The Info List - Mombasa

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City 1,200,000[1] Metro 2,000,000

Demonym(s) Mombasite

Time zone EAT (UTC+3)

Area code(s) 020

Website mombasa.go.ke

An aerial view of Mombasa
skyline at sunset from the old town

(/məmˈbɑːsə/; Kenyan
English: [mɔmˈbɑːsə]) is a city on the coast of Kenya. It is the country's second-largest city,[2] after the capital Nairobi, with an estimated population of about 1.2 million people in 2016.[1] Its metropolitan region is the second largest in the country and has a population of approximately two million people.[2] Administratively, Mombasa
is the county seat of Mombasa
County. A regional cultural and economic hub, Mombasa
has an extra-large port and an international airport, and is an important regional tourism centre. Located on the east coast of Kenya, in Mombasa County
Mombasa County
and the former Coast Province, Mombasa's situation on the Indian Ocean made it a historical trading centre,[3] and it has been controlled by many countries because of its strategic location.


1 Description 2 History 3 Political divisions 4 Geography 5 Suburbs

5.1 Mombasa
Island 5.2 North Coast 5.3 South Coast 5.4 Mombasa

6 Culture

6.1 Religion 6.2 Music and nightlife 6.3 Sports

7 Economy 8 Climate 9 Transport

9.1 Air 9.2 Train 9.3 Road 9.4 Sea

9.4.1 Ferry

10 Twin towns – sister cities 11 Notable residents 12 Image gallery 13 In popular culture 14 See also 15 References 16 Bibliography 17 External links

Description[edit] The city had a population of about 939,000[4][5] per the 2009 census. It is located on Mombasa Island
Mombasa Island
and sprawls to the surrounding mainlands. The island is separated from the mainland by two creeks: Tudor Creek and Kilindini Harbour. It is connected to the mainland to the north by the Nyali
Bridge, to the south by the Likoni
Ferry, and to the west by the Makupa Causeway, alongside which runs the Kenya-Uganda Railway. The port serves both Kenya
and countries of the interior, linking them to the ocean. The city is served by Moi International Airport located in the northwest mainland suburb of Chaani. Mombasa
has a cosmopolitan population, with the Swahili people
Swahili people
and Mijikenda predominant. Other communities include the Akamba and Taita Bantus as well as a significant population of Luo and Luhya peoples from Western Kenya. The major religions practised in the city are Islam, Christianity and Hinduism.[6] Over the centuries, many immigrants and traders have settled in Mombasa, particularly from the Middle East, Somalia, and the Indian sub-continent, who came mainly as traders and skilled craftsmen. History[edit]

Historical affiliations

  Sultan of Mombasa
Before 1593 Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
1593–1698 Sultanate of Oman
Sultanate of Oman
1698–1728 Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
1728–1729 Sultanate of Oman
Sultanate of Oman
1729–1824 British Empire
British Empire
1824–1826 Sultanate of Oman
Sultanate of Oman
1826–1887 British East Africa/ Kenya
1887–1963   Kenya

See also: Timeline of Mombasa

Kenya–Uganda railway near Mombasa, circa 1899

The founding of Mombasa
is associated with two rulers: Mwana Mkisi and Shehe Mvita. According to legend, Mwana Mkisi is the original ancestor of Mombasa's oldest lineages within Thenashara Taifa (or Twelve Nations). Families associated with the Twelve Nations are still considered the original inhabitants of the city. Mwana Mkisi was a pagan queen who founded Kongowea, the original urban settlement on Mombasa
Island. Importantly, both of these names have linguistic and spiritual connections with Central Africa. "Mkisi" is considered the personification of "ukisi" which means "the holy" in kiKongo. "Kongowea" can similarly be interpreted as the Swahili locative of "kongo" which denotes the essence of civilizational order in central Africa. These legends can be read as an acknowledgment of the Bantu-speaking origins of the Swahili people. Shehe Mvita superseded the dynasty of Mwana Mkisi and established the first permanent stone mosque on Mombasa
Island. Mombasa's oldest extant stone mosque, Mnara, was built c. 1300. Shehe Mvita is remembered as a Muslim of great learning and so is connected more directly with the present ideals of Swahili culture that people identify with Mombasa. The ancient history associated with Mwana Mkisi and Shehe Mvita and the founding of an urban settlement on Mombasa Island
Mombasa Island
is still linked to present-day peoples living in Mombasa. The Thenashara Taifa (or Twelve Nations) Swahili lineages recount this ancient history today and are the keepers of local Swahili traditions.[7] Most of the early information on Mombasa
comes from Portuguese chroniclers writing in the 16th century. In 1331, the famous Moroccan scholar and traveller Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
also visited the area during his travels to the Swahili Coast
Swahili Coast
and made some mention of the city, although he only stayed one night. He noted that the people of Mombasa were Shãfi'i Muslims, "a religious people, trustworthy and righteous. Their mosques are made of wood, expertly built." The exact founding date of the city is unknown, but it has a long history. Kenyan
school history books place the founding of Mombasa
as 900 A.D. It must have been already a prosperous trading town in the 12th century, as the Arab geographer Al Idrisi
Al Idrisi
mentions it in 1151. The oldest stone mosque in Mombasa, Mnara, was built c. 1300. The Mandhry Mosque, built in 1570, has a minaret that contains a regionally specific ogee arch. This demonstrates that Swahili architecture was an indigenous African product and disproves assertions that non-African Muslims brought stone architecture to the Swahili Coast.[8]

