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Minnesota
Minnesota
(/ˌmɪnɪˈsoʊtə/ ( listen)) is a state in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota
Minnesota
was admitted as the 32nd U.S. state
U.S. state
on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota
Minnesota
Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, and is known by the slogan "Land of 10,000 Lakes". Its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord
L'Étoile du Nord
(French: Star of the North). Minnesota
Minnesota
is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U.S. states; nearly 60 percent of its residents live in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul
Minneapolis–Saint Paul
metropolitan area (known as the "Twin Cities"), the center of transportation, business, industry, education, and government and home to an internationally known arts community. The remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture; deciduous forests in the southeast, now partially cleared, farmed and settled; and the less populated North Woods, used for mining, forestry, and recreation. Minnesota
Minnesota
is known for its high standard of living and its high rate of civic participation and voter turnout. Until the era of settlement, Minnesota
Minnesota
was inhabited by the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state who had mainly emigrated from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and Germany. The state remains today a center of Scandinavian American
Scandinavian American
and German American
German American
culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East
Middle East
and Latin America has broadened its historic demographic and cultural composition. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, and the state is also among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation.[6]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Geology 2.2 Flora and fauna 2.3 Climate 2.4 Protected lands

3 History 4 Cities and towns 5 Demographics

5.1 Population 5.2 Religion

6 Economy

6.1 Industry and commerce 6.2 Energy use and production 6.3 State taxes

7 Culture

7.1 Fine and performing arts 7.2 Literature 7.3 Entertainment 7.4 Popular culture

8 Health 9 Education 10 Transportation 11 Law and government

11.1 Executive 11.2 Legislature 11.3 Judiciary 11.4 Regional 11.5 Federal 11.6 Tribal

12 Politics 13 Media 14 Sports, recreation and tourism

14.1 Organized sports 14.2 Tourism 14.3 Outdoor recreation

15 See also 16 References 17 External links

17.1 Culture and history 17.2 General 17.3 Government 17.4 Maps and Demographics 17.5 Tourism and recreation

Etymology[edit] The word Minnesota
Minnesota
comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota
Minnesota
River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language, 'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water",[7][8] or 'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.[9][10][11] Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota.[11] Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls
Minnehaha Falls
("curling water" or waterfall), Minneiska ("white water"), Minneota ("much water"), Minnetonka ("big water"), Minnetrista ("crooked water"), and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city".[12] Geography[edit]

Minnesota, showing roads and major bodies of water

Minnesota
Minnesota
is the second northernmost U.S. state
U.S. state
(after Alaska) and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle
Northwest Angle
in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel. The state is part of the U.S. region known as the Upper Midwest
Upper Midwest
and part of North America's Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Region. It shares a Lake Superior
Lake Superior
water border with Michigan
Michigan
and a land and water border with Wisconsin
Wisconsin
to the east. Iowa
Iowa
is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota
South Dakota
are to the west, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario
Ontario
and Manitoba
Manitoba
are to the north. With 86,943 square miles (225,180 km2),[13] or approximately 2.25 percent of the United States,[14] Minnesota
Minnesota
is the 12th-largest state.[15] Geology[edit] Main article: Geology of Minnesota See also: List of lakes in Minnesota and List of Minnesota
Minnesota
rivers

Tilted beds of the Middle Precambrian
Precambrian
Thomson Formation in Jay Cooke State Park[16]

Minnesota
Minnesota
has some of the Earth's oldest rocks, gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old (80 percent as old as the planet).[16][17] About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean; the remains of this volcanic rock formed the Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
in northeast Minnesota.[16][18] The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian
Precambrian
seas formed the Iron Range
Iron Range
of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock.[16] In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the landscape of the state and sculpted its terrain.[16] The Wisconsin
Wisconsin
glaciation left 12,000 years ago.[16] These glaciers covered all of Minnesota
Minnesota
except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock. This area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift.[19] Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet (15 m) or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz
Lake Agassiz
formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago. Its bed created the fertile Red River valley, and its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River
Minnesota River
and the Upper Mississippi
Mississippi
downstream from Fort Snelling.[16] Minnesota
Minnesota
is geologically quiet today; it experiences earthquakes infrequently, and most of them are minor.[20]

Palisade Head
Palisade Head
on Lake Superior
Lake Superior
formed from a Precambrian
Precambrian
rhyolitic lava flow.[16]

The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet (701 m), which is only 13 miles (21 km) away from the low of 601 feet (183 m) at the shore of Lake Superior.[18][21] Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a gently rolling peneplain.[16] Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean.[22] The state's nickname, the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres (4 ha) in size.[23] The Minnesota
Minnesota
portion of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
is the largest at 962,700 acres (389,600 ha; 3,896 km2) and deepest (at 1,290 ft (390 m)) body of water in the state.[23] Minnesota
Minnesota
has 6,564 natural rivers and streams that cumulatively flow for 69,000 miles (111,000 km).[23] The Mississippi River
Mississippi River
begins its journey from its headwaters at Lake Itasca
Lake Itasca
and crosses the Iowa
Iowa
border 680 miles (1,090 km) downstream.[23] It is joined by the Minnesota River
Minnesota River
at Fort Snelling, by the St. Croix River near Hastings, by the Chippewa River at Wabasha, and by many smaller streams. The Red River, in the bed of glacial Lake Agassiz, drains the northwest part of the state northward toward Canada's Hudson Bay. Approximately 10.6 million acres (4,300,000 ha; 43,000 km2) of wetlands are contained within Minnesota's borders, the most of any state except Alaska.[24]

Eagle Mountain, the highest natural point in Minnesota
Minnesota
at 2,301 feet (701 m) is in the state's northeast.

Flora and fauna[edit] Main article: Natural history of Minnesota Minnesota
Minnesota
has four ecological provinces: Prairie
Prairie
Parkland, in the southwestern and western parts of the state; the Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Big Woods) in the southeast, extending in a narrowing strip to the state's northwestern part, where it transitions into Tallgrass Aspen Parkland; and the northern Laurentian Mixed Forest, a transitional forest between the northern boreal forest and the broadleaf forests to the south.[25] These northern forests are a vast wilderness of pine and spruce trees mixed with patchy stands of birch and poplar. Much of Minnesota's northern forest underwent logging at some time, leaving only a few patches of old growth forest today in areas such as in the Chippewa National Forest
Chippewa National Forest
and the Superior National Forest, where the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness
Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness
has some 400,000 acres (162,000 ha) of unlogged land.[26] Although logging continues, regrowth and replanting keep about one third of the state forested.[27] Nearly all of Minnesota's prairies and oak savannas have been fragmented by farming, grazing, logging, and suburban development.[28] While loss of habitat has affected native animals such as the pine marten, elk, woodland caribou, and bison,[29] others like whitetail deer and bobcat thrive. The state has the nation's largest population of timber wolves outside Alaska,[30] and supports healthy populations of black bears, moose, and gophers. Located on the Mississippi
Mississippi
Flyway, Minnesota
Minnesota
hosts migratory waterfowl such as geese and ducks, and game birds such as grouse, pheasants, and turkeys. It is home to birds of prey, including the largest number of breeding pairs of bald eagles in the lower 48 states as of 2007,[31] red-tailed hawks, and snowy owls. The lakes teem with sport fish such as walleye, bass, muskellunge, and northern pike, and streams in the southeast and northeast are populated by brook, brown, and rainbow trout. Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Minnesota

