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The MUGHAL EMPIRE ( Urdu : مغلیہ سلطنت‎, translit. Mughliyah Salṭanat) or MOGUL EMPIRE, self-designated as GURKANI (Persian : گورکانیان‎‎, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim
Muslim
dynasty with Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
Chagatai origins from Central Asia , along with Persian and Indian Rajput
Rajput
admixture through marriage alliances. The dynasty was Persianate in culture, with local influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire, which at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and large parts of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, spanning 4 million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire which spanned 5 million square kilometres. Mughal India
Mughal India
was also the world's largest economic power, with 24.4% of the world economy , and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire
Empire
is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires
Gunpowder Empires
(along with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Safavid Persia
Safavid Persia
).

The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur
Babur
over Ibrahim Lodi
Ibrahim Lodi
, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , in the First Battle of Panipat
First Battle of Panipat
(1526). The Mughal emperors had origins in the Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
(founder of the Mongol Empire
Empire
, through his son Chagatai Khan ) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire ). During the reign of Humayun
Humayun
, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire
Sur Empire
. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire
Empire
started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar
Akbar
the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar
Akbar
and his son Jahangir
Jahangir
, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar
Akbar
was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu
Hindu
Rajput kingdoms . Some Rajput
Rajput
kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims ; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī , as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari
Ain-i-Akbari
and Dabistān-i Mazāhib .

The Mughal Empire
Empire
did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas , the Rajputs
Rajputs
, the Pashtuns
Pashtuns
, the Hindu
Hindu
Jats and the Sikhs , gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience.

The reign of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658 was the golden age of Mughal architecture . He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
at Agra , as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra , the Red Fort
Red Fort
, the Jama Masjid, Delhi
Delhi
, and the Lahore
Lahore
Fort . The Mughal Empire
Empire
reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha
Maratha
military resurgence under Shivaji Bhosale . During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire
Empire
to its greatest extent, ruling over more than 150 million subjects, nearly one quarter of the world's population at the time, with a GDP of over $90 billion.

By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal
Bengal
. Internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal
Bengal
, the Nawab of Awadh , the Nizam of Hyderabad
Nizam of Hyderabad
and other small states. In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah , the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, and Delhi
Delhi
was sacked and looted , drastically accelerating their decline. During the following century Mughal power had become severely limited, and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II , had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad
Shahjahanabad
. He issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
and following the defeat was therefore tried by the British East India Company for treason, imprisoned and exiled to Rangoon . The last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, and the Government of India Act 1858 let the British Crown formally assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Babur
Babur
and Humayun
Humayun
(1526–1556) * 2.2 Akbar
Akbar
to Aurangzeb (1556–1707) * 2.3 Decline (1707–1857)

* 3 Administrative divisions

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Labour * 4.2 Agriculture
Agriculture
* 4.3 Industrial manufacturing * 4.4 Bengal
Bengal
Subah

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Population * 5.2 Urbanization
Urbanization

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Art and architecture * 6.2 Language

* 7 Military

* 7.1 Gunpowder warfare * 7.2 Rocketry and explosives

* 8 Science

* 8.1 Astronomy * 8.2 Chemistry
Chemistry
* 8.3 Metallurgy

* 9 See also * 10 References

* 11 Further reading

* 11.1 Culture * 11.2 Society and economy * 11.3 Primary sources * 11.4 Older histories

* 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur
Babur
as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, and this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves. Another name was Hindustan , which was documented in the Ain-i-Akbari
Ain-i-Akbari
, and which has been described as the closest to an official name for the empire. In the west, the term "Mughal " was used for the emperor, and by extension, the empire as a whole. The use of Mughal derived from the Arabic
Arabic
and Persian corruption of Mongol , and it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty. The term gained currency during the 19th century, but remains disputed by Indologists . Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul". Nevertheless, Babur's ancestors were sharply distinguished from the classical Mongols
Mongols
insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
culture.

HISTORY

Main article: Mughal emperors

BABUR AND HUMAYUN (1526–1556)

Babur
Babur
, founder of the Mughal Empire
Empire

The Mughal Empire
Empire
was founded by Babur
Babur
(reigned 1526–1530), a Central Asian ruler who was descended from the Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
conqueror Timur (the founder of the Timurid Empire ) on his father's side and from Chagatai , the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
, on his mother's side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in Central Asia, Babur
Babur
turned to India
India
to satisfy his ambitions. He established himself in Kabul
Kabul
and then pushed steadily southward into India
India
from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
through the Khyber Pass . Babur's forces occupied much of northern India
India
after his victory at Panipat in 1526. The preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, however, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India.

The instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun (reigned 1530–1556), who was driven out of India
India
and into Persia by rebels. The Sur Empire
Sur Empire
(1540–1555), founded by Sher Shah Suri (reigned 1540–1545), briefly interrupted Mughal rule. Humayun's exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire. The restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayun's triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards.

AKBAR TO AURANGZEB (1556–1707)

Humayun's son, Akbar
Akbar
the Great (reigned 1556–1605), succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan , who helped consolidate the Mughal Empire
Empire
in India. Through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar
Akbar
was able to extend the empire in all directions and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
north of the Godavari River
Godavari River
. He created a new class of nobility loyal to him from the military aristocracy of India's social groups, implemented a modern government, and supported cultural developments. At the same time, Akbar
Akbar
intensified trade with European trading companies. India
India
developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and economic development. Akbar
Akbar
allowed free expression of religion, and attempted to resolve socio-political and cultural differences in his empire by establishing a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi , with strong characteristics of a ruler cult. He left his successors an internally stable state, which was in the midst of its golden age, but before long signs of political weakness would emerge.