1572 Mombasa
from Civitates orbis terrarum
Civitates orbis terrarum
by Georg Braun
Georg Braun
and Franz Hogenberg

During the pre-modern period, Mombasa
was an important centre for the trade in spices, gold, and ivory. Its trade links reached as far as the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and modern-day China
and oral historians today can still recall this period of local history. History shows that there were trade links between Mombasa
and Cholas
of South India. Throughout the early modern period, Mombasa
was a key node in the complex and far reaching Indian Ocean trading networks, its key exports then were ivory, millet, sesamum and coconuts. In the late pre-colonial period (late 19th century), it was the metropolis of a plantation society, which became dependent on slave labour (sources contradict whether the city was ever an important place for exporting slaves) but ivory caravans remained a major source of economic prosperity. Mombasa
became the major port city of pre-colonial Kenya
in the Middle Ages and was used to trade with other African port cities, the Persian Empire, the Arabian Peninsula, the Indian Subcontinent and China.[9] 16th-century Portuguese voyager Duarte Barbosa
Duarte Barbosa
claimed, "[Mombasa] is a place of great traffic and has a good harbour in which there are always moored small craft of many kinds and also great ships, both of which are bound from Sofala
and others which come from Cambay
and Melinde and others which sail to the island of Zanzibar."[10] Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
was the first known European to visit Mombasa, receiving a chilly reception in 1498. Two years later, the town was sacked by the Portuguese. In 1502, the sultanate became independent from Kilwa Kisiwani and was renamed as Mvita (in Swahili) or Manbasa (Arabic). Portugal attacked the city again in 1528. In 1585 a joint military expedition between the Somalis
of Ajuran Empire
Ajuran Empire
and the Turks of Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
led by Emir 'Ali Bey successfully liberated Mombasa
and other coastal cities in Southeast Africa from the Portuguese colonizers.[11] The Portuguese landlords; only Malindi
remained loyal to Portugal. The Zimba overcame the towns of Sena and Tete on the Zambezi, and in 1587 they took Kilwa, killing 3,000 people. At Mombasa the Zimba slaughtered the Muslim inhabitants, but they were halted at Malindi
by the Bantu-speaking Segeju and went home. This stimulated the Portuguese to take over Mombasa
a third time in 1589, and four years later they built Fort Jesus
Fort Jesus
to administer the region. Between Lake Malawi and the Zambezi mouth, Kalonga Mzura made an alliance with the Portuguese in 1608 and fielded 4,000 warriors to help defeat their rival Zimba, who were led by chief Lundi. After the building of Fort Jesus
Fort Jesus
was put by the Portuguese under the rule of members of the ruling family of Malindi. In 1631 Dom Jeronimo the ruler of Mombasa
slaughtered the Portuguese garrison in the city and defeated the relief force sent by the Portuguese. In 1632 Dom Jeronimo left Mombasa
and became a pirate. That year the Portuguese returned and established direct rule over Mombasa.[12] With the capture of Fort Jesus
Fort Jesus
in 1698, the town came under the influence of the Sultanate
of Oman, subordinate to the Omani rulers on the island of Unguja, prompting regular local rebellions. Oman appointed three consecutive Governors (Wali in Arabic, Liwali
in Swahili):

12 December 1698 – December 1698: Imam Sa'if ibn Sultan December 1698 – 1728: Nasr ibn Abdallah al-Mazru'i 1728–12 March 1728: Shaykh Rumba

Next, Mombasa
returned to Portuguese rule by captain-major Álvaro Caetano de Melo Castro (12 March 1728 – 21 September 1729), then four new Omani Liwali
until 1746, when the last of them made it independent again (disputed by Oman), as the first of its recorded Sultans:

1746–1755: 'Ali ibn Uthman al-Mazru'i 1755–1773: Masud ibn Nasr al-Mazru'i 1773–1782: Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mazru'i 1782–1811: Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Mazru'i (born 17–died 1814) 1812–1823: 'Abdallah ibn Ahmad al-Mazru'i (died 1823) 1823–1826: Sulayman ibn 'Ali al-Mazru'i

From 9 February 1824 to 25 July 1826, there was a British protectorate over Mombasa, represented by Governors. Omani rule was restored in 1826; seven liwalis where appointed. On 24 June 1837, it was nominally annexed by Said bin Sultan
Said bin Sultan
of Muscat
and Oman. On 25 May 1887, its administration was relinquished to the British East Africa Association, later the Imperial British East Africa
British East Africa
Company. It soon became the capital of the British East Africa
British East Africa
Protectorate and the sea terminal of the Uganda Railway, which was started in 1896. Many workers were brought in from British India
British India
to build the railway, and the city's fortunes revived. The Sultan of Zanzibar
formally presented the town to the British in 1898. Mombasa
became the capital of the Protectorate of Kenya, sometime between 1887 and around 1906[13] then Kenya's capital was moved to Nairobi
at around 1906.[why?] Nairobi
has since been Kenya's capital to date.[14]

