Monarchy of Canada
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The monarchy of Canada is
Canada Canada is a country in North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering over , making it the world ...

Canada
's
form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government ...
embodied by the Canadian
sovereign ''Sovereign'' is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French , which is ultimately derived from the Latin , meaning 'above'. The roles of a sovereign vary from monarch, ruler or ...

sovereign
and
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun), an English pronoun * He (kana), the romanization of the Japanese kana へ * He (letter) He is the fifth Letter (alphabet), letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician alphabet, Phoenic ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international p ...
. It is at the core of Canada's constitutional federal structure and Westminster-style
parliamentary A parliamentary system, or parliamentarian democracy, is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where the Executive (government), executive derives its democratic legitimacy ...
democracy Democracy (From grc, δημοκρατία, dēmokratía, ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to choo ...

democracy
. The monarchy is the foundation of the executive (
King-in-Council The King-in-Council or the Queen-in-Council, depending on the gender of the reigning monarch, is a constitutional term in a number of states. In a general sense, it would mean the monarch exercising executive authority, usually in the form of ap ...
),
legislative A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
(
King-in-Parliament The King-in-Parliament (or, during the reign of a female monarch, Queen-in-Parliament), sometimes referred neutrally as the Crown-in-Parliament, is a technical term of constitutional law in the Commonwealth realms that refers to the Crown in its ...
), and
judicial The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of courts that adjudication, adjudicates legal disputes/disagreements and interprets, defends, and app ...
( King-on-the-Bench) branches of both federal and
provincial
provincial
jurisdictions. The
king of Canada The monarchy of Canada is Canada's form of government embodied by the Canadian sovereign and head of state. It is at the core of Canada's constitutional Canadian federalism, federal structure and Westminster system, Westminster-style Parliamentar ...
since 8 September 2022 has been
Charles III Charles III (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is King of the United Kingdom and the 14 other Commonwealth realms. He was the longest-serving heir apparent and Prince of Wales and, at age 73, became the oldest person to a ...
. Although the person of the sovereign is
shared
shared
with 14 other independent countries within the
Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, simply referred to as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 56 member states, the vast majority of which are former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the C ...

Commonwealth of Nations
, each country's monarchy is separate and legally distinct. As a result, the current monarch is officially titled ''King of Canada'' and, in this capacity, he and other members of the royal family undertake public and private functions domestically and abroad as representatives of Canada. However, the monarch is the only member of the royal family with any
constitution A constitution is the aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity A polity is an identifiable Politics, political entity – a group of people with a collective identity, who ...

constitution
al role. The monarch lives predominantly in the United Kingdom and, while several powers are the sovereign's alone, most of the royal governmental and ceremonial duties in Canada are carried out by the monarch's representative, the
governor general of Canada The governor general of Canada (french: gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the . The is head of state of Canada and the 14 other Commonwealth realms, but resides in oldest and most populous realm ...
. In
Canada's provinces Within the geographical areas of Canada, the ten provinces and three territories are sub-national administrative divisions under the jurisdiction of the Constitution of Canada, Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three pr ...
, the monarch in right of each is represented by a
lieutenant governor A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction. Often a lieutenant governor is the deputy, or lieutenant, to or ranked under a governor — a "second-in-comm ...
. As territories fall under the federal jurisdiction, they each have a commissioner, rather than a lieutenant governor, who represents the federal Crown-in-Council directly. As all executive authority is vested in the sovereign,
royal assent Royal assent is the method by which a monarch formally approves an act of the legislature, either directly or through an official acting on the monarch's behalf. In some jurisdictions, royal assent is equivalent to promulgation, while in other ...
is required to allow for bills to become law and for
letters patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) (plurale tantum, always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, President (government title), president or other head of state, genera ...
and
orders in council An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realms. In the United Kingdom this legislation is formally made in the name of Monarchy of the United Kingdom, the monarch by and with the Advice (constit ...
to have legal effect. While the power for these acts stems from the Canadian people through the constitutional
conventions
conventions
of democracy, executive authority remains vested in
the Crown The Crown is the state (polity), state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions (such as the Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories, overseas territories, Provinces and territorie ...

the Crown
and is only entrusted by the sovereign to the government on behalf of the people. This underlines the Crown's role in safeguarding the rights, freedoms, and democratic system of government of Canadians, reinforcing the fact that "governments are the servants of the people and not the reverse". Thus, within Canada's
constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises their authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in decision making. Constitutional monarchies dif ...
the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is normally limited, with the sovereign typically exercising executive authority only with the
advice and consent Advice and consent is an English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts. It describes either of two situations: where a weak executive branch The Executive, also referred as the ...
of the
Cabinet of Canada The Cabinet of Canada (french: Cabinet du Canada) is a body of Minister of the Crown, ministers of the Crown that, along with the Canadian monarch, and within the tenets of the Westminster system, forms the government of Canada. Chaired by the ...
, and the sovereign's legislative and judicial responsibilities largely carried out through the
Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the Canadian federalism, federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of three parts: the Charles III, King, the Senate of Canada, Senate, and the H ...

Parliament of Canada
as well as judges and
justices of the peace A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer of a lower or '' puisne'' court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) (plurale tantum, always in the plural) are a type of ...

justices of the peace
. However, there are cases where the sovereign or their representative would have a duty to act directly and independently under the doctrine of necessity to prevent genuinely unconstitutional acts. In these respects, the sovereign and his viceroys are custodians of the Crown's and represent the "power of the people above government and political parties". Put another way, the Crown functions as the guarantor of Canada's continuous and stable
governance Governance is the process of interactions through the laws, norms, power or language Language is a structured system of communication. The structure of a language is its grammar and the free components are its vocabulary. Languages ar ...
and as a
nonpartisan Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias towards, a political party. While an Oxford English Dictionary definition of ''partisan'' includes adherents of a party, cause, person, etc., in most cases, nonpartisan refers sp ...
safeguard against the
abuse of power Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of a thing, often to Distributive justice, unfairly or improperly gain benefit. Abuse can come in many forms, such as: physical or verbal maltreatment, injury, assault, violation, rape, unjust practice ...
. Canada is one of the oldest continuing monarchies in the world. Initially established in the 16th century, monarchy in Canada has evolved through a continuous succession of initially French and later British sovereigns into the independent Canadian sovereigns of today. The institution that is Canada's system of constitutional monarchy is sometimes
colloquially Colloquialism (), also called colloquial language, everyday language or general parlance, is the style (sociolinguistics), linguistic style used for casual (informal) communication. It is the most common functional style of speech, the idiom norm ...
referred to as the ''
Maple ''Acer'' () is a genus of trees and shrubs commonly known as maples. The genus is placed in the family Sapindaceae.Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008 nd more or less continuously updated since h ...

Maple
Crown''.


International and domestic aspects

The person who is the Canadian sovereign is with 14 other monarchies (a grouping, including Canada, known informally as the
Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in the Commonwealth of Nations whose monarch and head of state is shared among the other realms. Each realm functions as an independent state, equal with the other realms and nations of the Commonwealt ...
s) in the 56-member
Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, simply referred to as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 56 member states, the vast majority of which are former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the C ...