Akbar's son, Jahangir
Jahangir
(reigned 1605–1627), ruled the empire at its peak, but he was addicted to opium, neglected the affairs of the state, and came under the influence of rival court cliques. During the reign of Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
(reigned 1628–1658), the culture and splendour of the luxurious Mughal court reached its zenith as exemplified by the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
. The maintenance of the court, at this time, began to cost more than the revenue. Akbar
Akbar
holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.

Shah Jahan's eldest son, the liberal Dara Shikoh
Dara Shikoh
, became regent in 1658, as a result of his father's illness. However, a younger son, Aurangzeb (reigned 1658–1707), allied with the Islamic orthodoxy against his brother, who championed a syncretistic Hindu-Muslim culture, and ascended to the throne. Aurangzeb defeated Dara in 1659 and had him executed. Although Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and had him imprisoned. During Aurangzeb's reign, the empire gained political strength once more, but his religious conservatism and intolerance undermined the stability of Mughal society. Aurangzeb expanded the empire to include almost the whole of South Asia, but at his death in 1707, many parts of the empire were in open revolt.

DECLINE (1707–1857)

Aurangzeb's son, Shah Alam , repealed the religious policies of his father, and attempted to reform the administration. However, after his death in 1712, the Mughal dynasty sank into chaos and violent feuds. In 1719 alone, four emperors successively ascended the throne.

During the reign of Muhammad Shah , the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India
India
passed from Mughal to Maratha
Maratha
hands. The far-off Indian campaign of Nadir Shah
Nadir Shah
, who had priorly reestablished Iranian suzerainty over most of West Asia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia, culminated with the Sack of Delhi
Delhi
and shattered the remnants of Mughal power and prestige. Many of the empire's elites now sought to control their own affairs, and broke away to form independent kingdoms. But, according to Sugata Bose and Ayesha Jalal , the Mughal Emperor, however, continued to be the highest manifestation of sovereignty. Not only the Muslim
Muslim
gentry, but the Maratha, Hindu, and Sikh
Sikh
leaders took part in ceremonial acknowledgements of the emperor as the sovereign of India.

The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II made futile attempts to reverse the Mughal decline, and ultimately had to seek the protection of outside powers i.e. from the Emir of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Abdali, which led to the Third Battle of Panipat
Third Battle of Panipat
between the Maratha Empire and the Afghans led by Abdali in 1761. In 1771, the Marathas recaptured Delhi from Afghan
Afghan
control and in 1784 they officially became the protectors of the emperor in Delhi, a state of affairs that continued further until after the Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
. Thereafter, the British East India
India
Company became the protectors of the Mughal dynasty in Delhi. The British East India
India
company took control of the former Mughal province of Bengal-Bihar in 1793 after it abolished local rule (Nizamat) that lasted until 1858, marking the beginning of British colonial era over the Indian Subcontinent. By 1857 a considerable part of former Mughal India
Mughal India
was under the East India's company's control. After a crushing defeat in the war of 1857–1858 which he nominally led, the last Mughal, Bahadur Shah Zafar , was deposed by the British East India Company and exiled in 1858. Through the Government of India Act 1858 the British Crown assumed direct control of East India company held territories in India
India
in the form of the new British Raj . In 1876 the British Queen Victoria assumed the title of Empress of India
India
. Causes of decline

Historians have offered numerous explanations for the rapid collapse of the Mughal Empire
Empire
between 1707 and 1720, after a century of growth and prosperity. In fiscal terms the throne lost the revenues needed to pay its chief officers, the emirs (nobles) and their entourages. The emperor lost authority, as the widely scattered imperial officers lost confidence in the central authorities, and made their own deals with local men of influence. The imperial army, bogged down in long, futile wars against the more aggressive Marathas lost its fighting spirit. Finally came a series of violent political feuds over control of the throne. After the execution of emperor Farrukhsiyar in 1719, local Mughal successor states took power in region after region.

Contemporary chroniclers bewailed the decay they witnessed, a theme picked up by the first British historians who wanted to underscore the need for a British-led rejuvenation. Modern views on the decline

Since the 1970s historians have taken multiple approaches to the decline, with little consensus on which factor was dominant. The psychological interpretations emphasise depravity in high places, excessive luxury, and increasingly narrow views that left the rulers unprepared for an external challenge. A Marxist school (led by Irfan Habib and based at Aligarh Muslim
Muslim
University ) emphasises excessive exploitation of the peasantry by the rich, which stripped away the will and the means to support the regime. Karen Leonard has focused on the failure of the regime to work with Hindu
Hindu
bankers, whose financial support was increasingly needed; the bankers then helped the Maratha
Maratha
and the British. In a religious interpretation, some scholars argue that the Hindu
Hindu
powers revolted against the rule of a Muslim dynasty. Finally, other scholars argue that the very prosperity of the Empire
Empire
inspired the provinces to achieve a high degree of independence, thus weakening the imperial court.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main article: Subah

Subah ( Urdu : صوبہ) was the term for a province in the Mughal Empire. The word is derived from Arabic
Arabic
. The governor of a Subah was known as a subahdar (sometimes also referred to as a "Subah" ), which later became subedar to refer to an officer in the Indian Army
Indian Army
. The subahs were established by padshah (emperor) Akbar
Akbar
during his administrative reforms of 1572-1580; initially they numbered 12, but his conquests expanded the number of subahs to 15 by the end of his reign. Subahs were divided into Sarkars , or districts. Sarkars were further divided into Parganas or Mahals . His successors, most notably Aurangzeb , expanded the number of subahs further through their conquests. As the empire began to dissolve in the early 18th century, many subahs became effectively independent, or were conquered by the Marathas or the British .

