in the U.S.[16] R&B and soul music[edit]

Guy Sebastian
Guy Sebastian
and Jimmy Barnes
Jimmy Barnes
6 March 2008 State Theatre

R&B soul music had a significant impact on Australian's music, although it is notable that many seminal recordings in this genre by American acts of the late 20th century were not played on Australian radio. Anecdotal evidence suggest that racism was a key factor—in his book on the history of Australian radio, author and broadcaster Wayne Mac recounts that when a local Melbourne
Melbourne
DJ of the 1960s played the new Ike and Tina Turner single "River Deep Mountain High" it was immediately pulled from the playlist by the station's program manager for being "too noisy and too black".[19] As a result, many local soul/R&B hits of this period were cover versions recorded by Australian acts. Despite radio's relucatance to play American soul/R&B originals, these styles were avidly adopted by local performers and covers of soul/R&B standards were staples in the setlists of many acts including Max Merritt and the Meteors, Doug Parkinson, Jeff St John, The Groop, The Groove, The Twilights, Renee Geyer and many others. Renée Geyer
Renée Geyer
is an Australian singer who came to prominence in the mid-1970s, has long been regarded as one of the finest exponents of jazz, soul and R&B idioms.[20][21] She had commercial success as a solo artist in Australia, with " It's a Man's Man's World "Rock historian, Ian McFarlane described her as having a "rich, soulful, passionate and husky vocal delivery".[20] Geyer's iconic status in the Australian music industry was recognised when she was inducted into the ARIA Hall of Fame
ARIA Hall of Fame
on 14 July 2005. Parallel with Geyer's success, American born vocalist Marcia Hines emerged as one of Australia's most successful solo singers. She first came to prominence in the early 1970s with critically acclaimed roles in the local stage productions of Hair and Jesus Christ Superstar
Jesus Christ Superstar
(in which she was the first African-American to play the role of Mary Magdalene) before launching a solo career. By the late 1970s she was one of Australia's top singing stars, winning several Queen of Pop awards and hosting her own national TV variety series. Following their initial dissolution in 1982 Cold Chisel
Cold Chisel
lead vocalist Jimmy Barnes
Jimmy Barnes
embarked on a successful solo career that has continued from the 1980s to the present. Many of Barnes' albums have featured versions of songs from these genres and his chart-topping album Soul Deep (1991) consisted entirely of covers of classic 1960s soul/R&B covers. Australian soul singer/songwriters like Daniel Merriweather, has after several successful collaborations with artists such as Mark Ronson, released his official debut album, Love & War, in June 2009. It entered the UK Albums Chart at number two. After launching his career as the winner of an early series of Australian Idol, soul singer/songwriter Guy Sebastian
Guy Sebastian
has also made an impact on this genre in Australia
Australia
winning awards at the Urban Music Awards Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
for Best Male Artist and Best R&B Album. Sebastian's recent release "Like it Like That", was the highest selling Australian artist single in 2009 and charted at No. 1 for two consecutive weeks[22][23] In 2004, Australian Idol
Australian Idol
finalist Paulini's debut single "Angel Eyes" and album One Determined Heart both reached number one on the ARIA charts and were certified platinum.[24] Paulini
Paulini
earned ARIA No. 1 Chart Awards for both the single and album.[25] Her second album Superwoman included the singles "Rough Day" and "So Over You", and earned Paulini
Paulini
two nominations at the 2007 Urban Music Awards for 'Best R&B Album' and 'Best Female Artist'.[26] 2006 Australian Idol
Australian Idol
runner-up Jessica Mauboy
Jessica Mauboy
made her musical solo debut in 2008 with the single "Running Back", which featured American rapper Flo Rida, and peaked at number three on the ARIA Singles Chart, eventually being certified double platinum.[27] Her debut album Been Waiting earned her seven nominations at the 2009 ARIA Music Awards, winning the award of 'Highest Selling Single' for "Running Back".[28] Mauboy has continued to enjoy success with singles such as "Burn", "Saturday Night" featuring Ludacris
Ludacris
and "Inescapable". R&B and pop singer Cody Simpson
Cody Simpson
has achieved international acclaim and has been compared to the likes of Justin Bieber
Justin Bieber
and Miley Cyrus.[citation needed] Simpson's music has charted all over the world.[citation needed] Soul singer Gabriella Cilmi
Gabriella Cilmi
possessing a voice and singing style similar to Amy Winehouse
Amy Winehouse
has managed to achieve a degree of international success since 2007 with singles like "Sweet About Me". Other singers in the R&B/soul genre include Jade MacRae, Israel Cruz, Stan Walker
Stan Walker
and Ricki-Lee Coulter, who experimented with R&B for her first two albums, Ricki-Lee (2005) and Brand New Day (2007). Lowrider (Australian band) is one of Australia's few indie pop soul bands, forming in 2003. Lowrider released their self-titled debut album Lowrider (Illusive Sounds) in 2006 and Diamond Amongst the Thieves (Illusive Sounds) in 2008. In July 2010 Lowrider released Round the World and was nominated for an Australian Music Industry ARIA Music Awards
ARIA Music Awards
for Best Urban Album. Reggae[edit] Reggae
Reggae
had success on the radio charts in Australia
Australia
in the early 1980s when Toots and the Maytals, the first artist to use the term “reggae” in song, went to number one with their song “Beautiful Woman”.[29][30] Early reggae groups from Australia
Australia
included JJ Roberts, No Fixed Address, The Igniters, and Untabu featuring Ron Jemmott.[31] Rock and pop[edit] Main article: Australian rock Australia
Australia
has produced a wide variety of rock and popular music, from the internationally successful groups AC/DC, INXS, Nick Cave, Savage Garden, the Seekers, or pop divas Delta Goodrem, Kylie Minogue
Kylie Minogue
to the popular local content of John Farnham, Jimmy Barnes
Jimmy Barnes
or Paul Kelly. Indigenous Australian
Indigenous Australian
music and Australian jazz
Australian jazz
have also had crossover influence on this genre.[32] Early Australian rock
Australian rock
and roll stars included Col Joye and Johnny O'Keefe. O'Keefe formed a band in 1956; his hit Wild One made him the first Australian rock'n'roller to reach the national charts.[33] While US and British content dominated airwaves and record sales into the 1960s, local successes began to emerge – notably The Easybeats
The Easybeats
and the folk-pop group The Seekers had significant local success and some international recognition, while AC/DC
AC/DC
had their first hits in Australia
Australia
before going on to international success. Pub rock was popular in the 1980s, and the era was typified by AC/DC, Divinyls, Mental As Anything, Midnight Oil, The Choirboys, The Angels, Noiseworks, Air Supply, Cold Chisel
Cold Chisel
and Icehouse. INXS
INXS
and Men at Work also achieved fame worldwide, and the song "Down Under" became an unofficial anthem for Australia. Australian hip hop
Australian hip hop
began in the early 1980s, primarily influenced by overseas works, but by the 1990s a distinctive local style had emerged, with groups such as the Hilltop Hoods achieving international acclaim for their work. The 1990s saw an increase in the popularity of indie rock in Australia. AC/DC
AC/DC
and INXS continued to achieve commercial success in the United States, whilst a multitude of local bands, including Jebediah, Magic Dirt, Diana Anaid (#1 on the Australian Indie Charts and #26 on the USA Billboard Chart), Spiderbait, The Superjesus, Regurgitator, You Am I, Icecream Hands, Powderfinger, Silverchair
Silverchair
and Something for Kate, were popular throughout the country. A small electronic music scene emerged around Sydney
Sydney
and Melbourne, with Severed Heads, Ollie Olsen's No, and Foil all peaking in the 1990s. Australian music experienced a rock renaissance in the 2000s with groups such as The Vines, Jet, Airbourne and Wolfmother
Wolfmother
charting internationally. Hilltop Hoods
Hilltop Hoods
were the first Australian hip-hop group to reach the top of the ARIA chart. Channel 10's Australian Idol program was highly popular locally, as were the many "idols" produced. First wave of Australian rock[edit]

