Mount Etna (or Etna; /ˈɛtnə/; Italian: Etna [ˈɛtna] or Mongibello
[mondʒiˈbɛllo], Sicilian: Mungibeddu [mʊndʒɪbˈbɛɖɖʊ] or â
Muntagna, Latin: Aetna) is an active stratovolcano on the east coast
of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the
cities of Messina and Catania. It lies above the convergent plate
margin between the
African Plate and the Eurasian Plate. It is the
highest active volcano in
Europe outside the Caucasus. It is
currently 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high, though this varies with
summit eruptions. It is the highest peak in
Italy south of the Alps.
Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 (459 sq mi) with a
basal circumference of 140 km (87 miles). This makes it by far
the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two
and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. Only
Mount Teide in
Tenerife (Spain) surpasses it in the whole of the
European–North-African region west of the Black Sea. In Greek
Mythology, the deadly monster
Typhon was trapped under this mountain
by Zeus, the god of the sky and thunder and king of gods, and the
Hephaestus were said to also be located underneath it.
Mount Etna is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and is in
an almost constant state of activity. The fertile volcanic soils
support extensive agriculture, with vineyards and orchards spread
across the lower slopes of the mountain and the broad Plain of Catania
to the south. Due to its history of recent activity and nearby
Mount Etna has been designated a
Decade Volcano by the
United Nations. In June 2013, it was added to the list of UNESCO
World Heritage Sites.
Etna seen behind the Rocca di Novara,
1 Etymology / Folklore
2 History of volcanic eruptions
2.1 Geological history
2.2.1 Historical eruptions
2.2.2 Recent eruptions
126.96.36.199 Volcanic explosivity index of recent eruptions
2.2.3 Smoke rings
3 Geopolitical boundaries
5 See also
8 External links
Etymology / Folklore
The word Etna is from the Greek αἴθω (aithō), meaning "I burn",
through an iotacist pronunciation. In Classical Greek, it is called
Αἴτνη (Aítnē), a name given also to
Catania and the city
originally known as Inessa. In Latin it is called Aetna. In Arabic, it
was called جبل النار Jabal al-Nār (the Mountain of Fire).
It is also known as Mungibeddu in Sicilian and Mongibello or
Montebello in Italian (the Italian word literally means "beautiful
mountain"). According to another hypothesis, the term Mongibello comes
from the Latin Mulciber (qui ignem mulcet, "who placates the fire"),
one of the Latin names of the Roman god Vulcan.
Another theory is that Mongibello came from Italian monte plus Arabic
jabal, both meaning "mountain."
Now, the term Mongibello indicates the mountain's top area of the two
central craters encompassing also the craters in the southeast and the
northeast of the volcanic cone.
The name Mongibel is found in Arthurian Romance, as the name of the
otherworld castle (or realm) of
Morgan le Fay
Morgan le Fay and her half-brother,
King Arthur, localised at Etna, according to traditions concerning
them derived from the stories told by the Breton conteurs who
accompanied the Norman occupiers of Sicily. What were originally Welsh
conceptions concerning a dwarf king of a paradisal, Celtic underworld
became attached to the quasi-historic figure of Arthur as "Ruler of
the Antipodes" and were then transplanted into a Sicilian milieu, by
Bretons impressed by the already otherworldly associations of the
great, volcanic mountain of their new home. Mediaevalist Roger Sherman
Loomis quotes passages from the works of
Gervase of Tilbury
Gervase of Tilbury and
Caesarius of Heisterbach
Caesarius of Heisterbach (dating from the late twelfth century)
featuring accounts of Arthur's returning of a lost horse which had
strayed into his subterranean kingdom beneath Etna. Caesarius quotes
as his authority for the story a certain canon Godescalcus of Bonn,
who considered it a matter of historic fact of the time of Emperor
Henry's conquest of
Sicily circa 1194. Caesarius employs in his
account the Latin phrase in monte Gyber ("within Etna") to describe
the location of Arthur's kingdom.
