Misotheism is the "hatred of God" or "hatred of the gods" (from the
Greek adjective μισόθεος "hating the gods", a compound of
μῖσος "hatred" and θεός "god"). In some varieties of
polytheism, it was considered possible to inflict punishment on gods
by ceasing to worship them. Thus, Hrafnkell,
protagonist of the eponymous
Hrafnkels saga set in the 10th century,
as his temple to
Freyr is burnt and he is enslaved, states that "I
think it is folly to have faith in gods", never performing another
blót (sacrifice), a position described in the sagas as goðlauss,
Jacob Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology observes that:
It is remarkable that Old Norse legend occasionally mentions certain
men who, turning away in utter disgust and doubt from the heathen
faith, placed their reliance on their own strength and virtue. Thus in
the Sôlar lioð 17 we read of Vêbogi and Râdey á sjálf sig þau
trûðu, "in themselves they trusted".
In monotheism, the sentiment arises in the context of theodicy (the
problem of evil, the Euthyphro dilemma). A famous literary expression
of misotheistic sentiment is Goethe's Prometheus, composed in the
A related concept is dystheism (Ancient Greek: δύσ θεος "bad
god"), the belief that a god is not wholly good, and is possibly evil.
Trickster gods found in polytheistic belief systems often have a
dystheistic nature. One example is Eshu, a trickster god from Yoruba
religion who deliberately fostered violence between groups of people
for his own amusement, saying that "causing strife is my greatest
The concept of the
Demiurge in some versions of ancient Gnosticism
also often portrayed the
Demiurge as a generally evil entity.
Many polytheistic deities since prehistoric times have been assumed to
be neither good nor evil (or to have both qualities). Thus dystheism
is normally used in reference to the Judeo-Christian God. In
God as the summum bonum, the proposition of
being wholly good would be an oxymoron.
A historical proposition close to "dystheism" is the deus deceptor
"evil demon" (dieu trompeur) of René Descartes' Meditations on First
Philosophy, which has been interpreted by Protestant critics as the
blasphemous proposition that
God exhibits malevolent intent. But
Richard Kennington states that Descartes never declared his
"evil genius" to be omnipotent, but merely no less powerful than he is
deceitful, and thus not explicitly an equivalent to God, the singular
3 Deus deceptor
Misotheism in art and literature
5.1 Poetry and drama
5.2 Modern literature
5.3 Speculative fiction
5.4 Popular music
5.5 Modern art
6 See also
9 External links
Misotheism first appears in a dictionary in 1907. The Greek
μισόθεος is found in
Aeschylus (Agamemnon 1090). The English
word appears as a nonce-coinage, used by
Thomas de Quincey
Thomas de Quincey in 1846.
It is comparable to the original meaning of Greek atheos of "rejecting
the gods, rejected by the gods, godforsaken". Strictly speaking, the
term connotes an attitude towards the gods (one of hatred) rather than
making a statement about their nature.
Bernard Schweizer (2002) stated
"that the English vocabulary seems to lack a suitable word for
outright hatred of God... [even though] history records a number of
outspoken misotheists", believing "misotheism" to be his original
coinage. Applying the term to the work of
Philip Pullman (His Dark
Materials), Schweizer clarifies that he does not mean the term to
carry the negative connotations of misanthropy: "To me, the word
connotes a heroic stance of humanistic affirmation and the courage to
defy the powers that rule the universe."
Dystheism is the belief that
God exists but is not wholly good, or
that he might even be evil. The opposite concept is eutheism, the
God exists and is wholly good. Eutheism and dystheism are
straightforward Greek formations from eu- and dys- + theism,
paralleling atheism; δύσθεος in the sense of "godless, ungodly"
appearing e.g. in
Aeschylus (Agamemnon 1590). The terms are nonce
coinages, used by
University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin philosophy professor
Robert C. Koons in a 1998 lecture. According to Koons, "eutheism is
the thesis that
God exists and is wholly good, [... while] dystheism
is the thesis that
God exists but is not wholly good." However, many
proponents of dystheistic ideas (including
Elie Wiesel and David
Blumenthal) do not offer those ideas in the spirit of hating God.