The Delltones
The Delltones
with four radio awards

In the mid-1950s, American rock and roll spread across the world. Sydney's independent record label Festival Records was the first to get on the bandwagon in Australia, releasing Bill Haley & His Comets' "Rock Around the Clock" in 1956. It became the biggest-selling Australian single ever released up to that time. American-born entrepreneur Lee Gordon, who arrived in Australia
Australia
in 1953, played a key role in establishing the popularity of rock & roll with his famous "Big Show" tours, which brought to Australia
Australia
many leading American rock'n'roll acts including Bill Haley & His Comets, Little Richard, Bo Diddley, Eddie Cochran, Gene Vincent, Buddy Holly & The Crickets
The Crickets
and Jerry Lee Lewis. Gordon was also instrumental in launching the career of Johnny O'Keefe, the first Australian rock star, who rose to fame by imitating Americans like Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
and Little Richard. O'Keefe and other "first wave" bands were popular until about 1961, when a wave of clean-cut family bands took their place. Though mainstream audiences in the early sixties preferred a clean-cut style – epitomised by the acts that appeared on the Nine Network
Nine Network
pop show Bandstand – there were a number of 'grungier' guitar-oriented bands in major cities like Sydney
Sydney
and Melbourne, who were inspired by American and British instrumental and surf acts like Britain's The Shadows – who exerted an enormous influence on Australian and New Zealand music prior to the emergence of The Beatles
The Beatles
– and American acts like guitar legend Dick Dale
Dick Dale
and The Surfaris. Notable Australian instrumental groups of this period included The Atlantics, The Denvermen, The Thunderbirds, The Planets, The Dee Jays, The Joy Boys, The Fabulous Blue Jays and The Whispers.

Friday on My Mind, by The Easybeats.

Jazz
Jazz
was another important influence on the first wave of Australian rock. Unlike the musicians in bands such as The Comets, or Elvis Presley's backing band, who had rockabilly or country music backgrounds, many musicians in Australian rock'n'roll bands – such as Johnny O'Keefe's famous backing group The Dee Jays – had a solid background in jazz. Second wave of Australian rock[edit] The "second wave" of Australian rock
Australian rock
is said to have begun in about 1964, and followed directly on the impact of The Beatles. In the immediate wake of The Beatles' momentous Australian tour, many local groups that had formerly played guitar-based instrumental music recruited singers and took up the new 'beat' style. Some of the best-known and most popular acts in this period were Billy Thorpe & the Aztecs and Ray Brown & The Whispers, The Easybeats, The Masters Apprentices, The Twilights, The Groop, The Groove, The Loved Ones and cult acts like The Throb and solo star Normie Rowe, who quickly became Australia's most popular male pop vocalist. During this period a wave of acts also came from New Zealand, including Ray Columbus & the Invaders, Max Merritt & The Meteors, Dinah Lee, Larry's Rebels
Larry's Rebels
and The La De Das. Many Australian bands and singers tried to enhance their careers by moving overseas, in particular to England, then seen as the mecca of popular music but few bands were successful and of those who relocated to the UK only The Seekers
The Seekers
enjoyed any lasting success. Others that made the journey were The Easybeats
The Easybeats
(the first rock band to crack the UK market), The Twilights, The Groove, Lloyds World and the La De Das. Third wave of Australian rock[edit]