Old Town

On 28 November 2002, a suicide car bomb exploded at the Israeli-owned beachfront Paradise Hotel, killing three Israelis and ten Kenyans. About 20 minutes earlier, an unsuccessful attempt was made to shoot down an Arkia Israel Airlines
Arkia Israel Airlines
Boeing 757
Boeing 757
chartered tourist plane taking off from nearby Moi International Airport
Moi International Airport
using surface-to-air missiles; nobody was hurt on the plane, which landed safely in Tel Aviv. The main suspect for both attacks is al Qaeda (see Kenyan
hotel bombing). Mombasa Republican Council is a separatist organisation based in Mombasa.[15][16] The group claims areas around the city and the broader coastal region.[17] It was formed in 1999 to address perceived political and economic discrimination against the people of the coast province.[18] The Mombasa Republican Council traces its secession claims to the 1895 and 1963 agreements transferring the 16 km (10 mi) strip of land along the coast to the Government of Kenya from Zanzibar. The group contests these agreements as invalid because they were enacted without the consent of coastal stakeholders, and asserts that the Kenyan
government has not honoured the provisions designed to protect the coastal population.[19] Political divisions[edit] Mombasa
is also a county and divided into six constituencies and thirty wards.[20]

Constituency Wards

Changamwe Port Reitz · Kipevu · Airport · Miritini · Chaani

Jomvu Jomvu
Kuu · Magongo · Mikindani

Kisauni Mjambere · Junda · Bamburi · Mwakirunge · Mtopanga · Magogoni · Shanzu

Nyali Frere Town · Ziwa La Ng'ombe · Mkomani · Kongowea · Kadzandani

Likoni Mtongwe · Shika Adabu · Bofu · Likoni · Timbwani

Mvita Mji wa Kale/ Makadara · Tudor · Tononoka · Shimanzi/ Ganjoni · Majengo

Geography[edit] Being a coastal town, Mombasa
is characterised by a flat topography. The town of Mombasa
is centred on Mombasa
Island, but extends to the mainland. The island is separated from the mainland by two creeks, Port Reitz
Port Reitz
in the south and Tudor Creek in the north. Suburbs[edit] Mombasa

Tudor, Mombasa

Kizingo: Considered the prime residential area of Mombasa. The State House of Mombasa, Provincial Headquarters, The Mombasa
Law Courts, and the Municipal Council are located in Kizingo. The Aga Khan Academy, Aga Khan High School, Serani Primary School, Serani High School, Santokben Nursery School, Coast Academy, Jaffery Academy, Mombasa Primary School, Loreto Convent, Mama Ngina Girls' High School and the Government Training Institute (GTI) Mombasa
are all in Kizingo as well. Kibokoni: Part of Old Town with Swahili architecture. Fort Jesus
Fort Jesus
is in Baghani. Englani: Part of Old town between Kibokoni
and Makadara. Kuze: Part of Old Town with Swahili culture and architecture. Originally flourishing with Swahili people
Swahili people
but currently becoming a more cosmopolitan neighbourhood. Makadara: Part of Old Town consisting of a high number of descendants of Baluchi former soldiers who settled within this area before it developed into a town. The name is derived from the Arabic word Qadr-ur-Rahman meaning fate of God. Ganjoni: Primarily a middle class residential, home of second biggest dry dock of Africa after the one in South Africa. Tudor: Another middle class residential area with homes and shops. The Technical University of Mombasa (TUM) is situated in this neighbourhood. North Coast[edit]

Seafront of Nyali
Beach, north coast (from the Voyager Resort).