The Fada de Gibel of the Castle of Gibaldar (Fairy of Etna) appears in
Jaufre, the only surviving Arthurian romance in the Occitan language,
the composition of which is dated to between 1180 and 1230. However,
in Jaufre, while it is clear from her name that the fairy queen in
question is Morgan le Fay, the rich underworld queendom of which she
is the mistress is accessed, not through a fiery grotto on the slopes
of Etna, but through a 'fountain' (i.e., a spring) – a circumstance
more in keeping with Morgan's original watery, rather than fiery,
associations, before her incorporation into the folklore of
Sicily. For another Sicilian conception of the fairy realm or
Morgan le Fay
Morgan le Fay – see
Fata Morgana (mirage)
Fata Morgana (mirage) re. an optical
phenomenon common in the Strait of Messina.
History of volcanic eruptions
Mount Etna from the south with the smoking peak in the upper left and
a lateral crater in the centre.
Volcanic activity first took place at Etna about 500,000 years ago,
with eruptions occurring beneath the sea off the ancient coastline of
Sicily. About 300,000 years ago, volcanism began occurring to
the southwest of the summit (centre top of volcano) then, before
activity moved towards the present centre 170,000 years ago.
Eruptions at this time built up the first major volcanic edifice,
forming a stratovolcano in alternating explosive and effusive
eruptions. The growth of the mountain was occasionally interrupted by
major eruptions, leading to the collapse of the summit to form
From about 35,000 to 15,000 years ago, Etna experienced some
highly explosive eruptions, generating large pyroclastic flows, which
left extensive ignimbrite deposits. Ash from these eruptions has been
found as far away as south of Rome's border, 800 km (497 mi)
to the north.
Thousands of years ago, the eastern flank of the mountain experienced
a catastrophic collapse, generating an enormous landslide in an event
similar to that seen in the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. The
landslide left a large depression in the side of the volcano, known as
'Valle del Bove' (Valley of the Ox). Research published in 2006
suggested this occurred around 8000 years ago, and caused a huge
tsunami, which left its mark in several places in the eastern
Mediterranean. It may have been the reason the settlement of Atlit Yam
(Israel), now below sea level, was suddenly abandoned around that
The steep walls of the valley have suffered subsequent collapses on
numerous occasions. The strata exposed in the valley walls provide an
important and easily accessible record of Etna's eruptive history.
The most recent collapse event at the summit of Etna is thought to
have occurred about 2,000 years ago, forming what is known as the
Piano Caldera. This caldera has been almost entirely filled by
subsequent lava eruptions, but is still visible as a distinct break in
the slope of the mountain near the base of the present-day summit
Mount Etna is moving towards the
Mediterranean Sea at an average rate
of 14 mm per year, the massif sliding on an unconsolidated layer above
the older sloping terrain.
Mount Etna is one of the 16 Decade Volcanoes.
Eruptions of Etna follow a variety of patterns. Most occur at the
summit, where there are currently (as of 2008)[update] five distinct
craters — the Northeast Crater, the Voragine, the Bocca Nuova, and
the Southeast Crater Complex (2). Other eruptions occur on the flanks,
which have more than 300 vents ranging in size from small holes in the
ground to large craters hundreds of metres across.
can be highly explosive and spectacular, but rarely threaten the
inhabited areas around the volcano. In contrast, flank eruptions can
occur down to a few hundred metres altitude, close to or even well
within the inhabited areas. Numerous villages and small towns lie
around or on cones of past flank eruptions. Since the year
AD 1600, at least 60 flank eruptions and countless summit
eruptions have occurred; nearly half of these have happened since the
start of the 20th century. Since 2000, Etna has had four flank
eruptions — in 2001, 2002–2003, 2004–2005, and 2008–2009.
Summit eruptions occurred in 2006, 2007–2008, January–April 2012,
and again in July–October 2012.
The first known record of eruption at Etna is that of Diodorus
An artist's impression of 1766 eruption
In 396 BC, an eruption of Etna reportedly thwarted the
Carthaginians in their attempt to advance on Syracuse during the
Second Sicilian War.