AC/DC
AC/DC
performing at the Ulster Hall
Ulster Hall
in August 1979

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The "third wave" of Australian rock
Australian rock
began around 1970, by which time most of the major local pop groups of the 1960s had dissolved and former solo stars like Normie Rowe
Normie Rowe
had faded from view. Few acts from this era attained major international success, and it was even difficult to achieve success across Australia, due to low radio airplay and the increasing dominance of overseas performers on the charts. A pivotal event was the 1970 radio ban, which lasted from May to October that year. The Ban was the climax of a simmering "pay for play" dispute between major record companies and commercial radio stations, who refused to pay a proposed new copyright fee for playing pop records on air. The dispute erupted into open conflict in May 1970—many commercial stations boycotted records by the labels involved and refused to list their releases on their Top 40 charts, while the record companies in turn refused to supply radio with free promotional copies of new releases. An unexpected side-effect of the ban was that several emerging Australian acts signed to independent labels (who were not part of the dispute) scored hits with covers of overseas hits; these included The Mixtures' cover of Mungo Jerry's "In the Summertime"[34] and Liv Maessen's cover of Mary Hopkin's Eurovision
Eurovision
song "Knock, Knock Who's There?". Despite commercial radio resistance to the more progressive music being produced by bands like Spectrum and Tully, acts as diverse as AC/DC, Sherbet and John Paul Young
John Paul Young
were able to achieve major success and develop a unique sound for Australian rock. From 1975, key agents for the increased exposure of local music were the nationally broadcast ABC-TV television pop show Countdown, which premiered in late 1974, and Australia's first non-commercial all-rock radio station Double Jay, which opened in January 1975. Hard rock
Hard rock
bands AC/DC
AC/DC
and Rose Tattoo
Rose Tattoo
and harmony rock group Little River Band
Little River Band
also found major overseas success in the late 1970s and early 1980s, touring all over the world. Meanwhile, a score of Australian expatriate solo performers like Helen Reddy, Olivia Newton-John
Olivia Newton-John
and Peter Allen became major stars in the USA and internationally. Icehouse also formed in the late 1970s. This period also saw bands like Skyhooks moving towards new wave music, and the late 1970s saw the emergence of pioneering punk rock bands like The Saints and Radio
Radio
Birdman, as well as electronic musical groups, such as Cybotron, Severed Heads
Severed Heads
and Essendon Airport. Perhaps most influential of the 'underground' scenes, however, was the burgeoning Australian pub rock circuit, which developed in the early 1970s and played a key role in the emergence of major bands of the late 1970s and early 1980s, including Cold Chisel
Cold Chisel
and The Angels, and in Sydney
Sydney
Midnight Oil
Midnight Oil
and Matt Finish. From the post-punk music scene which had sprung up in Melbourne
Melbourne
came The Boys Next Door featuring Nick Cave. The Boys Next Door would eventually become The Birthday Party. The Australian Music Industry as a business began to formalise during the late 1960s and the 1970s. Although not taken seriously by the mainstream business community in those early years, none could discount the pioneering spirit and business acumen of the likes of Michael Gudinski, Michael Chugg, Ray Evans, Dennis Charter, Glenn Wheatley, Harry M. Miller, Harley Medcalf, Michael Browning, Peter Rix, Ron Tudor, Roger Davies, Fred Bestall, Lance Reynolds, Alan Hely, Frank Stivala, Sebastian Chase, Philip Jacobsen, Peter Karpin, Roger Savage, John Sayers, Ernie Rose, Bill Armstrong (Australian music producer), Kevin Jacobsen, Phil Dwyer, Ken Brodziak, Denis Handlin, Stan Rofe, Jade Johnson, Terry Blamey and Ian 'Molly' Meldrum. These were the people largely responsible for promoting and developing the Australian music 'business' during those formative years. Clubs and venues catering for the demand of live band entertainment flourished in capital cities all over the country, however, the central development of the Australian Music Industry during these years was in Sydney
Sydney
and Melbourne. Clubs such as Chequers, the Bondi Lifesaver and the Coogee Bay Hotel in Sydney, and the Thumpin Tum, Catcher, Berties, Sebastian's, the Hard Rock Cafe
Hard Rock Cafe
and the Q Club in Melbourne
Melbourne
were synonymous with the biggest names in Australian rock & roll. In 1970 the first ever outdoor music festival, modelled on Woodstock, was held at Ourimbah near Sydney, and several other followed over the next two years, but most were a financial failure. In 1972 the first festival that proved successful enough to be repeated was the 1972 'Festival' which attracted some 35,000 music fans from across the country to Sunbury, Melbourne. 'Pop' magazines such as Go-Set
Go-Set
(which began in 1966), the Daily Planet, RAM, and Juke, and television programs such as Countdown, Uptight, Sounds Unlimited and Happening 70 promoted Australian popular music to a youth market who had never before experienced such media exposure of their idols and stars. 'Pop Stars' were now being created by direct marketing to a targeted teenage audience. Recording studios such as 301, Alberts' and Trafalgar in Sydney
Sydney
and Armstrong Studios and TCS in Melbourne
Melbourne
became legendary. Independent label Mushroom Records was founded in 1973 and although it struggled to survive for its first two years of existence, it was saved in early 1975 by the nationawide commercial breakthrough of Skyhooks, whose debut LP became the biggest-selling Australian rock
Australian rock
album ever released up to that time; this success enabled Mushroom to become a significant player in the Australian music industry and compete with established companies like EMI, CBS and Festival. The bands and solo artists who shaped Australian Music during these seminal years were: – The Choirboys, INXS, Noiseworks, Skyhooks, AC/DC, Renée Geyer, Spectrum, Chain, Daddy Cool, Marcia Hines, Zoot, The Masters Apprentices, Dragon, Air Supply, The Radiators, The Angels, Axiom, Kevin Borich Express, Captain Matchbox Whoopee Band, Carson, Cheetah, Richard Clapton, Cold Chisel, John Farnham, Healing Force, Lobby Loyde
Lobby Loyde
and the Coloured Balls, Hawking Bros, Flake, Buffalo, Bjerre, Wendy Saddington, The Seekers, Ronnie Charles, Company Caine, Trevor Spry, Radio
Radio
Birdman, Buster Brown, Little River Band, Ray Burgess, Mental As Anything, Marty Rhone, Ariel, The La De Das, Peter Allen, The Dingoes, Babeez, Mondo Rock, Icehouse, Midnight Oil, Doug Parkinson, Jon English, Blackfeather, Ronnie Burns, The Ferrets, Mike Brady, Martin Gellatley, Hush, Tully, Madder Lake, Supernaut, Russell Morris, Allison Durbin, Olivia Newton-John, Ross D. Wyllie, The News, Max Merritt and the Meteors, Debra Byrne, Rose Tattoo, The Reels, The Saints, Sebastian Hardie, Lash, William Shakespeare, Samantha Sang, Sherbet, Silver Studs, John St Peters, Jeff St John, Stylus, Jim Keays, Tamam Shud, Ted Mulry Gang, Billy Thorpe & the Aztecs, Ol' 55, Mark Holden, Lyndon Hart, Stevie Wright, John Paul Young, Helen Reddy, Redgum, Hot City Bump Band, Jo Jo Zep & The Falcons, Colleen Hewett, Linda George, Ayers Rock and Brian Cadd. 1980s[edit]

Nick Cave
Nick Cave
performing in 1986

The 1980s saw a breakthrough in the independence of Australian rock— Nick Cave
Nick Cave
said that before the 1980s, " Australia
Australia
still needed America or England to tell them what was good".[35] Shaddap You Face, by Joe Dolce, became, and still remains, the most successful Australian produced original-song of all time. An example of Australians breaking free from convention came in TISM. Formed in 1982, the band is known for its anonymous members, outrageous stage antics, and humorous lyrics. In the words of the band, "There's only one factor left that makes us work. And that factor, I think, we've burned away, with the crucible of time, into something that's actually genuine."[36] Men at Work, Divinyls, and Hoodoo Gurus, all formed between 1979 and 1981, would go on to be hugely successful worldwide. Men at Work's "Down Under" hit number one in Australia, Europe, the UK, Canada, and the United States, and was considered the theme song of Australia's successful showing at the 1983 America's Cup.[37] Hoodoo Gurus, meanwhile, hit it big on the US college circuit—all of their 1980s albums topped the chart.[38] At the same time, a number of Australian bands relocated to the U.K. and particularly London to further their artistic and commercial endeavours, among whom were The Moodists, The Go-Betweens, The Birthday Party, Laughing Clowns, Foetus, SPK, The Triffids, and Tiny Town.[39] In the 1980s, numerous innovative Australian rock
Australian rock
bands arose. These included Hunters & Collectors, The Church, TISM, Divinyls, Hoodoo Gurus, Mondo Rock, The Sunnyboys, Men at Work, The Go-Betweens, The Triffids, The Lime Spiders, Big Pig, The Celibate Rifles, the Cosmic Psychos and the Hard-Ons. During this period a number of Australian bands began to reflect their urban environment in songs dealing with day-to-day experiences of inner-city life e.g. Paul Kelly & the Coloured Girls perhaps best exemplified in his songs "From St Kilda to Kings Cross" and "Leaps & Bounds", John Kennedy's Love Gone Wrong in songs such us "King Street" and The Mexican Spitfires in tracks like " Sydney
Sydney
Town" and "Town Hall Steps." This decade also saw the rise of world music groups like Dead Can Dance; of special importance is Yothu Yindi, who helped found the field of Aboriginal rock. Then soap star Kylie Minogue
Kylie Minogue
began her music career in the late 1980s and released "The Loco-Motion" which became the biggest selling single in Australia
Australia
for the decade and quickly catapulted her to worldwide stardom. The first annual ARIA Music Awards
ARIA Music Awards
were held in 1987. John Farnham and Crowded House
Crowded House
were the most successful artists at the event. Grunge[edit] Main article: Grunge

Cosmic Psychos, one of several Australian bands which influenced and interacted with the Seattle grunge scene