Nyali, also considered a prime and up-market residential area, it is on the mainland north of the island and is linked by the New Nyali Bridge. It has numerous beach front hotels in the area known as the "North Coast". Nyali
has two distinct sections – the posh Old Nyali and the upcoming New Nyali. For many residents, Nyali
has now become a self-contained residential area, with two Nakumatts, a multiplex cinema, shopping malls, banks, schools and post offices. This often eliminates the need for residents to cross the bridge and to go into the congested Mombasa
city centre. Nyali
is home for the Nyali
Cinemax complex, Mamba Village, the Nyali
Golf Club, and some of the most prestigious academic institutions of the Coast Province. Kongowea is a densely populated area with 15 villages, two sub-locations and an estimated population of 106,180 residents.[21] Kongowea is a cosmopolitan settlement mainly inhabited by people from mainland who migrated into the city in search of employment, mainly in service and manufacturing sector. The area is adjacent to the rich suburb of Nyali
which employs a portion of the village residents. They are mainly hired as cheap labour as watchmen, gardeners, masons for up coming houses and house help. The most well known villages inside Kongowea include Kisumu
Ndogo, Shauri Yako and Mnazi Mmoja, despite being located in this prime area, many residents live under extreme conditions – poor sanitation, high crime rate and lack of basic essential amenities like schools, hospitals and tap water. Kongowea is also home to one of the largest open-air markets in the African Great Lakes. Bamburi
is an outlying township (fifteen minutes drive) along the Malindi
road. Bamburi
is the location of Bamburi
Portland Cement Company. Other notable features in the area are the Mijikenda public beach, commonly known as Pirates, and Haller Park, a nature trail and wildlife conservatory. Kiembeni Estate, also in the Bamburi
area, hosts around 100,000 residents. The estate has its own supermarket, several retail shops, salons and boutiques, and a number of licensed drinking dens. The establishments include The Shilla Bar, Turkey Base, Stars Garden and Sensera pub. Kiembeni is arguably the largest estate in Mombasa, and growing even faster. Other areas include, Shanzu, Mkomani, Bombolulu, Kisauni and, across the Mtwapa
creek, the popular area of Mtwapa[2], which is already located in Kilifi
county. The North Coast has an entertainment industry which attracts locals and tourists. South Coast[edit] Likoni: is a lower income and lower-middle-class neighbourhood connected to Mombasa Island
Mombasa Island
by ferry. It is south of Mombasa
Island and made up of mostly non-Swahili Bantu tribes. The ferry was the target of the Likoni
Riots of 1997.[22] Diani Beach[3]: a beach resort area situated over the Likoni Ferry
Likoni Ferry
on the south coast of Mombasa. It is located some 36 km (22 mi) south of Mombasa
city on the mainland coast and is a prime resort for many local and international tourists. Diani Beach
Diani Beach
has an airport at Ukunda town to cater for tourists who fly there directly from Nairobi Wilson or any other airports and airfields in the country. Mombasa
Mainland[edit] Magongo: is an outlying township 20 minutes driving distance northwest of Mombasa
Island, situated on the Nairobi
Highway. This fringe community lacks any effective electricity, water or sewer systems, with a general lack of infrastructure. Poverty, lack of sanitation, and unemployment continue to be the greatest issues for the Mikindani Township, which have ensured low health and safety standards for its residents. Poor, lower class housing is widespread, ranging from simple stone, two-storey structures to mud and earth homes fitted with corrugated iron roofs. Much of the community works outside of the township, within Mombasa Island
Mombasa Island
itself as there is a lack of employment and industry. There are number of small health clinics, shops, and a few public primary schools: Nazarene primary is one school, which is known in particular as being staffed by a revolving volunteer teacher base from Western, and predominately English speaking nations. This small town serves as a link between the city and Moi International Airport. Magongo is also home to the Akamba Handicraft Cooperative. Mikindani, a suburban area: This is an outlying township on the mainland along the Nairobi
Highway. It is built in the heavy industrial sections of Changamwe
and mainly accommodate the working class who either work in the industries, the town centre on the Island and the Port at Kilindini harbour. Miritini: outlying township on the Mombasa
Highway which is first growing as a suburban area. Changamwe: Industrial area which contains the Kipevu
power generation projects, the Kenya
Oil Refinery Company facility and housing estates such as Chaani and is the gateway to the Moi International Airport. The area has administrative offices of the D.O and the chiefs who serve the administrative division. Migadini & Chaani: They are two adjacent estate that are located east of Airport road and east of Kenya
Port Authority. They are bordered by Port Reitz, Magongo and KPA Port Reitz: Is a suburb on the mainland which contains a beach, oil refineries, housing estates etc. Moi International Airport
Moi International Airport
and the Port Reitz
Port Reitz
District Hospital are in Port Reitz. Culture[edit]