The original twelve subahs created as a result of administrative reform by Akbar:

* Agra Subah * Ajmer subah * Awadh Subah * Bengal
Bengal
Subah * Bihar Subah * Delhi
Delhi
Subah * Gujarat Subah * Kabul
Kabul
Subah * Illahabad Subah * Lahore
Lahore
Subah * Malwa Subah * Multan Subah

ECONOMY

See also: Economic history of India
Economic history of India
and Timeline of the economy of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent

The Indian economy was large and prosperous under the Mughal Empire. During the Mughal era, the gross domestic product (GDP) of India
India
in 1600
1600
was estimated at about 22.4% of the world economy , the second largest in the world, behind only Ming China , and larger than Europe. By 1700, the GDP of Mughal India
Mughal India
had risen to 24.4% of the world economy, the largest in the world, ahead of Qing China
Qing China
and Western Europe . Mughal India
Mughal India
was the world leader in manufacturing, producing about 25% of the world's industrial output up until the 18th century. India's GDP growth increased under the Mughal Empire, with India's GDP having a faster growth rate during the Mughal era than in the 1,500 years prior to the Mughal era.

The Mughals were responsible for building an extensive road system, creating a uniform currency , and the unification of the country. The empire had an extensive road network, which was vital to the economic infrastructure , built by a public works department set up by the Mughals which designed, constructed and maintained roads linking towns and cities across the empire, making trade easier to conduct. A silver rupee coin made during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II .

The Mughals adopted and standardized the rupee currency introduced by Sur Emperor Sher Shah Suri during his brief rule. The Mughals minted coins in the tens of millions, with high purity, never dropping below 96%, and without any debasement until the 1720s. Despite India
India
having its own stocks of gold and silver, the Mughals produced minimal gold of their own, but mostly minted coins from imported bullion , as a result of the empire's strong export-driven economy, with global demand for Indian agricultural and industrial products drawing a steady stream of precious metals into India. Around 80% of Mughal India's imports were bullion, mostly silver, with major sources of imported bullion including the New World
New World
and Japan
Japan
, which in turn imported large quantities of textiles and silk from the Bengal
Bengal
Subah province.

LABOUR

The Mughal Empire's workforce in the early 17th century consisted of 64% in the primary sector (including agriculture ) and 36% in the secondary and tertiary sectors, including 11% in the secondary sector (manufacturing) and 25% in the tertiary sector (service). Mughal India's workforce had a higher percentage in the non-primary sectors than Europe at the time; in 1700, 65–90% of Europe's workforce were in agriculture, and in 1750, 65–75% were in agriculture, including England's workforce which was 65% agriculture in 1750.

Real wages and living standards in 18th-century Mughal Bengal
Bengal
and South India
South India
were higher than in Britain, which in turn had the highest living standards in Europe. According to economic historian Paul Bairoch , India
India
as well as China had a higher GNP per capita than Europe up until the late 18th century, before Western European per-capita income pulled ahead after 1800. However, in a system where most wealth was hoarded by the elites, wages were low for manual labour , though no less than labour wages in Europe at the time. In Mughal India, there was a generally tolerant attitude towards manual labourers, with some religious cults in northern India
India
proudly asserting a high status for manual labour. While slavery also existed, it was limited largely to household servants.

AGRICULTURE

Indian agricultural production increased under the Mughal Empire. A variety of crops were grown, including food crops such as wheat , rice , and barley , and non-food cash crops such as cotton , indigo and opium . By the mid-17th century, Indian cultivators begun to extensively grow two new crops from the Americas , maize and tobacco .

The Mughal administration emphasized agrarian reform , which began under the non-Mughal emperor Sher Shah Suri, the work of which Akbar adopted and furthered with more reforms. The civil administration was organized in a hierarchical manner on the basis of merit, with promotions based on performance. The Mughal government funded the building of irrigation systems across the empire, which produced much higher crop yields and increased the net revenue base, leading to increased agricultural production.

A major Mughal reform introduced by Akbar
Akbar
was a new land revenue system called zabt. He replaced the tribute system, previously common in India
India
and used by Tokugawa Japan
Japan
at the time, with a monetary tax system based on a uniform currency. The revenue system was biased in favour of higher value cash crops such as cotton, indigo, sugar cane , tree-crops, and opium, providing state incentives to grow cash crops, in addition to rising market demand. Under the zabt system, the Mughals also conducted extensive cadastral surveying to assess the area of land under plow cultivation, with the Mughal state encouraging greater land cultivation by offering tax-free periods to those who brought new land under cultivation.

Mughal agriculture was advanced compared to Europe at the time, such as the common use of the seed drill among Indian peasants before its adoption in European agriculture. While the average peasant across the world was only skilled in growing very few crops, the average Indian peasant was skilled in growing a wide variety of food and non-food crops, increasing their productivity. Indian peasants were also quick to adapt to profitable new crops, such as maize and tobacco from the New World
New World
being rapidly adopted and widely cultivated across Mughal India
Mughal India
between 1600
1600
and 1650. Bengali peasants rapidly learned techniques of mulberry cultivation and sericulture , establishing Bengal
Bengal
Subah as a major silk-producing region of the world. Sugar mills appeared in India
India
shortly before the Mughal era. Evidence for the use of a draw bar for sugar-milling appears at Delhi
Delhi
in 1540, but may also date back earlier, and was mainly used in the northern Indian subcontinent. Geared sugar rolling mills first appeared in Mughal India, using the principle of rollers as well as worm gearing , by the 17th century.