Grunge
Grunge
is a subgenre of alternative rock and a subculture that emerged during the mid-1980s in Australia
Australia
and in the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
U.S. state of Washington. The early grunge movement in the US revolved around Seattle's independent record label Sub Pop
Sub Pop
and that region's underground music scene. By the early 1990s its popularity had spread, with grunge bands appearing in California, then emerging in other parts of the United States
United States
and in Australia, building strong followings and signing major record deals. Mark Arm, the vocalist for the Seattle band Green River—and later Mudhoney—stated that the term had been used in Australia
Australia
in the mid-1980s to describe bands such as King Snake Roost, The Scientists, Salamander Jim, and Beasts of Bourbon.[40] Arm used grunge as a descriptive term rather than a genre term, but it eventually came to describe the punk/metal hybrid sound of the Seattle music scene.[41] C Several Australian bands, including The Scientists, Cosmic Psychos
Cosmic Psychos
and Feedtime, are cited as precursors to grunge, their music influencing the Seattle scene through the college radio broadcasts of Sub Pop founder Jonathan Poneman and members of Mudhoney.[42][43] Chris Dubrow from The Guardian
The Guardian
states that in the late 1980s, Australia's "sticky-floored...alternative pub scene" in seedy inner-city areas produced grunge bands with "raw and awkward energy" such as The Scientists, X, Beasts of Bourbon, feedtime, Cosmic Psychos
Cosmic Psychos
and Lubricated Goat.[44] Dubrow said "Cobain...admitted the Australian wave was a big influence" on his music.[44] Everett True
Everett True
states that "[t]here's more of an argument to be had for grunge beginning in Australia
Australia
with the Scientists and their scrawny punk ilk."[10] 1990s: Indie rock[edit] Main article: Australian indie rock

Psychobilly
Psychobilly
group The Living End
The Living End
were successful internationally in the 1990s

The 1990s saw continued overseas success from groups such as AC/DC,[45] INXS,[46] Men at Work, Midnight Oil, The Bad Seeds,[47] and a new indie rock scene started to develop locally. Sydney-based Ratcat were the first new band to achieve a mainstream following,[48] while bands such as the Hoodoo Gurus
Hoodoo Gurus
got off to a slower start; their debut album Stoneage Romeos
Stoneage Romeos
earned a small following but failed to captivate a mainstream that at the time "didn't get it".[49] Later reviews would describe the band as "integral to the story of Aussie indie music", influencing bands including Frenzal Rhomb
Frenzal Rhomb
and Jet.[50] The band would go on to become an ARIA Hall of Fame
ARIA Hall of Fame
inductee.[51] The Church, meanwhile, was highly successful in the 1980s, only to see their careers diminish in the next decade; 1994's Sometime Anywhere
Sometime Anywhere
saw the band recede from a mainstream audience.[52] Alternative rock
Alternative rock
began to gain popularity midway through the 1990s, with grunge and Britpop
Britpop
styles especially popular, resulting in a new wave of Australian bands. Some, such as Savage Garden, The Living End and Silverchair, also gained quick success in the United States,[53] while You Am I, Jebediah, Magic Dirt, Something for Kate, Icecream Hands and Powderfinger
Powderfinger
gained more success locally.[54] Bands such as Regurgitator
Regurgitator
and Spiderbait
Spiderbait
were hit heavily by the post-grunge backlash, losing in sales and critical acclaim.[53][55] Much of the success of rock in Australia
Australia
is attributed to the non-commercial Australian Broadcasting Corporation's radio station Triple J, which focuses heavily on Australian alternative music, and has done so since its formation as 2JJ in 1975.[56] Throughout the station's history, they have helped jump start the careers of numerous bands, through programs such as Unearthed, the Australian Music program Home & Hosed and the Hottest 100.[57] The Big Day Out
Big Day Out
festival has showcased Australian and international acts, with line-ups spanning multiple genres, with an alternative focus. It has become highly popular amongst musicians; Foo Fighters lead singer Dave Grohl
Dave Grohl
said "We play the Big Day Out
Big Day Out
because it's the best tour in the world. You ask any band in the world – they all want to play the Big Day Out, every single one of them."[58] Other festivals, such as Homebake, Livid, and Splendour in the Grass, are also rock focused, and together with Big Day Out
Big Day Out
are "united by the dominant presence of the indie-guitar scene".[59] Australia
Australia
made its first appearance in the Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest 2015 after being granted a spot in the final by the EBU. Electronic and dance music[edit]

Australian electronic music duo The Presets

Pendulum bassist Gareth McGrillen. The band mixes numerous genres, including electronic.[60]

Electronic music
Electronic music
in Australia
Australia
emerged in the 1990s, but takes elements from funk, house, techno, trance and numerous other genres.[61] Early innovators of the genre in Australia
Australia
include Severed Heads, who formed in 1979 and were the first electronic group to play the Big Day Out.[62] The band achieved long term success, winning an ARIA Award in 2005 for "Best Original Soundtrack" for The Illustrated Family Doctor, where lead singer Tom Ellard said the band would never fit into mainstream music.[63] FSOM members included Davide Carbone, Josh Abrahams and Steve Robbins, were an Australian electronic music groups. They released tracks on Candyline Records. Frank De Wulf's, Two Thumbs Records and Carl Cox's Ultimatum. FSOM also played at several Big Day Out
Big Day Out
festivals and also supported artists including Björk, Tricky and The Prodigy. Future Sound of Melbourne
Melbourne
won the ARIA Award for "Best Dance Release" for their Chapter One album in 1996. The Avalanches
The Avalanches
released their debut album Since I Left You. The genre has developed a following, to the point the University of Adelaide offers an Electronic Music Unit, teaching studio production and music technology.[64] The School of Synthesis
School of Synthesis
was also set up in Melbourne
Melbourne
by renowned artists including Davide Carbone
Davide Carbone
to specifically cater to Australian Electronic producers. Traditional rock bands such as Regurgitator
Regurgitator
have developed an original sound by combining heavy guitars and electronic influences,[65] and rock-electro groups, most notably Rogue Traders, have become popular with mainstream audiences.[66][67] The genre is most popular in Melbourne, with multiple music festivals held in the city.[68] However, Cyclic Defrost, the only specialist electronic music magazine in Australia, was started in Sydney
Sydney
(in 1998) and is still based there.[69][70] Radio
Radio
still lags somewhat behind the success of the genre—producer and artist manager Andrew Penhallow told Australian Music Online
Australian Music Online
that "the local music media have often overlooked the fact that this genre has been flying the flag for Australian music overseas".[71] Over the past fifteen years, bands and producers such as Ollie Olsen, Angelspit, Cut Copy, The Presets, Miami Horror, Bag Raiders, The Potbelleez, Art vs. Science, Empire of the Sun, Sneaky Sound System, Little Nobody, Faydee and Pnau
Pnau
have made a name for themselves in the genre. The success of The Presets
The Presets
at the ARIA Music Awards
ARIA Music Awards
of 2008 and the Potbelleez in the mainstream media was indicative of the rapidly growing popularity of electro house, progressive house and hardstyle in Australia. Cut Copy
Cut Copy
frontman Dan Whitford
Dan Whitford
has attributed the band's success to a change in public attitude as much as the band's quality, explaining "It's a case partly of timing and a growing awareness of electronic music in Australia".[72] Pnau's first album, Sambanova, was released in 1999, at a time when many in Australia
Australia
considered electronic music to be a dying breed. Nonetheless, the band travelled around the US and Europe, and slowly made a name for themselves, and for a rebirth of electronic music in the country.[73][74] Individual DJs are also pioneering the electronic music scene globally. Dirty South (DJ)
Dirty South (DJ)
was ranked 59 in the 2009 DJ Mag
DJ Mag
Top 100 DJ poll. In recent years electronic festivals such as Stereosonic
Stereosonic
have overtaken other genres of music festivals to have the largest attendance in Australia. Several festivals started developing over time, these festivals include: Defqon 1, IQON,[75] Masters of Hardcore, Utopia,[76] Doof, Rainbow Serpent Festival
Rainbow Serpent Festival
and Stereosonic. This also includes Teknivals which are generally held outside big cities and are not widely publicized. Electronic[edit]