Moonlit boats in Mombasa

A major cultural hub in Kenya
and the African Great Lakes, Mombasa's proximity to Zanzibar, Nairobi
and the Indian subcontinent, as well as its large shipping and maritime industries gives it a diverse mosaic of cultures. Music is a main feature of Mombasa's culture. Religion[edit] The majority of Mombasa's population is Muslim.[23] This large population has recently adapted Arab immigrant practices into Swahili New Year. The celebrations of maulidi, a celebration of the Prophet Muhammad’s birth, and shirk, the Mombasa
adopted name for the Swahili New Year, have witnessed an increasing overlap of cultures within the city. This parallels increased migration of Muslim Arab immigrants in the region.[24] The Catholics are pastorally served by the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mombasa. Music and nightlife[edit] Taarab music, which originates from Zanzibar, has a prominent local presence.[25] Styles of music native to Mombasa
include the smooth and mellow Bango, fast-paced Chakacha and traditional Mwanzele. Musicians of note are Mombasa
Roots, Safari Sounds, Them Mushrooms, Anwar Juma Bhalo and Princess Farida. Mombasa
has been the home or base for former greats like Fundi Konde, known for his song "Tausi"; Fadhili Williams and Grand Charo, famous for the song "Malaika"; Sal Davies; Malika Mohammed; Stara Butte; Juma Bhalo. Contemporary hip-hop fusion artistes are Susumila, Majizee, Nyota Ndogo, Cannibal (musician), Sharama and Ukoo Flani super group which once could boast up to 40 rappers. Recently, hip hop, reggae, soul, blues, salsa and (among the Indian community) bhangra have become popular, especially amongst the youth. Mombasa
is mainly a tourism centre populated by hundreds of entertainment spots of all categories from night clubs, bars, hotels, fancy restaurants and many more. It has the most vibrant night life in Kenya
catering to the mainly tourist population. Sports[edit] Currently, Mombasa
is represented in the Kenyan Premier League
Kenyan Premier League
by Bandari F.C, which plays at the Mbaraki Sports Grounds. Also, the Congo United FC, Promoted and dropped in 2011, are in the second tier Nationwide Super League with 4 other hometown clubs – Admiral F.C.; Magongo Rangers; Sparki Youth and Coast United.[26] Derbies between Mombasa
teams have become intriguing affairs recently.[27] Another team, Coast Stars, was relegated several years ago from the league. The only Mombasa-based team to win the league is Feisal F.C., the 1965 champions. Kiziwi leopards was a popular team in the 1980s as was Mombasa
Wanderers decades before. There are several cricket teams in Mombasa. One of them is Mombasa Sports Club (MSC), whose ground was given ODI status in 2006. MSC has also a rugby union team playing in the Kenya
Cup League, the premier rugby competition in Kenya. Mvita XI men and MSC ladies represent Mombasa
in Kenyan
field hockey leagues. The 2007 World Cross Country Championships were held in Mombasa. Mombasa Marathon is competed annually in Mombasa. The town also hosts the biennial classic edition of Safari Rally
Safari Rally
and annually a Kenya National Rally Championship round. Scuba diving takes place mostly within the Mombasa
Marine National Park and Reserve, which is managed and maintained by Kenya
Wildlife Service. The park has a length of about 8 km (5.0 mi). Economy[edit]

Biashara Street, Mombasa

is a major trade centre and home to Kenya's only large seaport, the Kilindini Harbour.[28] Kilindini is an old Swahili term meaning "deep". The port is so-called because the channel is naturally very deep. Kilindini Harbor is an example of a natural geographic phenomenon called a ria, formed at the end of the last glacial period when the sea level rose and engulfed a river that was flowing from the mainland. Mombasa
is a centre of coastal tourism in Kenya. Mombasa Island
Mombasa Island
itself is not a main attraction, although many people visit the Old Town and Fort Jesus. The Nyali, Bamburi, and Shanzu beaches are located north of the city. The Shelly, Tiwi, and Diani beaches are located south of Mombasa. Several luxury hotels exist on these beaches, while the less expensive hotels are located further away. Mombasa's northern shoreline is renowned for its vibrant 24-hour entertainment offers, including both family entertainment (water parks, cinemas, bowling, etc.), sports (watersports, mountain biking and gokarting), culinary offers (restaurants offering a wide range of specialties from Kenya, China, Japan, India, Italy, Germany and other countries) and nightlife (bars, pubs, clubs, discothèques, etc.). Other local industries include an oil refinery with a capacity of 80,000 barrels a day,[29] and a cement factory capable of producing over 1.1 million tons per year.[30] The major intercontinental undersea telecom cables reach shore next to Mombasa, connecting the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
to the rest of the world and supporting a fast-growing call centre business in the area. The estimated real GDP growth for Kenya
in 2016 is 5.7-6.0%. This growth will be in response to the construction of a railway system from Nairobi
to Mombasa
which will aid in trade and transportation between Kenya’s two major cities.[31] Mombasa
will become a Special
Economic Zone (SEZ) in which certain industries such as tea, garments, and footwear will be exempt from certain taxes to promote domestic growth. This is in response to the deficiencies in Export Processing Zones (EPZ).[31] The Kenyan
Dock Worker’s Union is situated in Mombasa
and has roughly 5,000 members.[31] President Kenyatta has made it a priority to deepen economic ties with Asia at the onset of his presidency. Japan has played a role in financially sponsoring the expansion of the Mombasa
port in phase one and two of the expansion project.[31] At 44%, the rate of youth unemployment in Mombasa
is more than double the national average of 21% (2016).[32] Climate[edit] Mombasa
has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen: As). The amount of rainfall essentially depends on the season. The rainiest months are April and May, while rainfall is minimal between January and February. As a sea port, Mombasa
is subject to detrimental consequences of a fluctuating climate. In October 2006, Mombasa
experienced a large flood that affected 60,000 people.[33] Coastal erosion has become a problem for Mombasa
infrastructure. Due to rising sea levels, the coastline has been eroding at 2.5–20 cm per year. This has increased the number of annual floods.[33]