A particularly violent explosive (Plinian) summit eruption occurred in
122 BC, and caused heavy tephra falls to the southeast, including
the town of Catania, where many roofs collapsed. To help with
reconstruction after the devastating effects of the eruption, the
Roman government exempted the population of
Catania from paying taxes
for ten years.
The Roman poet
Virgil gave what was probably a first-hand description
of an eruption in the Aeneid.
During the first 1500 years AD, many eruptions have gone unreported
(or records have been lost); among the more significant are: (1) an
eruption in about 1030 AD near Monte Ilice on the lower southeast
flank, which produced a lava flow that travelled about 10 km,
reaching the sea north of Acireale; the villages of Santa Tecla and
Stazzo are built on the broad delta built by this lava flow into the
sea; (2) an eruption in about 1160 (or 1224), from a fissure at only
350–450 m (1,148–1,476 ft) elevation on the
south-southeast flank near the village of Mascalucia, whose lava flow
reached the sea just to the north of Catania, in the area now occupied
by the portion of the city named Ognina.
Etna's most destructive eruption since 122 BC started on 11 March
1669 and produced lava flows that destroyed at least 10 villages on
its southern flank before reaching the city walls of the town of
Catania five weeks later, on 15 April. The lava was largely diverted
by these walls into the sea to the south of the city, filling the
harbour of Catania. A small portion of lava eventually broke through a
fragile section of the city walls on the western side of
destroyed a few buildings before stopping in the rear of the
Benedictine monastery, without reaching the centre of the town.
Contrary to widespread reports of up to 15,000 (or even 20,000) human
fatalities caused by the lava, contemporaneous accounts written
both in Italian and English mention no deaths related to the 1669
eruption (but give very precise figures of the number of buildings
destroyed, the area of cultivated land lost, and the economic damage).
Therefore, it is uncertain where the enormous number of fatalities can
be attributed. One possibility is confusion between this eruption and
an earthquake that devastated southeast
Sicily (including Catania) 24
years later in 1693. A study on the damage and fatalities caused by
eruptions of Etna in historical times reveals that only 77 human
deaths are attributable with certainty to eruptions of Etna, most
recently in 1987 when two tourists were killed by a sudden explosion
near the summit.
Footage of Etna's November 2013 eruption.
A large lava flow from an eruption in 1928 led to the destruction of a
population centre for the first time since the 1669 eruption. The
eruption started high on Etna's northeast flank on 2 November. Then
new eruptive fissures opened at decreasing elevations down the flank
of the volcano. The third and most vigorous of these fissures opened
late on 4 November at an unusually low elevation, approximately
1,200 m (3,937 ft) above sea-level, in a zone known as Ripe
della Naca. The village of Mascali, lying down-slope of the Ripe della
Naca, was almost completely destroyed in two days. Only a church and a
few surrounding buildings survived in the north part of the village,
called Sant'Antonino or "il quartiere". During the last days of the
eruption, the flow interrupted the Messina-
Catania railway line and
destroyed the train station of Mascali. The event was used by Benito
Mussolini's fascist regime for propaganda purposes, with the
evacuation, aid, and rebuilding operations being presented as models
of fascist planning.
Mascali was rebuilt on a new site, and its church
contains the Italian fascist symbol of the torch, placed above the
statue of Jesus Christ. In early November 2008, the town of Mascali
commemorated the 80th anniversary of the eruption and destruction of
the village with a number of public events where eyewitnesses shared
their memories of the eruption.