According to evidence cited by the economic historians Immanuel Wallerstein , Irfan Habib
Irfan Habib
, Percival Spear , and Ashok Desai , per-capita agricultural output and standards of consumption in 17th-century Mughal India
Mughal India
were higher than in 17th-century Europe and early 20th-century British India . The increased agricultural productivity led to lower food prices. In turn, this benefited the Indian textile industry . Compared to Britain, the price of grain was about one-half in South India
South India
and one-third in Bengal, in terms of silver. This resulted in lower silver prices for Indian textiles, giving them a price advantage in global markets.

INDUSTRIAL MANUFACTURING

Up until the 18th century, Mughal India
Mughal India
was the most important center of manufacturing in international trade . Up until 1750, India produced about 25% of the world's industrial output. Manufactured goods and cash crops from the Mughal Empire
Empire
were sold throughout the world. Key industries included textiles , shipbuilding , and steel . Processed products included cotton textiles, yarns , thread , silk , jute products, metalware , and foods such as sugar , oils and butter .

In early modern Europe , there was significant demand for products from Mughal India, particularly cotton textiles, as well as goods such as spices , peppers, indigo , silks, and saltpeter (for use in munitions ). European fashion , for example, became increasingly dependent on Mughal Indian textiles and silks. From the late 17th century to the early 18th century, Mughal India
Mughal India
accounted for 95% of British imports from Asia
Asia
, and the Bengal
Bengal
Subah province alone accounted for 40% of Dutch imports from Asia. In contrast, there was very little demand for European goods in Mughal India, which was largely self-sufficient, thus Europeans had very little to offer, except for some woolens , unprocessed metals and a few luxury items. The trade imbalance caused Europeans to export large quantities of gold and silver to Mughal India
Mughal India
in order to pay for South Asian imports. Indian goods, especially those from Bengal, were also exported in large quantities to other Asian markets, such as Indonesia and Japan. Textile
Textile
industry See also: Muslin
Muslin
trade in Bengal
Bengal
A woman in Dhaka
Dhaka
clad in fine Bengali muslin , 18th century.

The largest manufacturing industry in the Mughal Empire
Empire
was textile manufacturing , particularly the cotton textile manufacturing, which included the production of piece goods, calicos , and muslins , available unbleached and in a variety of colours. The cotton textile industry was responsible for a large part of the empire's international trade. India
India
had a 25% share of the global textile trade in the early 18th century. Indian cotton textiles were the most important manufactured goods in world trade in the 18th century, consumed across the world from the Americas to Japan
Japan
. The most important center of cotton production was the Bengal
Bengal
province, particularly around its capital city of Dhaka
Dhaka
.

Bengal
Bengal
accounted for more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks imported by the Dutch from Asia, Bengali silk and cotton textiles were exported in large quantities to Europe, Indonesia, and Japan, and Bengali muslin textiles from Dhaka
Dhaka
were sold in Central Asia
Asia
, where they were known as "daka" textiles. Indian textiles dominated the Indian Ocean trade for centuries, were sold in the Atlantic Ocean trade, and had a 38% share of the West African trade in the early 18th century, while Indian calicos were major force in Europe, and Indian textiles accounted for 20% of total English trade with Southern Europe
Southern Europe
in the early 18th century.

The worm gear roller cotton gin , which was invented in India
India
during the early Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate era of the 13th–14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire
Empire
some time around the 16th century, and is still used in India
India
through to the present day. Another innovation, the incorporation of the crank handle in the cotton gin, first appeared in India
India
some time during the late Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate or the early Mughal Empire. The production of cotton, which may have largely been spun in the villages and then taken to towns in the form of yarn to be woven into cloth textiles, was advanced by the diffusion of the spinning wheel across India
India
shortly before the Mughal era, lowering the costs of yarn and helping to increase demand for cotton. The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production during the Mughal era.

It was reported that, with an Indian cotton gin, which is half machine and half tool, one man and one woman could clean 28 pounds of cotton per day. With a modified Forbes version, one man and a boy could produce 250 pounds per day. If oxen were used to power 16 of these machines, and a few people's labour was used to feed them, they could produce as much work as 750 people did formerly. Shipbuilding industry

Mughal India
Mughal India
had a large shipbuilding industry, which was also largely centered in the Bengal
Bengal
Subah province. In terms of shipbuilding tonnage during the 16th–18th centuries, the annual output of Bengal
Bengal
alone totaled around 2,232,500 tons, larger than the combined output of the Dutch (450,000–550,000 tons), the British (340,000 tons), and North America (23,061 tons).

The Mughals maintained a small fleet for carrying pilgrims to Mecca
Mecca
, and imported Arabian horses in Surat . Debal
Debal
in Sindh was mostly autonomous. The Mughals also maintained various river fleets of Dhows , which transported soldiers over rivers and fought rebels. Among its admirals were Yahya Saleh , Munnawar Khan , and Muhammad Saleh Kamboh . The Mughals also protected the Siddis of Janjira . Its sailors were renowned and often voyaged to China and the East African Swahili Coast, together with some Mughal subjects carrying out private-sector trade.

Indian shipbuilding, particularly in Bengal, was advanced compared to European shipbuilding at the time, with Indians selling ships to European firms. Ship-repairing, for example, was very advanced in Bengal, where European shippers visited to repair vessels. An important innovation in shipbuilding was the introduction of a flushed deck design in Bengal
Bengal
rice ships, resulting in hulls that were stronger and less prone to leak than the structurally weak hulls of traditional European ships built with a stepped deck design. The British East India Company later duplicated the flushed deck and hull designs of Bengal
Bengal
rice ships in the 1760s, leading to significant improvements in seaworthiness and navigation for European ships during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
.