Köppen climate types of Minnesota

Minnesota
Minnesota
experiences temperature extremes characteristic of its continental climate, with cold winters and hot summers. The lowest temperature recorded was −60 °F (−51 °C) at Tower on February 2, 1996, whereas the highest was 114 °F (46 °C) at Moorhead on July 6, 1936.[32] Meteorological events include rain, snow, blizzards, thunderstorms, hail, derechos, tornadoes, and high-velocity straight-line winds. The growing season varies from 90 days per year in the Iron Range
Iron Range
to 160 days in southeast Minnesota near the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, and average temperatures range from 37 to 49 °F (3 to 9 °C).[33] Average summer dew points range from about 58 °F (14 °C) in the south to about 48 °F (9 °C) in the north.[33][34] Average annual precipitation ranges from 19 to 35 inches (48 to 89 cm), and droughts occur every 10 to 50 years.[33]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Minnesota[35]

Location July (°F) July (°C) January (°F) January (°C)

Minneapolis 83/64 28/18 23/7 −4/−13

Saint Paul 83/63 28/17 23/6 −5/−14

Rochester 82/63 28/17 23/3 −5/−16

Duluth 76/55 24/13 19/1 −7/−17

St. Cloud 81/58 27/14 18/−1 −7/−18

Albert Lea 84/62 29/17 23/5 −5/−15

International Falls 77/52 25/11 15/−6 −9/−21

Protected lands[edit]

Pose Lake in the Boundary Waters
Boundary Waters
Canoe Area Wilderness

Minnesota's first state park, Itasca State Park, was established in 1891, and is the source of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River.[36] Today Minnesota has 72 state parks and recreation areas, 58 state forests covering about four million acres (16,000 km²), and numerous state wildlife preserves, all managed by the Minnesota
Minnesota
Department of Natural Resources. There are 5.5 million acres (22,000 km2) in the Chippewa and Superior national forests. The Superior National Forest in the northeast contains the Boundary Waters
Boundary Waters
Canoe Area Wilderness, which encompasses over a million acres (4,000 km²) and a thousand lakes. To its west is Voyageurs
Voyageurs
National Park. The Mississippi National River and Recreation Area
Mississippi National River and Recreation Area
(MNRRA), is a 72-mile-long (116 km) corridor along the Mississippi
Mississippi
River through the Minneapolis–St. Paul
Minneapolis–St. Paul
Metropolitan Area connecting a variety of sites of historic, cultural, and geologic interest.[37] History[edit] Main article: History of Minnesota

Map of Minnesota Territory
Minnesota Territory
1849–1858

Before European settlement of North America, Minnesota
Minnesota
was populated by a subculture of Sioux
Sioux
called the Dakota people. As Europeans settled the east coast, Native Americans moved away from them causing migration of the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
(also known as Ojibwe) and other Native Americans into the Minnesota
Minnesota
area. The first Europeans in the area were French voyageur fur traders who arrived in the 17th century and began using the Grand Portage to access trapping and trading areas further inland. Late that century, Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
migrated westward to Minnesota, causing tensions with the Dakota people.[38] Explorers such as Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, Father Louis Hennepin, Jonathan Carver, Henry Schoolcraft, and Joseph Nicollet
Joseph Nicollet
mapped out the state. In 1762 the region became part of Spanish Louisiana
Louisiana
until 1802.[39][40] The portion of the state east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River became part of the United States
United States
at the end of the American Revolutionary War, when the Second Treaty of Paris was signed. Land west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
was acquired with the Louisiana Purchase, although a portion of the Red River Valley
Red River Valley
was disputed until the Treaty of 1818.[41] By the late 1700s, the North West Company had established the post of Fort Charlotte at the Lake Superior end of the Grand Portage, until moving 50 miles northeast to Fort William in 1803.[42] In 1805, Zebulon Pike
Zebulon Pike
bargained with Native Americans to acquire land at the confluence of the Minnesota
Minnesota
and Mississippi
Mississippi
rivers. The construction of Fort Snelling
Fort Snelling
followed between 1819 and 1825.[43] Its soldiers built a grist mill and a sawmill at Saint Anthony Falls, the first of the water-powered industries around which the city of Minneapolis
Minneapolis
later grew. Meanwhile, squatters, government officials, and tourists had settled near the fort. In 1839, the army forced them to move downriver and they settled in the area that became St. Paul.[44] Minnesota Territory
Minnesota Territory
was formed on March 3, 1849. The first territorial legislature (held September 2, 1849)[45] was dominated by men from New England or of New England ancestry.[46] Thousands of people had come to build farms and cut timber, and Minnesota
Minnesota
became the 32nd U.S. state
U.S. state
on May 11, 1858. The founding population was so overwhelmingly of New England origins that the state was dubbed "the New England of the West".[47][48][49][50]

Settlers escaping the Dakota War of 1862

Treaties between European settlers and the Dakota and Ojibwe
Ojibwe
gradually forced the natives off their lands and on to smaller reservations. In 1861, residents of Mankato formed the Knights of the Forest, with a goal of eliminating all Indians from Minnesota. As conditions deteriorated for the Dakota, tensions rose, leading to the Dakota War of 1862.[51] The result of the six-week war was the execution of 38 Dakota and the exile of most of the rest of the Dakota to the Crow Creek Reservation in Dakota Territory.[41] As many as 800 white settlers died during the war.[52] Logging
Logging
and farming were mainstays of Minnesota's early economy. The sawmills at Saint Anthony Falls, and logging centers like Marine on St. Croix, Stillwater, and Winona, processed high volumes of lumber. These cities were situated on rivers that were ideal for transportation.[41] Later, Saint Anthony Falls
Saint Anthony Falls
was tapped to provide power for flour mills. Innovations by Minneapolis
Minneapolis
millers led to the production of Minnesota
Minnesota
"patent" flour, which commanded almost double the price of "bakers'" or "clear" flour, which it replaced.[53] By 1900, Minnesota
Minnesota
mills, led by Pillsbury, Northwestern and the Washburn-Crosby Company (a forerunner of General Mills), were grinding 14.1 percent of the nation's grain.[54]

Phelps Mill
Phelps Mill
in Otter Tail County

The state's iron-mining industry was established with the discovery of iron in the Vermilion Range and the Mesabi Range
Mesabi Range
in the 1880s, and in the Cuyuna Range
Cuyuna Range
in the early 20th century. The ore was shipped by rail to Duluth and Two Harbors, then loaded onto ships and transported eastward over the Great Lakes.[41] Industrial development and the rise of manufacturing caused the population to shift gradually from rural areas to cities during the early 20th century. Nevertheless, farming remained prevalent. Minnesota's economy was hard-hit by the Great Depression, resulting in lower prices for farmers, layoffs among iron miners, and labor unrest. Compounding the adversity, western Minnesota
Minnesota
and the Dakotas were hit by drought from 1931 to 1935. New Deal
New Deal
programs provided some economic turnaround. The Civilian Conservation Corps
Civilian Conservation Corps
and other programs around the state established some jobs for Indians on their reservations, and the Indian Reorganization Act
Indian Reorganization Act
of 1934 provided the tribes with a mechanism of self-government. This provided natives a greater voice within the state, and promoted more respect for tribal customs because religious ceremonies and native languages were no longer suppressed.[43] After World War II, industrial development quickened. New technology increased farm productivity through automation of feedlots for hogs and cattle, machine milking at dairy farms, and raising chickens in large buildings. Planting became more specialized with hybridization of corn and wheat, and the use of farm machinery such as tractors and combines became the norm. University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
professor Norman Borlaug contributed to these developments as part of the Green Revolution.[43] Suburban development accelerated due to increased postwar housing demand and convenient transportation. Increased mobility, in turn, enabled more specialized jobs.[43] Minnesota
Minnesota
became a center of technology after World War II. Engineering Research Associates was formed in 1946 to develop computers for the United States
United States
Navy. It later merged with Remington Rand, and then became Sperry Rand. William Norris left Sperry in 1957 to form Control Data Corporation
Control Data Corporation
(CDC).[55] Cray
Cray
Research was formed when Seymour Cray
Cray
left CDC to form his own company. Medical device maker Medtronic
Medtronic
also started business in the Twin Cities in 1949. Cities and towns[edit] See also: List of cities in Minnesota
List of cities in Minnesota
and List of townships in Minnesota