Alison Wonderland Art vs. Science Bag Raiders Code Black Cut Copy Dirty South Empire of the Sun Flight Facilities Flume Hook N Sling Infusion Joel Fletcher Kid Kenobi Knife Party MaRLo Miami Horror Midnight Juggernauts Sam Sparro ShockOne Pendulum Pnau Rogue Traders Sneaky Sound System Stafford Brothers The Aston Shuffle The Avalanches The Presets Timmy Trumpet Tommy Trash TyDi TV Rock Will Sparks

Hardcore[edit] Main article: Australian hardcore In recent years, Australia
Australia
has become known for hardcore punk bands such as:

50 Lions A Breach of Silence Against Behind Crimson Eyes Break Even Buried in Verona Capture the Crown Carpathian Confession Deez Nuts Dream On, Dreamer Eleventh He Reaches London Extortion Hands Like Houses Hellions (band) Forgiven Rival House vs. Hurricane Hand of Mercy I Killed the Prom Queen Iron Mind King Parrot In Hearts Wake Krakatoa Mary Jane Kelly (band) Massappeal Miles Away Mindsnare Mortification Ocean Grove (Australian band) Parkway Drive Rupture Totally Unicorn Trophy Eyes The Amity Affliction The Red Shore Toe to Toe Ultimatum Where's the Pope?

Metal[edit] Main article: Australian heavy metal Further to this, the Australian Metal scene has gained prominence in the past number of years with bands such as:

Abominator AC/DC Aeon of Horus Airbourne Alarum Alchemist Astriaal BB Steal Be'lakor Black Majesty Blood Duster Chaos Divine Claim the Throne Damaged Darker Half Daysend Disentomb Dreadnaught (band) Deströyer 666 Devolved Dungeon (band) Electric Mary Empires of Eden Eye of the Enemy Frankenbok Feed Her to the Sharks For All Eternity (band) Gospel of the Horns Grave Forsaken Heaven (Australian band) Heaven the Axe Hobbs' Angel of Death King Parrot Koritni Ilium (band) Lord Make Them Suffer Mortal Sin Mortification (band) Myridian Nazxul Ne Obliviscaris Northlane October Rage Our Last Enemy Orpheus Omega Paindivision Parkway Drive Pegazus Portal Psycroptic Roxus Sadistik Exekution Segression Southern Sons Striborg Superheist Sydonia Synthetic Breed The Amenta The Berzerker The Eternal (band) The Mark of Cain The Red Shore Thy Art Is Murder Tria Mera Twelve Foot Ninja Universum Vanishing Point Virgin Black Voyager Wish for Wings

Punk rock/pop punk[edit] Main article: Australian punk Australia
Australia
has built a strong and ongoing cult following of punk bands such as:

5 Seconds of Summer 28 Days Bodyjar Bored! Closure in Moscow Cosmic Psychos Dune Rats DZ Deathrays Exploding White Mice Exserts Frenzal Rhomb Goons of Doom Guttersnipes Hard-Ons JAB Lime Spiders New Race Stiletto The Celibate Rifles The Leftovers The Living End The Rumjacks The Saints The Screaming Tribesmen The Survivors The Victims The Visitors The Zorros Toe to Toe Tonight Alive Vampire Lovers Yidcore The Veronicas With Confidence

Alternative rock[edit] Australia
Australia
has created many alternative rock bands such as:

Area-7 Ammonia Antistatic Antiskeptic After the Fall The Beautiful Few Bird Automatic Birds of Tokyo Boy & Bear British India (band) Bughouse (band) Calling All Cars Camp Cope Closure in Moscow Cog Custard Dakuta Dan Sultan Dallas Crane Dead Letter Circus DMA's Drag Endorphin Eskimo Joe Epicure Even Gerling Grinspoon Gyroscope Hands Like Houses Harts (musician) Happyland Heroes For Hire Hiatus Kaiyote Hockey Dad INXS Jebediah Jet John Butler Trio Julia Jacklin Karnivool Killing Heidi King Gizzard and the Lizard Wizard Kingswood (band) Kisschasy Magic Dirt Mammal Matt Corby Matt Finish Methyl Ethel Motor Ace Not From There Pollyanna Pond (Australian band) Powderfinger PVT Regurgitator Rocket Science San Cisco Screamfeeder Sidewinder Silverchair Skunkhour Something For Kate Sonic Animation Sparkadia Spiderbait Sticky Fingers Sick Puppies Sydonia Taxiride Tame Impala Testeagles The Butterfly Effect The Exploders The Fauves The Getaway Plan The Meanies The Rubens The Smith Street Band The Superjesus The Temper Trap Thirsty Merc Thursday's Page Rubycon The Vines TISM Tonight Alive Track 5 Tumbleweed Violent Soho Mt Warning (band) Wolfmother You Am I

Hip-hop[edit] Main article: Australian hip hop The Australian hip-hop scene has begun to gain national momentum through bands such as:

Hilltop Hoods A.B. Original Allday Bias B Bliss N Eso Brad Strut Briggs (rapper) Citizen Kay Cristian Alexanda Urthboy Diafrix Drapht Fluent Form J-Wess Kerser 360 The Herd Hyjak N Torcha Iggy Azalea Illy (rapper) Horrorshow Funkoars Pegz Pez Resin Dogs Seth Sentry Selwyn (singer) Ry (musician) Thundamentals Tkay Maidza The Tongue Miracle M-Phazes Dialectrix Yung Warriors

Art music[edit] Classical music[edit]

Portrait of Dame Nellie Melba
Nellie Melba
GBE by Henry Walter Barnett

Main article: Australian classical music The earliest Western musical influences in Australia
Australia
can be traced back to two distinct sources: in the first settlements, the large body of convicts, soldiers and sailors who brought the traditional folk music of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland;[77] and the first free settlers, some of whom had been exposed to the European classical music tradition in their upbringing. Very little music has survived from this early period, although there are samples of music originating from Hobart
Hobart
and Sydney
Sydney
that date back to the early 19th century.[78]

La Stupenda Joan Sutherland
Joan Sutherland
in I Puritani (1976), with Luciano Pavarotti.