BENGAL SUBAH

Main article: Bengal
Bengal
Subah See also: Muslin
Muslin
trade in Bengal
Bengal
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka
Dhaka
.

The Bengal
Bengal
Subah province was especially prosperous from the time of its takeover by the Mughals in 1590 until the British East India Company seized control in 1757. It was the economic powerhouse of the Mughal Empire, generating 50% of the empire's GDP. Domestically, much of India
India
depended on Bengali products such as rice, silks and cotton textiles. Overseas, Europeans depended on Bengali products such as cotton textiles, silks and opium; Bengal
Bengal
accounted for 40% of Dutch imports from Asia, for example, including more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks. From Bengal, saltpeter was also shipped to Europe, opium was sold in Indonesia, raw silk was exported to Japan and the Netherlands, and cotton and silk textiles were exported to Europe, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Japan.

Bengal
Bengal
was described as the Paradise of Nations by Mughal emperors. The Mughals introduced agrarian reforms , including the modern Bengali calendar . The calendar played a vital role in developing and organising harvests, tax collection and Bengali culture in general, including the New Year and Autumn festivals. The province was a leading producer of grains, salt, pearls, fruits, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments. Its handloom industry flourished under royal warrants , making the region a hub of the worldwide muslin trade , which peaked in the 17th and 18th centuries. The provincial capital Dhaka
Dhaka
became the commercial capital of the empire. The Mughals expanded cultivated land in the Bengal
Bengal
delta under the leadership of Sufis , which consolidated the foundation of Bengali Muslim
Muslim
society.

After 150 years of rule by Mughal viceroys , Bengal
Bengal
gained semi-independence as a dominion under the Nawab of Bengal
Bengal
in 1717. The Nawabs permitted European companies to set up trading posts across the region, including firms from Britain , France , the Netherlands , Denmark , Portugal and Austria-Hungary . An Armenian community dominated banking and shipping in major cities and towns. The Europeans regarded Bengal
Bengal
as the richest place for trade. By the late 18th century, the British displaced the Mughal ruling class in Bengal.

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: Demographics of India: History

POPULATION

India's population growth accelerated under the Mughal Empire, with an unprecedented economic and demographic upsurge which boosted the Indian population by 60% to 253% in 200 years during 1500–1700. The Indian population had a faster growth during the Mughal era than at any known point in Indian history
Indian history
prior to the Mughal era. The increased population growth rate was stimulated by Mughal agrarian reforms that intensified agricultural production. By the time of Aurangzeb's reign, there were a total of 455,698 villages in the Mughal Empire.

The following table gives population estimates for the Mughal Empire, compared to the total population of India, including the regions of modern Pakistan
Pakistan
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, and compared to the world population :

YEAR Mughal Empire population Total Indian population % of Indian population World population % of world population

1500
1500
— 100,000,000 — 425,000,000 —

1600
1600
115,000,000 130,000,000 89 579,000,000 20

1700 158,400,000 160,000,000 99 679,000,000 23

URBANIZATION

Cities and towns boomed under the Mughal Empire, which had a relatively high degree of urbanization for its time, with 15% of its population living in urban centres. This was higher than the percentage of the urban population in contemporary Europe at the time and higher than that of British India in the 19th century; the level of urbanization in Europe did not reach 15% until the 19th century.

Under Akbar's reign in 1600, the Mughal Empire's urban population was up to 17 million people, 15% of the empire's total population. This was larger the entire urban population in Europe at the time, and even a century later in 1700, the urban population of England, Scotland and Wales did not exceed 13% of its total population, while British India had an urban population that was under 13% of its total population in 1800 and 9.3% in 1881, a decline from the earlier Mughal era. By 1700, Mughal India
Mughal India
had an urban population of 23 million people, larger than British India's urban population of 22.3 million in 1871.

The historian Nizamuddin Ahmad (1551–1621) reported that, under Akbar's reign, there were 120 large cities and 3200 townships. A number of cities in India
India
had a population between a quarter-million and half-million people, with larger cities including Agra (in Agra Subah ) with up to 800,000 people, Lahore
Lahore
(in Lahore
Lahore
Subah ) with up to 700,000 people, Dhaka
Dhaka
(in Bengal
Bengal
Subah ) with over 1 million people, and Delhi
Delhi
(in Delhi
Delhi
Subah ) with over 600,000 people.

Cities acted as markets for the sale of goods, and provided homes for a variety of merchants, traders, shopkeepers, artisans, moneylenders, weavers, craftspeople, officials, and religious figures. However, a number of cities were military and political centres, rather than manufacturing or commerce centres.

CULTURE

The Mughals built Maktab schools in every province under their authority, where youth were taught the Quran
Quran
and Islamic law such as the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri in their indigenous languages.

ART AND ARCHITECTURE

Main articles: Indo- Persian culture
Persian culture
, Mughal painting
Mughal painting
, and Mughal architecture Built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
for his beloved wife, the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
is a world-renowned testament to Mughal architecture . Two elephants carrying the fish and sun insignia of Mughal sovereignty

The Mughals made a major contribution to the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
with development of their unique architecture . Many monuments were built during the Mughal era by the Muslim
Muslim
emperors, especially Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
, including the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
UNESCO World Heritage Site
known to be one of the finer examples of Mughal architecture. Other World Heritage Sites include Humayun\'s Tomb , Fatehpur Sikri , the Red Fort
Red Fort
, the Agra Fort , and the Lahore
Lahore
Fort .