Commonwealth of Nations
. The monarch resides predominantly in the oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom;
viceroy A viceroy () is an official who reigns over a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "k ...

viceroy
s (the
governor general of Canada The governor general of Canada (french: gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the . The is head of state of Canada and the 14 other Commonwealth realms, but resides in oldest and most populous realm ...
in the federal sphere and a
lieutenant governor A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction. Often a lieutenant governor is the deputy, or lieutenant, to or ranked under a governor — a "second-in-comm ...
in each province) are the sovereign's representatives in Canada. The emergence of this arrangement paralleled the fruition of
Canadian nationalism Canadian nationalism seeks to promote the unity, independence, and well-being of Canada and the Canadian people. Canadian nationalism has been a significant political force since the 19th century and has typically manifested itself as seeking t ...
following the end of the
First World War World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
and culminated in the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931. Since then, the pan-national Crown has had both a shared and a separate character: the sovereign's role as monarch of Canada has been distinct from his or her position as monarch of any other realm, including the United Kingdom. Only Canadian federal
ministers of the Crown Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in the Commonwealth of Nations whose monarch and head of state is shared among the other realms. Each realm functio ...
may advise the sovereign on any and all matters of the Canadian state, of which the sovereign, when not in Canada, is kept abreast by weekly communications with the federal viceroy. The monarchy thus ceased to be an exclusively British institution and in Canada became a Canadian, or "domesticated", establishment, though it is still often denoted as "British" in both legal and common language, for reasons historical, political, and of convenience. This division is illustrated in a number of ways: The sovereign, for example, holds a unique Canadian title and, when he and other members of the royal family are acting in public specifically as representatives of Canada, they use, where possible, Canadian symbols, including the country's
national flag A national flag is a flag that represents and symbolizes a given nation. It is Fly (flag), flown by the government of that nation, but usually can also be flown by its citizens. A national flag is typically designed with specific meanings for it ...

national flag
, unique royal symbols, armed forces uniforms, and the like, as well as Canadian Forces aircraft or other Canadian-owned vehicles for travel. Once in Canadian airspace, or arrived at a Canadian event taking place abroad, the Canadian Secretary to the King, officers of the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; french: Gendarmerie royale du Canada; french: GRC, label=none), commonly known in English as the Mounties (and colloquially in French as ) is the federal police, federal and national police service of ...

Royal Canadian Mounted Police
, and other Canadian officials will take over from whichever of their other realms' counterparts were previously escorting the King or other member of the royal family. The sovereign similarly only draws from Canadian funds for support in the performance of his duties when in Canada or acting as King of Canada abroad; Canadians do not pay any money to the King or any other member of the royal family, either towards personal income or to support royal residences outside of Canada.


Succession and regency

As in the other
Commonwealth realms A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in the Commonwealth of Nations whose monarch and head of state is shared among the other realms. Each realm functions as an independent state, equal with the other realms and nations of the Commonwealt ...
, the current
heir apparent An heir apparent, often shortened to heir, is a person who is first in an order of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person; a person who is first in the order of succession but can be displaced by the b ...

heir apparent
to the throne is
William, Prince of Wales William, Prince of Wales, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is the heir apparent to the British throne. He is the elder son of King Charles III and his first wife Diana, Princess of Wales. Born in London, William was educat ...
, who is followed in the line of succession by his eldest child, Prince George.


Demise of the Crown

Upon the death of the monarch, there is a demise (transfer) of the Crown: the late sovereign's heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further ceremony; hence arises the phrase " The King is dead. Long live the King". It is customary for the accession of the new monarch to be publicly by the governor general on behalf of the
Privy Council A privy council is a body that advice (constitutional), advises the head of state of a State (polity), state, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchy, monarchic government. The word "privy" means "private" or "secret"; thus, a pr ...
, which meets at
Rideau Hall Rideau Hall (officially Government House) is the official residence in Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian French: ) is the capital city A capital city or capital is the municipality holding primary status in a country, state, province, Dep ...

Rideau Hall
after the accession. An appropriate period of
mourning Mourning is the expression of an experience that is the consequence of an event in life involving loss, causing grief, occurring as a result of someone's death Death is the Irreversible process, irreversible cessation of all biologic ...

mourning
also follows, during which portraits of the recently deceased monarch are draped with black fabric and staff at government houses wear customary . The ''Manual of Official Procedure of the Government of Canada'' states the
prime minister A prime minister, premier or chief of cabinet is the head of the Cabinet (government), cabinet and the leader of the Minister (government), ministers in the Executive (government), executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary syst ...
is responsible for convening Parliament, tabling a resolution of loyalty and condolence from Parliament to the new monarch, and arranging for the motion to be seconded by the leader of the Official Opposition. The prime minister will then move to adjourn parliament. The
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (french: Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian public broadcaster for both radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio ...
keeps a regularly updated plan for a "broadcast of national importance" announcing the demise of a sovereign and covering the aftermath, during which all regular programming and advertising is cancelled and on-call commentators contribute to a 24-hour news mode. The day of the funeral is likely to be a public holiday. The new monarch is crowned in the United Kingdom in an ancient ritual, but one not necessary for a sovereign to reign. Under the federal ''Interpretation Act'', officials who hold a federal office under the Crown are not affected by the death of the monarch, nor are they required to take the
Oath of Allegiance An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a nationality, subject or citizen acknowledges a duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to a monarch or a country. In modern republics, oaths are sworn to the country in general, or to the country's consti ...
again. All references in federal legislation to previous monarchs, whether in the masculine (e.g. ''His Majesty'') or feminine (e.g. ''the Queen''), continue to mean the reigning sovereign of Canada, regardless of his or her gender. This is because, in common law, . After an individual ascends the throne, he or she usually continues to reign until death.


Legal aspects of succession

The relationship between the Commonwealth realms is such that any change to the rules of succession to their respective crowns requires the unanimous consent of all the realms. Succession is governed by statutes, such as the
Bill of Rights 1689 The Bill of Rights 1689 is an Act of the Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England from the 13th century until 1707 when it was replaced by the Parliament of Great Britain. Parliam ...
, the
Act of Settlement 1701 The Act of Settlement is an Acts of the Parliament of England, Act of the Parliament of England that settled the order of succession, succession to the English Monarchs, English and List of Irish monarchs, Irish crowns to only Protestants, whic ...
, and the
Acts of Union 1707 The Acts of Union ( gd, Achd an Aonaidh) were two Act of Parliament, Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act 1707 passed by the Parliament of Scotland. They put ...
. In 1936, King
Edward VIII Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972), later known as the Duke of Windsor, was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire and Emperor of India from 20 January ...
abdicated and any possible future descendants of his were excluded from the line of succession. The
British government ga, Rialtas a Shoilse gd, Riaghaltas a Mhòrachd , image = HM Government logo.svg , image_size = 220px , image2 = Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg , image_size2 = 180px , caption = Royal coat of arms of t ...
at the time, wishing for speed so as to avoid embarrassing debate in Dominion parliaments, suggested that the governments of the Dominions of the British Commonwealth—then
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of , Australia is the largest country by ...

Australia
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and over 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands. It is the ...

New Zealand
, the
Irish Free State The Irish Free State ( ga, Saorstát Éireann, , ; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a State (polity), state established in December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921. The treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independ ...
, the
Union of South Africa The Union of South Africa ( nl, Unie van Zuid-Afrika; af, Unie van Suid-Afrika; ) was the historical predecessor to the present-day South Africa, Republic of South Africa. It came into existence on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Briti ...
, and Canada—regard whoever was monarch of the UK to automatically be monarch of their respective Dominion. As with the other Dominion governments, the Canadian Cabinet, headed by Prime Minister
William Lyon Mackenzie King William Lyon Mackenzie King (December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950) was a Canadian statesman and politician who served as the tenth prime minister of Canada for three non-consecutive terms from 1921 to 1926, 1926 to 1930, and 1935 to 1948. A Li ...