Their work notes God's apparent evil or at least indifferent
disinterest in the welfare of humanity, but does not express hatred
towards him because of it. A notable usage of the concept that the
gods are either indifferent or actively hostile towards humanity is in
Cthulhu mythos of H.P. Lovecraft.
Maltheism is an ad-hoc coining appearing on
Usenet in 1985,
referring to the belief in God's malevolence inspired by the thesis of
Tim Maroney that "even if a
God as described in the
Bible does exist,
he is not fit for worship due to his low moral standards." The same
term has also seen use among designers and players of role-playing
games to describe a world with a malevolent deity.
Antitheism is direct opposition to theism. As such, it is generally
manifested more as an opposition to belief in a god (to theism per se)
than as opposition to gods themselves, making it more associated with
Buddhism is generally considered to be a
religion despite its status with respect to theism being more
Antitheism by this definition does not necessarily imply
belief in any sort of god at all, it simply stands in opposition to
the idea of theistic religion. Under this definition, antitheism is a
rejection of theism that does not necessarily imply belief in gods on
the part of the antitheist. Some might equate any form of antitheism
to an overt opposition to God, since these beliefs run contrary to the
idea of making devotion to
God the highest priority in life, although
those ideas would imply that
God exists, and that he wishes to be
worshiped, or to be believed in.
Certain forms of dualism make the assertion that the thing worshiped
God in this world is actually an evil impostor, but that a true
benevolent deity worthy of being called "God" exists beyond this
world. Thus, the Gnostics (see Sethian, Ophites) believed that God
(the deity worshiped by Jews, Greek Pagan philosophers and Christians)
was really an evil creator or demiurge that stood between us and some
greater, more truly benevolent real deity. Similarly, Marcionites
God as represented in the
Old Testament as a wrathful,
Main articles: Theodicy, Problem of evil, and
Dystheistic speculation arises from consideration of the problem of
evil — the question of why God, who is supposedly omnipotent,
omniscient, and omnibenevolent, would allow evil to exist in the
world. Koons notes that this is only a theological problem for a
eutheist, since a dystheist would not find the existence of evil (or
God's authorship of it) to be an obstacle to theistic belief. In fact,
the dystheistic option would be a consistent non-contradictory
response to the problem of evil. Thus Koons concludes that the problem
of theodicy (explaining how
God can be good despite the apparent
contradiction presented in the problem of evil) does not pose a
challenge to all possible forms of theism (i.e., that the problem of
evil does not present a contradiction to someone who would believe
God exists but that he is not necessarily good).
This conclusion implicitly takes the first horn of the Euthyphro
dilemma, asserting the independence of good and evil morality from God
God is defined in monotheistic belief). Historically, the notion
of "good" as an absolute concept has emerged in parallel with the
God being the singular entity identified with good. In this
sense, dystheism amounts to the abandonment of a central feature of
historical monotheism: the de facto association of
God with the summum
Arthur Schopenhauer wrote: "This world could not have been the work of
an all-loving being, but that of a devil, who had brought creatures
into existence in order to delight in the sight of their sufferings."
Critics of Calvin's doctrines of predestination frequently argued that
Calvin's doctrines did not successfully avoid describing
God as "the
author of evil".
Much of post-
Holocaust theology, especially in Judaic theological
circles, is devoted to a rethinking of God's goodness. Examples
include the work of David R. Blumenthal, author of Facing the Abusing
God (1993) and John K. Roth, whose essay "A
Theodicy of Protest" is
included in Encountering Evil: Live Options in
Everything hinges on the proposition that
God possesses—but fails to
use well enough—the power to intervene decisively at any moment to
make history's course less wasteful. Thus, in spite and because of his
God is everlastingly guilty and the degrees run from
gross negligence to mass murder...
To the extent that [people] are born with the potential and power to
[do evil things], credit for that fact belongs elsewhere. "Elsewhere"
is God's address.
Main article: Deus deceptor
The deus deceptor (French dieu trompeur) "deceptive god" is a concept
Voetius accused Descartes of blasphemy in 1643.
Jacques Triglandius and Jacobus Revius, theologians at Leiden
University, made similar accusations in 1647, accusing Descartes of
God to be a deceiver", a position that they stated to be
"contrary to the glory of God". Descartes was threatened with having
his views condemned by a synod, but this was prevented by the
intercession of the
Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange (at the request of the French
Ambassador Servien). The accusations referenced a passage in the
First Meditation where Descartes stated that he supposed not an
God but rather an evil demon "summe potens & callidus" (
"most highly powerful and cunning"). The accusers identified
Descartes' concept of a deus deceptor with his concept of an evil
demon, stating that only an omnipotent
God is "summe potens" and that
describing the evil demon as such thus demonstrated the identity.
Descartes' response to the accusations was that in that passage he had
been expressly distinguishing between "the supremely good God, the
source of truth, on the one hand, and the malicious demon on the
other". He did not directly rebut the charge of implying that the evil
demon was omnipotent, but asserted that simply describing something
with "some attribute that in reality belongs only to God" does not
mean that that something is being held to actually be a supreme
The evil demon is omnipotent, Christian doctrine notwithstanding, and
is seen as a key requirement for Descartes' argument by Cartesian
scholars such as Alguié, Beck, Émile Bréhier, Chevalier, Frankfurt,
Étienne Gilson, Anthony Kenny, Laporte, Kemp-Smith, and Wilson. The
progression through the First Meditation, leading to the introduction
of the concept of the evil genius at the end, is to introduce various
categories into the set of dubitables, such as mathematics (i.e.
Descartes' addition of 2 and 3 and counting the sides of a square).
Although the hypothetical evil genius is never stated to be one and
the same as the hypothetical "deus deceptor," (
God the deceiver) the
inference by the reader that they are is a natural one, and the
requirement that the deceiver is capable of introducing deception even
into mathematics is seen by commentators as a necessary part of
Descartes' argument. Scholars contend that in fact Descartes was not
introducing a new hypothetical, merely couching the idea of a
God in terms that would not be offensive.
Paul Erdős, the eccentric and extremely prolific Hungarian-born
mathematician, referred to the notion of deus deceptor in a humorous
context when he called
God "the Supreme Fascist", who deliberately hid
things from people, ranging from socks and passports to the most
elegant of mathematical proofs. A similar sentiment is expressed by
Douglas Adams in
The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy
The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy in reference to
the temptation of
Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve by God:
[God] puts an apple tree in the middle of [the Garden of Eden] and
says, do what you like guys, oh, but don't eat the apple. Surprise
surprise, they eat it and he leaps out from behind a bush shouting
"Gotcha." It wouldn't have made any difference if they hadn't eaten
it...Because if you're dealing with somebody who has the sort of
mentality which likes leaving hats on the pavement with bricks under
them you know perfectly well they won't give up. They'll get you in
Main article: Ethics in the
Bible § God's benevolence
There are various examples of arguable dystheism in the Bible,
sometimes cited as arguments for atheism (e.g.
Bertrand Russell 1957),
most of them from the Pentateuch. A notable exception is the Book of
Job, a classical case study of theodicy, which can be argued to
consciously discuss the possibility of dystheism (e.g. Carl Jung,
Answer to Job).
Thomas Paine wrote in
The Age of Reason
The Age of Reason that "whenever we read the
obscene stories, the voluptuous debaucheries, the cruel and torturous
executions, the unrelenting vindictiveness, with which more than half
Bible is filled, it would be more consistent that we called it the
word of a demon than the word of God." But Paine's perspective was
a deistic one, critical more of common beliefs about
God than of God
New Testament contains references to an "evil god", specifically
the "prince of this world" (John 14:30, ο του κοσμου
τουτου αρχων) or "god of this world" (2 Corinthians 4:4, ο
θεος του αιωνος τουτου) who has "blinded the minds
of men". Mainstream
Christian theology sees these as references to
Satan ("the Devil"), but Gnostics, Marcionites, and Manicheans saw
these as references to
Yahweh (God) himself.
God as wrathful or violent are more sparse in the New
Testament than in the Old, but a number of antitheist speakers,
notably Hitchens and
Matt Dillahunty have drawn attention to a number
of passages.
Misotheism in art and literature
Misotheistic and/or dystheistic expression has a long history in the
arts and in literature. Bernard Schweizer’s book Hating God: The
Untold Story of
Misotheism is devoted to this topic. He traces the
history of ideas behind misotheism from the Book of Job, via
Epicureanism and the twilight of Roman paganism, to deism, anarchism,
Nietzschean philosophy, feminism, and radical humanism. The main
literary figures in his study are Percy Bysshe Shelley, Algernon
Swinburne, Zora Neale Hurston, Rebecca West, Elie Wiesel, Peter
Shaffer, and Philip Pullman. Schweizer argues that literature is the
preferred medium for the expression of God-hatred because the creative
possibilities of literature allow writers to simultaneously unburden
themselves of their misotheism, while ingeneously veiling their
Other examples include:
the work of the Marquis de Sade
Emily Dickinson's poem "Apparently With No Surprise" depicts
approving of suffering in the world, relating the tale of a flower
"beheaded" by a late frost as the sun "measure[s] off another day for
an approving God".
Mark Twain (himself a Deist) argued against what he saw as the petty
God many followed in a posthumously published book, The Bible
According to Mark Twain: Writings on Heaven, Eden, and the Flood. He
talks, in part, about the African "sleeping sickness", malaria.
Ivan Karamazov in Fyodor Dostoyevsky's 1879 The Brothers Karamazov
articulates what might be termed a dystheistic rejection of God. Koons
covered this argument in the lecture immediately following the one
referenced above. It was also discussed by
Peter S. Fosl
Peter S. Fosl in his essay
titled "The Moral Imperative to Rebel Against God".
Konrad, the protagonist of Adam Mickiewicz's Forefathers' Eve, calls
God a tsar.
In more recent times, the sentiment is present in a variety of media:
Poetry and drama
The characters in several of Tennessee Williams' plays express
dystheistic attitudes, including the Rev. T. Lawrence Shannon in The
Night of the Iguana.
Robert Frost's poem "Design" questions how
God could have created
death if he were benevolent.
In Jewish author Elie Wiesel's play The Trial of
God (1979), the
survivors of a pogrom, in which most of the inhabitants of a
17th-century Jewish village were massacred, put
God on trial for his
cruelty and indifference to their misery. The play is based on an
actual trial Wiesel participated in that was conducted by inmates of
Auschwitz concentration camp during the Nazi holocaust, but it
also references a number of other incidents in Jewish history
including a similar trial conducted by the
Rabbi Levi Yosef
Yitzhak of Berdichev:
Men and women are being beaten, tortured and killed. True, they are
victims of men. But the killers kill in God's name. Not all? True, but
let one killer kill for God's glory, and
God is guilty. Every person
who suffers or causes suffering, every woman who is raped, every child
who is tormented implicates Him. What, you need more? A hundred or a
thousand? Listen, either he is responsible or he is not. If he is,
let's judge him. If he is not, let him stop judging us.[citation
Several non-Jewish authors share Wiesel's concerns about God's nature,
Salman Rushdie (The Satanic Verses, Shalimar the Clown) and
Anne Provoost (In the Shadow of the Ark):
Why would you trust a
God that doesn't give us the right book?
Throughout history, he's given the Jewish people a book, he's given
the Christians a book, and he's given the Muslims books, and there are
big similarities between these books, but there are also
contradictions. ... He needs to come back and create clarity and not
... let us fight over who's right. He should make it clear. So, my
personal answer to your question, "Should we trust [a
God who can't
get things right]", I wouldn't.
The writing of
Sir Kingsley Amis
Sir Kingsley Amis contains some misotheistic themes;
e.g. in The Green Man (God's appearance as the young man), and in The
Anti-Death League (the anonymous poem received by the chaplain).
A number of speculative fiction works present a dystheistic
perspective, at least as far back as the works of H. P. Lovecraft and
Olaf Stapledon's influential philosophical short novel Star Maker.
By the 1970s,
Harlan Ellison even described dystheism as a bit of a
science fiction cliché. Ellison himself has dealt with the theme in
his "The Deathbird", the title story of Deathbird Stories, a
collection based on the theme of (for the most part) malevolent
modern-day gods. Lester del Rey's "Evensong" (the first story in
Harlan Ellison's much-acclaimed
Dangerous Visions anthology), tells
the story of a fugitive
God hunted down across the universe by a
vengeful humanity which seeks to "put him in his place". "Faith of Our
Fathers" by Philip K. Dick, also from the same anthology, features a
horrifying vision of a being, possibly God, who is all-devouring and
amoral. Philip Pullman's previously mentioned trilogy, His Dark
Materials, presented the theme of a negligent or evil
God to a wider
audience, as depicted in the 2007 film The Golden Compass based on the
first book of this trilogy.
The original series of
Star Trek featured episodes with dystheistic
themes, amongst them "The Squire of Gothos", "Who Mourns for
Adonais?", "For the World Is Hollow and I Have Touched the Sky", and
"The Return of the Archons". In "Encounter at Farpoint", the pilot
episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Captain Jean-Luc Picard
informs Q, a trickster with god-like powers similar to the antagonist
in the aforementioned "Squire of Gothos" episode, that 24th century
humans no longer had any need to depend upon or worship god figures.
This is an amplification of the tempered anti-theistic sentiment from
"Who Mourns for Adonais?", in which Captain
James T. Kirk
James T. Kirk tells Apollo
that "Mankind has no need for gods, we find the one quite adequate."
In Star Trek: Deep Space Nine it is revealed that the Klingon creation
myth involves the first Klingons killing the gods that created them
because, "They were more trouble than they were worth."
In the film Pitch Black, anti-hero protagonist Richard B. Riddick
stated his own belief, "Think someone could spend half their life in a
slam with a horse bit in their mouth and not believe? Think he could
start out in some liquor store trash bin with an umbilical cord
wrapped around his neck and not believe? Got it all wrong, holy man. I
absolutely believe in God... and I absolutely hate the fucker."
Robert A. Heinlein's book Job: A Comedy of Justice, which is mostly
about religious institutions, ends with an appearance by
is far from complimentary.
The Athar, a fictional organization from the D&D's Planescape
Campaign Setting denies the divinity of the setting's deities. They
do, however, tend to worship "The Great Unknown" in their place.
Misotheism is a 2008 album by Belgian black metal band Gorath.
Dystheistic sentiment has also made its way into popular music,
evincing itself in controversial songs like "Dear God" by the band
XTC (later covered by Sarah McLachlan) and "Blasphemous Rumours"
by Depeche Mode, which tells the story of a teenage girl who attempted
suicide, survived, and turned her life over to God, only to be hit by
a car, wind up on life support, and eventually die. A good deal of
Gary Numan's work, specifically the album Exile, is laden with
The output of Oscar-winning songwriter/composer
Randy Newman also
includes several songs expressing dystheistic sentiment, including the
ironic "He Gives Us All His Love" and the more overtly maltheistic
"God's Song (That's Why I Love Mankind)", both from his acclaimed
1972 album Sail Away. In the latter song, Newman bemoans the futility
of dealing with
God whose attitude towards humanity he sees as one of
contempt and cruelty.
The song "
God Made" by
Andrew Jackson Jihad
Andrew Jackson Jihad proposes dystheism and has
an implied hatred for God. More specifically, their song "Be Afraid of
Jesus" is about a vengeful Christ although this could be a critique of
fundamentalist hate speech.
God Am" by
Alice in Chains
Alice in Chains from their self-titled release has many
misotheistic themes about the perceived apathy of
God towards the evil
in this world.
American death metal bands Deicide and
Morbid Angel base much of their
lyrics around misotheism in name and in concept. Many bands in the
black metal genre, such as Mayhem, Emperor, Gorgoroth and Darkthrone
express extreme misotheism in their lyrics and actions, which involved
burning down churches during the early 1990s.
In 2006, Australian artist Archie Moore created a paper sculpture
called "Maltheism", which was considered for a
Telstra Art Award in
2006. The piece was intended as a representation of a church made from
pages of the Book of Deuteronomy:
...and within its text is the endorsement from
invasion of other nations. It says that you have the right to invade,
take all their resources, kill all the men (non-believers) and make no
treaty with them.
Criticism of religion
Divine command theory
Ethics in the Bible
God as the Devil
God is dead
Problem of hell
History of atheism
Lawsuits against God
Love of God
^ Jacob Grimm: Teutonic Mythology Chapter 1. page 2. (Grimm's Teutonic
Mythology Translation Project.)
Richard Kennington (1991). "The 'Teaching of Nature' in Descartes'
Soul Doctrine". In Georges Joseph Daniel Moyal. René Descartes:
Critical Assessments. Routledge. p. 139.
^ Richard M. Kennington (2004). "The Finitude of Descartes' Evil
Genius". On Modern Origins: Essays in Early Modern Philosophy.
Lexington Books. p. 146. ISBN 0-7391-0815-8.
^ New English Dictionary, under miso-; also explicitly in 1913, Noah
Webster's Dictionary of the English Language Archived 2007-09-29 at
the Wayback Machine..
^ "On Christianity As An Organ of Political Movement" (1846).
^ Bernard Schweizer, 'Religious Subversion in
His Dark Materials
His Dark Materials in:
Millicent Lenz, Carole Scott (eds.)
His Dark Materials
His Dark Materials Illuminated:
Critical Essays On Philip Pullman's Trilogy (2005), p. 172, note 3.
^ Seidner, Stanley S. (June 10, 2009) "A Trojan Horse: Logotherapeutic
Transcendence and its Secular Implications for Theology". Mater Dei
Institute. pp. 11-12.
^ Apparently coined by Paul Zimmerman in August 1985, on net.origins
referring to the misotheistic belief that
God was in fact not a
"Creator-God" but a "Damager-God".
Usenet posting of Maroney's "Even If I Did Believe" essay,
31 December 1983
^ Naylor et al. (1994)
^ See the example of Viktor Frankl in Seidner, Stanley S. (June 10,
2009) "A Trojan Horse: Logotherapeutic Transcendence and its Secular
Implications for Theology". Mater Dei Institute. p 11.
^ Roth et al. (1982) - Extracted from a review of Roth's essay, in
which the author comments that "Roth is painting a picture of
the ultimate example of a bad and abusive parent!"
^ a b c Janowski, Zbigniew (2000). Cartesian Theodicy: Descartes'
quest for certitude. Archives Internationales D'Histoire des
Idees/International Archives of the History of Ideas. Springer.
pp. 62–68. ISBN 978-0-7923-6127-5.
Thomas Paine (1819). The Political and Miscellaneous Works of Thomas
Paine ... R. Carlile. pp. 4–.
^ Bernard Schweizer, Hating God: The Untold Story of Misotheism
^ Iwan Bloch, Marquis De Sade: His Life and Works (2002), p. 216.
^ Transcript of interview with
Anne Provoost by
Bill Moyers for his
"Faith and Reason" PBS TV series
^ "Dear God", performed by
XTC (written by Andy Partridge)
^ "Blasphemous Rumours", performed by
Depeche Mode (written by Martin
^ "God's Song (That's Why I Love Mankind)" Archived 2006-11-13 at the
Wayback Machine., performed by
Randy Newman (written by Randy Newman)
^ From the educational resource pamphlet accompanying the presentation
of the 23rd
Telstra National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Art
Award Archived 2006-09-16 at the Wayback Machine.
Blumenthal, David R. (1993). Facing the Abusing God: A
Protest. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1993.
p. 348. ISBN 0-664-25464-0.
Ehrman, Bart D. (2008). God's Problem: How the
Bible Fails to Answer
Our Most Important Question--Why We Suffer. New York, NY: HarperOne,
2008. p. 304. ISBN 0-06-117397-5.
Mirabello, Mark, The Crimes of Jehovah (1997),
Naylor, Janet; Julian, Caroline; Pinsonneault, Susan (1994). GURPS
Religion. Austin, TX: Steve Jackson Games, 1994. p. 176.
Phillips, D. Z. (2005). The Problem of
Evil and The Problem of God.
Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress, 2005. p. 280.
Provoost, Anne (2004). In the Shadow of the Ark. Minneapolis, MN:
Arthur A. Levine, 2004. p. 384. ISBN 0-439-44234-6.
Roth, John K. (et al.) (1982). Encountering Evil: Live Options in
Theodicy. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1982.
p. 182. ISBN 0-8042-0517-5.
Russell, Bertrand (1957). Why I Am Not A Christian. New York, NY:
Simon & Schuster, 1957. p. 266. ASIN B000JX1TIK.
Sutherland, Robert (2006). Putting
God on Trial: The Biblical Book of
Job. Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishing, 2006. p. 226.
Schweizer, Bernard (2010). Hating God: The Untold Story of Misotheism.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. p. 246.
Schweizer, Bernard (2002). Rebecca West: Heroism, Rebellion, and the
Female Epic. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002. p. 184.
Wiesel, Elie (1979). The Trial of God. New York, NY: Random House,
1979. p. 208. ISBN 0-8052-1053-9.
Look up misotheism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Robert Koons (University of Texas at Austin) developing
concepts of dystheism and eutheism (see also)
Articles and essays from web site of David R. Blumenthal (Professor of
Judaic Studies at
Emory University and author of Facing the Abusing
Theology of Protest)
The moral imperative to rebel against
Peter S. Fosl
Peter S. Fosl in The
Why isn't Christianity considered evil? (from the AskPhilosophers
forum at Amherst College)
Account from the life of
Rabbi Levi Yitzhak of Berditchev that was
part of the inspiration for Wiesel's "The Trial of God"
Transcript of interview with Elie Wiesel
Anne Provoost's novel In the Shadow of the Ark (interview)
George Carlin on God
Lyrics to Randy Newman's "God's Song (That's Why I Love Mankind)"
Lyrics to Depeche Mode's "Blasphemous Rumours"
Mr. Deity, a series of short videos by
Brian Keith Dalton
Brian Keith Dalton depicting a
bumbling and callously malicious God
Introduction to literary misotheism, Q&A, and blog
Atrocities committed or commanded by God
God and his servants
Even If I Did Believe
Online introduction to Maltheism
Scientific or New atheism
List of philosophies
Conceptions of God
God and gods
the Bahá'í Faith
Shield of the Trinity
Trinity of the Church Fathers
God in Christianity / in Islam
Godhead in Christianity
Latter Day Saints
Great Architect of the Universe
Oneness of God