Climate data for Mombasa
(1961–1990, extremes 1890–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 35.9 (96.6) 37.6 (99.7) 36.4 (97.5) 36.1 (97) 35.0 (95) 31.5 (88.7) 31.0 (87.8) 30.3 (86.5) 31.6 (88.9) 33.0 (91.4) 34.0 (93.2) 37.0 (98.6) 37.6 (99.7)

Average high °C (°F) 33.2 (91.8) 33.7 (92.7) 33.7 (92.7) 32.5 (90.5) 30.9 (87.6) 29.4 (84.9) 28.7 (83.7) 28.8 (83.8) 29.7 (85.5) 30.5 (86.9) 31.6 (88.9) 32.8 (91) 31.3 (88.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 27.6 (81.7) 28.1 (82.6) 28.3 (82.9) 27.6 (81.7) 26.2 (79.2) 24.8 (76.6) 24.0 (75.2) 24.0 (75.2) 24.7 (76.5) 25.7 (78.3) 26.9 (80.4) 27.4 (81.3) 26.3 (79.3)

Average low °C (°F) 22.0 (71.6) 22.5 (72.5) 22.9 (73.2) 22.7 (72.9) 21.6 (70.9) 20.1 (68.2) 19.3 (66.7) 19.3 (66.7) 19.7 (67.5) 20.9 (69.6) 22.1 (71.8) 22.0 (71.6) 21.3 (70.3)

Record low °C (°F) 16.8 (62.2) 19.4 (66.9) 19.7 (67.5) 18.9 (66) 18.8 (65.8) 17.4 (63.3) 13.6 (56.5) 15.3 (59.5) 16.3 (61.3) 18.0 (64.4) 18.8 (65.8) 18.1 (64.6) 13.6 (56.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 33.9 (1.335) 14.0 (0.551) 55.6 (2.189) 154.3 (6.075) 235.5 (9.272) 88.3 (3.476) 71.8 (2.827) 68.2 (2.685) 67.2 (2.646) 103.4 (4.071) 104.7 (4.122) 75.8 (2.984) 1,072.7 (42.232)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 3 1 5 10 14 10 10 8 9 9 8 7 94

Average relative humidity (%) 77 75 77 80 82 82 82 82 80 81 82 80 80

Mean monthly sunshine hours 269.7 254.8 269.7 225.0 204.6 207.0 210.8 244.9 246.0 272.8 264.0 260.4 2,929.7

Mean daily sunshine hours 8.7 9.1 8.7 7.5 6.6 6.9 6.8 7.9 8.2 8.8 8.8 8.4 8.03

Source #1: NOAA[34]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(humidity, 1962–1993),[35] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[36]

Transport[edit] Air[edit]

Sunrise at Moi International Airport

Moi International Airport
Moi International Airport
serves the city of Mombasa. It is located in Port Reitz
Port Reitz
area, also known locally as Chaani area on the mainland metropolitan area. Flights to Nairobi
and other Kenyan, European and Middle Eastern destinations depart from the airport. Mombasa
and Nairobi
are connected by chartered flights operated via Wilson airport. This takes approximately 45 minutes.

Moi International Airport

Train[edit] Mombasa
has a modern railway station that replaced the century old station built by the British. Completed in 2017 and located at Miritini, the station links Mombasa
to the rest of the Kenya. Kenya Railways transports passengers and cargo through the Standard Gauge Railway between Nairobi
to Mombasa. The journey takes approximately four hours between the two cities. Road[edit]

Moi Avenue in Mombasa

Driving in Mombasa
is straightforward and the majority of the roads are tarmacked. Main roads include Jomo Kenyatta Avenue, Digo Road, Nyerere Road, Nkurumah Road, Moi Avenue, Mama Ngina Drive, Barack Obama Road, Nairobi
Highway and Nyali
Road. Highways connect Mombasa
to Nairobi, Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
while northward road link to Malindi
and Lamu, which also extends towards the border with Somalia. Within Mombasa, most local people use matatus (mini-buses) which are extremely common in Kenya, to move around the city and its suburbs. The tuk-tuk—a motor vehicle with three wheels—is widely used as transport around the city and its suburbs. No more than three passengers may be carried. A boda-boda is originally a bicycle taxi. Especially in cities, the bicycles are more and more replaced by motorbikes. Sea[edit]

Waterfront with ferry

Mombasa's port is the largest in Kenya, with 19 deep water berths with two additional berths nearing completion and two oil terminals.[37] Rail connects the port to the interior.[37] There is little or no scheduled passenger service. International cruise ships frequent the port. Ferry[edit] There is no bridge between Mombasa Island
Mombasa Island
and south coast, instead the distance is served by ferries operated by the Kenya
Service from Kilindini and Mtongwe
to Likoni
in the south coast of Mombasa. In 1994, a ferry serving Mtongwe
route sank and 270 or more perished.[38] As a result of the major build-up of more luxurious hotels in South Coast and a lack of a direct bridge linking the South Coast to the North Coast, visiting tourists have the option of flying directly into the South Coast airstrip using the domestic airline, Air Kenya.[39] Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

is twinned with:[40]