William Lyon Mackenzie King
, refused to accept the idea and stressed that the laws of succession were part of Canadian law and, as the Statute of Westminster 1931 disallowed the UK from legislating for Canada, including in relation to succession, altering them required Canada's request and consent to the British legislation (
His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 (1 Edw. 8 & 1 Geo. 6 c. 3) is the Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that recognised and ratified the abdication of King Edward VIII and passed succession to his broth ...
) becoming part of Canadian law. Sir
Maurice Gwyer Sir Maurice Linford Gwyer, (25 April 1878 – 12 October 1952) was a British lawyer, judge, and academic administrator. He served as Vice-Chancellor of Delhi University from 1938 to 1950, and Chief Justice of India from 1937 to 1943). He is cr ...
, first parliamentary counsel in the UK, reflected this position, stating the Act of Settlement was a part of the law in each Dominion. Thus, Order in Council P.C. 3144 was issued, expressing the Cabinet's request and consent for His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 to become part of the laws of Canada and the Succession to the Throne Act 1937 gave parliamentary ratification to that action, together bringing the Act of Settlement and
Royal Marriages Act 1772 The Royal Marriages Act 1772 (12 Geo 3 c. 11) was an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of Great Britain which prescribed the conditions under which members of the British royal family could contract a valid marriage, in order to guard aga ...
into Canadian law. The latter was deemed by the Cabinet in 1947 to be part of Canadian law. The Department of External Affairs included all succession-related laws in its list of acts within Canadian law. The
Supreme Court of Canada The Supreme Court of Canada (SCC; french: Cour suprême du Canada, CSC) is the Supreme court, highest court in the Court system of Canada, judicial system of Canada. It comprises List of Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada, nine justices, wh ...

Supreme Court of Canada
declared unanimously in the 1981 Patriation Reference that the Bill of Rights 1689 is "undoubtedly in force as part of the law of Canada". Furthermore, in '' O'Donohue v. Canada'' (2003) the
Ontario Superior Court of Justice The Superior Court of Justice (French: ''Cour supérieure de justice'') is a superior court in Ontario. The Court sits in 52 locations across the province, including 17 Family court, Family Court locations, and consists of over 300 federally appo ...
found that the Act of Settlement 1701 is "part of the laws of Canada" and the rules of succession are "by necessity incorporated into the Constitution of Canada". Another ruling of the Ontario Superior Court, in 2014, echoed the 2003 case, stating that the Act of Settlement "is an imperial statute which ultimately became part of the law of Canada." Upon dismissing appeal of that case, the Court of Appeal of Ontario stated " e rules of succession are a part of the fabric of the constitution of Canada and incorporated into it". In a meeting of the Special Joint Committee on the Constitution during the process of patriating the Canadian constitution in 1981, John Munro (Canadian politician), John Munro asked then Minister of Justice (Canada), Minister of Justice Jean Chrétien about the "selective omissions" of the Succession to the Throne Act 1937, the Demise of the Crown Act 1901, the Seals Act, the Governor General's Act, and the Royal Style and Titles Act, 1953, from the schedule to the ''Constitution Act, 1982''. In response, Chrétien asserted that the schedule to the'' Constitution Act, 1982'', was not exhaustive, outlining that section 52(2) of the ''Constitution Act, 1982'' says " e Constitution of Canada includes... the Acts and orders referred to the schedule" and "[w]hen you use the word 'includes'... it means that if ever there is another thing related to the Canadian constitution as part of it, should have been there, or might have been there, it is covered. So we do not have to renumerate [sic] the ones that you are mentioning." In the same meeting, Deputy Attorney General Barry Strayer stated: "Clause 52(2) is not an exhaustive definition of the Constitution of Canada so that while we have certain things listed in the schedule which are clearly part of the constitution, that does not mean that there are not other things which are part of the constitution... [The schedule] is not an exhaustive list." In the 1991 publication ''Constitutional Change in the Commonwealth'', author Leslie Zines claimed that, though the succession to Canada's throne was outlined by common law and the Act of Settlement 1701, these were not part of the Canadian constitution, which "does not contain rules for succession to the throne." Richard Toporoski, writing three years later for the Monarchist League of Canada, stated, "there is no existing provision in our law, other than the Act of Settlement 1701, that provides that the King or Queen of Canada shall be the same person as the King or Queen of the United Kingdom. If the British law were to be changed and we did not change our law [...] the person provided for in the new law would become king or queen in at least some realms of the Commonwealth; Canada would continue on with the person who would have become monarch under the previous law." In 2011, Canada committed to the Perth Agreement with the other Commonwealth realms, which proposed changes to the rules governing succession to remove male preference and removal of disqualification arising from marriage to a Roman Catholic. As a result of the Perth Agreement, the Canadian Parliament passed the Succession to the Throne Act, 2013, which gave the country's assent to the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, Succession to the Crown Bill 2013, at that time proceeding in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. In dismissing a challenge to the law on the basis that a change to the succession in Canada would require unanimous consent of all provinces under section 41(a) of the ''Constitution Act, 1982'', Quebec Superior Court Justice Claude Bouchard ruled that Canada "did not have to change its laws nor its constitution for the British royal succession rules to be amended and effective" and Constitutional convention (political custom), constitutional convention committed Canada to having a line of succession symmetrical to those of other Commonwealth realms. The ruling was upheld by the Quebec Court of Appeal. The Supreme Court of Canada declined to hear an appeal in April 2020. Constitutional scholar Philippe Lagassé argues that, in light of the Succession to the Throne Act, 2013, and court rulings upholding that law, section 41(a) of the ''Constitution Act, 1982'', which requires a constitutional amendment passed with the unanimous consent of the provinces, applies only to the "office of the Queen", but not who holds that office, and that therefore "ending the principle of symmetry with the United Kingdom can be done with the general amending procedure, or even by parliament alone under section 44 of the ''Constitution Act, 1982''." Constitutional scholar Ted McWhinney has also argued that a future government of Canada could begin a process of phasing out the monarchy after the Death of Elizabeth II, death of Elizabeth II "quietly and without fanfare by simply failing legally to proclaim any successor to the Queen in relation to Canada". This would, he claimed, be a way of bypassing the need for a constitutional amendment that would require unanimous consent by the federal parliament and all the provincial legislatures. However, Ian Holloway, Dean of Law at the University of Western Ontario, criticized McWhinney's proposal for its ignorance of provincial input and opined that its implementation "would be contrary to the plain purpose of those who framed our system of government." Certain aspects of the succession rules have been challenged in the courts. For example, under the provisions of the Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701, Catholics are barred from succeeding to the throne; this prohibition has been upheld twice by Canadian courts, once in O'Donohue v Canada, 2003 and again in 2014.


Regency

Canada has no laws allowing for a regency, should the sovereign be a Minor (law), minor or debilitated; none have been passed by the Canadian Parliament and it was made clear by successive Cabinets since 1937 that the United Kingdom's Regency Acts, Regency Act had no applicability to Canada, as the Canadian Cabinet had not requested otherwise when the act was passed that year and again in 1943 and 1953. As the Letters Patent, 1947, 1947 Letters Patent issued by King George VI permit the governor general of Canada to exercise almost all of the monarch's powers in respect of Canada, the viceroy is expected to continue to act as the personal representative of the monarch, and not any regent, even if the monarch is a child or incapacitated. Lagassé states that the Letters Patent 1947 were apparently written to avoid the need for a Canadian regency act and "appear to give governors general the power to appoint their own successors", though this is a power that has not been utilized to date.