National Farmers Bank
National Farmers Bank
in Owatonna by Louis Sullivan

Saint Paul, in east-central Minnesota
Minnesota
along the banks of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, has been Minnesota's capital city since 1849, first as capital of the Territory of Minnesota, and then as state capital since 1858. Saint Paul is adjacent to Minnesota's most populous city, Minneapolis; they and their suburbs are known collectively as the Twin Cities metropolitan area, the 13th-largest metropolitan area in the United States and home to about 60 percent of the state's population.[56][57] The remainder of the state is known as "Greater Minnesota" or "Outstate Minnesota". The state has 17 cities with populations above 50,000 (as of the 2010 census). In descending order of population, they are Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Rochester, Duluth, Bloomington, Brooklyn Park, Plymouth, Saint Cloud, Woodbury, Eagan, Maple Grove, Coon Rapids, Eden Prairie, Minnetonka, Burnsville, Apple Valley, Blaine and Lakeville.[57] Of these only Rochester, Duluth, and Saint Cloud are outside the Twin Cities metropolitan area. Minnesota's population continues to grow, primarily in the urban centers. The populations of metropolitan Sherburne and Scott counties doubled between 1980 and 2000, while 40 of the state's 87 counties lost residents over the same period.[58] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Minnesota Population[edit]

Minnesota's population distribution

From fewer than 6,120 white settlers in 1850, Minnesota's official population grew to over 1.7 million by 1900. Each of the next six decades saw a 15 percent increase in population, reaching 3.4 million in 1960. Growth then slowed, rising 11 percent to 3.8 million in 1970, and an average of 9 percent over the next three decades to 4.9 million in the 2000 Census.[58] The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates the population of Minnesota was 5,489,594 on July 1, 2015, a 3.5 percent increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[59] The rate of population change, and age and gender distributions, approximate the national average. Minnesota's center of population is in Hennepin County.[60] As of the 2010 Census, the population of Minnesota
Minnesota
was 5,303,925. The gender makeup of the state was 49.6% male and 50.4% female. 24.2% of the population were under the age of 18; 9.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.3% were from 25 to 44; 27.1% were from 45 to 64; and 12.9% were 65 years of age or older.[61] The racial makeup of Minnesota
Minnesota
as of the 2010 Census was:[61]

White: 85.3% (83.1% non-Hispanic) Black or African American: 5.2% American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native: 1.1% Asian: 4.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: approx. 0.1% Other race: 1.9% Two or more races: 2.4%

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.7% of the population: 3.3% were of Mexican, 0.2% Puerto Rican, 0.1% Cuban, and 1.1% other Hispanic or Latino origin. According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were German (34.3%), Norwegian (15.4%), Irish (10.6%), and Swedish (8.3%).[62] In 2011, non-Hispanic whites were involved in 72.3 percent of all the births.[63] Minnesota's growing minority groups, however, still form a smaller percentage of the population than in the nation as a whole.[64] Minnesota
Minnesota
has America's largest Somali population,[65] with an estimated 57,000 people, the largest concentration outside of East Africa.[66]

The French Renaissance style Cathedral of St. Paul in the city of St. Paul

Religion[edit] The majority of Minnesotans are Protestants, including a significant Lutheran
Lutheran
contingent, owing to the state's largely Northern European ethnic makeup. Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
(of largely German, Irish, French and Slavic descent) make up the largest single Christian denomination. A 2010 survey by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life showed that 32 percent of Minnesotans were affiliated with Mainline Protestant traditions, 21 percent were Evangelical Protestants, 28 percent were Roman Catholic, 1 percent each were Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Black Protestant, and smaller amounts were of other faiths, with 13 percent unaffiliated.[67] According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the denominations with the most adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church with 1,150,367; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 737,537; and the Lutheran
Lutheran
Church–Missouri Synod with 182,439.[68] This is broadly consistent with the results of the 2001 American Religious Identification Survey, which also gives detailed percentages for many individual denominations.[69] Although Christianity
Christianity
is dominant, Minnesota
Minnesota
has a long history with non-Christian faiths. Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jewish
Jewish
pioneers set up Saint Paul's first synagogue in 1856.[70] Minnesota
Minnesota
is home to over 30 mosques, mostly in the Twin Cities metro area.[71] The Temple of ECK, the spiritual home of Eckankar, is based in Minnesota.[72]

Religion in Minnesota
Minnesota
(2014)[73]

religion

percent

Protestant

50%

Catholic

22%

No religion

20%

Mormon

1%

Jewish

1%

Muslim

1%

Other faith

3%

Don't know

2%

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Minnesota See also: List of Minnesota
Minnesota
locations by per capita income Once primarily a producer of raw materials, Minnesota's economy has transformed to emphasize finished products and services. Perhaps the most significant characteristic of the economy is its diversity; the relative outputs of its business sectors closely match the United States as a whole.[74] The economy of Minnesota
Minnesota
had a gross domestic product of $262 billion in 2008.[75] In 2008, thirty-three of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies (by revenue) were headquartered in Minnesota,[76] including Target, UnitedHealth Group, 3M, General Mills, U.S. Bancorp, Ameriprise, Hormel, Land O' Lakes, SuperValu, Best Buy
Best Buy
and Valspar. Private companies based in Minnesota include Cargill, the largest privately owned company in the United States,[77] and Carlson Companies, the parent company of Radisson Hotels.[78] The per capita personal income in 2008 was $42,772, the tenth-highest in the nation.[79] The three-year median household income from 2002 to 2004 was $55,914, ranking fifth in the U.S. and first among the 36 states not on the Atlantic coast.[80] As of November 2017, the state's unemployment rate was 3.1 percent.[81] Industry and commerce[edit]

The IDS Tower, designed by Philip Johnson, is the state's tallest building,[82] reflecting César Pelli's Art Deco-style Wells Fargo Center