Country City County/District/Province/Region/State Date

 USA Seattle Washington 6 April 1981[41]

 USA Long Beach California 20 November 2007

 USA Charlotte Amalie United States
United States
Virgin Islands unknown

 USA Honolulu Hawaii 2008

 South Africa eThekwini KwaZulu-Natal 20 February 2012

 Norway Bergen Hordaland unknown

 China Lianyungang Jiangsu unknown

 China Fuzhou Fujian unknown

Notable residents[edit] During its history, Mombasa
was visited by numerous pioneers of the maritime exploration, such as the Arabs Al Idrissi (1151) and Ibn Battuta (1330), the Chinese Zheng He
Zheng He
(1413) or the Portuguese Vasco da Gama (1498), Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
(1500) João da Nova
João da Nova
(1505) and Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
(1507).[citation needed]

Swaleh Nguru, Arab businessman, conservationist and philanthropist Karen Blixen, Danish novelist Thomas Risley Odhiambo, entomologist[42] Fadhili William, musician, singer, composer.[43] Abdilatif Abdalla, writer, university professor and political protestor. Ayub Ogada, musician, singer and composer known for having composed two songs of the movie The Constant Gardener.[44] Timothy R. McClanahan, marine ecologist who lived and has worked in Mombasa
since 1991.[45]

Image gallery[edit]

CBD Building

beach sunrise

Port of Mombasa

View of the old town

"New Dwarikadham Temple", A popular Hindu
temple in Nyali.

In popular culture[edit] Mombasa
is a pivotal setting in the highly popular Halo video game series. Mombasa
appears as a major setting in Halo 2, and the entirety of Halo 3: ODST takes place in Mombasa. The science fiction games are set in the year 2552, and the city has been divided into "Old Mombasa" and "New Mombasa" (a prosperous section filled with futuristic skyscrapers and an iconic orbital elevator). The city comes under attack by humanity's alien adversaries, "The Covenant", who focus their planetary invasion in and around Mombasa
in search of a massive, technologically advanced artifact buried nearby.[46] The Finnish pop hit Mombasa
(by Taiska) is about the city.[47][48] In the US, the Walt Disney World
Walt Disney World
resort recreated a Kenyan
village in the Africa section of the Disney's Animal Kingdom
Disney's Animal Kingdom
theme park named "Harambe", which is modelled after Mombasa. The village features a store called the " Mombasa
Marketplace".[49] See also[edit]

portal Kenya

Ngomongo Villages


^ a b , Investors fault Mombasa’s new master plan; Business Daily; retrieved 19 August 2014. ^ a b The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 August 2013. ^ History of Mombasa
Mombasa, Kenya. Mombasainfo.com. Retrieved on 17 August 2013. ^ City of Mombasa
Archived 3 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine.; at Geo Hive .com; " Kenya
National Bureau of Statistics and the final report by the IEBC as ratified in: National Assembly Constituencies and County Assembly Wards Order, 2012"; retrieved June 2016 ^ Kenya
Census 2009 (Page 7). Total Population by county Retrieved on 19 August 2014. ^ Kenya
2009 Census Archived 26 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Meier, Prita. "Swahili Port Cities: The Architecture of Elsewhere." (Bloomington Indiana: Indiana University press, 2016) Pg. 33-35. ^ Meier, Prita. "Swahili Port Cities: The Architecture of Elsewhere." Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2016. Pg. 84-85 ^ Hybrid Urbanism By Nezar Al-Sayyad ^ The African Dispersal in the Deccan By Shanti Sadiq Ali ^ Welch (1950), p. 25. ^ Timothy J. Stapleton, A Military History of Africa, p. 114 ^ " Mombasa
History – Culture, Religion and Lifestyle in Mombasa". Mombasa.com. Retrieved 13 August 2012.  ^ "The People Nairobi, Kenya". library.thinkquest.org. Retrieved 22 January 2014.  ^ Insight – Separatist storm brewing on Kenya's coast ^ Kithi, Ngumbao (2012). "Standard Digital News : 'Gang' seeks 'independence' for Mombasa
from Kenya". standardmedia.co.ke. Standard Group Limited. Retrieved 20 July 2012.  ^ https://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21565641-muslim-extremism-spreads-down-east-africa%E2%80%99s-coastline-contagion-discontent ^ "Kenya's Mombasa
Republican Council : The Coast calls for freedom [501811752] African news, analysis and opinion – The Africa Report.com". theafricareport.com. 17 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012. political and economic discrimination  ^ Goldsmith PhD, Paul (November 2011). "MRC Conflict Assessment: Threats and Opportunities for Engagement.pdf" (PDF). kecosce.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012. independent demographics  ^ Kenya
National Bureau of Statistics; and the final report of the IEBC as ratified in the National Assembly Constituencies and County Assembly Wards Order, 2012. ^ [1] 2009 Kenya
National Bureau of Statistics ^ https://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/kenya/Kenya0502-06.htm ^ Oded, Arye (2000). Islam and Politics in Kenya. Lynne Rienner Publishers, p. 11 ^ Ray D. ""Celebrating Swahili New Year: A Performative Critique of Textual Islam in Costal-Kenya,"". Muslim World. 105.  ^ Taraab Music : National Geographic World Music. Worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com (17 October 2002). Retrieved on 17 August 2013. ^ " Kenya
– Division One Zone A 2012". Futaa.com. Retrieved 13 August 2012.  ^ "Bandari come out tops in Coastal derby – SuperSport – Football". SuperSport. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.  ^ KPA. KPA. Retrieved on 17 August 2013. ^ Mombasa
Refinery – A Barrel Full. Abarrelfull.wikidot.com (8 December 2012). Retrieved on 17 August 2013. ^ http://mombasacement.com/ ^ a b c d "Country Reports: Kenya". Kenya
Country Monitor. 1.  ^ https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/adam-smith-international-partner-zone/mombasa-economy-youth-employment ^ a b Kebede, A. S., Nicholls, R. J., Hanson, S., & Mokrech, M. "Impacts of Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise: A Preliminary Case Study of Mombasa, Kenya". Journal of Coastal Research. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Mombase (Mombasa) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 31, 2015.  ^ "Klimatafel von Mombasa
(Flugh. Port Reitz) / Kenia" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved August 31, 2016.  ^ "Station Mombasa" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved August 31, 2016.  ^ a b Home. Kpa.co.ke. Retrieved on 17 August 2013. ^ Francis Thoya, "The restless ghosts of Mtongwe", Wednesday magazine, 19 November 2003. ^ Flying into South Coast, Mombasa ^ Twinning of Cities. Mombasacity.go.ke. Retrieved on 17 August 2013. ^ http://www.seattlemombasa.org/ ^ Thomas R. Odhiambo; The World Food Prize; ^ Mombasa's Malaika; We Said Go Travel, 21 February 2013 ^ Ayub Ogada, IMusic ^ Marine Fellow: Tim R. McClanahan, Ph.D., Environmental Initiatives, The Pew Charitable Trusts ^ "article on Mombasa". Halopedia.  ^ Mombasa; Taiska
listing; accessed October 2015 ^ "Mombasa". Safari Travel Plus. Retrieved 10 Feb 2016.  ^ Mombasa
Marketplace; Mouse Planet Guide; Walt Disney's Animal Kingdom; accessed October 2015