Foreign visits

The following state visits, state and official visits to foreign countries have been made by the monarch as the sovereign of Canada:


Federal and provincial aspects

Canada's monarchy was established at Confederation, when its executive government and authority were declared (in section 9 of the Constitution Act, 1867) to continue and be vested in the monarch. Although Canada is a federation, the Canadian monarchy is unitary throughout all jurisdictions in the country, the sovereignty of the different administrations being passed on through the overreaching Crown itself as a part of the executive, legislative, and judicial operations in each of the federal and provincial spheres and the headship of state being a part of all equally. The Crown thus links the various governments into a federal state, though it is simultaneously also "divided" into eleven legal jurisdictions, or eleven "crowns"—one federal and ten provincial—with the monarch taking on a distinct legal persona in each. As such, the constitution instructs that any change to the position of the monarch or his or her representatives in Canada requires the consent of the Senate of Canada, Senate, the House of Commons of Canada, House of Commons, and the legislative assemblies of all the provinces. The governor general is appointed by the monarch on the advice of his federal prime minister and the lieutenant governors are appointed by the governor general on the advice of the federal prime minister. The commissioners of Canada's territories are appointed by the federal Governor-in-Council, at the recommendation of the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (Canada), Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development; but, as the territories are not sovereign entities, the commissioners are not personal representatives of the sovereign. The Advisory Committee on Vice-Regal Appointments, which may seek input from the relevant premier and provincial or territorial community, proposes candidates for appointment as governor general, lieutenant governor, and commissioner.


Personification of the Canadian state

As the living embodiment of
the Crown The Crown is the state (polity), state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions (such as the Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories, overseas territories, Provinces and territorie ...

the Crown
, the sovereign is regarded as the personification of the Canadian State (polity), state and, as such, must, along with his or her viceregal representatives, "remain strictly neutral in political terms". The person of the reigning sovereign thus holds two distinct personas in constant coexistence: that of a natural-born human being and that of the state as accorded to him or her through law; the Crown and the monarch are "conceptually divisible but legally indivisible ... e office cannot exist without the office-holder", so, even in private, the monarch is always "on duty". The terms ''the state'', ''the Crown'', ''the Crown in Right of Canada'', ''His Majesty the King in Right of Canada'' (french: Sa Majesté le Roi du chef du Canada), and similar are all synonymous and the monarch's legal personality is sometimes referred to simply as ''Canada''. As such, the king or queen of Canada is the employer of all government officials and staff (including the viceroys, judges, members of the Canadian Forces, police officers, and Parliament of Canada, parliamentarians), the guardian of foster children (''Crown wards''), as well as the owner of all state lands (''Crown land''), buildings and equipment (''Crown held property''), state owned companies (''Crown corporations of Canada, Crown corporations''), and the copyright for all government publications (''Crown copyright''). This is all in his or her position as sovereign, and not as an individual; all such property is held by the Crown in perpetuity and cannot be sold by the sovereign without the proper advice and consent of his or her ministers. The monarch is at the apex of the Canadian order of precedence and, as the embodiment of the state, is also the focus of oaths of allegiance, required of many of the aforementioned employees of the Crown, as well as by new citizenship, citizens, as by the Oath of citizenship (Canada), Oath of Citizenship. Allegiance is given in Reciprocal (grammar), reciprocation to the sovereign's Coronation Oath, wherein he or she promises "to govern the Peoples of ... Canada ... according to their respective laws and customs".


Head of state

Although it has been argued that the term ''head of state'' is a republican one inapplicable in a constitutional monarchy such as Canada, where the monarch is the embodiment of the state and thus cannot be head of it, the sovereign is regarded by official government sources, judges, constitutional scholars, and pollsters as the head of state, while the governor general and lieutenant governors are all only representatives of, and thus equally subordinate to, that figure. Some governors general, their staff, government publications, and constitutional scholars like Ted McWhinney and C. E. S. Franks have, however, referred to the position of governor general as that of Canada's head of state, though sometimes qualifying the assertion with ''de facto'' or ''effective''; Franks has hence recommended that the governor general be named officially as the head of state. Still others view the role of head of state as being shared by both the sovereign and her viceroys. Since 1927, governors general have been received on state visits abroad as though they were heads of state. Officials at Rideau Hall have attempted to use the Letters Patent, 1947 as justification for describing the governor general as head of state. However, the document makes no such distinction, nor does it effect an abdication of the sovereign's powers in favour of the viceroy, as it only allows the governor general to "act on The Queen's behalf". Dr. D. Michael Jackson, former Chief of Protocol of Saskatchewan, argued that Rideau Hall had been attempting to "recast" the governor general as head of state since the 1970s and doing so preempted both the Queen and all of the lieutenant governors. This caused not only "precedence wars" at provincial events (where the governor general usurped the lieutenant governor's proper spot as most senior official in attendance) and Governor General Adrienne Clarkson to accord herself precedence before the Queen at a national occasion, but also constitutional issues by "unbalancing ... the federalist symmetry". This has been regarded as both a natural evolution and as a dishonest effort to alter the constitution without public scrutiny. In a poll conducted by Ipsos-Reid following the 2008–2009 Canadian parliamentary dispute#Governor General prorogues parliament, first prorogation of the 40th parliament on 4 December 2008, it was found that 42 per cent of the sample group thought the prime minister was head of state, while 33 per cent felt it was the governor general. Only 24 per cent named the Queen as head of state, a number up from 2002, when the results of an EKOS Research Associates survey showed only 5 per cent of those polled knew the Queen was head of state (69 per cent answered that it was the prime minister).


Federal constitutional role

Constitution of Canada, Canada's constitution is based on the Westminster system, Westminster parliamentary model, wherein the role of the King is both legal and practical, but not political. The sovereign is vested with all the powers of state, collectively known as the royal prerogative, leading the populace to be considered subjects of the Crown. However, as the sovereign's power stems from People#In law, the people and the monarch is a Constitutional monarchy, constitutional one, he or she does not rule alone, as in an absolute monarchy. Instead, the Crown is regarded as a corporation sole, with the monarch being the centre of a construct in which the power of the whole is shared by multiple institutions of government—the executive, Legislature, legislative, and Judiciary, judicial—acting under the sovereign's authority, which is entrusted for exercise by the politicians (the elected and appointed parliamentarians and the ministers of the Crown generally drawn from among them) and the Court system of Canada, judges and Justice of the Peace#Canada, justices of the peace. The monarchy has thus been described as the underlying principle of Canada's institutional unity and the monarch as a "guardian of constitutional freedoms" whose "job is to ensure that the political process remains intact and is allowed to function." The Great Seal of Canada "signifies the power and authority of the Crown flowing from the sovereign to [the] parliamentary government" and is applied to state documents such as royal proclamations and letters patent commissioning cabinet ministers, senators, judges, and other senior government officials. The "lending" of royal authority to the Cabinet is illustrated by the great seal being entrusted by the governor general, the official keeper of the seal, to the Minister of Innovation, Science, and Economic Development, who is ''ex officio'' the Registrar General of Canada. Upon a change of government, the seal is temporarily returned to the governor general and then "lent" to the next incoming registrar general. The Crown is the pinnacle of the Canadian Forces, with the constitution placing the monarch in the position of Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces, commander-in-chief of the entire force, though the governor general carries out the duties attached to the position and also bears the title of ''Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada''. Further, included in Canada's constitution are the various treaties between the Crown and Canadian First Nations in Canada, First Nations, Inuit, and Métis people (Canada), Métis peoples, who view these documents as agreements directly and only between themselves and the reigning monarch, illustrating the The Canadian Crown and First Nations, Inuit and Métis, relationship between sovereign and aboriginals.