Etna's 2002 eruption, photographed from the ISS
Long exposure image of a "dual-vent" eruption from Mount Etna's NSEC
(New South East Crater)
Other major 20th-century eruptions occurred in 1949, 1971, 1979, 1981,
1983 and 1991–1993. In 1971, lava buried the Etna Observatory (built
in the late 19th century), destroyed the first generation of the Etna
cable-car, and seriously threatened several small villages on Etna's
east flank. In March 1981, the town of
Randazzo on the northwestern
flank of Etna narrowly escaped destruction by unusually fast-moving
lava flows. That eruption was remarkably similar to one in 1928 that
destroyed Mascali. The 1991–1993 eruption saw the town of Zafferana
threatened by a lava flow, but successful diversion efforts saved the
town with the loss of only one building a few hundred metres from the
town's margin. Initially, such efforts consisted of the construction
of earth barriers built perpendicularly to the flow direction; it was
hoped that the eruption would stop before the artificial basins
created behind the barriers would be completely filled. Instead, the
eruption continued, and lava surmounted the barriers, heading directly
toward Zafferana. Engineers then decided to use explosives near the
source of the lava flow, to disrupt a very efficient lava tube system
through which the lava travelled for up to 7 km (4 mi)
without essentially losing heat and fluidity. The main explosion on 23
May 1992 destroyed the tube and forced the lava into a new artificial
channel, far from Zafferana, and it would have taken months to
re-establish a long lava tube. Shortly after the blasting, the rate of
lava emission dropped, and during the remainder of the eruption (until
30 March 1993) the lava never advanced close to the town again.
A lateral crater of the 2002-2003 eruption near the Torre del
Filosofo, about 450 m (1,480 ft) below Etna's summit.
House destroyed by lava on the slopes of Etna.
Following six years (1995–2001) of unusually intense activity at the
four summit craters of Etna, the volcano produced its first flank
eruption since 1991–1993 in July–August 2001. This eruption, which
involved activity from seven distinct eruptive fissures mostly on the
south slope of the volcano, was a mass-media eruption, because it
occurred at the height of the tourist season and numerous reporters
and journalists were already in
Italy to cover the G8 summit in Genoa.
It also occurred close to one of the tourist areas on the volcano, and
thus was easily accessible. Part of the "Etna Sud" tourist area,
including the arrival station of the Etna cable car, were damaged by
this eruption, which otherwise was a rather modest-sized event by Etna
In 2002–2003, a much larger eruption threw up a huge column of ash
that could easily be seen from space and fell as far away as Libya,
600 km (370 mi) south across the Mediterranean Sea. Seismic
activity in this eruption caused the eastern flanks of the volcano to
slip by up to two metres, and many houses on the flanks of the volcano
experienced structural damage. The eruption also completely destroyed
the tourist station Piano Provenzana, on the northeastern flank of the
volcano, and part of the tourist station "Etna Sud" around the Rifugio
Sapienza on the south flank. Footage from the eruptions was recorded
Lucasfilm and integrated into the landscape of the planet Mustafar
in the 2005 film Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith.
The Rifugio Sapienza is near the site of a cable car station which had
previously been destroyed in the 1983 eruption; it has now been
rebuilt. Following a rather silent, slow and non-destructive lava
outflow on the upper southeastern flank between September 2004 and
March 2005, intense eruptions occurred at the Southeast Crater in
July–December 2006. These were followed by four episodes of lava
fountaining, again at the Southeast Crater, on 29 March 11 April, 29
April and 7 May 2007. Ash emissions and
Strombolian explosions started
from a vent on the eastern side of the Southeast Crater in mid-August
On 4 September 2007 a spectacular episode of lava fountaining occurred
from the new vent on the east side of the Southeast Crater, also
producing a plume of ash and scoriae which fell over the east flank of
the volcano. A lava flow travelled about 4.5 km (2.8 mi)
into the uninhabited Valle del Bove. This eruption was visible far
into the plains of Sicily, ending the following morning between the
hours of 5 to 7 a.m. local time.
Catania-Fontanarossa Airport shut
down operations during the night for safety precautions.[verification
An eruption on the morning of 13 May 2008, immediately to the east of
Etna's summit craters was accompanied by a swarm of more than 200
earthquakes and significant ground deformation in the summit area. The
eruption continued at a slowly diminishing rate for 417 days, until 6
July 2009, making this the longest flank eruption of Etna since the
1991–1993 eruption that lasted 473 days. Previous eruptions, in
2001, 2002–2003, and 2004–2005 had lasted 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6
months, respectively. Lava flows advanced 6.5 km during the first
few days of this eruption but thereafter stagnated at much minor
distances from the vents; during the last months of the eruption lava
rarely advanced more than 1 km downslope.