Minnesota's earliest industries were fur trading and agriculture. The city of Minneapolis
Minneapolis
grew around the flour mills powered by St. Anthony Falls. Although less than one percent of the population is now employed in the agricultural sector,[83] it remains a major part of the state's economy, ranking sixth in the nation in the value of products sold.[84] The state is the U.S.'s largest producer of sugar beets, sweet corn, and green peas for processing, and farm-raised turkeys. Minnesota
Minnesota
is also a large producer of corn and soybeans.[85] Minnesota
Minnesota
has the most food cooperatives per capita in the United States.[86] Forestry
Forestry
remains strong, including logging, pulpwood processing and paper production, and forest products manufacturing. Minnesota
Minnesota
was famous for its soft-ore mines, which produced a significant portion of the world's iron ore for over a century. Although the high-grade ore is now depleted, taconite mining continues, using processes developed locally to save the industry. In 2004, the state produced 75 percent of the country's usable iron ore.[85] The mining boom created the port of Duluth which continues to be important for shipping ore, coal, and agricultural products. The manufacturing sector now includes technology and biomedical firms in addition to the older food processors and heavy industry. The nation's first indoor shopping mall was Edina's Southdale Center
Southdale Center
and its largest is Bloomington's Mall of America. Minnesota
Minnesota
is one of 42 U.S. states with its own lottery; its games include Powerball, Mega Millions, Hot Lotto (all three multi-state), Northstar Cash and Gopher
Gopher
5. Energy use and production[edit] Minnesota
Minnesota
produces ethanol fuel and is the first to mandate its use, a ten percent mix (E10).[87] In 2005 there were more than 310 service stations supplying E85
E85
fuel, comprising 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline.[88] A two percent biodiesel blend has been required in diesel fuel since 2005. As of December 2006 the state was the country's fourth-largest producer of wind power, with 895 megawatts installed and another 200 megawatts planned, much of it on the windy Buffalo Ridge
Buffalo Ridge
in the southwest part of the state.[89] State taxes[edit] Minnesota
Minnesota
has a progressive income tax structure; the four brackets of state income tax rates are 5.35, 7.05, 7.85 and 9.85 percent.[90] As of 2008, Minnesota
Minnesota
was ranked 12th in the nation in per capita total state and local taxes.[91] In 2008, Minnesotans paid 10.2 percent of their income in state and local taxes; the U.S. average was 9.7 percent.[91] The state sales tax in Minnesota
Minnesota
is 6.875 percent, but there is no sales tax on clothing, prescription drug medications, some services, or food items for home consumption.[92] The state legislature may allow municipalities to institute local sales taxes and special local taxes, such as the 0.5 percent supplemental sales tax in Minneapolis.[93] Excise
Excise
taxes are levied on alcohol, tobacco, and motor fuel. The state imposes a use tax on items purchased elsewhere but used within Minnesota.[92] Owners of real property in Minnesota
Minnesota
pay property tax to their county, municipality, school district, and special taxing districts.

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Minnesota Fine and performing arts[edit]

The Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Institute of Art's Neoclassical north facade, designed by McKim, Mead, and White.

Minnesota's leading fine art museums include the Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Institute of Art, the Walker Art Center, the Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, and The Museum of Russian Art
The Museum of Russian Art
(TMORA). All are in Minneapolis. The Minnesota Orchestra
Minnesota Orchestra
and the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra
Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra
are prominent full-time professional musical ensembles that perform concerts and offer educational programs to the Twin Cities' community. The world-renowned Guthrie Theater
Guthrie Theater
moved into a new Minneapolis
Minneapolis
facility in 2006, boasting three stages and overlooking the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. Attendance at theatrical, musical, and comedy events in the area is strong. In the United States, the Twin Cities' number of theater seats per capita ranks behind only New York City;[94] with some 2.3 million theater tickets sold annually.[95] The Minnesota Fringe Festival is an annual celebration of theatre, dance, improvisation, puppetry, kids' shows, visual art, and musicals. The summer festival consists of over 800 performances over 11 days in Minneapolis, and is the largest non-juried performing arts festival in the United States.[96] Literature[edit] The rigors and rewards of pioneer life on the prairie are the subject of Giants in the Earth by Ole Rolvaag
Ole Rolvaag
and the Little House series of children's books by Laura Ingalls Wilder. Small-town life is portrayed grimly by Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis
in the novel Main Street, and more gently and affectionately by Garrison Keillor
Garrison Keillor
in his tales of Lake Wobegon. St. Paul native F. Scott Fitzgerald
F. Scott Fitzgerald
writes of the social insecurities and aspirations of the young city in stories such as Winter Dreams
Winter Dreams
and The Ice Palace (published in Flappers and Philosophers). Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's epic poem The Song of Hiawatha
The Song of Hiawatha
was inspired by Minnesota and names many of the state's places and bodies of water. Minnesota native Robert Zimmerman (Bob Dylan) won the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature. Entertainment[edit] Main article: Music
Music
of Minnesota

First Avenue nightclub, the heart of Minnesota's music community.[18]

Minnesota
Minnesota
musicians include Bob Dylan, Eddie Cochran, The Andrews Sisters, The Castaways, The Trashmen, Prince, Soul Asylum, David Ellefson, Hüsker Dü, Owl City, and The Replacements. Minnesotans helped shape the history of music through popular American culture: the Andrews Sisters' "Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy" was an iconic tune of World War II, while the Trashmen's "Surfin' Bird" and Bob Dylan epitomize two sides of the 1960s. In the 1980s, influential hit radio groups and musicians included Prince, The Original 7ven, Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis, The Jets, Lipps Inc., and Information Society. Minnesotans have also made significant contributions to comedy, theater, media, and film. The comic strip Peanuts
Peanuts
was created by St. Paul native Charles M. Schulz. A Prairie
Prairie
Home Companion which first aired in 1974, became a long-running comedy radio show on National Public Radio. A cult scifi cable TV show, Mystery Science
Science
Theater 3000, was created by Joel Hodgson
Joel Hodgson
in Hopkins, and Minneapolis, MN. Another popular comedy staple developed in the 1990s, The Daily Show, was originated through Lizz Winstead
Lizz Winstead
and Madeleine Smithberg. Joel and Ethan Coen, Terry Gilliam, Bill Pohlad, and Mike Todd contributed to the art of filmmaking as writers, directors, and producers. Actors from Minnesota
Minnesota
include Loni Anderson, Richard Dean Anderson, James Arness, Jessica Biel, Rachael Leigh Cook, Julia Duffy, Mike Farrell, Judy Garland, Peter Graves, Josh Hartnett, Garrett Hedlund, Tippi Hedren, Jessica Lange, Kelly Lynch, E.G. Marshall, Melissa Peterman, Chris Pratt, Jane Russell, Winona Ryder, Seann William Scott, Kevin Sorbo, Lea Thompson, Vince Vaughn, Jesse Ventura, and Steve Zahn. Popular culture[edit] See also: List of television shows and movies in Minnesota

A youth fiddle performance at the Minnesota
Minnesota
State Fair

Stereotypical traits of Minnesotans include " Minnesota
Minnesota
nice", Lutheranism, a strong sense of community and shared culture, and a distinctive brand of North Central American English
North Central American English
sprinkled with Scandinavian expressions. Potlucks, usually with a variety of hotdishes, are popular small-town church activities. A small segment of the Scandinavian population attend a traditional lutefisk dinner to celebrate Christmas. Life in Minnesota
Minnesota
has also been depicted or used as a backdrop, in movies such as Fargo, Grumpy Old Men, Grumpier Old Men, Juno, Drop Dead Gorgeous, Young Adult, A Serious Man, New in Town, and in famous television series like Little House on the Prairie, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, The Golden Girls, Coach, The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, How I Met Your Mother
How I Met Your Mother
and Fargo. Major movies that were shot on location in Minnesota
Minnesota
include That Was Then... This Is Now, Purple Rain, Airport, Beautiful Girls, North Country, Untamed Heart, Feeling Minnesota, Jingle All The Way, A Simple Plan and The Mighty Ducks films. The Minnesota
Minnesota
State Fair, advertised as The Great Minnesota Get-Together, is an icon of state culture. In a state of 5.5 million people, there were over 1.8 million visitors to the fair in 2014, setting a new attendance record.[97] The fair covers the variety of Minnesotan life, including fine art, science, agriculture, food preparation, 4-H
4-H
displays, music, the midway, and corporate merchandising. It is known for its displays of seed art, butter sculptures of dairy princesses, the birthing barn, and the "fattest pig" competition. One can also find dozens of varieties of food on a stick, such as Pronto Pups, cheese curds, and deep-fried candy bars. On a smaller scale, many of these attractions are offered at numerous county fairs. Other large annual festivals include the Saint Paul Winter Carnival, the Minnesota
Minnesota
Renaissance Festival, Minneapolis' Aquatennial and Mill City Music
Music
Festival, Moondance Jam in Walker, Sonshine Christian music festival in Willmar, the Judy Garland
Judy Garland
Festival in Grand Rapids, the Eelpout Festival on Leech Lake, and the WE Fest in Detroit
Detroit
Lakes. Health[edit]

The Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
in Rochester.