Executive (King-in-Council)

The government of Canada—formally termed ''His Majesty's Government (term), His Majesty's Government''—is defined by the constitution as the King acting on the advice (constitutional), advice of his Privy Council; what is technically known as the ''King's Privy Council for Canada#King-in-Council, King-in-Council'', or sometimes the ''Governor-in-Council'', referring to the governor general as the King's stand-in, though, a few tasks must be specifically performed by, or bills that require assent from, the King. One of the main duties of the Crown is to "ensure that a democratically elected government is always in place," which means appointing a prime minister to thereafter head the Cabinet of Canada, Cabinet—a committee of the Privy Council charged with advising the Crown on the exercise of the royal prerogative. The monarch is informed by his viceroy of the swearing-in and resignation of prime ministers and other members of the ministry, remains fully briefed through regular communications from his Canadian ministers, and holds audience with them whenever possible. By convention, the content of these communications and meetings remains confidential so as to protect the impartiality of the monarch and his representative. The appropriateness and viability of this tradition in an age of social media has been questioned. In the construct of constitutional monarchy and responsible government, the ministerial advice tendered is typically binding, meaning the monarch ''reigns'' but does not ''rule'', the Cabinet ruling "in trust" for the monarch. This has been the case in Canada since the Treaty of Paris (1763), Treaty of Paris ended the reign of the territory's last absolute monarch, King Louis XV of France. However, the royal prerogative belongs to the Crown and not to any of the ministers and the royal and viceroyal figures may unilaterally use these powers in exceptional constitutional crisis situations (an exercise of the reserve powers), thereby allowing the monarch to make sure "that the government conducts itself in compliance with the constitution." Use of the royal prerogative in this manner was seen when King–Byng affair, the Governor General refused his Prime Minister's advice to dissolve parliament in 1926 and when, in 2008, the Governor General took some hours to decide whether or not to accept her Prime Minister's advice to prorogue parliament to avoid a vote of non-confidence. The prerogative powers have also been used numerous times in the provinces. The royal prerogative further extends to foreign affairs, including the ratification of treaties, alliances, international agreements, and Declaration of war by Canada, declarations of war, the accreditation of Canadian high commissioners and ambassadors and receipt of similar diplomats from foreign states, and the issuance of Canadian passports, which remain the sovereign's property. It also includes the creation of Dynastic order of knighthood, dynastic and Order (honour), national Orders, decorations, and medals of Canada, honours, though only the latter are established on official ministerial advice.


Parliament (King-in-Parliament)

All laws in Canada are the monarch's and the sovereign is one of the three components of the Parliament of Canada—formally called the ''
King-in-Parliament The King-in-Parliament (or, during the reign of a female monarch, Queen-in-Parliament), sometimes referred neutrally as the Crown-in-Parliament, is a technical term of constitutional law in the Commonwealth realms that refers to the Crown in its ...
''—but the monarch and viceroy do not participate in the legislative process save for
royal assent Royal assent is the method by which a monarch formally approves an act of the legislature, either directly or through an official acting on the monarch's behalf. In some jurisdictions, royal assent is equivalent to promulgation, while in other ...
, which is necessary for a bill to be enacted as law. Either figure or a delegate may perform this task and the constitution allows the viceroy the option of deferring assent to the sovereign. The governor general is further responsible for summoning the House of Commons, while either the viceroy or monarch can Prorogation in Canada, prorogue and dissolution of Parliament, dissolve the legislature, after which the governor general usually Writ of election, calls for a general election. The new parliamentary session is marked by either the monarch, governor general, or some other representative reading the Speech from the throne, Speech from the Throne. Members of Parliament must recite the Oath of Allegiance before they may take their seat. Further, the Official Opposition (Canada), official opposition is traditionally dubbed as ''Loyal opposition, His Majesty's Loyal Opposition'', illustrating that, while its members are opposed to the incumbent government, they remain loyal to the sovereign (as personification of the state and its authority). The monarch does not have the prerogative to impose and collect new taxes without the authorization of an Act of Parliament. The King's Consent, consent of the Crown must, however, be obtained before either of the houses of Parliament may even debate a bill affecting the sovereign's prerogatives or interests and no act of Parliament binds the King or his rights unless the act states that it does.


Courts (King-on-the-Bench)

The sovereign is responsible for rendering justice for all his subjects and is thus traditionally deemed the ''fount of justice'' and his position in the Court system of Canada, Canadian courts formally dubbed the ''King on the Bench''. The Arms of Canada, Arms of His Majesty in Right of Canada are traditionally displayed in Canadian courtrooms, as is a portrait of the sovereign. The monarch does not personally rule in judicial cases; this function of the royal prerogative is instead performed in trust and in the King's name by officers of His Majesty's court. Common law holds the notion that the sovereign "Sovereign immunity, can do no wrong": the monarch cannot be prosecuted in his own courts—judged by himself—for criminal offences. Civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits against the King-in-Council) are permitted, but lawsuits against the monarch personally are not cognizable. In international cases, as a sovereign and under established principles of international law, the King of Canada is not subject to suit in foreign courts without his express consent. Within the royal prerogative is also the granting of immunity from prosecution, mercy, and Pardon#Canada, pardoning offences against the Crown. Since 1878, the prerogative of pardon has always been exercised upon the recommendation of ministers.


Cultural role


Royal presence and duties

Members of the royal family have been present in Canada since the late 18th century, their reasons including participating in military manoeuvres, serving as the federal viceroy, or undertaking official royal tours. A prominent feature of the latter are numerous royal walkabouts, the tradition of which was initiated in 1939 by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, Queen Elizabeth when she was in Ottawa and broke from the royal party to speak directly to gathered veterans. Usually important milestones, anniversaries, or celebrations of Culture of Canada, Canadian culture will warrant the presence of the monarch, while other royals will be asked to participate in lesser occasions. A #Federal residences and royal household, household to assist and tend to the monarch forms part of the royal party. ''Official duties'' involve the sovereign List of state and official visits by Canada, representing the Canadian state at home or abroad, or her relations as members of the #royal family and house, royal family participating in government organized ceremonies either in Canada or elsewhere; sometimes these individuals are employed in asserting Canada's sovereignty over its territories. The advice of the Canadian Cabinet is the impetus for royal participation in any Canadian event, though, at present, the Chief of Protocol and his staff in the Department of Canadian Heritage are, as part of the State Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Program, responsible for orchestrating any official events in or for Canada that involve the royal family. Conversely, ''unofficial duties'' are performed by royal family members on behalf of Canadian organizations of which they may be Patronage, patrons, through their attendance at charity events, visiting with members of the Canadian Forces as colonel-in-chief, or marking certain key anniversaries. The invitation and expenses associated with these undertakings are usually borne by the associated organization. In 2005 members of the royal family were present at a total of 76 Canadian engagements, as well as several more through 2006 and 2007. Apart from Canada, the King and other members of the royal family regularly perform public duties in the other fourteen Commonwealth realms in which the King is head of state. This situation, however, can mean the monarch and/or members of the royal family will be promoting one nation and not another; a situation that has been met with criticism.


Symbols, associations, and awards

The main symbol of the monarchy is the sovereign himself, described as "the personal expression of the Crown in Canada," and his image is thus used to signify Canadian sovereignty and government authority—his image, for instance, appearing on Canadian dollar, currency, and his portrait in government buildings. The sovereign is further both mentioned in and the subject of songs, loyal toasts, and salutes. A royal cypher, appearing on buildings and official Seal (device), seals, or a crown, seen on provincial and Coat of Arms of Canada, national coats of arms, as well as police force and Canadian Forces regimental and maritime badges and rank insignia, is also used to illustrate the monarchy as the locus of authority, the latter without referring to any specific monarch. Since the days of King Louis XIV, the monarch is the Fount of honour, fount of all Orders, decorations, and medals of Canada, honours in Canada and the orders, decorations, and medals form "an integral element of the Crown." Hence, the insignia and medallions for these awards bear a crown, cypher, and/or portrait of the monarch. Similarly, Canadian Heraldic Authority, the country's heraldic authority was created by the Queen and, operating under the authority of the governor general, grants new coats of arms, flags, and Heraldic badge, badges in Canada. Use of the royal crown in such symbols is a gift from the monarch showing royal support and/or association, and requires her approval before being added. Members of the royal family also act as ceremonial Colonel-in-Chief, colonels-in-chief, Commodore-in-Chief, commodores-in-chief, Captain general, captains-general, Air Commodore-in-Chief, air commodores-in-chief, General (Canada), generals, and Admiral (Canada), admirals of various elements of the Canadian Forces, reflecting The Canadian Crown and the Canadian Forces, the Crown's relationship with the country's military through participation in events both at home and abroad. The monarch also serves as the Commissioner-in-Chief, Prince Charles as Honorary Commissioner, and Prince Edward as Honorary Deputy Commissioner of the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; french: Gendarmerie royale du Canada; french: GRC, label=none), commonly known in English as the Mounties (and colloquially in French as ) is the federal police, federal and national police service of ...

