Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière
(/mɒlˈjɛər/ or /moʊlˈjɛər/; French: [mɔ.ljɛːʁ]; 15
January 1622 – 17 February 1673), was a French playwright,
actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the
French language and universal literature. His extant works includes
comedies, farces, tragicomedies, comédie-ballets, and more. His plays
have been translated into every major living language and are
performed at the
Comédie-Française more often than those of any
other playwright today.
Born into a prosperous family and having studied at the Collège de
Clermont (now Lycée Louis-le-Grand),
Molière was well suited to
begin a life in the theatre. Thirteen years as an itinerant actor
helped him polish his comic abilities while he began writing,
Commedia dell'arte elements with the more refined French
Through the patronage of aristocrats including Philippe I, Duke of
Orléans—the brother of Louis XIV—
Molière procured a command
performance before the King at the Louvre. Performing a classic play
Pierre Corneille and a farce of his own, The Doctor in Love,
Molière was granted the use of salle du
Petit-Bourbon near the
Louvre, a spacious room appointed for theatrical performances. Later,
Molière was granted the use of the theatre in the Palais-Royal. In
both locations he found success among Parisians with plays such as The
The School for Husbands and The School for Wives.
This royal favour brought a royal pension to his troupe and the title
Troupe du Roi ("The King's Troupe").
Molière continued as the
official author of court entertainments.
Though he received the adulation of the court and Parisians,
Molière's satires attracted criticism from moralists and the Catholic
Tartuffe and its attack on perceived religious hypocrisy
roundly received condemnations from the Church, while Don Juan was
banned from performance. Molière's hard work in so many theatrical
capacities took its toll on his health and, by 1667, he was forced to
take a break from the stage. In 1673, during a production of his final
play, The Imaginary Invalid, Molière, who suffered from pulmonary
tuberculosis, was seized by a coughing fit and a haemorrhage while
playing the hypochondriac Argan. He finished the performance but
collapsed again and died a few hours later.
1.1 Return to Paris
1.2 Height of fame
1.3 Les Comédies-Ballets
3 Reception of his works
4 Influence on French culture
5 Portrayals of Molière
6 List of major works
8 External links
Molière by Nicolas Mignard
Molière was born in Paris, the son of Jean Poquelin and Marie
Cressé, the daughter of a prosperous bourgeois family. Upon seeing
him for the first time, a maid exclaimed, "Le nez!", a reference to
the infant's large nose.
Molière was called "Le Nez" by his family
from that time. He lost his mother when he was ten and he did not
seem to have been particularly close to his father. After his mother's
death, he lived with his father above the Pavillon des Singes on the
rue Saint-Honoré, an affluent area of Paris. It is likely[citation
needed] that his education commenced with studies in a Parisian
elementary school; this was followed with his enrollment in the
prestigious Jesuit Collège de Clermont, where he completed his
studies in a strict academic environment and got a first taste of life
on the stage.
In 1631, Jean Poquelin purchased from the court of
Louis XIII the
posts of "valet de chambre ordinaire et tapissier du Roi" ("valet of
the King's chamber and keeper of carpets and upholstery"). His son
assumed the same posts in 1641. The title required only three
months' work and an initial cost of 1,200 livres; the title paid 300
livres a year and provided a number of lucrative contracts. Poquelin
also studied as a provincial lawyer some time around 1642, probably in
Orléans, but it is not documented that he ever qualified. So far he
had followed his father's plans, which had served him well; he had
mingled with nobility at the
Collège de Clermont
Collège de Clermont and seemed destined
for a career in office.
In June 1643, when
Molière was 21, he decided to abandon his social
class and pursue a career on the stage. Taking leave of his father, he
joined the actress Madeleine Béjart, with whom he had crossed paths
before, and founded the
Illustre Théâtre with 630 livres. They were
later joined by Madeleine's brother and sister.
Illustration after Pierre Brissart for the printed text of
'L'Étourdi, ou le Contretemps
The new theatre troupe went bankrupt in 1645.
Molière had become head
of the troupe, due in part, perhaps, to his acting prowess and his
legal training. However, the troupe had acquired large debts, mostly
for the rent of the theatre (a court for jeu de paume), for which they
owed 2000 livres. Historians differ as to whether his father or the
lover of a member of his troupe paid his debts; either way, after a
24-hour stint in prison he returned to the acting circuit. It was at
this time that he began to use the pseudonym Molière, possibly
inspired by a small village of the same name in the Midi near Le
Vigan. It was also likely that he changed his name to spare his father
the shame of having an actor in the family (actors, although no longer
vilified by the state under Louis XIV, were still not allowed to be
buried in sacred ground).
After his imprisonment, he and Madeleine began a theatrical circuit of
the provinces with a new theatre troupe; this life was to last about
twelve years, during which he initially played in the company of
Charles Dufresne, and subsequently created a company of his own, which
had sufficient success and obtained the patronage of Philippe I, Duke
of Orléans. Few plays survive from this period. The most noteworthy
are L'Étourdi, ou le Contretemps (The Bungler) and Le Docteur
Amoureux (The Doctor in Love); with these two plays,
away from the heavy influence of the Italian improvisational Commedia
dell'arte, and displayed his talent for mockery. In the course of his
travels he met Armand, Prince of Conti, the governor of Languedoc, who
became his patron, and named his company after him. This friendship
later ended when Conti, having contracted syphilis from a courtesan,
turned towards religion and joined Molière's enemies in the Parti des
Dévots and the Compagnie de Saint Sacrement.
In Lyon, Mademoiselle Du Parc, known as Marquise, joined the company.
Marquise was courted, in vain, by
Pierre Corneille and later became
the lover of Jean Racine. Racine offered
Molière his tragedy
Théagène et Chariclée (one of the first works he wrote after he had
abandoned his theology studies), but
Molière would not perform it,
though he encouraged Racine to pursue his artistic career. It is said
that soon thereafter
Molière became angry with Racine when he was
told that he had secretly presented his tragedy to the company of the
Hôtel de Bourgogne as well.
Return to Paris
Molière was forced to reach
Paris in stages, staying outside for a
few weeks in order to promote himself with society gentlemen and allow
his reputation to feed in to Paris.
Paris in 1658 and
performed in front of the King at the
Louvre (then for rent as a
theatre) in Corneille's tragedy Nicomède and in the farce Le Docteur
Amoureux with some success. He was awarded the title of Troupe de
Monsieur being the honorific for the king's brother Philippe
I, Duke of Orléans). With the help of Monsieur, his company was
allowed to share the theatre in the large hall of the Petit-Bourbon
with the famous Italian
Commedia dell'arte company of Tiberio
Fiorillo, famous for his character of Scaramouche. (The two companies
performed in the theatre on different nights.) The premiere of
Les Précieuses Ridicules
Les Précieuses Ridicules (The Affected Young Ladies) took
place at the
Petit-Bourbon on 18 November 1659.
Les Précieuses Ridicules
Les Précieuses Ridicules was the first of Molière's many attempts to
satirize certain societal mannerisms and affectations then common in
France. It is widely accepted that the plot was based on Samuel
Chappuzeau's Le Cercle des Femmes of 1656. He primarily mocks the
Académie Française, a group created by Richelieu under a royal
patent to establish the rules of the fledgling French theater. The
Académie preached unity of time, action, and styles of verse.
Molière is often associated with the claim that comedy castigat
ridendo mores or "criticises customs through humour" (a phrase in fact
coined by his contemporary Jean de Santeuil and sometimes mistaken for
a classical Latin proverb).
Height of fame
Despite his own preference for tragedy, which he had tried to further
with the Illustre Théâtre,
Molière became famous for his farces,
which were generally in one act and performed after the tragedy. Some
of these farces were only partly written, and were played in the style
Commedia dell'arte with improvisation over a canovaccio (a vague
plot outline). He also wrote two comedies in verse, but these were
less successful and are generally considered less significant. Later
Molière concentrated on writing musical comedies, in which
the drama is interrupted by songs and/or dances.
Les Précieuses Ridicules
Les Précieuses Ridicules won
Molière the attention and the criticism
of many, but it was not a popular success. He then asked Fiorillo to
teach him the techniques of Commedia dell'arte. His 1660 play
Sganarelle, ou Le Cocu imaginaire (The Imaginary Cuckold) seems to be
a tribute both to
Commedia dell'arte and to his teacher. Its theme of
marital relationships dramatizes Molière's pessimistic views on the
falsity inherent in human relationships. This view is also evident in
his later works, and was a source of inspiration for many later
authors, including (in a different field and with different effect)
Luigi Pirandello. It describes a kind of round dance where two couples
believe that each of their partners has been betrayed by the other's
and is the first in Molière's 'Jealousy series' which includes Dom
Garcie de Navarre, L'École des maris and L'École des femmes.
First volume of a 1739 translation into English of all of Molière's
plays, printed by John Watts.
In 1660 the
Petit-Bourbon was demolished to make way for the eastern
expansion of the Louvre, but Molière's company was allowed to move
into the abandoned theatre in the east wing of the Palais-Royal. After
a period of refurbishment they opened there on 20 January 1661. In
order to please his patron, Monsieur, who was so enthralled with
entertainment and art that he was soon excluded from state affairs,
Molière wrote and played Dom Garcie de Navarre ou Le Prince jaloux
(The Jealous Prince, 4 February 1661), a heroic comedy derived from a
work of Cicognini's. Two other comedies of the same year were the
successful L'École des maris (The School for Husbands) and Les
Fâcheux, subtitled Comédie faite pour les divertissements du Roi (a
comedy for the King's amusements) because it was performed during a
series of parties that
Nicolas Fouquet gave in honor of the sovereign.
These entertainments led
Jean-Baptiste Colbert to demand the arrest of
Fouquet for wasting public money, and he was condemned to life
On 20 February 1662
Molière married Armande Béjart, whom he believed
to be the sister of Madeleine. (She may instead have been her
illegitimate daughter with the Duke of Modena.) The same year he
L'École des femmes
L'École des femmes (The School for Wives), subsequently
regarded as a masterpiece. It poked fun at the limited education that
was given to daughters of rich families, and reflected Molière's own
marriage. Both this work and his marriage attracted much criticism.
The play sparked the protest called the "Quarrel of L'École des
femmes". On the artistic side he responded with two lesser-known
works: La Critique de "L'École des femmes", in which he imagined the
spectators of his previous work attending it. The piece mocks the
people who had criticised
L'École des femmes
L'École des femmes by showing them at
dinner after watching the play; it addresses all the criticism raised
about the piece by presenting the critics' arguments and then
dismissing them. This was the so-called Guerre comique (War of
Comedy), in which the opposite side was taken by writers like Donneau
de Visé, Edmé Boursault, and Montfleury.
But more serious opposition was brewing, focusing on Molière's
politics and his personal life. A so-called parti des Dévots arose in
French high society, who protested against Molière's excessive
"realism" and irreverence, which were causing some embarrassment.
These people accused
Molière of having married his daughter. The
Prince of Conti, once Molière's friend, joined them.
other enemies, too, among them the Jansenists and some traditional
authors. However, the king expressed support for the author, granting
him a pension and agreeing to be the godfather of Molière's first
son. Boileau also supported him through statements that he included in
his Art poétique.
Molière's friendship with
Jean-Baptiste Lully influenced him towards
writing his Le Mariage forcé and La Princesse d'Élide (subtitled as
Comédie galante mêlée de musique et d'entrées de ballet), written
for royal "divertissements" at the Palace of Versailles.
Tartuffe, ou L'Imposteur was also performed at Versailles, in 1664,
and created the greatest scandal of Molière's artistic career. Its
depiction of the hypocrisy of the dominant classes was taken as an
outrage and violently contested. It also aroused the wrath of the
Jansenists and the play was banned.
Molière was always careful not to attack the institution of monarchy.
He earned a position as one of the king's favourites and enjoyed his
protection from the attacks of the court. The king allegedly suggested
Molière suspend performances of Tartuffe, and the author rapidly
Dom Juan ou le Festin de Pierre to replace it. It was a strange
work, derived from a work by
Tirso de Molina
Tirso de Molina and rendered in a prose
that still seems modern today. It describes the story of an atheist
who becomes a religious hypocrite and for this is punished by God.
This work too was quickly suspended. The king, demonstrating his
protection once again, became the new official sponsor of Molière's
With music by Lully,
L'Amour médecin (Love Doctor
or Medical Love). Subtitles on this occasion reported that the work
was given "par ordre du Roi" (by order of the king) and this work was
received much more warmly than its predecessors.
Louis XIV invites
Molière to share his supper—an unfounded Romantic
anecdote, illustrated in 1863 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme
Le Misanthrope was produced. It is now widely regarded as
Molière's most refined masterpiece, the one with the highest moral
content, but it was little appreciated at its time. It caused the
"conversion" of Donneau de Visé, who became fond of his theatre. But
it was a commercial flop, forcing
Molière to immediately write Le
médecin malgré lui (The Doctor Despite Himself), a satire against
the official sciences. This was a success despite a moral treatise by
the Prince of Conti, criticizing the theater in general and Molière's
in particular. In several of his plays,
Molière depicted the
physicians of his day as pompous individuals who speak (poor) Latin to
impress others with false erudition, and know only clysters and
bleedings as (ineffective) remedies.
After the Mélicerte and the Pastorale comique, he tried again to
perform a revised
Tartuffe in 1667, this time with the name of
Panulphe or L'Imposteur. As soon as the King left
Paris for a tour,
Lamoignon and the archbishop banned the play. The King finally imposed
Tartuffe a few years later, after he had gained more power
over the clergy.
Molière, now ill, wrote less. Le Sicilien ou L'Amour peintre was
written for festivities at the castle of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, and
was followed in 1668 by Amphitryon, inspired both by Plautus' work of
the same name and Jean Rotrou's successful reconfiguration of the
drama. With some conjecture, Molière's play can be seen to allude to
the love affairs of Louis XIV, then king of France. George Dandin, ou
Le mari confondu (The Confounded Husband) was little appreciated, but
success returned with
L'Avare (The Miser), now very well known.
With Lully he again used music for
Monsieur de Pourceaugnac, for Les
Amants magnifiques, and finally for Le
Bourgeois gentilhomme (The
Middle Class Gentleman), another of his masterpieces. It is claimed to
be particularly directed against Colbert, the minister who had
condemned his old patron Fouquet. The collaboration with Lully ended
with a tragédie et ballet, Psyché, written in collaboration with
Pierre Corneille and Philippe Quinault.
Madeleine Béjart died, and
Molière suffered from this loss
and from the worsening of his own illness. Nevertheless, he wrote a
Les Fourberies de Scapin
Les Fourberies de Scapin ("Scapin's Deceits"), a farce and
a comedy in five acts. His following play, La Comtesse d'Escarbagnas,
is considered one of his lesser works.
Les Femmes savantes
Les Femmes savantes (The Learned Ladies) of 1672 is considered another
of Molière's masterpieces. It was born from the termination of the
legal use of music in theater, since Lully had patented the opera in
France (and taken most of the best available singers for his own
Molière had to go back to his traditional genre. It
was a great success, and it led to his last work (see below), which is
still held in high esteem.
In his 14 years in Paris,
Molière singlehandedly wrote 31 of the 85
plays performed on his stage.
Molière introduced the comédies-ballets in conjunction with
Les Fâcheux. These ballets were a transitional form of dance
performance between the court ballets of
Louis XIV and the art of
professional theatre which was developing in the advent of the use of
the proscenium stage. The comédies-ballets developed accidentally
Molière was enlisted to mount both a play and a ballet in the
Louis XIV and found that he did not have a big enough cast to
meet these demands.
Molière therefore decided to combine the ballet
and the play so that the his goal could be met while the performers
catch their breath and change costume. The risky move paid off and
Molière was asked to produce twelve more comédies-ballets before his
death. During the comédies-ballets,
Molière collaborated with
Pierre Beauchamp. Beauchamp codified the five balletic positions
of the feet and arms and was partly responsible for the creation of
the Beauchamp-Feuillet dance notation.
Molière also collaborated
with Jean-Baptiste Lully. Lully was a dancer, choreographer, and
composer, whose dominant reign at the
Paris Opéra lasted fifteen
years. Under his command, ballet and opera rightly became professional
arts unto themselves. The comédies-ballets closely integrated
dance with music and the action of the play and the style of
continuity distinctly separated these performances from the court
ballets of the time; additionally, the comédies-ballets demanded
that both the dancers and the actors play an important role in
advancing the story. Similar to the court ballets, both professionally
trained dancers and courtiers socialized together at the
Louis XIV even played the part of an Egyptian in
Molière's Le Mariage forcé (1664) and also appeared as Neptune and
Apollo in his retirement performance of Les Amants magnifiques
Molière's tomb at the Père Lachaise Cemetery. La Fontaine's is
visible just beyond.
Molière suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis, possibly contracted
when he was imprisoned for debt as a young man. One of the most famous
moments in Molière's life was his last, which became legend: he
collapsed on stage in a fit of coughing and haemorrhaging while
performing in the last play he'd written, which had lavish ballets
performed to the music of
Marc-Antoine Charpentier and which
ironically was entitled
Le Malade imaginaire
Le Malade imaginaire (The Imaginary Invalid).
Molière insisted on completing his performance. Afterwards he
collapsed again with another, larger haemorrhage before being taken
home, where he died a few hours later, without receiving the last
rites because two priests refused to visit him while a third arrived
too late. The superstition that green brings bad luck to actors is
said to originate from the colour of the clothing he was wearing at
the time of his death.
Under French law at the time, actors were not allowed to be buried in
the sacred ground of a cemetery. However, Molière's widow, Armande,
asked the King if her spouse could be granted a normal funeral at
night. The King agreed and Molière's body was buried in the part of
the cemetery reserved for unbaptised infants.
In 1792 his remains were brought to the museum of French monuments and
in 1817 transferred to
Père Lachaise Cemetery
Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, close to
those of La Fontaine.
Reception of his works
Molière statue on the Fontaine Molière, corner of Rue de Richelieu
Molière in Paris
Though conventional thinkers, religious leaders, and medical
professionals in Molière's time criticised his work, their ideas did
not really diminish his widespread success with the public. Other
playwrights and companies began to emulate his dramatic style in
England and in France. Molière's works continued to garner positive
feedback in 18th-century England, but they were not so warmly welcomed
in France at this time. However, during the French Restoration of the
19th century, Molière's comedies became popular with both the French
public and the critics. Romanticists admired his plays for the
unconventional individualism they portrayed. 20th-century scholars
have carried on this interest in
Molière and his plays and have
continued to study a wide array of issues relating to this playwright.
Many critics now are shifting their attention from the philosophical,
religious, and moral implications in his comedies to the more
objective study of his comic technique.
Molière's works were translated into English prose by
John Ozell in
1714, but the first complete version in English, by Baker and
Miller in 1739, remained "influential" and was long reprinted. The
first to offer full translations of Molière's verse plays such as
Tartuffe into English verse was Curtis Hidden Page, who produced blank
verse versions of three of the plays in his 1908 translation.
Since then, notable translations have been made by Richard Wilbur,
Donald M. Frame, and many others.
In his memoir A Terrible Liar, actor
Hume Cronyn writes that, in 1962,
Laurence Olivier criticized
Molière in a
conversation with him. According to Cronyn, he mentioned to Olivier
that he (Cronyn) was about to play the title role in The Miser, and
that Olivier then responded, "Molière? Funny as a baby's open grave."
Cronyn comments on the incident: "You may imagine how that made me
feel. Fortunately, he was dead wrong."
Author Martha Bellinger points out that:
[Molière] has been accused of not having a consistent, organic style,
of using faulty grammar, of mixing his metaphors, and of using
unnecessary words for the purpose of filling out his lines. All these
things are occasionally true, but they are trifles in comparison to
the wealth of character he portrayed, to his brilliancy of wit, and to
the resourcefulness of his technique. He was wary of sensibility or
pathos; but in place of pathos he had "melancholy—a puissant and
searching melancholy, which strangely sustains his inexhaustible mirth
and his triumphant gaiety".
Influence on French culture
Molière is considered the creator of modern French comedy. Many words
or phrases used in Molière's plays are still used in current French:
A tartuffe is a hypocrite, especially a hypocrite displaying affected
morality or religious piety.
A harpagon, named after the main character of The Miser, is an
obsessively greedy and cheap man.
The statue of the Commander (statue du Commandeur) from Don Juan is
used as a model of implacable rigidity (raide comme la statue du
In Les Fourberies de Scapin, Act II, scene 7, Géronte is asked for
ransom money for his son, allegedly held in a galley. He repeats,
"What the deuce did he want to go in that galley for?" ("Que diable
allait-il faire dans cette galère?") The phrase "to go on that
galley" is used to describe unnecessary difficulties a person has
In Le médecin malgré lui, forced to impersonate a doctor, the
chancer Sganarelle examines a young woman who is faking muteness in
order to delay an arranged marriage. He then delivers to her father a
"diagnosis" which consists of strings of gobbledygook, dog latin and
recursive explanations which conclude with an authoritative "and so
that is why your daughter is mute" ("Et voilà pourquoi votre fille
est muette"). The phrase is used wholesale to mock an unsatisfactory
Portrayals of Molière
French literary history
16th century • 17th century
18th century • 19th century
20th century • Contemporary
Literature of Quebec
Literature of Haiti
Writers • Novelists
Playwrights • Poets
Short story writers
Novel • Poetry • Plays
Science fiction • Comics
Naturalism • Symbolism
Surrealism • Existentialism
Theatre of the Absurd
Criticism and awards
Literary theory • Critics
Molière • Racine • Balzac
Stendhal • Flaubert
Zola • Proust
Beckett • Camus
France • French language
Literature • Francophone literature
Molière plays a small part in Alexandre Dumas's novel The Vicomte of
Bragelonne, in which he is seen taking inspiration from the muskeeter
Porthos for his central character in Le
Mikhail Bulgakov wrote a semi-fictitious
biography-tribute to Molière, titled Life of Mr. de Molière. Written
1932–1933, first published 1962.
The French 1978 film simply titled
Molière directed by Ariane
Mnouchkine and starring
Philippe Caubère presents his complete
biography. It was in competition for the
Palme d'Or at Cannes in 1978.
He is portrayed among other writers in The Blasphemers' Banquet
The 2000 film
Le Roi Danse (The King Dances), in which
played by Tchéky Karyo, shows his collaborations with Jean-Baptiste
Lully, as well as his illness and on-stage death. The 2007 French film
Molière was more loosely based on the life of Molière, starring
Fabrice Luchini and Ludivine Sagnier.
List of major works
Le Médecin volant (1645)—The Flying Doctor
La Jalousie du barbouillé (1650)—The Jealousy of le Barbouillé
L'Étourdi ou Les Contretemps (1655)—The Blunderer, or, the
Le Dépit amoureux (16 December 1656)—The Love-Tiff
Le Docteur amoureux (1658), the first play performed by Molière's
Louis XIV (now lost)—The Doctor in Love
Les Précieuses ridicules
Les Précieuses ridicules (18 November 1659)—The Affected Young
Sganarelle ou Le Cocu imaginaire (28 May 1660)—Sganarelle, or the
Dom Garcie de Navarre ou Le Prince jaloux (4 February 1661)—Don
Garcia of Navarre or the Jealous Prince
L'École des maris (24 June 1661)—The School for Husbands
Les Fâcheux (17 August 1661)—The Mad (also translated The Bores)
L'École des femmes
L'École des femmes (26 December 1662; adapted into The Amorous Flea,
1964)—The School for Wives
La Jalousie du Gros-René (15 April 1663)—The Jealousy of Gros-René
La Critique de l'école des femmes (1 June 1663)—Critique of the
School for Wives
L'Impromptu de Versailles (14 October 1663)—The Versailles Impromptu
Le Mariage forcé (29 January 1664)—The Forced Marriage
Gros-René, petit enfant (27 April 1664; now lost)—Gros-René, Small
La Princesse d'Élide (8 May 1664)—The Princess of Elid
Tartuffe ou L'Imposteur (12 May 1664)—Tartuffe, or, the Impostor
Dom Juan ou Le Festin de pierre (15 February 1665)—Don Juan, or, The
Stone Banquet (subtitle also translated The Stone Guest, The Feast
with the Statue, &c.)
L'Amour médecin (15 September 1665)—Love Is the Doctor
Le Misanthrope ou L'Atrabilaire amoureux (4 June 1666)—The
Misanthrope, or, the Cantankerous Lover
Le Médecin malgré lui
Le Médecin malgré lui (6 August 1666)—The Doctor in Spite of
Mélicerte (2 December 1666)
Pastorale comique (5 January 1667)—Comic Pastoral
Le Sicilien ou L'Amour peintre (14 February 1667)—The Sicilian, or
Love the Painter
Amphitryon (13 January 1668)
George Dandin ou Le Mari confondu (18 July 1668)—George Dandin, or
the Abashed Husband
L'Avare ou L'École du mensonge (9 September 1668)—The Miser, or,
the School for Lies
Monsieur de Pourceaugnac (6 October 1669)
Les Amants magnifiques (4 February 1670)—The Magnificent Lovers
Bourgeois gentilhomme (14 October 1670)—The
Psyché (17 January 1671)—Psyche
Les Fourberies de Scapin
Les Fourberies de Scapin (24 May 1671)—The Impostures of Scapin
La Comtesse d'Escarbagnas (2 December 1671)—The Countess of
Les Femmes savantes
Les Femmes savantes (11 March 1672)—The Learned Ladies
Le Malade imaginaire
Le Malade imaginaire (10 February 1673)—The Imaginary Invalid
^ "Molière". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ Hartnoll, p. 554. "Author of some of the finest comedies in the
history of the theater", and Roy, p. 756. "...one of the theatre's
greatest comic artists".
^ Roy, p. 756.
^ a b Roy, p. 756–757.
^ Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft (1840). Lives of the Most Eminent
French Writers. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard. p. 116.
^ Brockett, Oscar (2008). History of the Theatre. USA: Pearson.
p. 199. ISBN 978-0-025-51186-0 Check isbn= value: checksum
^ John W. O'Malley, The Jesuits; a history from Ignatius to the
present, London, Sheed and Ward, 2014, p.30 ,
^ Alfred Simon, Molière, une vie (Lyon: La Manufacture, 1988), pp.
^ Martin Barnham. “The Cambridge Guide to Theater.” Cambridge
Univ. Pr., 1995, p. 472.
^ a b c d e Au, Susan (2002). Ballet and Modern Dance - Second
Edition. London: Thames & Hudson LTD. p. 23.
^ Au, Susan (2002). Ballet and Modern Dance - Second Edition. London:
Thames & Hudson LTD. p. 26.
^ Au, Susan (2002). Ballet and Modern Dance - Second Edition. London:
Thames & Hudson LTD. p. 25.
^ a b Au, Susan (2002). Ballet and Modern Dance - Second Edition.
London: Thames & Hudson LTD. p. 24.
^ ""Molière: Introduction" ''Drama Criticism''. Vol. 13. Ed. Linda
Pavlovski. Gale Group, Inc., 2001. Accessed: 28 Nov, 2007".
Enotes.com. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
^ "Bibliography" in Curtis Hidden Page, trans., French Classics for
Molière New York & London, G.P. Putnam's Sons,
1908, Vol. 1, p. xliii. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
^ Olive Classe, ed., Encyclopedia of literary translation into
English: M-Z, Volume 2 London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 2000, Vol.
2, p. 958. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
^ "Preface to the Translation" in Curtis Hidden Page, trans., French
Classics for English Readers:
Molière New York & London, G.P.
Putnam's Sons, 1908, Vol. 1, p. xxxi. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
^ Hume Cronyn, A Terrible Liar: A Memoir, New York: Morrow, 1991, p.
275. Accessed via Google Books on 1 Nov. 2009. Retrieved
^ "Bellinger, Martha Fletcher (1927) ''A Short History of the Drama''
New York: Henry Holt & Company. pp. 178-81. Accessed: Nov 27,
2007". Theatredatabase.com. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
Dormandy, Thomas. "The white death: a history of tuberculosis", New
York University Press, 2000, p. 10
Hartnoll, Phyllis (ed.). The Oxford Companion to the Theatre, 1983,
Oxford University Press
Roy, Donald. "Molière", in Banham, Martin (ed.) The Cambridge Guide
to Theatre, 1995, Cambridge University Press
Scott, Virginia. Molière, A Theatrical Life, 2000, Cambridge
Molière and Modernity, Charlottesville: Rookwood Press
Patricia M. Ranum, Portraits around Marc-Antoine Charpentier
(Baltimore, 2004), "Molière", pp. 141–49
Claude Alberge, Voyage de
Languedoc (1647–1657) (Presses
du Languedoc, 1988)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Molière.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Molière
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Molière at Encyclopædia Britannica
Molière at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
Molière at Internet Archive
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Molière's works online at toutmoliere.net (in French)
Molière's works online at site-moliere.com
Molière's works online at InLibroVeritas.net
Biography, Bibliography, Analysis, Plot overview at biblioweb.org (in
Moliere's Verses Plays Publication, Statistics, Words Research (in
The Comédie Française Registers a database of over 34,000
performances from 1680 to 1791
Free Online 2010 American Translation of
Dom Juan ou le Festin de
Free Online 2011 American Translation of Le Médecin malgré lui
Free Online 2012 American Translation of Les Fourberies de Scapin
Le Médecin volant
Les Précieuses ridicules
Sganarelle, or The Imaginary Cuckold
The School for Husbands
The School for Wives
Le Médecin malgré lui
George Dandin ou le Mari confondu
Monsieur de Pourceaugnac
Scapin the Schemer
Les Femmes Savantes
The Imaginary Invalid
Armande Béjart (wife)
Troupe of Molière
Molière (1978 film)
Molière (2007 film)
Le tartuffe (1984)
Tartuffe (1980 opera)
Story within a story
Hidalgo: La historia jamás contada
Le Roi danse
Le Médecin malgré lui
Le Médecin malgré lui (1666)
The Mock Doctor (1732 play)
Le médecin malgré lui
Le médecin malgré lui (1858 opera)
The Doctor in Spite of Himself (1931)
The Doctor in Spite of Himself (1999)
Le Médecin volant
"Bring a Torch, Jeanette, Isabella"
ISNI: 0000 0001 2319 7131
BNF: cb11916418p (data)