Southern flank of
Mount Etna showing lateral cones and flow from
eruption of 2001.
Through January 2011 to February 2012, the summit craters of Etna were
the site of intense activity. Frequent eruptions and ash columns
forced the authorities to shut down the
Catania airport on several
occasions.  The July 2011 episode also
endangered the Sapienza Refuge, the main tourist hub on the volcano,
but the lava flow was successfully diverted. In 2014, a flank
eruption started involving lava flows and strombolian eruptions. This
was the first flank eruption since 2008–09 
On 3 December 2015, an eruption occurred which climaxed between 03:20
and 04:10 local time. The Voragine crater exhibited a lava fountain
which reached 1 km (3,300 ft) in height, with an ash plume
which reached 3 km (9,800 ft) in height. The
activity continued on the following days, with an ash plume that
reached 7 km (23,000 ft) in height that forced Catania
airport to shut down for a few hours. Volcanic gas emissions from
this volcano are measured by a Multi-Component Gas Analyzer System,
which detects pre-eruptive degassing of rising magmas, improving
prediction of volcanic activity.
An eruption on 16 March 2017 injured 10 people, including a BBC News
television crew, after magma exploded upon contact with snow.
Volcanic explosivity index of recent eruptions
Global Volcanism Program
Global Volcanism Program has assigned a volcanic explosivity index
(VEI) to all of Mount Etna's eruptions since January 1955.
Volcanic explosivity index for Mount Etna's eruptions since January
Number of eruptions (total=49)
In the 1970s Etna erupted smoke rings, one of the first captured
events of this type, which are extremely rare. This happened again in
2000. Video footage of 8 June 2000 event was captured by
naturalist filmmaker Geoff Mackley. Another event occurred on
11 April 2013.
Map of municipalities in the province of Catania.
The borders of ten municipalities (Adrano, Biancavilla, Belpasso,
Bronte (from two sides), Castiglione di Sicilia, Maletto, Nicolosi,
Zafferana Etnea) meet on the summit of Mount
Etna, making this point one of elevenfold complexity, and the most
complicated geopolitical multi-point anywhere north of the South
Pole.[unreliable source?][original research?]
Sapienza Refuge, the main tourist hub.
Linguaglossa and Etna South
Nicolosi are the two ski
resorts of the volcano
Etna is one of Sicily's main tourist attractions, with thousands of
visitors every year. The most common route is through the road
leading to Sapienza Refuge ski area, lying at the south of the crater
at elevation of 1910 m. From the Refuge, a cableway runs
uphill to an elevation of 2500 m, from where the crater area at
2920 m is accessible.
Ferrovia Circumetnea – Round-Etna railway – is a narrow-gauge
railway constructed between 1889 and 1895. It runs around the volcano
in a 110-km long semi-circle starting in
Catania and ending in Riposto
28 km north of Catania.
There are two ski resorts on Etna: one at the Sapienza Refuge, with a
chairlift and three ski lifts, and a smaller one on the north, at
Piano Provenzana near Linguaglossa, with three lifts and a
Sapienza Refuge was the finish of Stage 9 of the 2011 Giro d'Italia
and Stage 4 of the 2017 Giro.
List of volcanoes in Italy
Volcanic Seven Summits
Genista aetnensis, the
Mount Etna broom
List of Italian regions by highest point
^ a b The elevation varies with volcanic activity. The volcano last
erupted on 16 March 2017. It is frequently given as 3,350 m
(10,990 ft), but many sources that support this concede that this
is approximate. The coordinates given, which are consistent with SRTM
data, are from a 2005 GPS survey. The elevation data are based on a
LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) survey carried out in June 2007,
see Neri, M.; et al. (2008), "The changing face of Mount Etna's summit
area documented with Lidar technology", Geophysical Research Letters,
35 (9): L09305, Bibcode:2008GeoRL..3509305N,
^ "Etna volcano". 19 Feb 2018.
Italy volcanoes and Volcanics". USGS.
^ Aelian, Hist. An. xi. 3, referenced under Aetnaeus in William
Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
^ "Decade Volcanoes". United States Geological Survey.
Mount Etna Becomes a World Heritage Site,
Italy Magazine, 4 May
^ According to Adrian Room’s book Place-names of the World, the name
"Etna" originated from the Phoenician word attuna meaning "furnace" or
"chimney". He dismisses the hypothesis that 'Etna' has a Greek
derivation. "Volcano – Podictionary Word of the Day". Blog.oup.com.
29 April 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
^ "Woodhouse's English-Greek Dictionary Page Image".
Artflx.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
^ Chevedden, Paul E. (2010), "A Crusade from the First: The Norman
Conquest of Islamic Sicily, 1060–1091", Al-Masaq: Islam and the
Medieval Mediterranean, 22 (2): 191,
^ Bruce, Christopher W. (1999). The Arthurian Name Dictionary. Taylor
& Francis. ISBN 0-8153-2865-6.
^ Loomis, Roger Sherman
Wales and the Arthurian Legend, pub.
Wales Press, Cardiff 1956 and reprinted by Folcroft
Press 1973, Chapter 5
King Arthur and the Antipodes, pp. 70–71.
^ Loomis, Roger Sherman, Arthurian Tradition And Chrétien de Troyes
pub. Columbia University Press, New York 1948, pp. 66 & 306.
^ Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages : A Collaborative
History ed. Roger Sherman Loomis, pub. Oxford University Press 1959,
special edition for Sandpiper Books Ltd. 2001, ISBN 0 19 811588 1
^ Martin-Schutz, Alicia. "Mt. Etna".
^ Pareschi, M. T.; Boschi, E. & Favalli, M. (2007), "Holocene
Mount Etna and the fate of Israeli Neolithic
communities", Geophysical Research Letters, 34 (16): L16317,
^ Murray, J.B.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Pitty, A. (April 2018).
"Gravitational sliding of the Mt. Etna massif along a sloping
basement". Bulletin of Volcanology. 80 (4).
doi:10.1007/s00445-018-1209-1. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
^ Tanguy, J. C.; Condomines, M.; Goff, M.; Chillemi, V.; Delfa, S.;
Patanè, G. (2007). "
Mount Etna eruptions of the last 2,750 years:
Revised chronology and location through archeomagnetic and 226Ra-230Th
dating" (PDF). Bulletin of Volcanology. 70: 55.
^ Coltelli, M.; Del Carlo, P. & Vezzoli, L. (1998), "Discovery of
a Plinian basaltic eruption of Roman age at Etna Volcano, Italy",
Geology, 26 (12): 1095–1098, Bibcode:1998Geo....26.1095C,
^ Aeneid, edition of Theodore C. Williams, ca. 1908 [book III, lines
Mount Etna (volcano, Italy)". (the Encyclopædia Britannica has
been wrongly cited as one source of this false information).
^ The Encyclopaedia Britannica 5th edition (1817) quotes from the
eyewitness report of Lord Winchelsea, Ambassador to Constantinople, to
the Court of England. It happens not to mention casualties.
Encyclopaedia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and
Miscellaneous Literature, Enlarged and Improved. Vol. 1 (5th ed.).
Edinburgh: A. Constable. 1823. pp. 248–249. See also:
Charles Hutton; Georges Shaw; Richard Pearson (1809). The
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, from Their
Commencement, in 1665, to the Year 1800; Abridged...: From 1665 to
1672. 1. London. pp. 357–358; 383–387; 637–638.
^ "Etna and Man". Boris.vulcanoetna.it. Archived from the original on
22 July 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
^ Barberi, F.; Carapezza, M. L.; Valenza, M.; Villari, L. (1993), "The
control of lava flow during the 1991–1992 eruption of Mt. Etna",
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 56 (1–2): 1–34,
^ "press_text_booklet.indd" (PDF). Retrieved 2 June 2011.
^ Italy's Mt Etna erupts WORLD News
^ Ken Kremer (15 January 2011). "Spectacular Eruptions of Mt. Etna in
Sicily from Space and Earth". Universetoday.com. Retrieved 2 June
^ There she blows! Stunning images of
Mount Etna eruption, Mirror, 9
^ Eruption of Mt. Etna closes airport in Catania, Agi.it, 23 October
^ "INGV – Etna Observatory". Ct.ingv.it. Retrieved 2 June
BBC News – Footage shows
Mount Etna spewing lava and ash".
Bbc.co.uk. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
^ Airport closed as Etna blows on, Daily Mail, 3 April 2013
^ Klemetti, Erik (3 December 2015). "Italy's Etna Unleashes a Short
but Spectacular Eruption". Wired. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
^ "Etna volcano – eruption update". Volcano Discovery. 3 December
2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
^ "Etna show, nuova fontana di lava: non si ferma l'emissione di
cenere". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). 4 December 2015. Retrieved
5 December 2015.
^ "Forecasting Etna eruptions by real-time observation of volcanic gas
composition". GeoScienceWorld. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 27 September
^ Balmer, Crispian (16 March 2017). "Volcanic explosion on Mount Etna
injures 10 people". Reuters. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
^ "Mount Etna: BBC crew caught up in volcano blast". BBC News.
2017-03-16. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
^ "Global Volcanism Program: Etna". Smithsonian Institution, National
Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
^ Smoke rings generated by eruptions of Etna volcano
^ "Etna hoops it up". BBC News. 31 March 2000. Retrieved 9 October
^ "Erupting Mt. Etna coughs up a smoke ring". WJLA (ABC) Storm Watch
7. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
^ Geoff, Mackley. "Mt Etna – Sicily,
Italy – the greatest show on
earth !". Geoff Mackley. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
Mount Etna blows smoke rings during volcanic eruptions". NBC News.
12 April 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
^ Etna National Park, Italy, National Geographic Travel
^ Rifugio Sapienza: who we are, archived from the original on 26 March
^ Funivia dell'Etna, Lonely Planet
^ Skiing Mount Etna: Hit the slopes one day, sail the next, Telegraph,
12 March 2010
"Etna". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved
25 December 2008.
Chester, D. K.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kilburn, C. R. J. (1985).
Mount Etna: The Anatomy of a Volcano. Chapman and Hall. pp. 412
pp. ISBN 0-8047-1308-1.
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Punta La Marmora
Punta La Marmora —
Sicily: Etna — Crete: Ida
Dikti — Other Greek islands: Dirfi
Fengari — Cyprus: Olympus
World Heritage Sites in Italy
Mantua and Sabbioneta
Monte San Giorgio1
Porto Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre
Monterosso al Mare
Residences of the Royal House of Savoy
Castle of Moncalieri
Castle of Racconigi
Castle of Rivoli
Castello del Valentino
Royal Palace of Turin
Palazzo Madama, Turin
Palace of Venaria
Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi
Villa della Regina
Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe-
Roero and Monferrato
Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande, Modena
Orto botanico di Padova
City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto
Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi
Etruscan Necropolises of
Cerveteri and Tarquinia
Piazza del Duomo, Pisa
Castel del Monte, Apulia
Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano National Park,
Paestum and Velia, Certosa
Oplontis and Villa Poppaea
Palace of Caserta,
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli and
San Leucio Complex
Sassi di Matera
Arab-Norman Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale
Archaeological Area of Agrigento
Syracuse and Necropolis of Pantalica
Val di Noto
Militello in Val di Catania
Villa Romana del Casale
Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)
Cividale del Friuli
Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus located at Campello sul Clitunno
Santa Sofia located at Benevento
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo located at Monte Sant'Angelo
Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3
Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4
Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5
Peschiera del Garda
1 Shared with Switzerland
2 Shared with the Holy See
3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland
4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain and Ukraine
5 Shared with
Croatia and Montenegro