The establishment of choral societies (c. 1850) and symphony orchestras (c. 1890) led to increased compositional activity, although most Australian classical composers of this period worked entirely within European models and many undertook their training in composition in Europe
Europe
or the United Kingdom. One of the earliest known composers was George Tolhurst, whose oratorio Ruth was the first composed in the then colony of Victoria in 1864. Some works leading up to the first part of the 20th century were heavily influenced by folk music (Percy Grainger's "English Country Gardens" of 1908 being a good example of this).[78] An estimated 10,000 Australians and New Zealanders traveled to Britain each year from the late 1880s to the early 20th century, and the number doubled between the World Wars. A majority was likely female, often a musician; in 1907 one commentator said that Australia's principal exports to Britain were "frozen sheep and pretty-voiced girls". Success in London was often seen as a prerequisite for fame in Australia
Australia
for singers such as Nellie Melba, Amy Sherwin, and Ada Crossley.[79] From the time of Australia's Federation in 1901, a growing sense of national identity[80] began to emerge in the arts, although a patriotic attachment with the "mother country"[80] or "Home",[79] that is Britain, and the Empire, continued to dominate musical taste. In the war and post-war eras, as the Australian national identity continued to build, composers looked to their surroundings for inspiration. John Antill
John Antill
in his ballet Corroboree, Peter Sculthorpe and others began to incorporate elements of Aboriginal music, Richard Meale drew influence from south-east Asia (notably using the harmonic properties of the Balinese gamelan), while Nigel Butterley combined his penchant for International modernism with an own individual voice.[78] By the beginning of the 1960s other strong influences emerged in Australian classical music, with composers incorporating disparate elements into their work, ranging from Aboriginal and south-east Asian music and instruments, American jazz and blues, to the belated discovery of European atonality and the avante-garde. Composers like Don Banks, Don Kay, Malcolm Williamson
Malcolm Williamson
and Colin Brumby epitomise this period.[78] Others who adhered to more traditional idioms include Arthur Benjamin, George Dreyfus, Peggy Glanville-Hicks and Robert Hughes. In recent times composers including Julian Cochran, Gordon Hamilton, Liza Lim, Nigel Westlake, David Worrall, Graeme Koehne, Elena Kats-Chernin, Carl Vine, Brett Dean, Martin Wesley-Smith, Georges Lentz, Richard Mills, Ross Edwards, Stephen Leek, Matthew Hindson and Constantine Koukias have embodied the pinnacle of established Australian composers. Well-known Australian classical performers of the past and the present day include:

conductors Joseph Post, Sir Bernard Heinze, Sir Charles Mackerras, Richard Bonynge, Patrick Thomas, Stuart Challender, Simone Young, Geoffrey Simon
Geoffrey Simon
and Richard Gill; sopranos Dame Nellie Melba, Dame Joan Sutherland, Dame Joan Hammond, Marie Collier, Florence Austral, Marjorie Lawrence, June Bronhill, Joan Carden, Jessica Pratt , Yvonne Kenny, Lisa Gasteen, Sara Macliver, Cheryl Barker, Deborah Riedel and Emma Matthews; mezzo-sopranos Yvonne Minton, Lauris Elms and Margreta Elkins tenors Browning Mummery, Donald Smith, Ronald Dowd, Glenn Winslade, Stuart Skelton, David Hobson, and Rosario La Spina; baritones John Brownlee,[81] John Pringle, Robert Allman, John Shaw, Jonathan Summers, Malcolm Donnelly, Jeffrey Black and Peter Coleman-Wright;[82] bass-baritones Peter Dawson and Donald Shanks; bass Malcolm McEachern; Clifford Grant pianists Percy Grainger, Eileen Joyce, Noel Mewton-Wood, Nancy Weir, Geoffrey Parsons, Piers Lane, Leslie Howard, Ian Munro, Gerard Willems, Kathryn Selby, Simon Tedeschi, Lisa Moore, Geoffrey Tozer, Roger Woodward, Rhondda Gillespie, Stephanie McCallum and Michael Kieran Harvey; harpsichordists and fortepianists Geoffrey Lancaster
Geoffrey Lancaster
and Paul Dyer;[83] organist, fortepianist and harpsichordist Neal Peres Da Costa; violinists Elizabeth Wallfisch, Richard Tognetti and Dene Olding; organists Robert Ampt,[84] Christopher Wrench and Thomas Heywood;[85] cellists David Pereira; harpists Marshall McGuire and Alice Giles;[86] guitarists John Williams, Slava Grigoryan, Craig Ogden[87] and Karin Schaupp; horn players Barry Tuckwell
Barry Tuckwell
and Lin Jiang; oboists Diana Doherty; bassoonist Matthew Wilkie;[88] flautist Jane Rutter; clarinetist Paul Dean; trombonist Michael Mulcahy (now based in Chicago in the United States) Didgeridoo
Didgeridoo
player William Barton; percussionists Claire Edwardes[89] and Nick Parnell;[90][91] and oud player Joseph Tawadros.

Sydney
Sydney
Conservatorium of Music.

State-based symphony orchestras, originally managed under the Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
(ABC) but now operating as separate independent bodies, have played a major role in performing mainstream orchestral repertoire for the general public as well as commissioning new works from Australian composers and ensuring that works by contemporary international composers are introduced to their audiences. These include the Sydney
Sydney
Symphony Orchestra, the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra, the Queensland Symphony Orchestra, the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra, the West Australian Symphony Orchestra
Orchestra
and the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra. There are also professional orchestras whose role is related specifically to opera and ballet performance, chiefly the Australian Opera and Ballet Orchestra
Orchestra
based at the Sydney Opera House and Orchestra
Orchestra
Victoria based in Melbourne. There are several chamber orchestras which focus on works for smaller ensembles. These include the Australian Chamber Orchestra
Orchestra
which tours regularly throughout Australia
Australia
and has been well-received overseas,[92] the Melbourne
Melbourne
Chamber Orchestra,[93] the Adelaide Chamber Orchestra[94] and the Camerata of St. John's.[95] Orchestral ensembles which concentrate on historically informed performance include the Australian Brandenburg Orchestra[96] and the Orchestra
Orchestra
of the Antipodes.[97] Leading chamber ensembles include the Australian String Quartet, the Goldner String Quartet, the Australia
Australia
Ensemble,[98] Synergy Percussion,[99] Dean Emerson,[100] TRIOZ,[101] the Sydney Soloists,[102] the Southern Cross Soloists,[103] Guitar Trek,[104] Collusion (chamber ensemble),[105] the Elandra String Quartet, the Zephyr Quartet,[106] and the Tinalley String Quartet.[107] Chamber ensembles involved in historically informed performance include Marais Project,[108] Accademia Arcadia,[109] La Compania,[110] Ironwood[111] and probably Australia's oldest group of this kind, The Renaissance Players.[112] Musica Viva Australia, now the largest entrepreneur of chamber music in the world,[113] was founded in 1945 and has provided a major stimulus for public interest in chamber music by organising annual subscription programs of concerts by leading international and Australian ensembles.[114] Further interest has been stimulated by events such as the Australian Festival of Chamber Music[115] which was founded in 1991 and is held each year in Townsville, the Melbourne International Chamber Music Competition and the Asia-Pacific Chamber Music Competition, both of which are organised by Chamber Music Australia[116] and held every four years in Melbourne. Several Australian composers have written chamber works. Among the older composers, Peter Sculthorpe stands out because he has written 17 string quartets up to 2010,[117] with performances in Australia
Australia
and overseas and recordings by leading groups such as the Kronos Quartet. In the next generation, Brett Dean, himself a violist of note and a composer who has received worldwide recognition, has written several works for various ensembles including a string quartet called "Eclipse" which was commissioned by the Cologne Philharmonie[118] for the Auryn Quartet,[119] a string quintet entitled "Epitaphs" premiered in 2010 at the Cheltenham Music Festival,[120] the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival,[121] La Jolla Music SocietyLa Jolla SummerFest[122] and the Cologne Philharmonie, and a sonata for violin and piano commissioned by Midori[123] for performance in 2010 in Stockholm
Stockholm
and the Wigmore Hall,[124] London. Dean's near-contemporary, Julian Yu[125] has written over 30 works for various chamber ensembles including conventional trios and quartets, as well as unusual combinations such as a quintet for four percussions and piano, a septet for flute, percussion, harp, violin, viola, cello and double bass entitled "Pentatonicophilia", and an unconventional reworking[126] of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition
Pictures at an Exhibition
for 16 instruments. Other piano and chamber works of special merit include Peggy Glanville-Hicks' Concertino da camera for flute, clarinet, bassoon and piano, Richard Meale's "Las Alboradas" for flute, violin, horn, and piano, Riccardo Formosa's "Vertigo" for flute (piccolo), oboe, clarinet and piano, Nigel Westlake's "Refractions at Summer Cloud Bay" for flute, bass flute, clarinet, soprano saxophone, violin, cello and piano, the piano works of Julian Cochran, Ross Edwards' "Laikan" for flute, clarinet, percussion, piano, violin and cello, Carl Vine's String Quartets Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5, his Elegy for flute, cello, trombone, piano four-hands, organ and percussion, and "Inner World" for amplified cello and tape.[127]

1950 ballet performance of John Antill's Corroboree.