Minnesotans have low rates of premature death, infant mortality, cardiovascular disease, and occupational fatalities.[98][99] They have long life expectancies,[100] and high rates of health insurance and regular exercise.[98][101][102] These and other measures have led two groups to rank Minnesota
Minnesota
as the healthiest state in the nation; however, in one of these rankings, Minnesota
Minnesota
descended from first to sixth in the nation between 2005 and 2009 because of low levels of public health funding and the prevalence of binge drinking.[98][103] On October 1, 2007, Minnesota
Minnesota
became the 17th state to enact the Freedom to Breathe Act, a statewide smoking ban in restaurants and bars.[104] Medical care in the state is provided by a comprehensive network of hospitals and clinics operated by a number of large providers including Allina
Allina
Hospitals & Clinics, CentraCare Health System, Essentia Health, Fairview Health Services, HealthPartners, and the Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Health System. There are two teaching hospitals and medical schools in Minnesota. The University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Medical School is a high-rated teaching institution that has made a number of breakthroughs in treatment, and its research activities contribute significantly to the state's growing biotechnology industry.[105] The Mayo Clinic, a world-renowned hospital based in Rochester, was founded by William Worrall Mayo, an immigrant from England.[106][107] U.S. News and World Report's 2014–2015 survey ranked 4,743 hospitals in the United States
United States
in 16 specialized fields of care, and placed the Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
in the top four in all fields except psychiatry, where it ranked seventh. The hospital ranked #1 in eight fields and #2 in three others.[108] The Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
and the University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
are partners in the Minnesota
Minnesota
Partnership for Biotechnology
Biotechnology
and Medical Genomics, a state-funded program that conducts research into cancer, Alzheimer's disease, heart health, obesity, and other areas.[109] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Minnesota See also: List of colleges and universities in Minnesota, List of high schools in Minnesota, and List of school districts in Minnesota

The Richardsonian Romanesque
Richardsonian Romanesque
Pillsbury Hall (1889) is one of the oldest buildings on the University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis
Minneapolis
campus.

One of the Minnesota
Minnesota
Legislature's first acts when it opened in 1858 was the creation of a normal school in Winona. Minnesota's commitment to education has contributed to a literate and well-educated populace. In 2009, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, Minnesota
Minnesota
had the second-highest proportion of high school graduates, with 91.5% of people 25 and older holding a diploma, and the tenth-highest proportion of people with bachelor's degrees.[110] In 2015, Minneapolis
Minneapolis
was named the nation's "Most Literate City", while St. Paul placed fourth, according to a major annual survey.[111] In a 2013 study conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics comparing the performance of eighth-grade students internationally in math and science, Minnesota
Minnesota
ranked eighth in the world and third in the United States, behind Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Vermont.[112] In 2014, Minnesota
Minnesota
students earned the tenth-highest average composite score in the nation on the ACT exam.[113] In 2013, nationwide in per-student public education spending, Minnesota
Minnesota
ranked 21st.[114] While Minnesota has chosen not to implement school vouchers,[115] it is home to the first charter school.[116] The state supports a network of public universities and colleges, including 37 institutions in the Minnesota
Minnesota
State Colleges and Universities System, and five major campuses of the University of Minnesota
Minnesota
system. It is also home to more than 20 private colleges and universities, six of which rank among the nation's top 100 liberal arts colleges, according to U.S. News & World Report.[117] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Minnesota

The Aerial Lift Bridge
Aerial Lift Bridge
at Duluth

Transportation in Minnesota
Transportation in Minnesota
is overseen by the Minnesota
Minnesota
Department of Transportation (MnDOT for short and used in the local news media). Principal transportation corridors radiate from the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area and Duluth. The major Interstate highways are Interstate 35 (I-35), I-90, and I-94, with I-35 and I-94 passing through the Minneapolis–St. Paul
Minneapolis–St. Paul
metropolitan area, and I-90 traveling east-west along the southern edge of the state.[118] In 2006, a constitutional amendment was passed that required sales and use taxes on motor vehicles to fund transportation, with at least 40 percent dedicated to public transit.[119] There are nearly two dozen rail corridors in Minnesota, most of which go through Minneapolis–St. Paul
Minneapolis–St. Paul
or Duluth.[120] There is water transportation along the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
system and from the ports of Lake Superior.[121]

A Metro Blue Line vehicle in Minneapolis

Minnesota's principal airport is Minneapolis–St. Paul
Minneapolis–St. Paul
International Airport (MSP), a major passenger and freight hub for Delta Air Lines and Sun Country Airlines. Most other domestic carriers serve the airport. Large commercial jet service is provided at Duluth and Rochester, with scheduled commuter service to four smaller cities via Delta Connection
Delta Connection
carriers SkyWest Airlines, Compass Airlines, and Endeavor Air.[122] Amtrak's daily Empire Builder
Empire Builder
(Chicago–Seattle/Portland) train runs through Minnesota, calling at the Saint Paul Union Depot
Saint Paul Union Depot
and five other stations.[123] Intercity bus providers include Jefferson Lines, Greyhound, and Megabus. Local public transit is provided by bus networks in the larger cities and by two rail services. The Northstar Line commuter rail service runs from Big Lake to the Target Field station in downtown Minneapolis. From there, light rail runs to Saint Paul Union Depot on the Green Line, and to the MSP airport and the Mall of America
Mall of America
via the Blue Line. Law and government[edit] As with the federal government of the United States, power in Minnesota
Minnesota
is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.[124] Executive[edit] Main article: Governor of Minnesota

Governor Mark Dayton

The executive branch is headed by the governor. Governor Mark Dayton, DFL (Democratic Farmer Labor), took office on January 3, 2011, to become the first DFL governor to hold the seat in two decades. The governor has a cabinet consisting of the leaders of various state government agencies, called commissioners. The other elected constitutional offices are secretary of state, attorney general, and state auditor. Legislature[edit] Main article: Minnesota
Minnesota
Legislature

The Minnesota State Capitol
Minnesota State Capitol
in Saint Paul, designed by Cass Gilbert.

The Minnesota
Minnesota
Legislature
Legislature
is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The state has sixty-seven districts, each covering about sixty thousand people. Each district has one senator and two representatives, each senatorial district being divided into A and B sections for members of the house. Senators serve for four years and representatives for two years. In the November 2010 election, the Minnesota Republican Party gained twenty-five house seats, giving them control of the House of Representatives by a 72–62 margin.[125] The 2010 election also saw Minnesota
Minnesota
voters elect a Republican majority in the Senate for the first time since 1972. In 2012, the Democrats regained the House of Representatives by a margin of 73–61, picking up 11 seats; the Democrats also regained the Minnesota
Minnesota
Senate. Control of the houses shifted to Republicans in the 2016 election. Judiciary[edit] Minnesota's court system has three levels. Most cases start in the district courts, which are courts of general jurisdiction. There are 279 district court judgeships in ten judicial districts. Appeals from the trial courts and challenges to certain governmental decisions are heard by the Minnesota
Minnesota
Court of Appeals, consisting of nineteen judges who typically sit in three-judge panels. The seven-justice Minnesota Supreme Court hears all appeals from the tax court, the workers' compensation court of appeals, first-degree murder convictions, and discretionary appeals from the court of appeals; it also has original jurisdiction over election disputes.[126] Two specialized courts within administrative agencies have been established: the workers' compensation court of appeals, and the tax court, which deals with non-criminal tax cases. Regional[edit] In addition to the city and county levels of government found in the United States, Minnesota
Minnesota
has other entities that provide governmental oversight and planning. Regional development commissions (RDCs) provide technical assistance to local governments in broad multi-county area of the state. Along with this Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), such as the Metropolitan Council, provide planning and oversight of land use actions in metropolitan areas. Many lakes and rivers are overseen by watershed districts and soil and water conservation districts. Federal[edit] Minnesota's United States
United States
senators are Democrat Amy Klobuchar
Amy Klobuchar
and Democrat Tina Smith. The outcome of the 2008 U.S. Senate election in Minnesota
Minnesota
was contested until June 30 the next year; when the Minnesota Supreme Court
Minnesota Supreme Court
ruled in favor of Franken, Republican Norm Coleman conceded defeat, and the vacant seat was filled by Franken.[127] Franken resigned on January 2, 2018, and Minnesota governor Mark Dayton
Mark Dayton
appointed his lieutenant governor, Tina Smith, to hold Franken’s seat until a special election in November 2018. The state has eight congressional districts; they are represented by Tim Walz (1st district; DFL), Jason Lewis (2nd; R), Erik Paulsen
Erik Paulsen
(3rd; R), Betty McCollum
Betty McCollum
(4th; DFL), Keith Ellison (5th; DFL), Tom Emmer
Tom Emmer
(6th; R), Collin Peterson
Collin Peterson
(7th; DFL), and Rick Nolan
Rick Nolan
(8th; DFL). Federal court cases are heard in the United States
United States
District Court for the District of Minnesota, which holds court in Minneapolis, St. Paul, Duluth, and Fergus Falls. Appeals are heard by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, which is based in St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
and routinely also hears cases in St. Paul. Tribal[edit] The State of Minnesota
Minnesota
was created by the United States
United States
federal government in the traditional and cultural range of lands occupied by the Dakota and Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
peoples. After many years of unequal treaties and forced resettlement by the state and federal government the tribes reorganized into sovereign tribal governments. Today the tribal governments are divided into 11 semi-autonomous reservations that negotiate with the US and the state on a bilateral basis: Four Dakota Mdewakanton communities:

Prairie
Prairie
Island Indian Community Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux
Sioux
Community Lower Sioux
Sioux
Indian Reservation Upper Sioux
Sioux
Community – Pejuhutazizi Oyate

Seven Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
reservations:

Bois Forte Band of Chippewa Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Chippewa Grand Portage Band of Chippewa Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe White Earth Band of Ojibwe Red Lake Band of Chippewa

The first six of the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
bands compose the Minnesota
Minnesota
Chippewa Tribe, the collective federally recognized tribal government of the Bois Forte, Fond du Lac, Grand Portage, Leech Lake, Mille Lacs, and White Earth reservations. Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Minnesota See also: List of political parties in Minnesota, United States congressional delegations from Minnesota, Minnesota's congressional districts, and Political party
Political party
strength in Minnesota

Election results from statewide races[128]

Year Office GOP DFL Others

2016 President 44.9% 46.4% 8.6%

2014 Governor 44.5% 50.1% 5.4%

Senator 42.9% 53.2% 3.9%

2012 President 45.1% 52.8% 2.1%

Senator 30.6% 65.3% 4.1%

2010 Governor 43.2% 43.7% 13.1%

2008 President 43.8% 54.1% 2.1%

Senator 42.0% 42.0% 16.0%

2006 Governor 46.7% 45.7% 7.6%

Senator 37.9% 58.1% 4.0%

2004 President 47.6% 51.1% 1.3%

2002 Governor 44.4% 33.5% 22.1%

Senator 49.5% 47.3% 1.0%

2000 President 45.5% 47.9% 6.6%

Senator 43.3% 48.8% 7.9%

1998 Governor 34.3% 28.1% 37.6%

1996 President 35.0% 51.1% 13.9%

Senator 41.3% 50.3% 8.4%

1994 Governor 63.3% 34.1% 2.6%

Senator 49.1% 44.1% 6.8%

1992 President 31.9% 43.5% 24.6%

Minnesota
Minnesota
is known for a politically active citizenry, and populism has been a longstanding force among the state's political parties.[129][130] Minnesota
Minnesota
has a consistently high voter turnout (due in part to its liberal voter registration laws) with virtually no evidence of unlawful voting.[131] In the 2008 U.S. presidential election, 78.2 percent of eligible Minnesotans voted—the highest percentage of any U.S. state—versus the national average of 61.2 percent.[132] Previously unregistered voters can register on election day at their polls with evidence of residency.[133] Hubert Humphrey
Hubert Humphrey
brought national attention to the state with his address at the 1948 Democratic National Convention. Minnesotans have consistently cast their Electoral College votes for Democratic presidential candidates since 1976, longer than any other state. Minnesota
Minnesota
is the only state in the nation that did not vote for Ronald Reagan in either of his presidential runs. Minnesota
Minnesota
has gone to the Democratic Party in every presidential election since 1960, with the exception of 1972, when it was carried by Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
and the Republican Party. Both the Democratic and Republican parties have major party status in Minnesota, but its state-level "Democratic" party is actually a separate party, officially known as the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL). It was formed out of a 1944 alliance of the Minnesota
Minnesota
Democratic and Farmer-Labor parties. The state has had active third party movements. The Reform Party, now the Independence Party, was able to elect former mayor of Brooklyn Park and professional wrestler Jesse Ventura
Jesse Ventura
to the governorship in 1998. The Independence Party has received enough support to keep major party status. The Green Party, while no longer having major party status, has a large presence in municipal government,[134] notably in Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and Duluth, where it competes directly with the DFL party for local offices. Official "Major party" status in Minnesota
Minnesota
(which grants state funding for elections) is reserved to parties whose candidates receive five percent or more of the vote in any statewide election (e.g., Governor, Secretary of State, U.S. President). The state's U.S. Senate seats have generally been split since the early 1990s, and in the 108th and 109th Congresses, Minnesota's congressional delegation was split, with four representatives and one senator from each party. In the 2006 midterm election, Democrats were elected to all state offices except for governor and lieutenant governor, where Republicans Tim Pawlenty
Tim Pawlenty
and Carol Molnau
Carol Molnau
narrowly won reelection. The DFL posted double-digit gains in both houses of the legislature, elected Amy Klobuchar
Amy Klobuchar
to the U.S. Senate, and increased the party's U.S. House caucus by one. Keith Ellison (DFL) was elected as the first African American
African American
U.S. Representative from Minnesota, as well as the first Muslim
Muslim
elected to Congress nationwide.[135] In 2008, DFLer and former comedian and radio talk show host Al Franken beat incumbent Republican Norm Coleman
Norm Coleman
in the United States
United States
Senate race by 312 votes out of 3 million cast. In the election of 2010, Republicans took control of both chambers of the Minnesota
Minnesota
legislature for the first time in 38 years and, with Mark Dayton's election, the DFL party took the governor's office for the first time in 20 years. Two years later, the DFL regained control of both houses, and with Governor Dayton in office, the party had same-party control of both the legislative and executive branches for the first time since 1990. Two years later, the Republicans regained control of the Minnesota
Minnesota
House in the 2014 election,[136] and in 2016, the GOP also regained control of the State Senate.[137] Media[edit]