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Mombasa External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mombasa.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Mombasa.

Mombasa County
Mombasa County
Government WorldStatesmen – Kenya

v t e

Mombasa, Kenya

Buildings Culture Economy Education Government

County governor



People Transport


Settlements on the Kenyan
mainland: Bamburi Bombolulu Changamwe Diani Beach Kipevu Likoni Miritini Magongo Mikindani Mtwapa Port Reitz Subdivisions of Mombasa
Island: Ganjoni Majengo Old Town Railway Tononoka Tudor

at Wikimedia Commons . Kenya

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century


Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

v t e

First- and second-level administrative divisions of Kenya

47 counties (since March 2013)

Baringo (30) Bomet
(36) Bungoma
(39) Busia (40) Elgeyo-Marakwet (28) Embu (14) Garissa
(07) Homa Bay
Homa Bay
(43) Isiolo
(11) Kajiado (34) Kakamega
(37) Kericho
(35) Kiambu
(22) Kilifi
(03) Kirinyaga (20) Kisii (45) Kisumu
(42) Kitui
(15) Kwale (02) Laikipia (31) Lamu
(05) Machakos
(16) Makueni (17) Mandera
(09) Marsabit
(10) Meru (12) Migori (44) Mombasa
(01) Murang'a
(21) Nairobi
(47) Nakuru
(32) Nandi (29) Narok
(33) Nyamira (46) Nyandarua (18) Nyeri
(19) Samburu (25) Siaya (41) Taita-Taveta (06) Tana River (04) Tharaka-Nithi (13) Trans-Nzoia (26) Turkana (23) Uasin Gishu (27) Vihiga
(38) Wajir
(08) West Pokot (24)

Principal cities and towns

(capital) Athi River Baragoi Bomet Bungoma Busia Chuka Eldoret Embu Garissa Hola Homa Bay Isiolo Iten Kabarnet Kajiado Kakamega Kapsabet Kangundo
- Tala Kapenguria Karuri Kericho Kerugoya Kiambu Kibwezi Kikuyu Kilifi Kisii Kisumu Kitale Kitengela Kitui Kwale Limuru Lodwar Lokichogio Loiyangalani Lamu Machakos Makindu Malindi Mandera Maralal Marsabit Masii Meru Mombasa Moyale Mtito Andei Mumias Murang'a Mutomo Mwingi Naivasha Nakuru Namanga Nanyuki Narok Nyahururu Nyamira Nyeri Ol Kalou Ongata Rongai Ruiru Siaya Thika Vihiga Voi Wajir Webuye Wote Wundanyi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 153218455 GND: 4040023-2 BNF: