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The MORGAN LIBRARY & MUSEUM – formerly the PIERPONT MORGAN LIBRARY – is a museum and research library located at 225 Madison Avenue at East 36th Street in the Murray Hill neighborhood of Manhattan
Manhattan
, New York City . It was founded to house the private library of J. P. Morgan in 1906, which included manuscripts and printed books, some of them in rare bindings, as well as his collection of prints and drawings. The library was designed by Charles McKim of the firm of McKim, Mead and White and cost $1.2 million. It was made a public institution in 1924 by J. P. Morgan's son John Pierpont Morgan, Jr. , in accordance with his father's will.

The building was designated a New York City
New York City
landmark in 1966 and was declared a National Historic Landmark later that same year.

CONTENTS

* 1 Collection

* 2 Architecture

* 2.1 2006 renovation

* 3 Management * 4 In popular culture * 5 References * 6 External links

COLLECTION

Main category: Collection of the Morgan Library early printed Bibles , among them three Gutenberg Bibles ; and many examples of fine bookbinding . Other holdings include material from ancient Egypt and medieval liturgical objects (including Coptic literature examples), Émile Zola , William Blake\'s original drawings for his edition of the Book of Job; concept drawings for The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry ; a Percy Bysshe Shelley notebook; originals of poems by Robert Burns
Robert Burns
; a unique Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
manuscript of A Christmas Carol with handwritten edits and markup from the author; a journal by Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau
; an extraordinary collection of autographed and annotated libretti and scores from Beethoven, Brahms, Chopin, Mahler and Verdi, and Mozart\'s Haffner Symphony in D Major; and manuscripts of George Sand , William Makepeace Thackeray
William Makepeace Thackeray
, Lord Byron
Lord Byron
, Charlotte Brontë and nine of Sir Walter Scott\'s novels, including Ivanhoe. The collection still includes a few Old Master paintings collected by Morgan between 1907 and 1911 (works by Hans Memling
Hans Memling
, Perugino
Perugino
, and Cima da Conegliano ), but this has never been the collection's focus, and Ghirlandaio 's masterpiece Portrait of Giovanna Tornabuoni was sold to Thyssen when the Great Depression worsened the Morgan family's finances.

Other notable artists of the Morgan Library and Museum are Jean de Brunhoff , Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
, Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
, John Leech , Gaston Phoebus , Rembrandt
Rembrandt
van Rijn , and John Ruskin .

The Morgan has one of the world's greatest collections of ancient Near Eastern cylinder seals , small stone cylinders finely engraved with images for transfer to clay by rolling. It also contains many music manuscripts and a considerable collection of Victoriana, including one of the most important collections of Gilbert and Sullivan manuscripts and related artifacts.

Of interest to Australians is a copy of the letter written by Andrea Corsali from India in 1516. This letter, one of five in existence, contains the first description of the Southern Cross
Southern Cross
which is also illustrated by Corsali in this letter and which was also named "croce" by him. One other copy of the letter is in the British Museum and two are in Australia. The fifth is in the Library of Princeton University. The letter is also readily available in Ramusio's Viaggi, a compendium of letters of exploration, published in Venice in three volumes from 1555 on.

ARCHITECTURE

The historic McKim Building Edward Clark Potter
Edward Clark Potter
's lions

The first building constructed to house Morgan's library – the "McKim Building" – was designed in the Classical Revival style by Charles Follen McKim of the noted firm of McKim, Mead "> Interior in 1963 Morgan Library, New York City, NY

The interior of the building is richly decorated, with a polychrome rotunda which leads to three public rooms, which were originally Morgan's private study, the librarian's office, and the library itself. The rotunda itself has a domed ceiling with murals and plasterwork inspired by Raphael
Raphael
, created by H. Siddons Mowbray
H. Siddons Mowbray
. Morgan's study, now the West Library, has been called "one of the greatest achievements of American interior decoration," while the East Library features triple-tiers of bookcases.

Morgan's residence was torn down in 1928, after his death, to be replaced by an annex building which featured an exhibition hall and a reading room, designed by Benjamin Wistar Morris to harmonize with McKim's original. The Italianate brownstone house at Madison avenue and East 37th Street was built in 1854 by Isaac Newton Phelps and bequeathed to his daughter Helen Stokes, wife of Anson Phelps Stokes .

The remaining Italianate brownstone house in the library complex is 231 Madison Avenue, on the corner of East 37th Street. This house was built by Isaac Newton Phelps who bequeathed it to his daughter, Helen Stokes, wife of Anson Phelps Stokes
Anson Phelps Stokes
. She extended the building, doubling the size and adding an additional attic floor (architect R. H. Robertson ). Their son, architect Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes , was born in the house on April 11, 1867. The house was purchased by J. P. Morgan in 1904. It served as the home of his heir J. P. Morgan
J. P. Morgan
Jr. from 1905 to 1943.

2006 RENOVATION

The Renzo Piano -designed entrance building (2006, left) and the Benjamin Wistar Morris -designed annex building (1928, right).

The most recent addition to the library is a modernist entrance building designed by Italian architect Renzo Piano – his New York City debut – and Beyer Blinder Belle
Beyer Blinder Belle
, which was completed in 2006. Although externally "bland", the building helps to organize the interior spaces of the complex.

The Library was closed during the construction and expansion. In the interim it sponsored numerous traveling exhibitions around the country. When the work was completed, it reopened on April 29, 2006 as the Morgan Library Piano set its new reading room under a transluce