Royal Canadian Mounted Police
. A number of Canadian civilian organizations have association with the monarchy, either through their being founded via a Royal charter#Canada, royal charter, having been granted List of Canadian organizations with royal prefix, the right to use the prefix ''royal'' before their name, or because at least one member of the royal family serves as a Patronage, patron. In addition to The Prince's Charities#The Prince's Trust Canada (formerly The Prince's Charities Canada), The Prince's Charities Canada, established by Charles, Prince of Wales, some other charities and volunteer organizations have also been founded as gifts to, or in honour of, some of Canada's monarchs or members of the royal family, such as the Victorian Order of Nurses (a gift to Queen Victoria for her Diamond Jubilee#Commonwealth Realms/British Empire, Diamond Jubilee in 1897), the Canadian Cancer Fund (set up in honour of King George V's Silver Jubilee#Silver Jubilees in the British Empire and Commonwealth Realms, Silver Jubilee in 1935), and the Queen Elizabeth II Fund to Aid in Research on the Diseases of Children. A number of List of Canadian awards, awards in Canada are likewise issued in the name of previous or present members of the royal family. Further, organizations will give commemorative gifts to members of the royal family to mark a visit or other important occasion. All Canadian coins bear the image of the monarch with an inscription ''Dei Gratia Regina'', a Latin phrase for By the Grace of God, Queen.


Significance to Canadian identity

In his 1990 book, ''Continental Divide: the Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada,'' Seymour Martin Lipset argues that the presence of the monarchy in Canada helps distinguish Canadian identity from American identity. Since at least the 1930s, supporters of the Crown have held the opinion that the Canadian monarch is also one of the rare unified elements of Canadian society, focusing both "the historic consciousness of the nation" and various forms of patriotism and national love "[on] the point around which coheres the nation's sense of a continuing personality". Former Governor General Vincent Massey articulated in 1967 that the monarchy "is part of ourselves. It is linked in a very special way with our national life. It stands for qualities and institutions which mean Canada to every one of us and which for all our differences and all our variety have kept Canada Canadian." But, according to Arthur Bousfield and Gary Toffoli, Canadians were, through the late 1960s to the 2000s, encouraged by the federal government to "neglect, ignore, forget, reject, debase, suppress, even hate, and certainly treat as foreign what their parents and grandparents, whether spiritual or blood, regarded as the basis of Canadian nationhood, autonomy, and history", including the monarchy. Former Governor General Roland Michener said in 1970 that anti-monarchists claimed the Canadian Crown is foreign and incompatible with Canada's multicultural society, which the government promoted as a Canadian identifier, and Lawrence Martin (journalist), Lawrence Martin called in 2007 for Canada to become a republic in order to "re-brand the nation". However, Michener also stated, "[the monarchy] is our own by inheritance and choice, and contributes much to our distinctive Canadian identity and our chances of independent survival amongst the republics of North and South America." Journalist Christina Blizzard emphasized in 2009 that the monarchy "made [Canada] a haven of peace and justice for immigrants from around the world", while Michael Valpy contended in 2009 that the Crown's nature permitted non-conformity amongst its subjects, thereby opening the door to multiculturalism and pluralism.


Royal family and house

The Canadian royal family is the group of people who are relatively closely related to the country's monarch and, as such, belonging to the House of Windsor. There is no legal definition of who is or is not a member of the royal family, though the Government of Canada maintains a list of immediate family members, and stipulates that those in the direct line of succession who bear the style (manner of address), style of ''Royal Highness'' (french: Altesse Royale) are subjects of, and owe their allegiance specifically to, the reigning king or queen of Canada. Unlike in the United Kingdom, the monarch is the only member of the royal family with a Style and title of the Canadian sovereign, title established through Canadian law and is styled by convention as ''His/Her Majesty'', as would be a queen consort. Otherwise, the remaining family members are, as a courtesy title, courtesy, styled and titled as they are in the UK, according to
letters patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) (plurale tantum, always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, President (government title), president or other head of state, genera ...
issued there. Though, in Canada, these are also translated to French. They are distant relations of the Monarchy of Belgium#Royal family, Belgian, Danish royal family, Danish, Greek royal family, Greek, Norwegian royal family, Norwegian, Spanish royal family, Spanish, and Swedish royal family, Swedish royal families and, given the shared nature of the Canadian monarch, most are also of members of the British royal family. However, because Canada and the UK are independent of one another, it is inappropriate to refer in the Canadian context to the family of the monarch as the "British royal family"—as is frequently done by Canadian and other media—and there exist some differences between the official lists of each. Further, in addition to the five Canadian citizens in the royal family, the sovereign is considered Canadian, and those among his relations who do not meet the requirements of Canadian nationality law, Canadian citizenship law are considered Canadian, which entitles them to Diplomatic missions of Canada, Canadian consular assistance and the protection of the King's Canadian Forces, armed forces of Canada when they are in need of protection or aid outside of the Commonwealth realms, as well as to substantive appointment to Canadian orders or receipt of Canadian decorations. Beyond legalities, members of the royal family have, on occasion, been said by the media and non-governmental organizations to be Canadian, have declared themselves to be Canadian, and some past members have lived in Canada for extended periods as viceroy or for other reasons. According to the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust, Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn—due to his having lived in Canada between 1791 and 1800, and fathering Queen Victoria—is the "ancestor of the modern Canadian Royal Family". Nonetheless, the concept of the Canadian royal family did not emerge until after the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, when Canadian officials only began to overtly consider putting the principles of Canada's new status as an independent kingdom into effect. At first, the monarch was the only member of the royal family to carry out public ceremonial duties solely on the advice of Canadian ministers; King
Edward VIII Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972), later known as the Duke of Windsor, was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire and Emperor of India from 20 January ...
became the first to do so when in July 1936 he dedicated the Canadian National Vimy Memorial in France. Over the decades, however, the monarch's children, grandchildren, cousins, and their respective spouses began to also perform functions at the direction of the Canadian Crown-in-Council, representing the monarch within Canada or abroad. But it was not until October 2002 when the term ''Canadian royal family'' was first used publicly and officially by one of its members: in a speech to the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut, Nunavut legislature at its opening, Queen Elizabeth II stated: "I am proud to be the first member of the Canadian royal family to be greeted in Canada's newest territory." Princess Anne used it again when speaking at Rideau Hall in 2014, as did the now King Charles in Halifax the same year. Also in 2014, then-Premier of Saskatchewan Brad Wall called Prince Edward a member of the Canadian royal family. By 2011, both Canadian and British media were referring to "Canada's royal family" or the "Canadian royal family". The press frequently follows the movements of the royal family, and can, at times, affect the group's popularity, which has fluctuated over the years. Mirroring the mood in the United Kingdom, the family's lowest approval was during the mid-1980s to 1990s, when the children of the monarch were enduring their divorces and were the targets of negative tabloid (newspaper format), tabloid reporting.


Federal residences and royal household

A number of buildings across Canada are reserved by the Crown for the use of the monarch and his viceroys. Each is called ''Government House'', but may be customarily known by some specific name. The sovereign's and governor general's official residences are
Rideau Hall Rideau Hall (officially Government House) is the official residence in Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian French: ) is the capital city A capital city or capital is the municipality holding primary status in a country, state, province, Dep ...

Rideau Hall
in Ottawa and the Citadelle of Quebec, Citadelle in Quebec City. Each of these royal seats holds pieces from the Crown Collection. Further, though neither was ever used for their intended purpose, Hatley Castle in British Columbia was purchased in 1940 by King George VI in Right of Canada to use as his home during the course of the Second World War and the Emergency Government Headquarters, built in 1959 at CFS Carp and decommissioned in 1994, included a residential apartment for the sovereign or governor general in the case of a nuclear attack on Ottawa. Monarchs and members of their family have also owned in a private capacity homes and land in Canada: King
Edward VIII Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972), later known as the Duke of Windsor, was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire and Emperor of India from 20 January ...
owned Bedingfield Ranch, near Pekisko, Alberta; John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, the Marquess of Lorne and Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, Princess Louise owned a cottage on the Cascapédia River in Quebec; and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, Princess Margaret owned Portland Island between its gifting to her by the Crown in Right of British Columbia in 1958 and her death in 2002, though she offered it back to the Crown on permanent loan in 1966 and the island and surrounding waters eventually became Princess Margaret Marine Park. To assist the King in carrying out his official duties on behalf of Canada, he appoints various people to his Canadian Household#Historical households, household. Along with the Canadian Secretary to the King, the monarch's entourage includes two ladies-in-waiting, the Equerry#Canada, Canadian Equerry-in-Waiting to the King, the King's Police Officer, the King's Honorary Physician, the King's Honorary Dental Surgeon, and the King's Honorary Nursing Officer—the latter three being drawn from the Canadian Forces. Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, also has a Canadian private secretary and his wife, Sophie, Countess of Wessex, a lady-in-waiting. Royal Canadian Air Force VIP aircraft, Air transportation for the royal family is provided by the Royal Canadian Air Force 412 Transport Squadron. There are three Household Division, household regiments specifically attached to the royal household—the Governor General's Foot Guards, the Governor General's Horse Guards, and the Canadian Grenadier Guards. There are also three chapels royal, all in Ontario: Mohawk Chapel in Brantford, Ontario, Brantford; Christ Church Royal Chapel, near Deseronto; and St Catherine's Chapel in Massey College, in Toronto. Though not officially a royal chapel, St. Bartholomew's Anglican Church (Ottawa), St Bartholomew's Anglican Church, located across MacKay Street from Rideau Hall, is regularly used by governors general and their families and sometimes by the sovereign and other members of the royal family, as well as by viceregal household staff, their families, and members of the Governor General's Foot Guards, for whom the church also serves as a regimental chapel.


Security

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is tasked with providing security to the sovereign, the governor general (starting from when he or she is made -elect, governor general-designate), and other members of the royal family; as outlined in the RCMP Regulations, the force "has a duty to protect individuals designated by the Minister of Public Safety, including certain members of the royal family when visiting." The RCMP's provision of service is determined based on threat and risk assessment, the seniority of the individual in terms of precedence, and, for members of the royal family, the nature of the royal tour—ie an official tour on behalf of the Queen or a working or private visit. The governor general receives round-the-clock security from the Governor General Protection Detail, part of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police#Personal Protection Group, Personal Protection Group, based at Rideau Hall.


History

The Canadian monarchy can trace its ancestral lineage back to the List of kings of the Angles, kings of the Angles and the early List of Scottish monarchs, Scottish kings and through the centuries since the claims of King Henry VII of England, Henry VII in 1497 and King Francis I of France, Francis I in 1534; both being blood relatives of the current Canadian monarch. Former Prime Minister Stephen Harper said of the Crown that it "links us all together with the majestic past that takes us back to the Tudors, the Plantagenets, Magna Carta, ''habeas corpus'', petition of rights, and English common law." Though the first French and British colonizers of Canada interpreted the hereditary nature of some indigenous North American chieftainships as a form of monarchy, it is generally accepted that Canada has been a territory of a monarch or a monarchy in its own right only since the establishment of the French Canada (New France), colony of Canada in the early 16th century; according to historian Jacques Monet, the Canadian Crown is one of the few that have survived through uninterrupted succession since before its inception. After the Canadian colonies of France were, via war and treaties, ceded to the British Crown, and the population was greatly expanded by United Empire Loyalists, those loyal to George III fleeing north from persecution during and following the American Revolution, British North America was in 1867 Confederation of Canada, confederated by Queen Victoria to form Canada as a kingdom in its own right. By the end of the First World War, the increased fortitude of
Canadian nationalism Canadian nationalism seeks to promote the unity, independence, and well-being of Canada and the Canadian people. Canadian nationalism has been a significant political force since the 19th century and has typically manifested itself as seeking t ...
inspired the country's leaders to push for greater independence from the King in his British Council, resulting in the creation of the uniquely Canadian monarchy through the Statute of Westminster, which was granted royal assent in 1931. Only five years later, Canada had three successive kings in the space of one year, with the death of George V, the Edward VIII abdication crisis, accession and abdication of
Edward VIII Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972), later known as the Duke of Windsor, was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire and Emperor of India from 20 January ...
, and his replacement by George VI. The latter became in 1939 the first reigning monarch of Canada to tour the country (though previous kings had done so before their accession). As the ease of travel increased, visits by the sovereign and other royal family members became more frequent and involved, seeing Queen Elizabeth II officiate at various moments of importance in the nation's history, one being when she proclaimed the country to be fully independent, via Constitution Act, 1982, constitutional patriation, in 1982. That act is said to have entrenched the monarchy in Canada, due to the stringent requirements, as laid out in the amending formula, that must be met in order to alter the monarchy in any way. Through the 1960s and 1970s, the rise of Quebec nationalism and changes in Canadian identity created an atmosphere where the purpose and role of the monarchy Debate on the monarchy in Canada, came into question. Some references to the monarch and the monarchy were removed from the public eye and moves were made by the federal government to constitutionally alter the Crown's place and role in Canada, first by explicit legal amendments and later by subtle attrition impelled by elements of the public service, the Cabinet, and governors general and their staff alike. But, provincial and federal ministers, along with loyal Monarchism in Canada, national citizen's organizations, ensured that the system remained the same in essence. By 2002, the royal tour and associated fêtes for Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II#Canada, the Queen's Golden Jubilee proved popular with Canadians across the country, though Canada's first republican organization since the 1830s was also founded that year. Celebrations took place across the country to mark Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, the Queen's Diamond Jubilee in 2012, the first such event in Canada since that for Victoria in 1897. On 9 September 2015, she became the second-longest reigning monarch in Canadian history (preceded only by King Louis XIV of France, Louis XIV); events were organized to celebrate her as the "longest-reigning sovereign in Canada's modern era." Charles, Prince of Wales, Prince Charles represented his mother, the Queen, two years later, at the main events in Ottawa recognizing the 150th anniversary of Canada, 150th anniversary of Confederation. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Queen expressed her support for all Canadians and thanks to those who were caring for the vulnerable and providing essential services. As the pandemic waned into 2022, celebrations were mounted around the country and throughout the year to mark Platinum Jubilee of Elizabeth II#Canada, the Queen's Platinum Jubilee; the first-ever such event in Canadian history. It was also, though, the first time since at least Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee in 1887 that the federal Cabinet did not advise the Crown to issue an associated commemorative medal. In response, six provinces produced their own Queen Elizabeth II Platinum Jubilee Medal, Platinum Jubilee medals; another first. From 2021 into 2022, the subject of Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, reconciliation with Canada's indigenous peoples came to the forefront of the public consciousness, particularly in regard to Canadian Indian residential school system, residential schools. Statues of Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II in Winnipeg were vandalized. On the first National Day for Truth and Reconciliation, Elizabeth made a public statement, saying she "joins with all Canadians [...] to reflect on the painful history that indigenous peoples endured in residential schools in Canada and on the work that remains to heal and to continue to build an inclusive society." In 2021, the Queen appointed Mary Simon as the first indigenous governor general in Canadian history. Queen Elizabeth II passed away on 8 September 2022 and was succeeded by her eldest son, who took the regnal name
Charles III Charles III (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is King of the United Kingdom and the 14 other Commonwealth realms. He was the longest-serving heir apparent and Prince of Wales and, at age 73, became the oldest person to a ...
. The Queen's last public message was sent on 7 September to Canadians across the country, in the aftermath of the 2022 Saskatchewan stabbings. stating in it she "mourn[s] with all Canadians at this tragic time". Immediately following a formal meeting of the King's Privy Council for Canada, the Proclamation of accession of Charles III#Canada, proclamation of the new king took place on 10 September, in a ceremony at
Rideau Hall Rideau Hall (officially Government House) is the official residence in Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian French: ) is the capital city A capital city or capital is the municipality holding primary status in a country, state, province, Dep ...

Rideau Hall
that included heraldic trumpeting, a 21-gun salute, and a moment of remembrance for Queen Elizabeth II.


Public understanding

Commentators have in the late 20th and early 21st centuries stated that contemporary Canadians had and have a poor understanding of the Canadian monarchy; something the Monarchist League of Canada (MLC) claims opponents of the monarchy exacerbate by spreading disinformation and then take advantage of. Michael D Jackson wrote in his book ''The Crown and Canadian Federalism'' that this is part of a wider ignorance about Canadian civics and, while David Smith researched for his 1995 book ''The Invisible Crown'', he found it difficult to "find anyone who could talk knowledgeably about the subject". Former Governor General Adrienne Clarkson said there is "an abysmal lack of knowledge about the system" and Senator Lowell Murray wrote in 2003: "The Crown has become irrelevant to most Canadians' understanding of our system of Government", which he attributed to the "fault of successive generations of politicians, of an educational system that has never given the institution due study, and of past viceregal incumbents themselves". These comments were echoed by teacher and author Nathan Tidridge, who asserted that, beginning in the 1960s, the role of the Crown disappeared from provincial education curricula, as the general subject of civics came to receive less attention. He said Canadians are being "educated to be illiterate, ambivalent, or even hostile toward our constitutional monarchy". The MLC agreed, stating Canada has "an educational system which unfortunately often fails to provide comprehensive knowledge of Canada’s constitution." Michael Valpy also pointed to the fact that "The crown's role in the machinery of Canada's constitutional monarchy rarely sees daylight. Only a handful of times in our history has it been subjected to glaring sunshine, unfortunately resulting in a black hole of public understanding as to how it works." He later iterated: "the public's attention span on the constitutional intricacies of the monarchy is clinically short". John Pepall argued in 1990 that a "Liberal-inspired republican misconception of the role" of governor general had taken root, though the Conservative government headed by Brian Mulroney exacerbated the matter. The position of prime minister has simultaneously undergone, with encouragement from its occupants, what has been described as a "presidentialization", to the point that its incumbents publicly outshine the actual head of state. Additionally, it has been theorized the monarchy is so prevalent in Canada—by way of all manner of symbols, place names, royal tours, etc.—that Canadians fail to take note of it; the monarchy "functions like a tasteful wallpaper pattern in Canada: enjoyable in an absent-minded way, but so ubiquitous as to be almost invisible". David S. Donovan feels that Canadians mostly consider the monarch and her representatives as purely ceremonial and symbolic figures. It was argued by Alfred Neitsch that this undermined the Crown's legitimacy as a check and balance in the governmental system, a situation Helen Forsey (daughter of Canadian constitutional expert Eugene Forsey) said prime ministers take advantage of, portraying themselves as the embodiment of popular democracy and the reserve powers of the Crown as illegitimate. In the 2010s, a "growing interest in the Crown and its prerogatives" was observed, as evidenced by "a burst of articles, books and conferences". This was attributed to the coincidental occurrence of publicly prominent events over a number of years, including the 2008–09 Canadian parliamentary dispute, 2008 prorogation dispute; an increased use of royal symbols as directed by the Cabinet while headed by Stephen Harper, including two consecutive royal tours; court cases focusing on the Oath of Citizenship; and increasingly active governors. Smith and Philippe Lagassé noted in early 2016 that post-secondary students were giving more focus to the subject of the Crown.


Debate

To date, outside of academic circles, there has been little national debate on the monarchy. The position of monarch in Canada is highly protected by the ''Constitution Act, 1982'' (which mandates that any major constitutional amendment, such as any change to the monarchy, requires unanimous consent of the Senate, the House of Commons, and all ten provincial parliaments), and treaties between the Crown and Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples that play a role in entrenching the monarchy. Canada has two special-interest groups representing the debate, who occasionally argue the issue in the media: the Monarchist League of Canada (MLC) and Citizens for a Canadian Republic. There are also other organizations that support and advocate the monarchy, such as the Institute for the Study of the Crown in Canada, the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust, the Friends of the Canadian Crown, Canadian Friends of the Royal Family, the Orange Order in Canada, and the United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada. Out of Canada's four most prominent political parties, neither the Liberal Party of Canada, Liberal Party nor the Conservative Party of Canada, Conservative Party are officially in favour of abolishing the monarchy (the Conservative Party cite support for constitutional monarchy as a founding principle in its policy declaration) and the New Democratic Party has no official position on the role of the Crown. Only some members of parliament belonging to these parties and the leaders of the Bloc Québécois have made any statements suggesting abolition of the monarchy. Debate on the monarchy in Canada#Polls, Opinion polls on the Canadian monarchy have been regularly conducted since the 1990s. An analysis of these polls in 2008 highlighted an increased disaffection with the monarchy, albeit with internal contradictions in specific polling results; with some criticizing the polling question for using "inconsistent and sometimes ambiguous wording." Both monarchists and republicans agree the populace's general lack of understanding about the monarchy affects opinions. The idea of a uniquely Canadian monarch, either one descended from the House of Windsor or coming from a First Nations royal house, has been proffered as an alternative. Some Canadian monarchists have even suggested that all the Commonwealth realms should have their own resident monarchs. However, there has been no popular or official support for such a change.


See also

* List of monarchies * Monarchies in the Americas * Royal and viceroyal transport in Canada * Royal eponyms in Canada * States headed by Elizabeth II * The Canadian Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada * The Canadian Crown and the Canadian Armed Forces * * *


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further information

;Reading * * * * * MacKinnon, Frank (1976). ''The Crown in Canada''. Calgary, Alta.: Glenbow-Alberta Institute: McClelland and Stewart West. 189 p. pbk * * * * * * * * ;Viewing *


External links


Monarchy and the Crown
from the Government of Canada
Canada
from the Royal Household
Constitutional monarchy
from The Canadian Encyclopedia
Institute for the Study of the Crown in Canada
{{DEFAULTSORT:Monarchy Of Canada Monarchy in Canada, Government of Canada Government in Canada Parliament of Canada Heads of state of Canada, Heads of state of Canada Legal history of Canada Commonwealth realms, Canada Canadian heraldry Canadian identity