The palaces, tombs, and forts built by the dynasty stand today in Agra , Aurangabad , Delhi
Delhi
, Dhaka
Dhaka
, Fatehpur Sikri , Jaipur
Jaipur
, Lahore
Lahore
, Kabul
Kabul
, Sheikhupura , and many other cities of India
India
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. With few memories of Central Asia , Babur's descendants absorbed traits and customs of South Asia
Asia
and became more or less naturalised.

Mughal influence can be seen in cultural contributions such as:

* Centralized, imperialistic government that brought together many smaller kingdoms. * Persian art and culture amalgamated with Indian art
Indian art
and culture. * Revived the old trade routes to Arab
Arab
and Turkic lands. * The development of Mughlai cuisine
Mughlai cuisine
. * Mughal Architecture evolved with the influence of Indian architecture , and in turn influenced the local architecture, most conspicuously in the palaces built by Rajputs
Rajputs
and Sikh
Sikh
rulers. * Landscape and Mughal gardening

Although the land the Mughals once ruled has separated into what is now India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan, their influence can still be seen widely today. Tombs of the emperors are spread throughout India, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.

The Mughal artistic tradition was eclectic, borrowing from the European Renaissance as well as from Persian and Indian sources. Kumar concludes, "The Mughal painters borrowed individual motifs and certain naturalistic effects from Renaissance and Mannerist painting, but their structuring principle was derived from Indian and Persian traditions."

LANGUAGE

Main articles: Persian language
Persian language
in South Asia
Asia
and Persian and Urdu The phrase Zuban-i Urdū-yi Muʿallá ("Language of the exalted Urdu ") written in Nastaʿlīq script
Nastaʿlīq script
.

Although Persian was the dominant and "official" language of the empire, the language of the elite was a Persianised form of Hindustani called Urdu . The language was written in a type of Perso-Arabic script known as Nastaliq
Nastaliq
, and with literary conventions and specialised vocabulary borrowed from Persian , Arabic
Arabic
and Turkic ; the dialect was eventually given its own name of Urdu. Modern Hindi
Hindi
, which uses Sanskrit -based vocabulary along with Urdu loan words is mutually intelligible with Urdu.

MILITARY

Further information: Army of the Mughal Empire , Mughal weapons
Mughal weapons
, and Mughal artillery

GUNPOWDER WARFARE

See also: Gunpowder Empires
Gunpowder Empires
and History of gunpowder: India
India
and the Mughal Empire
Empire
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century. Mughal musketeer , 16th century.

Mughal India
Mughal India
was one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires
Gunpowder Empires
, along with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Safavid Persia
Safavid Persia
. By the time he was invited by Lodi governor of Lahore
Lahore
, Daulat Khan , to support his rebellion against Lodi Sultan
Sultan
Ibrahim Khan , Babur
Babur
was familiar with gunpowder firearms and field artillery , and a method for deploying them. Babur
Babur
had employed Ottoman expert Ustad Ali Quli , who showed Babur
Babur
the standard Ottoman formation—artillery and firearm-equipped infantry protected by wagons in the center and the mounted archers on both wings. Babur
Babur
used this formation at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526, where the Afghan
Afghan
and Rajput
Rajput
forces loyal to the Delhi Sultanate , though superior in numbers but without the gunpowder weapons, were defeated. The decisive victory of the Timurid forces is one reason opponents rarely met Mughal princes in pitched battle over the course of the empire's history. In India, guns made of bronze were recovered from Calicut (1504) and Diu (1533).

Fathullah Shirazi (c. 1582), a Persian polymath and mechanical engineer who worked for Akbar, developed an early multi gun shot. As opposed to the polybolos and repeating crossbows used earlier in ancient Greece and China, respectively, Shirazi's rapid-firing gun had multiple gun barrels that fired hand cannons loaded with gunpowder. It may be considered a version of a volley gun .

By the 17th century, Indians were manufacturing a diverse variety of firearms; large guns in particular, became visible in Tanjore
Tanjore
, Dacca , Bijapur and Murshidabad
Murshidabad
. Gujarāt supplied Europe saltpeter for use in gunpowder warfare during the 17th century, and Mughal Bengal and Mālwa also participated in saltpeter production. The Dutch, French, Portuguese and English used Chāpra as a center of saltpeter refining.

ROCKETRY AND EXPLOSIVES

See also: Mysorean rockets and Congreve rocket

In the 16th century, Akbar
Akbar
was the first to initiate and use metal cylinder rockets known as bans, particularly against war elephants , during the Battle of Sanbal. In 1657, the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
used rockets during the Siege of Bidar . Prince Aurangzeb's forces discharged rockets and grenades while scaling the walls. Sidi Marjan was mortally wounded when a rocket struck his large gunpowder depot, and after twenty-seven days of hard fighting Bidar was captured by the victorious Mughals.

In A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, James Riddick Partington described Indian rockets and explosive mines :

The Indian war rockets were formidable weapons before such rockets were used in Europe. They had bam-boo rods, a rocket-body lashed to the rod, and iron points. They were directed at the target and fired by lighting the fuse, but the trajectory was rather erratic. The use of mines and counter-mines with explosive charges of gunpowder is mentioned for the times of Akbar
Akbar
and Jahāngir .

Later, the Mysorean rockets were upgraded versions of Mughal rockets used during the Siege of Jinji by the progeny of the Nawab of Arcot
Nawab of Arcot
. Hyder Ali 's father Fatah Muhammad the constable at Budikote , commanded a corps consisting of 50 rocketmen (Cushoon) for the Nawab of Arcot. Hyder Ali realised the importance of rockets and introduced advanced versions of metal cylinder rockets. These rockets turned fortunes in favour of the Sultanate of Mysore
Sultanate of Mysore
during the Second Anglo-Mysore War , particularly during the Battle of Pollilur . In turn, the Mysorean rockets were the basis for the Congreve rockets , which Britain deployed in the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
against France and the War of 1812
War of 1812
against the United States.