Music broadcasting has played an important role in providing classical music and jazz to the Australian public. Prior to the introduction of FM into the country, the ABC produced classical music programs which were broadcast through their local stations. Professor Alfred Ernest Floyd's program "Music Lover's Hour" was heard for over 25 years, beginning first on the local Melbourne
Melbourne
ABC station in 1944 before being broadcast nationally.[128] Pianist and academic Lindley Evans[129] broadcast a series of programs called "Adventures in Music" on the ABC, but was probably better known and more influential through his appearances each Thursday under the pseudonym "Mr Music" on the ABC's national "Argonauts Club" program. Ralph Collins, formerly a record librarian at the ABC with an acute knowledge of music, hosted his own national music program for over 30 years from the early 1960s, and he was eventually nicknamed "Mr Sunday Morning" by the general public. John Cargher, a record retailer, avid collector of records and author of many books, presented two programs. The most popular was "Singers of Renown", which began on the local Melbourne
Melbourne
ABC station in 1966 and was transferred by public demand to Radio
Radio
National at the end of only 10 weeks and remained on air for 42 years. The other program, "Music for Pleasure", began on Radio
Radio
National in 1967 and continued until 1996. The national FM music network ABC Classic FM[130] was established in 1976 to broadcast classical music, jazz, operas, recitals and live concerts from Australia
Australia
and overseas, music analysis programs and news about music activities. Its audience is now estimated as being about one million people,[131] not taking into account a growing number of international users who access its programs via its online service.[132] At about the same time, community not-for-profit FM stations were set up to enable volunteers to produce and present classical music and jazz programs. These included 2MBS FM[133] in Sydney, 3MBS FM[134] in Melbourne
Melbourne
and 4MBS Classic FM[135] in Brisbane. More recently a similar station, 5MBS. has been established in Adelaide. There are five important classical record labels in Australia: ABC Classics[136] Move Records,[137] Tall Poppies Records,[138] Melba Recordings,[139] and Master Performers.[140] Jazz[edit]

James Morrison.

Main article: Australian jazz The history of jazz and related genres in Australia
Australia
extends back into the 19th century. During the gold rush locally formed 'blackface' (white actor-musicians in blackface) minstrel troupes began to tour Australia, touring not only the capital cities but also many of the booming regional towns like Ballarat and Bendigo. Minstrel orchestra music featurics including improvisatory embellishment and polyrhythm in the (pre-classic) banjo playing and clever percussion breaks. Some genuine African-American minstrel and jubilee singing troupes toured from the 1870s. A more jazz-like form of minstrelsy reached Australia in the late 1890s in the form of improvisatory and syncopated coon song and cake-walk music, two early forms of ragtime. The next two decades brought ensemble, piano and vocal ragtime and leading (mostly white) American ragtime artists, including Ben Harney, 'Emperor of Ragtime' Gene Greene and pianist Charlie Straight. Some of these visitors taught Australians how to 'rag' (improvise unsyncopated popular music into ragtime-style music). By the mid-1920s, phonograph machines, increased contact with American popular music and visiting white American dance musicians had firmly established jazz (meaning jazz inflected modern dance and stage music) in Australia. The first recordings of jazz in Australia
Australia
are Mastertouch piano rolls recorded in Sydney
Sydney
from around 1922 but jazz began to be recorded on disc by 1925, first in Melbourne
Melbourne
and soon thereafter in Sydney. Soon after World War II, jazz in Australia diverged into two strands. One was based on the earlier collectively improvised called "dixieland" or traditional jazz. The other so-called modernist stream was based on big band swing, small band progressive swing, boogie woogie, and after WWII, the emerging new style of bebop. By the 1950s American bop, itself, was dividing into so-called 'cool' and 'hard' bop schools, the latter being more polyrhythmic and aggressive. This division reached Australia
Australia
on a small scale by the end of the 1950s. From the mid-1950s rock and roll began to draw young audiences and social dancers away from jazz. British-style dixieland, called Trad, became popular in the early 1960s. Most modern players stuck with the 'cool' (often called West Coast) style, but some experimented with free jazz, modal jazz, experiment with 'Eastern' influences, art music and visual art concept, electronic and jazz-rock fusions. The 1970s brought tertiary jazz education courses and continuing innovation and diversification in jazz which, by the late 1980s, included world music fusion and contemporary classical and jazz crossovers. From this time, the trend towards eclectic style fusions has continued with ensembles like The Catholics, Australian Art Orchestra, Tongue and Groove, austraLYSIS, Wanderlust, The Necks and many others. It is questionable whether the label jazz is elastic enough to continue to embrace the ever-widening range of improvisatory musics that are associated with the term jazz in Australia. However, mainstream modern jazz and dixieland still have the strongest following and patron still flock to hear famous mainstream artists who have been around for decades, such as One Night Stand players Dugald Shaw and Blair Jordan, reeds player Don Burrows and trumpeter James Morrison and, sometimes, the famous pioneer of traditional jazz in Australia, Graeme Bell.A non-academic genre of jazz has also evolved with a harder "street edge" style. The Conglomerate, The Bamboos, Damage, Cookin on Three Burners, John Mcalls Black Money are examples of this. See:

Andrew Bisset. Black Roots White Flowers, Golden Press, 1978 Bruce Johnson. The Oxford Companion to Australian Jazz
Jazz
OUP, 1987 John Whiteoak. Playing Ad Lib: Improvisatory Music in Australia: 1836–1970, Currency Press, 1999

Organisations[edit] Major organisations involved in providing music funding or in receipt of music funding are:

Funding agencies

Arts Council of NSW Arts Council of South Australia Arts NSW Arts NT Arts Queensland Arts SA Arts Tasmania Arts Victoria Australia
Australia
Council for the Arts Australian Music Centre Australian Music Office Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy Department of Culture
Culture
and the Arts (formerly Arts WA) Music Australia Music Council of Australia Queensland Arts Council Regional Arts Victoria Symphony Australia Tasmanian Regional Arts Western Australian Arts Council

Music: Not-for-profit organisations

Australian Festival of Chamber Music Chamber Music Australia Musica Viva Australia Youth Orchestras Australia

Music: Symphony orchestra

Canberra
Canberra
Symphony Orchestra Sydney
Sydney
Symphony The Queensland Orchestra Adelaide Symphony Orchestra Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra Melbourne
Melbourne
Symphony Orchestra West Australian Symphony Orchestra

Music: Orchestras (pit)