KSTP studios

The Twin Cities area is the fifteenth largest media market in the United States
United States
as ranked by Nielsen Media Research. The state's other top markets are Fargo–Moorhead
Fargo–Moorhead
(118th nationally), Duluth–Superior (137th), Rochester–Mason City–Austin (152nd), and Mankato (200th).[138] Broadcast television in Minnesota
Minnesota
and the Upper Midwest
Upper Midwest
started on April 27, 1948, when KSTP-TV
KSTP-TV
began broadcasting.[139] Hubbard Broadcasting, which owns KSTP, is now the only locally owned television company in Minnesota. There are 39 analog broadcast stations and 23 digital channels broadcast over Minnesota. The four largest daily newspapers are the Star Tribune
Star Tribune
in Minneapolis, the Pioneer Press in Saint Paul, the Duluth News Tribune
Duluth News Tribune
in Duluth and the Post-Bulletin
Post-Bulletin
in Rochester. The Minnesota Daily is the largest student-run newspaper in the U.S.[140] Sites offering daily news on the Web include The UpTake, MinnPost, the Twin Cities Daily Planet, business news site Finance and Commerce and Washington D.C.-based Minnesota
Minnesota
Independent. Weeklies including City Pages and monthly publications such as Minnesota
Minnesota
Monthly are available. Two of the largest public radio networks, Minnesota Public Radio (MPR) and Public Radio International
Public Radio International
(PRI), are based in the state. MPR has the largest audience of any regional public radio network in the nation, broadcasting on 37 radio stations.[141] PRI weekly provides more than 400 hours of programming to almost 800 affiliates.[142] The state's oldest radio station, KUOM-AM, was launched in 1922 and is among the 10-oldest radio stations in the United States. The University of Minnesota-owned station is still on the air, and since 1993 broadcasts a college rock format. Sports, recreation and tourism[edit] Minnesota
Minnesota
has an active program of organized amateur and professional sports. Tourism has become an important industry, especially in the Lake region. In the North Country, what had been an industrial area focused on mining and timber has largely been transformed into a vacation destination. Popular interest in the environment and environmentalism, added to traditional interests in hunting and fishing, has attracted a large urban audience within driving range.[143] Organized sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Minnesota

The University of North Dakota
North Dakota
and St. Cloud State University
St. Cloud State University
during the WCHA Final Five at the Xcel Energy Center.

Minnesota
Minnesota
has professional men's teams in all major sports. The Minnesota Vikings
Minnesota Vikings
have played in the National Football League since their admission as an expansion franchise in 1961. They played in Metropolitan Stadium
Metropolitan Stadium
from 1961 through 1981 and in the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome from 1982 until its demolition after the 2013 season for the construction of the team's new home, U.S. Bank Stadium. The Viking’s current stadium hosted Super Bowl LII
Super Bowl LII
in February, 2018. Super Bowl XXVI
Super Bowl XXVI
was played in the Metrodome. The Vikings have advanced to the Super Bowl Super Bowl IV, Super Bowl VIII, Super Bowl IX, and Super Bowl XI, losing all four games to their AFC/AFL opponent The Minnesota Twins
Minnesota Twins
have played in the Major League Baseball in the Twin Cities starting in 1961. The Twins began play as the original Washington Senators, relocating to Minnesota
Minnesota
in 1961. The Twins won the 1987 and 1991 World Series
1991 World Series
in seven game matches where the home team was victorious in all games . The team has played at Target Field since 2010. The Twins also advanced to the 1965 World Series, where they lost to the Los Angeles Dodgers
Los Angeles Dodgers
in seven games. The Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Lakers of the National Basketball Association played in the Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Auditorium from 1947 to 1960, after which they relocated to Los Angeles. The Minnesota Timberwolves
Minnesota Timberwolves
joined the NBA in 1989, and play in the Target Center
Target Center
since 1990. The National Hockey League's Minnesota Wild
Minnesota Wild
play in St. Paul's Xcel Energy Center and reached 300 consecutive sold-out games on January 16, 2008.[144] Previously, the Minnesota North Stars
Minnesota North Stars
competed in NHL from 1967 to 1993, which played the 1981 and 1991 Stanley Cup Finals. Minnesota United FC
Minnesota United FC
joined Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
as an expansion team in 2017, having played in the lower-division North American Soccer League from 2010 to 2016. The team plays at TCF Bank Stadium, but will open Allianz Field
Allianz Field
in St. Paul in 2019.[145] Minnesota
Minnesota
also has minor-league professional sports teams. The Minnesota Swarm
Minnesota Swarm
of the National Lacrosse League
National Lacrosse League
played at the Xcel Energy Center until the team moved to Georgia in 2015. Minor league baseball is represented by major league-sponsored teams and independent teams such as the St. Paul Saints, who play at CHS Field in St. Paul. Professional women's sports include the Minnesota Lynx
Minnesota Lynx
of the Women's National Basketball Association, winners of the 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017 WNBA Championships, the Minnesota Lightning
Minnesota Lightning
of the United Soccer Leagues W-League, the Minnesota Vixen
Minnesota Vixen
of the Independent Women's Football League, the Minnesota Valkyrie
Minnesota Valkyrie
of the Legends Football League, and the Minnesota Whitecaps
Minnesota Whitecaps
of the National Women's Hockey League. The Twin Cities campus of the University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
is a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I school competing in the Big Ten Conference. Four additional schools in the state compete in NCAA Division I ice hockey: the University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Duluth; Minnesota
Minnesota
State University, Mankato; St. Cloud State University
St. Cloud State University
and Bemidji State University. There are nine NCAA Division II
NCAA Division II
colleges in the Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference, and nineteen NCAA Division III colleges in the Minnesota
Minnesota
Intercollegiate Athletic Conference and Upper Midwest
Upper Midwest
Athletic Conference.[146][147]. Minneapolis
Minneapolis
has hosted the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship in 1992 and 2001 and will do so again in 2019. The Hazeltine National Golf Club
Hazeltine National Golf Club
has hosted the U.S. Open, U.S. Women's Open, U.S. Senior Open
U.S. Senior Open
and PGA Championship. The course also hosted the Ryder Cup
Ryder Cup
in the fall of 2016, when it became one of two courses in the U.S. to host all major golf competitions.[148] Interlachen Country Club has hosted the U.S. Open, U.S. Women's Open, and Solheim Cup. Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
medallists from the state include twelve of the twenty members of the gold medal 1980 ice hockey team (coached by Minnesota
Minnesota
native Herb Brooks) and the bronze medallist U.S. men's curling team in the 2006 Winter Olympics. Swimmer Tom Malchow won an Olympic gold medal in the 2000 Summer games and a silver medal in 1996. Grandma's Marathon
Grandma's Marathon
is run every summer along the scenic North Shore of Lake Superior, and the Twin Cities Marathon
Twin Cities Marathon
winds around lakes and the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
during the peak of the fall color season. Farther north, Eveleth is the location of the United States
United States
Hockey Hall of Fame. Tourism[edit] As the state's tourism promotion office, Explore Minnesota
Minnesota
pursues an entrepreneurial approach, leveraging the state's tourism investment with increased involvement by the private sector. A council of representatives from the state's tourism industry strongly connects Explore Minnesota
Minnesota
with tourism businesses and organizations. Explore Minnesota’s mission is to inspire and facilitate travel to and within the state of Minnesota. Tourism is a $14.4 billion industry in Minnesota, and a key sector of the state’s economy. The leisure and hospitality industry – a major provider of tourism services – employs more than 260,000 workers, representing 11 percent of Minnesota’s private sector employment. Leisure and hospitality also generates 17 percent of the state’s sales tax revenues. Minnesota
Minnesota
welcomes more than 70 million domestic and international travelers annually. In 2014, Explore Minnesota
Minnesota
launched an all-new travel marketing campaign, themed “Only in Minnesota,” to increase awareness about Minnesota
Minnesota
as a one-of-a-kind Midwest travel destination. The strategic effort, which includes a new and improved website and market reach to audiences in 14 states and provinces, is the largest travel marketing campaign in the state’s history. A new series of advertisements and a strong, user-driven #OnlyinMN social media movement has been well-received and has engaged travelers, residents, businesses and visitors bureaus across the state. In the latest evolution of the popular #OnlyinMN campaign, Explore Minnesota
Minnesota
generated 3.5 million trips to Minnesota
Minnesota
and more than $388 million in traveler spending. Explore Minnesota
Minnesota
engaged with hundreds of thousands of people through social media, surpassing half a million uses of the campaign hashtag as of May 2017. The newly branded slogan represents the diversity of Minnesota, from its bustling downtowns to untouched wilderness, pine forests to bluff country and historic landmarks to modern-day attractions. #OnlyinMN celebrates the inspiring and sometimes unexpected experiences that await travelers on a Minnesota
Minnesota
vacation. Outdoor recreation[edit]

Fishing
Fishing
in Lake Calhoun
Lake Calhoun
in Minneapolis

The common loon's distinctive cry is heard during the summer months on lakes throughout the state.[149]

Minnesotans participate in high levels of physical activity,[150] and many of these activities are outdoors. The strong interest of Minnesotans in environmentalism has been attributed to the popularity of these pursuits.[151] In the warmer months, these activities often involve water. Weekend and longer trips to family cabins on Minnesota's numerous lakes are a way of life for many residents. Activities include water sports such as water skiing, which originated in the state,[152] boating, canoeing, and fishing. More than 36 percent of Minnesotans fish, second only to Alaska.[153] Fishing
Fishing
does not cease when the lakes freeze; ice fishing has been around since the arrival of early Scandinavian immigrants.[154] Minnesotans have learned to embrace their long, harsh winters in ice sports such as skating, hockey, curling, and broomball, and snow sports such as cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, snowshoeing, and snowmobiling.[155] Minnesota
Minnesota
is the only U.S. state
U.S. state
where bandy is played.[156] State and national forests and the seventy-two state parks are used year-round for hunting, camping, and hiking. There are almost 20,000 miles (32,000 km) of snowmobile trails statewide.[157] Minnesota has more miles of bike trails than any other state,[158] and a growing network of hiking trails, including the 235-mile (378 km) Superior Hiking
Hiking
Trail
Trail
in the northeast.[159] Many hiking and bike trails are used for cross-country skiing during the winter. See also[edit]

United States
United States
portal Minnesota
Minnesota
portal

Outline of Minnesota
Outline of Minnesota
– organized list of topics about Minnesota Index of Minnesota-related articles

References[edit]

^ "Median Annual Household Income 2016". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 29, 2017.  ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.  ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ " Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Water Levels", Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Environmental Research Laboratory. Updated daily. ^ " Minnesota
Minnesota
State Tree – Red Pine
Pine
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Minnesota
Smoking Ban Kicks In Monday". WCCO. September 30, 2007. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved December 3, 2012.  ^ " University of Minnesota
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Medical Milestones". University of Minnesota
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Minnesota
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Biotechnology
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Minnesota
Ports and Waterways". Minnesota
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Bus
Stations in the Midwest". Amtrak. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013.  ^ " Minnesota
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tops nation in voter turnout". Minneapolis
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Minnesota
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Democrat becomes first Muslim
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Minnesota
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Hiking
Trail". Minnesota
Minnesota
Department of Tourism. Retrieved December 2, 2006. 

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Preceded by California List of U.S. states by date of statehood Admitted on May 11, 1858 (32nd) Succeeded by Oregon

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Acadia
Acadia
(1604–1713) Canada (1608–1763) Pays d'en Haut Domaine du roy Louisiana
Louisiana
(1682–1762, 1802–1803) Illinois
Illinois
Country Ohio
Ohio
Country Newfoundland (1662–1713) Île Royale (1713–1763)

Towns

Acadia
Acadia
(Port Royal) Canada

Quebec Trois-Rivières Montreal Détroit

Île Royale

Louisbourg

Louisiana

Mobile Biloxi New Orleans

Newfoundland

Plaisance

List of towns

Forts

Fort Rouillé Fort Michilimackinac Fort de Buade Fort de Chartres Fort Detroit Fort Carillon Fort Condé Fort Duquesne Fortress of Louisbourg Castle Hill Fort St. Louis
St. Louis
(Illinois) Fort St. Louis
St. Louis
(Texas) List of Forts

Government

Canada

Governor General Intendant Sovereign Council Bishop of Quebec Governor of Trois-Rivières Governor of Montreal

Acadia

Governor Lieutenant-General

Newfoundland

Governor Lieutenant-General

Louisiana

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Île Royale

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Law

Intendancy Superior Council Admiralty court Provostship Officiality Seigneurial court Bailiff Maréchaussée Code Noir

Economy

Seigneurial system Fur trade Company of 100 Associates Crozat's Company Mississippi
Mississippi
Company Compagnie de l'Occident Chemin du Roy Coureur des bois Voyageurs

Society

Population

1666 census

Habitants King's Daughters Casquette girls Métis Amerindians Slavery Plaçage Gens de couleur libres

Religion

Jesuit missions Récollets Grey Nuns Ursulines Sulpicians

War and peace

Military of New France Intercolonial Wars French and Iroquois Wars Great Upheaval Great Peace of Montreal Schenectady massacre Deerfield massacre

Related

French colonization of the Americas French colonial empire History of Quebec History of the Acadians History of the French-Americans French West Indies Carib Expulsion Atlantic slave trade

Category Portal Commons

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New Spain
New Spain
(1521–1821)

Conflicts

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Caribbean
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
→ Seven Years' War → Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War

Conflicts with indigenous peoples during colonial rule

Mixtón War
Mixtón War
Yaqui Wars
Yaqui Wars
Chichimeca War
Chichimeca War
Philippine revolts against Spain
Philippine revolts against Spain
Acaxee Rebellion
Acaxee Rebellion
Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
Tepehuán Revolt
Tepehuán Revolt
→ Tzeltal Rebellion → Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
Pima Revolt
Pima Revolt
→ Spanish American wars of independence

Government and administration

Central government

Habsburg Spain

Charles I Joanna of Castile Philip II Philp III Philip IV Charles II

Bourbon Spain

Philip V (also reigned after Louis I) Louis I Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII of Spain
(also reigned after Joseph I)

Viceroys of New Spain

List of viceroys of New Spain

Audiencias

Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic
Catholic
Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
New Spain
Portal

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 46°N 94°W / 46°N 94°W / 46; -94

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 146514191 LCCN: n79021675 ISNI: 0000 0004 0434 4468 GND: 4101012-7 BNF:

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