SCIENCE

ASTRONOMY

See also: Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world and Indian astronomy

While there appears to have been little concern for theoretical astronomy , Mughal astronomers made advances in observational astronomy and produced nearly a hundred Zij
Zij
treatises. Humayun
Humayun
built a personal observatory near Delhi; Jahangir
Jahangir
and Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
were also intending to build observatories, but were unable to do so. The astronomical instruments and observational techniques used at the Mughal observatories were mainly derived from Islamic astronomy . In the 17th century, the Mughal Empire
Empire
saw a synthesis between Islamic and Hindu
Hindu
astronomy , where Islamic observational instruments were combined with Hindu
Hindu
computational techniques.

During the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Hindu
Hindu
king Jai Singh II of Amber continued the work of Mughal astronomy . In the early 18th century, he built several large observatories called Yantra Mandirs , in order to rival Ulugh Beg 's Samarkand
Samarkand
observatory , and in order to improve on the earlier Hindu
Hindu
computations in the Siddhantas and Islamic observations in Zij-i-Sultani . The instruments he used were influenced by Islamic astronomy, while the computational techniques were derived from Hindu
Hindu
astronomy.

CHEMISTRY

See also: Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam

Sake Dean Mahomed
Sake Dean Mahomed
had learned much of Mughal chemistry and understood the techniques used to produce various alkali and soaps to produce shampoo . He was also a notable writer who described the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and the cities of Allahabad and Delhi
Delhi
in rich detail and also made note of the glories of the Mughal Empire.

In Britain, Sake Dean Mahomed
Sake Dean Mahomed
was appointed as shampooing surgeon to both Kings George IV and William IV .

METALLURGY

See also: History of metallurgy in South Asia
Asia

One of the most remarkable astronomical instruments invented in Mughal India
Mughal India
is the seamless celestial globe . It was invented in Kashmir
Kashmir
by Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman in 998 AH (1589-90 CE), and twenty other such globes were later produced in Lahore
Lahore
and Kashmir
Kashmir
during the Mughal Empire. Before they were rediscovered in the 1980s, it was believed by modern metallurgists to be technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams.

SEE ALSO

* Flag of the Mughal Empire * List of Mongol states * Mansabdar * Mughal (tribe)
Mughal (tribe)
* Mughal Harem * Mughal weapons
Mughal weapons
* Mughal-e-Azam
Mughal-e-Azam
, an Indian film * Mughal-Mongol genealogy

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: Tomb of the Mughal emperor". Afghanistan-photos.com. Retrieved 28 November 2012. * ^ R. Siva Kumar, "Modern Indian Art: a Brief Overview", Art Journal (1999) 58#3 pp 14+. * ^ "A Brief Hindi
Hindi
Urdu FAQ". sikmirza. Archived from the original on 2 December 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2008. * ^ " Urdu Dictionary Project is Under Threat : ALL THINGS PAKISTAN". Pakistaniat.com. Retrieved 28 November 2012. * ^ Streusand, Douglas E. (2011). Islamic Gunpowder Empires: Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals. Philadelphia: Westview Press. ISBN 0813313597 . * ^ Charles T. Evans. "The Gunpowder Empires". Northern Virginia Community College. Retrieved December 28, 2010. * ^ Streusand, Douglas E. (2011). Islamic Gunpowder Empires: Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals. Philadelphia: Westview Press. p. 255. ISBN 0813313597 . * ^ A B Partington, James Riddick (1999), A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 226, ISBN 0-8018-5954-9 * ^ Bag, A. K. (2005). "Fathullah Shirazi: Cannon, Multi-barrel Gun and Yarghu". Indian Journal of History of Science. New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy . 40 (3): 431–436. ISSN 0019-5235 . * ^ Partington, James Riddick (1999), A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 225, ISBN 0-8018-5954-9 * ^ A B "India." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2008 Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008. * ^ "Chāpra." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2008 Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008. * ^ MughalistanSipahi (19 June 2010). "Islamic Mughal Empire: War Elephants Part 3". YouTube. Retrieved 28 November 2012. * ^ A B The Mughal Empire
Empire
– Ishwari Prasad – Google Books. Books.google.com.pk. Retrieved 29 April 2012. * ^ Roddam Narasimha (1985). "Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750–1850 A.D.". National Aerospace Laboratories, India. Retrieved 30 November 2011. * ^ A B C Sharma, Virendra Nath (1995), Sawai Jai Singh and His Astronomy, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., pp. 8–9, ISBN 81-208-1256-5 * ^ A B C Baber, Zaheer (1996), The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India, State University of New York Press , pp. 82–9, ISBN 0-7914-2919-9 * ^ Teltscher, Kate (2000). "The Shampooing Surgeon and the Persian Prince: Two Indians in Early Nineteenth-century Britain". Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, 1469-929X. 2 (3): 409–23. doi :10.1080/13698010020019226 . * ^ Savage-Smith, Emilie (1985), Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