Australian Opera and Ballet Orchestra Orchestra
Orchestra
Victoria

Music: Orchestras (youth)

Adelaide Youth Orchestra Australian Youth Orchestra Canberra
Canberra
Youth Music Darwin Youth Orchestra Melbourne
Melbourne
Youth Music Northern Sydney
Sydney
Youth Orchestra Queensland Youth Orchestras Sydney
Sydney
Youth Orchestras Tasmanian Youth Orchestra Western Australian Youth Music Association

Music: Chamber orchestras

Adelaide Chamber Orchestra Australian Chamber Orchestra Australian Brandenburg Orchestra Camerata of St. John's Melbourne
Melbourne
Chamber Orchestra Orchestra
Orchestra
of the Antipodes

Music: Chamber ensembles

Australian Brass Australia
Australia
Ensemble Australian String Quartet Clarity (chamber music ensemble) Collusion (chamber music ensemble) Compass Quartet Dean Emerson Dean ELISION Ensemble Ensemble Liaison Flinders Quartet Freshwater Trio Goldner String Quartet Guitar Trek Jouissance Kammer (chamber music ensemble) Kingfisher Trio Kurrawong Ensemble New Sydney
Sydney
Wind Quintet Nexas Quartet Overland Seraphim Trio Shrewd Brass Southern Cross Soloists Sydney
Sydney
Omega Ensemble Sydney
Sydney
Soloists Synergy Tetrafide The Australian Trio Tinalley String Quartet TRIOZ Zephyr String Quartet

Music: Competitions

Asia-Pacific Chamber Music Competition Cochran International Piano Competition Melbourne
Melbourne
International Chamber Music Competition Sydney
Sydney
International Piano Competition

Choral

Australian Children's Choir Adelaide Chamber Singers The Australian Boys Choir The Australian Girls Choir The Australian Voices Voices of Birralee Brisbane Chamber Choir Brisbane Chorale Canticum Chamber Choir Cantillation Exaudi Youth Choir Gondwana Voices The National Youth Choir
Choir
of Australia Royal Melbourne
Melbourne
Philharmonic Chorale Song Company Sydney
Sydney
Chamber Choir Sydney
Sydney
Philharmonia Choirs Victorian College of the Arts Secondary School Chamber Voices University of Melbourne
Melbourne
Conservatorium of Music Vocal Ensemble West Australian Youth Chorale

Opera

IHOS Opera Opera Australia Opera Queensland Pinchgut Opera State Opera Company of South Australia Victorian Opera West Australian Opera

See also[edit]

Music of Australia
Australia
portal

Australian hip hop Culture
Culture
of Australia Australia
Australia
in the Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest Australian Musician Australian Music Examinations Board Category:Australian musicians List of Australian music festivals List of Australian composers List of Indigenous Australian
Indigenous Australian
musicians, Indigenous musicians and groups Encyclopedia of Australian Rock and Pop Australian music charts Culture
Culture
of Melbourne
Melbourne
(Music Section)

References[edit]

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– Paul Dyer. Alumni.sydney.edu.au (2009-11-09). Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Robert Ampt – Move Records. Move.com.au. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Thomas Heywood – Move Records. Move.com.au. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Representation for Alice Giles Archived 8 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Metronome Inc.. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Classical Guitar. Craig Ogden. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Matthew Wilkie (Bassoon) – Short Biography. Bach-cantatas.com (2010-08-04). Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Claire Edwardes Percussion. Claireedwardes.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Nick Parnell 2006 – Official Site. Nickparnell.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Home Archived 19 September 2012 at Archive.is. Musica Viva. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Reviews. ACO. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Experience orchestral music like never before. MCO. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Home. ACO. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Camerata of St John's > Home Archived 8 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Camerata.net.au. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Australian Brandenburg Orchestra
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Ensemble Archived 13 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. Ae.unsw.edu.au (2010-10-26). Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Profile Archived 29 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Synergy Percussion. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Home Archived 4 September 2012 at Archive.is. Musica Viva. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Selby and Friends – Welcome. Trioz.com.au (2011-03-22). Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Home Archived 10 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Musica Viva. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Home Archived 7 September 2012 at Archive.is. Musica Viva. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Home Archived 10 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Musica Viva. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ The Chamber Music Series. Collusion.com.au. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Home. Zephyrquartet.com (2011-04-07). Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Tinalley String Quartet Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Melba Recordings. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ The Marais Project. The Marais Project. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Home Archived 5 September 2012 at Archive.is. Musica Viva. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Home Archived 3 September 2012 at Archive.is. Musica Viva. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Ironwood
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Chamber Ensemble. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2015.  ^ According to their 2009 Annual Report, Musica Viva Australia organised 2,221 music events – see "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 January 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2015.  ^ Home. Musica Viva. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Australian Festival of Chamber Music. Afcm.com.au. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Melbourne
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– Home. Ljms.org. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Welcome to Violinist Midori's Official Web Site. Gotomidori.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Home Wigmore Hall : Classical Chamber Music & Song Concerts. Wigmore Hall. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Julian Yu : Represented Artist Profile. Australian Music Centre. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Although referred to by some as a "transcription", this work is described on the score as "a moderately modern rendition by immodest Julian Yu." – see [1]. ^ A comprehensive list of chamber works by Australian composers can be found at the Australian Music Centre's website ^ Floyd, Alfred Ernest (1877–1974) Biographical Entry – Australian Dictionary of Biography Online. Adb.online.anu.edu.au. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ Evans, Harry Lindley (1895–1982) Biographical Entry – Australian Dictionary of Biography Online. Adb.online.anu.edu.au. Retrieved on 2011-04-14. ^ ABC Classic FM
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Further reading[edit]

Susanna Agardy and Lawrence Zion (1997), 'The Australian Rock Music Scene,' in Alison J. Ewbank and Fouli T. Papageorgiou (eds.), Whose master's voice? the development of popular music in thirteen cultures, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, Ch. 1. ISBN 0-313-27772-9 Susanna Agardy (1985), Young Australians and Music, Australian Broadcasting Tribunal, Melbourne. ISBN 0-642-09805-0 Warren Bebbington, (ed.) (1998). The Oxford companion to Australian music. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-553432-8. Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Swiss- Germans
Germans
in Melbourne. Some Considerations on Musical Traditions and Identity", Schweizer Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft, Neue Folge, XXV(2005), pp. 131–154. Marcello Sorce Keller, "La Swiss-Italian Festa a Daylesford-Hepburn Springs in Australia. Osservazioni etnografiche e un po' di cronaca", Cenobio, LV(2006), pp. 329–341. Marcello Sorce Keller, "Transplanting multiculturalism: Swiss musical traditions reconfigured in multicultural Victoria", in Joel Crotti and Kay Dreyfus (Guest Editors), Victorian Historical Journal, LXXVIII(2007), no. 2, pp. 187–205. Edited by Shane Homan and Tony Mitchell (2008). Sounds of then, sounds of now: Popular music
Popular music
in Australia, ACYS Publishing. ISBN 978-1-875236-60-2.

External links[edit]

(in French) Audio clip: traditional Australian music. Musée d'ethnographie de Genève. Accessed 25 November 2010. National Film and Sound Archive homepage Music Australia
Australia
– an initiative of the National Library of Australia and National Film & Sound Australian Music Centre Milesago: Australasian music and popular culture 1964–75 Australian top 40 singles and album charts 1966 – 1974 Australian Psytrance Festivals

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