FURTHER READING

* Alam, Muzaffar. Crisis of Empire
Empire
in Mughal North India: Awadh & the Punjab, 1707–48 (1988) * Ali, M. Athar (1975), "The Passing of Empire: The Mughal Case", Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press, 9 (3): 385–396, JSTOR
JSTOR
311728 , doi :10.1017/s0026749x00005825 , on the causes of its collapse * Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India
India
Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press , ISBN 978-0-521-51750-8 * Black, Jeremy. "The Mughals Strike Twice", History Today (April 2012) 62#4 pp 22–26. full text online * Blake, Stephen P. (November 1979), "The Patrimonial-Bureaucratic Empire
Empire
of the Mughals", Journal of Asian Studies, Association for Asian Studies, 39 (1): 77–94, JSTOR
JSTOR
2053505 * Dale, Stephen F. The Muslim
Muslim
Empires of the Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals (Cambridge U.P. 2009) * Dalrymple, William (2007). The Last Mughal: The Fall of a Dynasty : Delhi, 1857. Random House Digital, Inc. * Faruqui, Munis D. (2005), "The Forgotten Prince: Mirza Hakim and the Formation of the Mughal Empire
Empire
in India", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Brill, 48 (4): 487–523, JSTOR 25165118 , doi :10.1163/156852005774918813 , on Akbar
Akbar
and his brother * Gommans; Jos. Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire, 1500– 1700 (Routledge, 2002) online edition * Gordon, S. The New Cambridge History of India
India
, II, 4: The Marathas 1600–1818 (Cambridge, 1993). * Habib, Irfan. Atlas of the Mughal Empire: Political and Economic Maps (1982). * Markovits, Claude, ed. (2004) . A History of Modern India, 1480–1950 (2nd ed.). London: Anthem Press. ISBN 978-1-84331-004-4 . * Metcalf, B. ; Metcalf, T. R. (9 October 2006), A Concise History of Modern India
India
(2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press , ISBN 978-0-521-68225-1 * Richards, John F. (1996). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. * Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (1974). The Mughul Empire. B.V. Bhavan. * Richards, John F. The Mughal Empire
Empire
(The New Cambridge History of India) (1996) excerpt and online search * Richards, J. F. (April 1981), "Mughal State Finance and the Premodern World Economy", Comparative Studies in Society and History, Cambridge University Press, 23 (2): 285–308, JSTOR
JSTOR
178737 , doi :10.1017/s0010417500013311 * Robb, P. (2001), A History of India, London: Palgrave, ISBN 978-0-333-69129-8 * Srivastava, Ashirbadi Lal. The Mughul Empire, 1526-1803 (1952) online. * Stein, B. (16 June 1998), A History of India
India
(1st ed.), Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-20546-3 * Stein, B. (27 April 2010), Arnold, D., ed., A History of India (2nd ed.), Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-1-4051-9509-6

CULTURE

* Berinstain, V. Mughal India: Splendour of the Peacock Throne (London, 1998). * Busch, Allison. Poetry of Kings: The Classical Hindi
Hindi
Literature of Mughal India
Mughal India
(2011) excerpt and text search * Diana Preston; Michael Preston (2007). Taj Mahal: Passion and Genius at the Heart of the Moghul Empire. Walker & Company. ISBN 0-8027-1673-3 . * Schimmel, Annemarie . The Empire
Empire
of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture (Reaktion 2006) * Welch, S.C.; et al. (1987). The Emperors\' album: images of Mughal India. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0-87099-499-9 .

SOCIETY AND ECONOMY

* Chaudhuri, K. N. (1978), "Some Reflections on the Town and Country in Mughal India", Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press, 12 (1): 77–96, JSTOR
JSTOR
311823 , doi :10.1017/s0026749x00008155 * Habib, Irfan. Atlas of the Mughal Empire: Political and Economic Maps (1982). * Habib, Irfan. Agrarian System of Mughal India
Mughal India
(1963, revised edition 1999). * Heesterman, J. C. (2004), "The Social Dynamics of the Mughal Empire: A Brief Introduction", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Brill, 47 (3): 292–297, JSTOR
JSTOR
25165051 , doi :10.1163/1568520041974729 * Khan, Iqtidar Alam (1976), "The Middle Classes in the Mughal Empire", Social Scientist, 5 (1): 28–49, JSTOR
JSTOR
3516601 * Rothermund, Dietmar. An Economic History of India: From Pre-Colonial Times to 1991 (1993)

PRIMARY SOURCES

* Bernier, Francois (1891). Travels in the Mogul Empire, A.D. 1656–1668. Archibald Constable, London.

* Hiro, Dilip, ed, Journal of Emperor Babur
Babur
(Penguin Classics 2007)

* The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor ed. by W.M. Thackston Jr. (2002); this was the first autobiography in Islamic literature

* Jackson, A.V. et al., eds. History of India
India
(1907) v.9. Historic accounts of India
India
by foreign travellers, classic, oriental, and occidental, by A.V.W. Jackson online edition * Jouher (1832). The Tezkereh al vakiat or Private Memoirs of the Moghul Emperor Humayun
Humayun
Written in the Persian language
Persian language
by Jouher A confidential domestic of His Majesty. Translated by Major Charles Stewart. John Murray, London.

OLDER HISTORIES

* Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period ; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877. (Online Copy at Packard Humanities Institute – Other Persian Texts in Translation; historical books: Author List and Title List) * Adams, W. H. Davenport (1893). Warriors of the Crescent. London: Hutchinson. * Holden, Edward Singleton (1895). The Mogul emperors of Hindustan, A.D. 1398- A.D. 1707. New York : C. Scribner's Sons. * Malleson, G. B (1896). Akbar
Akbar
and the rise of the Mughal empire. Oxford : Clarendon Press. * Manucci, Niccolao ; tr. from French by François Catrou (1826). History of the Mogul dynasty in India, 1399–1657. London : J.M. Richardson. * Lane-Poole, Stanley (1906). History of India: From Reign of Akbar the Great to the Fall of Moghul Empire
Empire
(Vol. 4). London, Grolier society. * Manucci, Niccolao ; tr. by William Irvine (1907). Storia do Mogor; or, Mogul India